Scholarly article on topic 'Driving the Involvement of Line Managers’ Role in Creating Coaching Culture in Malaysia'

Driving the Involvement of Line Managers’ Role in Creating Coaching Culture in Malaysia Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Nur Syafiqah A.Rahim, Nur Naha Abu Mansor, Roya Anvari

Abstract The establishment of coaching culture with the contribution of the involvement of line manager roles is important to development of employees. In organization, it is dynamic that employees must update their knowledge and skills to keep pace with the changing environment. This paper attempts to discuss the involvement of line manager roles towards creating a coaching culture who give their support and innovation towards motivating employees to give their best performance in achieving organization's goals.

Academic research paper on topic "Driving the Involvement of Line Managers’ Role in Creating Coaching Culture in Malaysia"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 129 (2014) 221 - 226

ICIMTR 2013

International Conference on Innovation, Management and Technology Research,

Malaysia, 22 - 23 September, 2013

Driving the involvement of line managers' role in creating coaching culture in Malaysia

Nur Syafiqah A.Rahima, Nur Naha Abu Mansorb*, Roya Anvaric

a'b'c Department of Management, Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, University Technology Malaysia,

81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Abstract

The establishment of coaching culture with the contribution of the involvement of line manager roles is important to development of employees. In organization, it is dynamic that employees must update their knowledge and skills to keep pace with the changing environment. This paper attempts to discuss the involvement of line manager roles towards creating a coaching culture who give their support and innovation towards motivating employees to give their best performance in achieving organization's goals.

© 2014TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This isan open access articleunderthe CCBY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Keywords: Women Enterprenueship program; skill; training

1. Introduction

According to Clutterbuck and Megginson (2005), coaching is a "process to build the relationship which has been set up by management goals that allows managers to manage employees by coaching and this occurs at all levels within an organisation". Coaching also is about learning from experience. That being said, there is as yet no agreed definition of coaching, but examples include a collaborative and egalitarian relationship between a coach, who is not necessarily a domain-specific specialist, and employees, which involves a systematic process that focuses on collaborative goal setting to construct

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: nurnaha@utm.my.

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.670

solutions and employ goal attainment process with the aim of fostering the on-going self-directed learning and personal growth of the Client (Grant & Stober, 2006). A coach needs to build trust and relationship with their employees, yet employees will feel confident to communicate with their coach. Creating an organisational culture that draws on coaching as a mechanism for change requires the growth of both the organisation and the people (Anderson et al. 2007).

In spite of that, this coaching should be practice by organization in ensuring the success of the effectiveness of learning and development. The importance of coaching culture in organisations have been concluded by Curtis et al. (2011), stating that exchange of the traditional approach of working to modern approach which encourages independent working could increase responsibility towards employees' performance. Besides that, the researchers found that for employees' performance to work well, it is crucial that relationship and effective communication between all levels of manager and employees should be emphasised to increase employee understanding towards organisation's goals and objectives. However, if there is no medium to catalyst employees' behaviour or organisations management itself, they could not utilise their performance to achieve the goals.

The way for line managers to implement HR practices will differ according to the (varying) levels of competence, motivation, and opportunity of these line managers (Harney & Jordan, 2008). To contribute to the strategy accomplish, line management responsibility for HRM is believed to be essential. After all, line managers can occupy as the key person in realizing core business objectives through direct impact on their subordinate's motivation, commitment and discretionary behaviour as compared to the HR department (Purcell & Hutchinson, 2007). Through a good relationship and trust building will make line manager consists of management component and leadership components. According to Daft (2008), line managers' roles can be divided into three which are informational roles, interpersonal roles and decisional roles.

The study that is being proposed in this paper will be directed towards investigating the involvement of line managers' role in creating a coaching culture in Malaysia. This paper is structured as follows: an in depth literature reviews on line managers' role and coaching culture, the proposed model and prepositions, the expected findings and conclusion.

2. Literature Review

Managers need to ensure there is a positive work ethics and culture within the workplace to engage mutual respect and esteem, enabling rather than disabling those that may underperform, leading to effective solutions in ensuring that their employees will perform the job (Koontz and Heinz, 1988). According to Daft (2008) and Mintzberg (1973), line manager's roles can be divided into three which are the informational roles, interpersonal roles and decisional roles. To contribute to the firm's strategy realization, line management responsibility for HRM is believed to be essential. This group of line manager have their specialist responsibility for a function other than employee relations, but whose job also includes responsibility for employees' relations at the workplace (Millward et al., 2000). Table 1 shows the differences between each of the roles.

Table 1: Three types of line managers' role

Category Role Activity

Informational Monitor Seek and receive information, scan periodicals and reports,

Disseminator Forward information to other organization members; send memos and reports, make phone calls.

Spokesperson Transmit information to outsiders through speeches,

Interpersonal Figurehead Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties such as greeting

Leader Direct and motivate subordinates; train, counsel, and communicate with subordinates.

Liaison Maintain information links both inside and outside

Decisional Entrepreneur Initiate improvement projects; identify new ideas, delegate

Disturbance handler Take corrective action during dispute or crises; resolve conflicts among subordinates; adapt to

Resource allocator Decide who gets resources; schedule, budget, set

Negotiator Represent department during negotiation of union contracts, sales, purchases, budgets; represent departmental

Informational roles represent activities or jobs that have been performed by the manager through information they receive. These types of manager like to discover, capture and share the information to other organization members. These roles are important for a manager or leader in creating a coaching culture. It is because; this type of manager will maintain and develop an information network through being a monitor, disseminator and spokesperson manager (Daft, 2008). According to McCauley and Hezlett (2001), coaching process were done by coach who initially develop to rescue talented individuals or employees who are in losing their jobs because of particular defect in their performance. Besides, coaches will equip all those people with tools, knowledge, and opportunities that employees need in developing themselves to become more effective.

Furthermore, interpersonal role represent a manager who is more than having a good relationship through motivating, guiding, communicating, and influencing between managers and employees. This type of manager is manager who manages the organization through people (Daft, 2008). These roles are important for a manager or leader in creating a coaching culture. It is because; according to Spence and Grant, (2007), this type of manager will encompass collaborative relationship formed between coach and coachee for the purpose of attaining professional or personal development outcomes which are valued by the coachee subordinates through figurehead role, leader role, and liaison role. When there is a relationship formed between employees who has a manager or coach that are responsible in an organization and who uses a wide variety of behavioural techniques and methods to help employees achieve a mutually identified set of goals to improve his or her professional performance and personal

satisfaction and, consequently, to improve the effectiveness of the employee's performance's Grant (2010).

Decisional roles pertain to those activities about what choice a manager must make. These types of manager will become more aware of problems and search for innovation solutions. Besides, decisional role include the role of manager who are entrepreneurs, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator (Daft, 2008). In the other hand, in creating a coaching culture, the role of a coach in facilitating the movement of employees through this self-regulatory cycle is by helping the employees to develop specific action plans and then to monitor and evaluate progression towards those goals (Wright, 2007).

From reviews of literature in the area, it can be concluded that creating a coaching culture is clearly the drive and control of management and it is a serious challenge and performance gaps that have to be overcome to create these cultures. Creating an organisational culture that draws on coaching as a mechanism for change requires the growth of both the organisation and the people (Anderson et al., 2007). The researcher wishes to study the involvement of line managers' roles which can contribute in creating a coaching culture as new change strategies are implemented in the organizations. The outcomes and benefits of coaching cultures identified by the leaders in this study provide encouragement that the rewards for achieving these cultures will be well worth the investment in the future. In addition, according to Clutterbuck and Megginson (2005) they have examined the context for measurement in creating and retaining a coaching culture in the organisation. There are three levels in measuring the coaching culture which are quality of coaching within the relationship, coaching within the team, and organisation's progress towards culture change objectives.

The first level or measurement in coaching culture is quality of coaching within the relationship which refers to the quality of the learning process between the coach and the employee through their commitment to the learning process. This is if the employees are provided with feedback on how well they progress in the coaching process (Anderson, et al, 2008). The second level of measurement is coaching within the team which consists of timely and well-constructed feedback helps the team members to focus on how they could support each other and focus on the learning priorities of the team, rather than just individual desires. Grant & O'Hara (2006), view that the insights of team members gained through this coaching approach allowed them to interact with one another more empathetically and productively. Meanwhile, the third level of coaching measurement refers to the organisation's progress towards culture change objectives. This is the responsibility of HR practitioners and top management to ensure how well coaching culture is embedded. This will lead to actions which emphasis changes in attitudes and behaviour. Furthermore, Spence, Cavanagh, and Grant (2006) stated that it will help improve support systems and increase the skills level of all those involved in creating a coaching culture.

3. Proposed Model and Propositions

To investigate the relationship between line managers' role and coaching culture, the researcher propose to use quantitative method based on self-administrated questionnaire with all nurses for 3 branches in one of private hospital in Malaysia. With this, the authors will be provided with more insights regarding the research topic. Furthermore, this paper proposes the following proposition:

P1: There is a relationship between line managers' role and coaching culture

However, the proposition informed line managers' role in general, without mentioning whether informational role, interpersonal role, and decisional role. Although the proposition encompasses a wide scope, the study wishes to identify among these roles that correlate with the establishment of coaching

culture within an organization. With this, the conclusion will not only be identified as to whether or not there is a relationship between line managers' role and coaching culture, but also which among the variables included in the study were able to prove the presence of a positive or negative relationship, or their contributions to the involvement of line managers' role in creating a coaching culture in a nursing sector.

Coaching Culture

1. Quality within the

relationship

2. Within the team

3. Progress towards a

coaching culture

Figure 1: Proposed Model of the study Figure 1 shows the proposed model that will be used to guide the completion of the investigation.

4. Expected Findings

The researcher expects to find that there is a relationship between line managers' role and coaching culture within an organization. It is also expected that the study will reveal to provide some new knowledge on the involvement of line managers' role in creating a coaching culture in a nursing sector thus could promote the smooth flow of increasing involvement of line managers' role through using leadership style and specifically towards creating a coaching culture as one of approach in learning within the healthcare sector in Malaysia. This is a concern especially now within this sector, as most employees are becoming more aware of their own learning and development. The quest is to ensure that line managers are aware of their responsibility in providing maximum learning opportunities to all their employees. The line managers, through the quantitative data will further learn from the available body of knowledge that relates with effective deployment of line managers' roles. In doing so, they will benefit the healthcare industry professionally. In the long run, the outcomes of this research will hopefully modify the involvement of line managers' role with the significant determinants that contribute towards creating a coaching culture in the healthcare industry.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, the researchers have present with nursing sector propositions to study how line managers' role is influential in creating a coaching culture. Through an investigation of the different types of line managers' role, it is expected that it is need for improving the quality of work-based provision and the need to meet employers' requirements at all levels within the organization.

References

Anderson, M.C., Lynch, J., and Brill, P. (2007), "The Business Impact of Leadership Coaching: Results from the Second Annual Bench Mark Survey of Leadership Coaching." International Journal of Coaching in Organizations, 3.

Clutterbuck, D. and Megginson, D. (2005), Making Coaching Work: Creating a Coaching Culture, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD).

Curtis, R.R., Humbarger, J.A., & Mann, T.E. (2011), "Ten Tips of Coaching Adults, An Emotionally Healthy Approach", Young Children; Jan 2011; 66, 1; Pro Quest Education Journals Pg. 50

Daft, R.L, (2008), New Era of Management, 2nd ed, Thomson Higher Education, USA.

Grant, A. M., & O'Hara, B. (2006), The self-presentation of commercial Australian life coaching schools: Cause for concern? International Coaching Psychology Review, 1(2), 20-32.

Grant, A., & Stober, D. (2006). Introduction. In D. Stober & A. Grant (Eds.), Evidence Based Coaching: Putting best practices to work for your clients (pp.1-14). New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

Grant, R. (2008). "A phenomenological Case study of a Lecturer's Understanding of Himself as an Assessor", the Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 8, Issue10.

Grant, A.M. (2011). Is it time to REGROW the GROW model? Issues related to teaching coaching session structures, The International Journal of Coaching Psychologist.

Harney, B., & Jordan, C. (2008). Unlocking the black box: Line managers and HRMperformance in a call centre context. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,57, 275-296.

Koontz, H. and Heinz, W (1988), Management, McGraw-HilI, Ine.

McCauley, C.D., & Hezlett, S.A., (2001), Individual development in the workplace, Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology, London; Sage.

Millward, N.,Bryson, A. and Forth, J. (2000), All Change at Work? British Employment Relations 19801998, as portrayed by the Workplace Industrial Relations Survey series, Routledge, London. Mintzberg, H. (1973), The Nature of Managerial Work, Harper and Row Publishers, Ine.

Results from the Second Annual Bench Mark Survey of Leadership Coaching." International Journal of Coaching in Organizations, vol. 3.

Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007). Front-line managers as agents in the HRM performance causal chain: theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17, 3-20.

Spence, G. B., & Grant, A. (2006), Professional and peer life coaching and the enhancement of goal striving and well-being: An exploratory study The Journal of Positive Psychology.

Stober, D. (2006), Evidence-based coaching handbook: Putting best practices to work for your clients. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Update. Nov.

Wright, J. (2007), Stress in the workplace: A coaching approach. Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation.