Scholarly article on topic 'Sustainability of Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations in the City of Kolkata'

Sustainability of Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations in the City of Kolkata Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Rahul Baidya, Biswajit Debnath, Debashre De, Sadhan Kumar Ghosh

Abstract Kolkata is one of oldest and largest metropolitan city in eastern part of India with population of 4,486,679 and population density of 24252 per km2. The city of Kolkata generates almost 5500 ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day. The waste of the city is maintained by Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) and around 80% of this waste is collected by corporation waste management system KMC has introduced the Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations (MSWCS) under the Clean City initiative. The MSW thus collected were taken to the nearest compactor station which houses around two to five compactors depending upon the area, in total there are 90 compactors and 30 mobile compactors functioning till date. The number is expected to go up by the end of 2015 to 163 compactors at a cost of INR 152 crore. The previous method of dumping in open Vat was unhygienic and produced odor and vector born diseases in the vicinity and the people living near were largely affected. Though the addition of compactor has enhanced the cleanliness of the city but the sustainability of these waste compactors is a major issue and which is needed to be addressed. The disposal of the compacted waste is still being carried out in traditional landfill site and the landfill site and city distance being smaller raise a question on transportation savings which may have been incurred due to the compactor thus the payback period and long-term sustainability of the compactor is in question. The sustainability issues and challenges were identified based on a preliminary field study in 15 of the compactor station in Kolkata. The waste quantity, waste characteristics, number of trip of the compactors, labors requirements and number of other sustainability factors were evaluated. The data collected were benchmarked based on the literature, with the practices of other countries. The study reveals that there is number of issues which are lacking and needed to be implemented within the waste compactor management system to make the project sustainable in long run. The analysis revealed the need for a sanitized landfill site for methane extraction and segregation of waste before compacting for increasing the sustainability of the system. The studies finding if implemented can led to a more sustainable, economical and environmentally sound waste management system for the city of Kolkata. There are number of literature specific to waste management practices but specific study for waste compactor in a city and for Kolkata is unavailable in literature.

Academic research paper on topic "Sustainability of Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations in the City of Kolkata"

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Environmental Sciences

Procedía Environmental Sciences 31 (2016) 520 - 529

The Tenth International Conference on Waste Management and Technology (ICWMT)

Sustainability of modern scientific waste compacting stations in the

city of Kolkata

Rahul Baidyaa*, Biswajit Debnathb, Debashre Dec, Sadhan Kumar Ghoshd

adDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, and International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW), Kolkata, India bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India cDepartment Of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Abstract

Kolkata is one of oldest and largest metropolitan city in eastern part of India with population of 4,486,679 and population density of 24252 per km2. The city of Kolkata generates almost 5500 ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day. The waste of the city is maintained by Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) and around 80% of this waste is collected by corporation waste management system. KMC has introduced the Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations (MSWCS) under the Clean City initiative. The MSW thus collected were taken to the nearest compactor station which houses around two to five compactors depending upon the area, in total there are 90 compactors and 30 mobile compactors functioning till date. The number is expected to go up by the end of 2015 to 163 compactors at a cost of INR 152 crore. The previous method of dumping in open Vat was unhygienic and produced odor and vector born diseases in the vicinity and the people living near were largely affected. Though the addition of compactor has enhanced the cleanliness of the city but the sustainability of these waste compactors is a major issue and which is needed to be addressed. The disposal of the compacted waste is still being carried out in traditional landfill site and the landfill site and city distance being smaller raise a question on transportation savings which may have been incurred due to the compactor thus the payback period and long-term sustainability of the compactor is in question. The sustainability issues and challenges were identified based on a preliminary field study in 15 of the compactor station in Kolkata. The waste quantity, waste characteristics, number of trip of the compactors, labors requirements and number of other sustainability factors were evaluated. The data collected were benchmarked based on the literature, with the practices of other countries. The study reveals that there is number of issues which are lacking and needed to be implemented within the waste compactor management system to make the project sustainable in long run. The analysis revealed the need for a sanitized landfill site for methane extraction and segregation of waste before compacting for increasing the sustainability of the system. The studies finding if

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Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-9883010828. E-mail address: rahulbaidya.ju@gmail.com

1878-0296 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Tsinghua University/ Basel Convention Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2016.02.072

implemented can led to a more sustainable, economical and environmentally sound waste management system for the city of Kolkata. There are number of literature specific to waste management practices but specific study for waste compactor in a city and for Kolkata is unavailable in literature.

© 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierB.V This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Tsinghua University/ Basel Convention Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific Keywords: Compactor; Waste management; Kolkata; Sustainability; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

1. Introduction

An overwhelming amount of waste is generated every year globally due to an increased population and change in life style. Different types of waste - Municipal solid waste, electronic waste (E- Waste), household waste etc are posing greater challenge to the world. Other than E-Waste the rest generated due to our day-to-day living are considered as Municipals solid waste (MSW). In past few decades, researchers and practitioners have shown a

significant interest in solving the waste management issues and searched for closed loop solutions to mitigate the problem. It is evident that better the supply chain of any nation better is the waste management system. Hence, a robust waste management system necessitates a very good reverse logistics network. The developed countries

around the world have been able to control the flow of MSW by establishing robust logistics network. Globally, an

estimated amount of 1.3 billion tons of MSW is generated and is expected to be doubled by the year 20251. Nearly 76 million tons of MSW was generated in India in 2014 which is expected to be 9 billion tons by 20212. The MSW management is highly neglected area of the overall environmental management in most developing countries3. However the developing countries are taking things seriously. In most developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, MSW management is basically a combination of primary and secondary collection and open dumping4,5,6. In most of the Indian cities 60 % of the waste generated is actually collected, 90% of which is openly dumped7. Characterization of MSW indicated that the waste consists of 30-45% organic matter, 6-10% recyclables, and the rest are inert and plastic matter8. The organic matter in solid waste in developing countries is much higher than that in the waste in developed countries9. In Kolkata nearly 5,500 tons of MSW is generated per day, 60% of

which is contributed by the household wet wastes7. These huge amount of waste generated daily calls for proper waste disposal system as 90% of it ends up in open dumping.

The most commonly used methods implemented for waste management is land filling, composting and incineration10. These methods are the available solutions to dispose the waste but they possess some inherent disadvantages, primarily of which are environmental issues. Incineration has issues with emission and bottom ash

where as composting has issues with heavy metal contamination. Traditional landfill site are not suitable because of the leachate generated after some time. Modification to this method gave birth to the sanitary landfill system where the bottom of the landfill site is covered with a thick polymer sheet to stop the intervention of leachate into the soil. This method is expensive as sanitized landfill site per unit volume cost is higher than a traditional landfills site thus to accommodate more waste in per unit volume of site compactor are being incorporated which compress the waste and reduces the volume of the waste.

These compactors are being used in both mobile and static mode in different parts of the world. Other than this the compactors offer an economical means of transportation as they can help reduce the volume of garbage thus

weight density get reduce and the same truck can carry more waste thus making the transportation more efficient. The waste compactor can be of different types depending on the type of waste and application area. In general they can be divided into three categories - a) Automatic Compacting Receptacles (ACR's), b) Regular or Indoor trash compactors and c) Outdoor trash compactors. ACR's are mainly used in fast food dining areas including malls, airports and food courts; in other words where people deposit their own waste to the bins. These types of compactors are specially designed for the purpose of automatic compaction with each entry of feed waste. The waste that comes in as feed includes food waste, soda cans, polymer utensils, paper cups and containers etc. Regular or indoor ones are utilized in manufacturing warehouses, hospitals, kitchens of restaurants etc. They accept a wide variety of waste

including bottles, metal cans, cardboard, papers, torn clothes, biomedical waste (in case of hospital), rubbers, plastics, organic matters etc. These are best utilized in the points where waste generation rate is higher. Outdoor trash compactors are generally used in large areas or in outdoor areas like municipalities, gardens, offices, departmental stores etc. They can be both mobile and static. The feed composition varies with its place of application. A comparative study has been presented in Table 1 discussing different types of compactor and their benefits. Outdoor compactors have many advantages due to their less cycle time, feeding mechanism and ease of operation. Stationary, Dumpster type, Self Contained, Vertical outdoor compactors are example of these type of compactors11, 12.

Table 1. Use of different types of compactors for waste management

compactors

of Application area

Type of Waste used & input feedstock

characteristics

Benefits

References

Automatic

Compacting

Receptacles

(ACR's).

e.g. Smart packs.

Regular or Indoor trash Compactors

Outdoor Trash Compactors. e.g. Stationary, Dumpster type, Self Contained, Vertical outdoor.

Fast Food Dining Areas, Mall Food Courts, Airports,

Amusement Parks, Casino's and any other Public areas where patrons make their own trash deposits.

Manufacturing, Warehouses, Shop Floors, Retail

and Department

Stores, Hospitals, Kitchen area of restaurants, Printing and Related

Industries, Food and Bakery Industry. Offices, Department Stores, Restaurants, Hotels &

Motels, Hospitals, Health Care & Medical Facilities,

Manufacturing, Chain Stores and many other types of locations.

Organic matter, Food waste, Plastic, paper cups, tissue papers, metal cans, polymer utensils etc.

Plastics, papers, food waste, medical waste, metal cans, metal foils, glass bottles etc.

Typical Mixed Waste -

a) Organic: 25-30%

b) Plastics: 20 -25%

c) Metals: 8-10%

d) Moisture: Less

e) Others: paper cups, clay cups, bottles, batteries, bulbs etc.

These compactors automatically compact based on [11,12]

traffic flow and will hold about 9.45 ton of trash

before needing to be emptied. They are great for

reducing labor, reducing waste hauling charges and

overall streamlining. In addition, the units can talk,

and thus can be programmed to broadcast verbal

messages to patrons. They are also very quiet (not

noticeable by nearby patrons) and they have an

odor control system in them.

Because of their large output and small footprint, [11,12]

these type of compactors are best utilized at the

highest trash generation points, such as production

or processing lines. These compactors can accept

waste continuously or they can be set up to cycle

on and off automatically depending upon trash

1. These Compactors are great for situations where [11,12] the trash needs to be loaded into the compactor

from a dock versus ground level. They can be used for wet waste or dray waste.

2. With this style of Hopper Compactors they are tipped onsite with either a Front Load or Rear Load Hauler truck. 3. In comparison to a Traditional Self Contained Compactor the footprint is very small so they are excellent choices where space is very confined.

The waste compactors are present in different countries around the world but few literatures are available in this context. The use of compactors are varying types in different countries there is a much similarity in uses with the developing countries and under developed countries were the developed countries are using it in very sustainable way due to the source segregation and developed waste management system. In the country report of Pudong, China it is mentioned that an automated compactor truck is used for collection and transportation of MSW Such a truck can accommodate two 240 liter containers simultaneously and it has a capacity of three and half tons. Each of these

trucks are assigned to collect waste from different fixed collection points it visits the collection points one by one and returns either to the transfer station or a disposal site once the truck is full. Also there are some compactor stations with capacity of five tons. Containers from such stations are transported to transfer station or a disposal site by another type of truck with a swinging arm for self-loading13. Mobile compactor trucks are also in use in Pakistan for garbage collection. Garbage containers are used to collect waste from houses manually. There are storage containers of different capacities 3tons, 6tons and 1 ton. The smallest one is 1ton and known as SKIPS. There are such 380 skips in Lahore. The compactor truck can accommodate ten skips in one trip14. Compactor is also used in Malaysia, Palestine and Nigeria. Alor Setor, a town situated in Kedah state of northern Malaysia uses mobile compactors as well as open trucks for collection and transportation. These trucks are called Roll-to-Roll-off bins (RORO) or Reel-End Loaders (REL). However, this is restricted within high-rise apartments and condominiums and also flats. Rest of the society depends on bins and door to door collection15.

In Nablus district of Palestine, mobile compactors i.e. compactor trucks are being used along with hand carts, tractors and compressor which is also a kind of stationary compactor for solid waste management. So far eight compactor trucks and one compressor are in use. The use of compacting trucks and tractors for collection and transportation are proved to be very practical, especially for localities with low resources. This also allows villages to manage well. However, the maintenance of the compacting trucks is a problem as there are no spare tractors available16. In the city of Abuja, Nigeria; Abuja Environmental Protection Board (AEPB) is the governing body for solid waste management. Apart from that 12 private firms are there that involve themselves in collection and transportation of MSW. Door to door collection is done with different type of vehicles including Lorries, Tippers, Roll-on roll-off (RORO) skip vehicles, Tractors, Side loader truck and automated compactor trucks. 17 Compactor trucks are owned by AEPB and 9 by the private firms out of which 5 and 8 compactor trucks are in operation respectively. Funding and maintenance is a problem that is hindering the progress here. Also the collected waste ends up in open landfill which questions the sustainability of the existing system here17. In Sri Lanka, compactors are in use but it is limited due to its high cost18. In Gabarone city, 24 compactor trucks and two skip loaders has been implemented for better collection but maintenance is an issue19. In Bangkok, Thailand built in compactor trucks are operating sustainably20. However, studies have revealed that using waste compactors and bins in the waste collection system are useful indeed21.

In India, both mobile and stationary compactors are in use. Mumbai is one of the cities where compacting trucks are run by private companies in exchange of a tipping fee per ton of waste accepted at the dump yard, whereas Kolkata have established 63 compactor stations. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) is divided into143 wards and have very recently introduced compacting of MSW in the Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations (MSWCS) at several locations as a Clean City initiative. The KMC has 33 mobile compactors and several MSWCS, which are stationed at several locations for compacting of the MSW, substituting 200 intermediate VATs (Figure. 1.) VAT is the intermediate storage stations having three sides blocked and one side open for waste handling, loading and unloading. These were the hotspots of all sorts of insects, dirt and unhealthy condition. Vat was unhygienic and produced odor and vector born diseases in the vicinity and the people living near were largely affected which were in use for years.

Figure 1. Previously used Vat in KMC areas presently substituted by MSWCS.

Waste collected by the hand carts from door to door comes to the station and after compacting it is transported to the dump yard. In this paper, the sustainability of the waste compactors has been studied. The issues and challenges associated with the sustainability of the waste compactor stations in Kolkata has been identified and addressed herewith with a proposed framework for waste compactor management system. The rest of the paper has been organized into the following sections. Section two describes the study methodology in details. Section three discusses the results and proposes a sustainable solid waste management model using the compactors. The last section concludes the paper.

2. Methodology

This study adopts a case study approach. Firstly a detail literature review was carried out to gauge the waste management practices, waste compactor uses around the world and the impact of an effective supply chain framework for an effective utilization of waste compactor. Secondly fifteen field study was carried out as a case in different location of the city to gauge the present practices and issues in the supply chain framework at both end of the waste management system. Thirdly based on the case analysis, waste compactor management system and literature sustainable measures were proposed.

3. Discussion and analysis

The case studies for the compacting station were carried out in number of localities falling under Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). The case studies revealed similar practices around the city of Kolkata. Based on the statistical data on population and waste generation the number of compactor varied. In total fifteen cases were surveyed consisting of 34 compactors. The compactors usually get 40-110 number of hand carts daily. Depending on the area number of hand cart increases or decreases, a single handcart can carry 200 kg of mixed waste. The compactor has a capacity of 10 ton once it get filled the compacter is towed to truck and carried for dumping to the landfill site. The number of trip of a compactor varies according to the need, in some area it is taken for four to five times and in some area single times a day only (table.2). The major issues noticed at the compactor station were safety of the manpower who is handling the compactor without proper gas mask and gloves. The major environmental issues noticed was the leachate, which formed during the compacting process were drained in to the city drainage system thus adding more amount of harmful materials to the already polluted water stream. The maintenance of the machines is also a major issue as a dedicated proper maintenance department for the compactors doesn't exists in KMC. The below table shows the area which were chosen as a case for analysis with details of number of compactor, number of handcart received with waste, manpower utilized and number of trips made by each of the compactor for each station (Table.2).

Table 2. Compactor at various locations_

Sl. Area No of Number of Hand Cart Manpower No. of times the compactor is taken by

No. Compactors received with waste utilized truck to the dumping ground in a day

1 Ballygunge 2 100-110 4 2

2 College Street 2 80-90 3 2

3 Golf Green 2 80-85 2 1

4 Kalighat 4 90-95 4 2-3

5 Lake Kali Bari 4 85 5 2

6 MirzaGhalib Street 4 100-110 5 4-5

7 SubodhMullick Square 2 97- 100 4 3

8 Wareless Park 2 40-50 2 1

9 Rajdanga 1 50-60 2 2

10 Sothern Avenue 2 90-95 3 1

11 New Alipore 2 100-105 3 2

12 Paranshree 1 70-80 2 1

13 Chetla 3 100-110 4 1

14 Elgin road 2 90 - 95 3 1

15 Belghohria_1_90 - 95_2_L

A waste compactor is a compacting device which is being used to compact the high volume municipal solid waste generate every day in the city of Kolkata into a compact mass of low volume waste for an efficient disposal and transportation to the landfill site. All of Kolkata waste collected is disposed of to Dhapa a landfill site situated in eastern fringes of the cities. The waste compactor not only reduces the mass, it intern reduces the transportation cost and also keeps the surrounding clean considering the waste management practices in Kolkata. Previously the wastes were dumped in open vats though in some area it is still persists which is an ill practice for waste disposal. The waste used to lie for days in some case for two to three day giving pungent smell and providing breeding grounds for the vectors and also giving the scavenger a chance to scavenge for plastic and valuable recyclable material from the waste which is itself an illegal practice. In altogether this disposal methodology was an unhealthy practice which has been removed to certain extent thanks to incorporation of waste compactors in waste management system. The compactors has made the city greener to the certain extend by effectively disposing the daily generated waste in front end of the supply chain. The compactor is a very versatile machine for compacting waste. The compactors are being used throughout the world for waste disposal as coined by number of literature. The major practice around the world is to compact the waste in compactors and transfer them to a sanitized landfill site for methane extraction. The compactor are generally used when the landfill sites is situated at a large distance so that the large quantity of waste can be carried away in a one trip reducing the cost of transportation thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the payback period of the compactor waste management system. The compacting of waste is necessity as in a sanitized landfill site space is costly and thus more volume of waste can be dumped, increasing the life of the landfill site. In developed countries were the waste are segregated at source the compactor shows the best economical sustainability. The waste in some cases are compacted and transferred to the WTE plant in other country as for example; UK sells its plastic waste to the Sweden as a fuel for WTE plant. The segregated waste with high plastic contents are compacted and wrapped in plastic film and transported to the designated WTE plant in Sweden. In number of developing countries like India the compactors are not being used to its full potential making it a unsustainable practice in long run as for the case of Kolkata were the compacted waste is again dumped in a traditional open landfill site thus wasting the energy which has been utilized for compacting the waste. There is no economic gain from the process of compacting the waste of KMC area and also the dumping site Dhapa is in the fringe part of the city so there is very little gain in term of transportation cost recovered, thus making the whole system uneconomical and also unfruitful in term of environmental gain. The compactor station location in Kolkata can be clubbed in to three zone namely market area, park and lake area and residential area.

Table 3. Challenges and solutions of using compactors for MSW management in KMC, India

Location of Type of Waste as input Compactor feedstock (Location Specific)

Operational Variables

Output

Challenges -Operational, Economic and social

Suggested Solution

Market Area Mixed Waste -

a) Organic:40 -50%

b) Plastics: 20 -30%

c) Metals: 5-7%

d) Moisture: High

e) Others: papers, clay-cup, flesh, glass, vegetable etc

Park and Mixed Waste -Lake Area a) Organic: 35-40%

Volume reduction: ~20% Power consumption: 10.3 kW Operation Time: 2-3 hours Cycle Time: 45 seconds Workers: 10

Volume reduction: ~15-18% Power consumption: 10.3 kW

Higher amount of leach ate. Nearly 2 ton for a 10 ton feed.

Less amount of juice. Nearly 1.7

Higher C&D waste received. No segregation at source.

Wet waste quantity. Machine lies idle.

Large quantity of vegetation.

Segregation at source should be done.

Mobile compactor will be economical.

Segregation at source should be

b) Plastics:25-30%

c) Metals: 5-8%

d) Moisture: Medium

e) Others: leaves, paper cups, glass, small wood logs, bottles etc.

Residential Typical Mixed Waste -Area a) Organic: 25-30%

b) Plastics: 20 -25%

c) Metals: 8-10%

d) Moisture: Less

e) Others: paper cups, clay cups, bottles, batteries, bulbs etc.

Operation Time: 2-3 hours Cycle Time: 35 seconds Workers: 7

Volume reduction: <15% Power consumption: 10.3 kW Operation Time: 2-3 hours Cycle Time: 55 seconds Workers: 5

ton for a 10 ton feed

Logs in feedstock.

Moderate amount of juice. Nearly 1.5 ton for a 10 ton feed

Higher C&D waste received.

Hazardous waste in the waste stream. No segregation at source.

Wet waste quantity. Machine lies idle.

Segregation at source should be done.

Mobile compactor will be economical.

The waste received in each of the area differs in there composition, though all the waste are mixed waste but the percentage of organic fragments, plastic, metals, moisture and inert waste varies. The operation variable is almost similar, and the changes are contributed due to the waste composition, number of compactors and location. The main output of the process is compacted waste but the process also generates large quantity of liquidus substance (leachate) due to compaction process. The main challenges based on the area in term of sustainable parameter; operational, economic and social are higher C&D waste contain, non segregation, wet waste, hazardous waste in the waste stream and in some cases machines are lying idle. The main suggestive actions which can be taken are inclusion of more mobile compactor and implementation of source segregation (Table 3).

The waste management practice at forward end of the supply chain of waste management includes MSW collection and transportation system. The MSW is collected from every house hold by hand cart the waste collected is mixed type though in some wards of KMC there is a pilot project of collecting biodegradable wet waste and non-biodegradable dry waste separately. In this areas wet waste is collected daily were the dry waste is collected weekly. This pilot project was implemented in 10 selected municipal wards. Though the waste is collected separately but this all are mixed again in the compactor station thus the whole system of separate collection is of no uses as the back end supply chain is lacking the needed setup and practices. The waste collected from the other wards are mixed waste and contains wet and dry both depending upon the area the ratio of wet and dry varies. These wastes collected are taken by the hand cart daily and were dumped in to the compactor. The detail process flow has been elaborated below in Figure 2.

This compactor has hopper (Figure 3) which usually takes in two to three hand cart of waste before they are compacted by the press. The compacting process takes around 45 second. The waste when compacted produces water and other liquidus products, which are drained in to the nearby sewage via pipeline incorporated in the compactor. The compactor which is being used by KMC has a capacity of 10 ton but due to large volume that is less weight density of the waste the compactor usually takes in 8 to 9 ton of waste. The municipal fellows collect the wastes from households from specified areas in the wards in hand cart which can accommodate maximum of 100 kg of waste. These carts are taken to specified compacting station (Figure 4.). Once the compactor gets filled, the compactor is transported by a specifically designed trucks and the compacted waste is dumped in the open landfill site at Dhapa. The compacted waste is not properly disposed and neither rapped with plastic though it is the required methodology practiced all around the world.

Figure 2. Process flow chart from the point of waste collection to dumping site

The waste after compacting is dumped to the open landfill site were its get un-compacted naturally and also manually by means of the rag-pickers/scavengers who scavenges for resalable items mainly plastics. In Dhapa landfill site around 200-300 rag-pickers scavenges daily for sellable items. Though human scavenging is illegal and harmful but it is the livelihood of the number of people who are associated with this scavenging. It may be unsafe for the rag pickers as they are brought in to contact of harmful gases and materials but this scavenging to the certain extent helps the environment as the non-recyclable materials which are disposed as a mixed waste are removed. The scavengers are very effective in removing the plastic from other waste. The waste which remains after the scavenging is mainly organic fragments with all the large size plastics recoverable materials removed by the ragpickers.

Figure 3. Compactor Station

The compactor waste management system needs an overhauling in both the end for an effective supply chain framework the compacted waste needs to be disposed in an effective way so that the process can be a sustainable in long term. The waste compacted are processed in two way as coined by number of literature first method is to dispose it in the sanitary landfill site and another is to use the compacted waste for generation of energy. Both the prospective disposing technique needs an over hauling at the frontend of the compacting station the waste is needed to be segregated before the compaction process. The waste after segregation and compaction can be carried to the designated WTE plant or sanitary landfill site based on the waste type as both disposing technique requires a

different type of waste characteristics. But both of this is lacking in the present supply chain frame work of the waste compaction management system of Kolkata.

Figure.4. Feeding MSW from households in Compactor Station

Based on the literature and the field study a proposed supply chain frame work has been proposed incorporating the issues and the requirements for a sustainable supply chain frame work (Figure.5). The proposed supply chain framework proposes a two stage transportation system in which there will be small scale compactor station open all day for public use at various point in the city and simultaneously two to three large scale transfer station at each ward of the city. The waste collected in the small scale compactor station will directly go to sanitized landfill site without segregation. The waste from the transfer station will go to segregation and Modern Scientific Waste Compacting Stations of a large scale where the waste will be segregated and the inorganic fragments and organic fragments.

Waste Generation Point

Hand Cart Collection

Transfer Station

Segregation And

Compaction Station

Saniti/ed landfill Site

Small scale Compactor station

Co-Processing in cement plant

Wi t Plant

Klectrlcltv (¡rid

Energy Generating Plant

Figure 5. Proposed waste compactor management system

The inorganic fragments will be compacted to reduce the weight density by baling machines for the WTE plants. The organic waste with the inert waste will be compacted in a compactor and then towed to a truck and will be disposed to a sanitized landfill site for an energy generation via methane extraction. The energy generated can be added to the electricity grid and the WTE ash can be disposed as a co-processing material in cement plant as an alternative raw materials the proposed supply chain will reduce the carbon foot print of the city as number of GHG emission point will be addressed. The proposed holistic approach if implemented could lead to a sustainable compactor waste management system coupled with the sustainability of the WTE plant in India.

4. Conclusion

The cases studies provides a status of the compactors station in the newly started Clean City initiatives and present a detail analysis of the sustainability aspects. Though the initiatives is truly making the city clean but for the project to be truly clean and sustainable, there is a need for other sustainable measures. The measures include a sanitized landfill site for which methane gas should be collected, segregation of the waste at the point of waste

generation and collecting them separately and compacting them separately. Thus the initiatives to be sustainable requires additional planning and implementation then only in true sense a clean city initiative can be implemented.

Acknowledgement

Authors acknowledge the support provided by the UK India Educational Research Initiative (UKIERI) project, "Waste to Energy from Municipal Waste - DSS for planning and implementation in India" at the department of mechanical engineering, Jadavpur University, India and Aston University, UK. The authors acknowledge the support of International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water" (ISWMAW).

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