Scholarly article on topic 'Design and development of infinited blue project 9th–12th grades modular program'

Design and development of infinited blue project 9th–12th grades modular program Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Cem Babadoğan, Ömer Kutlu, Selahiddin Öğülmüş

Abstract This study is about designing and development of infinited blue instruction module for 9th to 12th grades. While this module is being designed it is primarily planned to make it attractive and creative. During this process educational attainments in substantial primary school programs have been used as base. Then extensions of content in different lesson has been searched and connections with inter-disciplines have been revealed. In this study life conditions design from the problem centered designs has been used. Problem centered design is focused on the learners’ social problems, needs, interests and abilities. By means of this type of programs it aimed to educate individual who has an ability and idea to solve important social problems and thus creation of healty society is aimed. With the interim eveluations it is seen that this project is conducted effectively. By this time with infinited blue project it is objected to train two teachers form each schools in coastal towns and that trained teachers then teach their students infinited blue education. It is aimed to train two teachers from each schools in 29 coastal town and by this way it could be possible to reach 300.000 teachers and at least 6.600.000 primary and secondary school students in 17.000 schools. Infinited blue project start with Üsküdar town in İstanbul December 4, 2006; during three years 11.179 teachers and 3.500.000 in 6.413 school could be trained.

Academic research paper on topic "Design and development of infinited blue project 9th–12th grades modular program"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 3389-3394

WCES-2010

Design and development of infinited blue project 9th-12th grades

modular program

Cem Babadogana *, Omer Kutlua, Selahiddin Ogulmu§a

a Ankara University, Faculty of Education Sciences, Cebeci 06590, Turkiye Received October 27, 2009; revised December 3, 2009; accepted January 14, 2010

Abstract

This study is about designing and development of infinited blue instruction module for 9th to 12th grades. While this module is being designed it is primarily planned to make it attractive and creative. During this process educational attainments in substantial primary school programs have been used as base. Then extensions of content in different lesson has been searched and connections with inter-disciplines have been revealed. In this study life conditions design from the problem centered designs has been used. Problem centered design is focused on the learners' social problems, needs, interests and abilities. By means of this type of programs it aimed to educate individual who has an ability and idea to solve important social problems and thus creation of healty society is aimed. With the interim eveluations it is seen that this project is conducted effectively. By this time with infinited blue project it is objected to train two teachers form each schools in coastal towns and that trained teachers then teach their students infinited blue education. It is aimed to train two teachers from each schools in 29 coastal town and by this way it could be possible to reach 300.000 teachers and at least 6.600.000 primary and secondary school students in 17.000 schools. Infinited blue project start with Üsküdar town in ístanbul December 4, 2006; during three years 11.179 teachers and 3.500.000 in 6.413 school could be trained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Module; module program, design; curriculum development; infinited blue module.

1. Introduction

DenizTemiz Foundation and Yapi Credit Bank, together with the Ministry of National Education launched the "Infinited Blue Project" to create awareness among elementary and secondary school students on the protection of natural assets. The contents of the module program were prepared by a team made up of academicians from Ankara University and Gazi University and approved by the Ministry of Education, Education Board for use in the form of training materials in schools.

Infinited Blue Project has been prepared in 5 sets based on the age of the students, their grades, personal experiences and development properties; with (1), (2-3), (4-5), (6-7-8) and (9-10-11-12) determined as grade groups. Another aim is for students to adopt positive attitudes on the environment and especially the protection of the cleanliness of the seas; or switch what they have previously learnt to positive attitudes. In line with this aim, gains unique to the program were determined. Attention was paid for these gains to support and coincide with the

* Cem Babado an Tel: +90 312 319 7543 ; fax: +90 312 363 6145 E-mail address: cem@babadogan.net

ELSEVIER

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.521

academic curriculum of elementary schools. The development properties of children were taken into account during the preparation of the program and the materials. Keeping in mind that computer use has increased in schools in recent years, the Infinited Blue Module Program was made to support an interactive environment. Pictures, audio warnings, animations and videos were used in this module program, within the framework of creativity and active learning understanding. The aim therefore was to reach as many senses of the student as possible. Moreover, an opportunity was also given for the child's natural curiosity to make creative use of the visual clues in order to help guide their learning.

The aim of the Infinited Blue Project up until today has been to have two teachers from each school in a coastal city or town receive training and for them to train their students on the "Infinited Blue." The project aims to reach 17,000 schools, 300,000 teachers and 6,600,000 elementary and secondary school students in 29 coastal cities. Infinited Blue Project first started on 4 December 2006 in istanbul's Üsküdar town, reaching 6,413 schools, 11,179 teachers and approximately 3,500,000 students on December 4, 2009.

2. Design

Design is create goal-directed things (McGovern, 2001). According to Rutherford (1996) design is showing individual' s creative intellectual effort in a picture or project and plan with detailed explanations. To design instruction is defined as a process that transforms learning - teaching principles to a plan systematically for improving learning (Newby, Stepich, Lehman & Russell, 1996).

In addition to these, design is a process that requires interaction of technical and creative elements. In other words creative design requires some skills and abilities behind the methods (Gentry, 1994). It can be said that instructional design also involves creativeness behind the hypothesis as such in other design processes.

Whether student and teacher sit well with the instruction is generally one of the disregarded or forgotten components. Yet, appeal instruction probably increase time and energy that students spend, making reviews and studying in other times. Desirability (attractiveness) is closely related with students' attitudes toward knowledge and motivation concerning to subject (Newby, Stepich, Lehman & Russell, 1996).

Moreover, as indicated by Koymen (2000) motivation that discharge us to do something, enable us to appreciate from work we do, make us dynamic and productive is an internal motivation. it could be said that instructional design based on constructivist learning hypthesis impress positively the attitudes of student toward knowledge and his/her internal motivation. Why instruction besed on constructivist theory is attractive among students can be determined as characteristics of internal motivation, autonomy, competency, belonging, self-respect, participation and delectation.

2.1 Program Design

Program designs are different from each other in terms of educational philosophy of institude developing the program, of importance and priorities that these institutions give to education, of resources being allocated to education and of qualifications of teams developing the program. However whatever the design approach to construct mainframe of program following four questions should be answered:

• What is objected to do?

• What are the appropriate contents to reach planned objectives?

• To present contents which learning strategies, resources and activities should be used?

• Which are the appropriate assessment strategies to evaluate outcomes?

These four questions are among the main componenets of a educational program and these four main components interact with each other continuously. Under construction making decision about one of these components affect the others and form them. For this reason during construction it is suitable way to adopt holistic studying approach (Gürkan, 2003).

When literature about instructional program designs are analyzed, it is seen that three fundamental approaches are adopted:

• Subject-centered program design

• Learner-centered program design

• Problem-centered program design

In this program design learners' social problems, interests, needs and abilities are emphazised. By these programs it is aimed to create individuals having ability to solve social problems, being growth individuals having ideas and thus creation of healthy society. It might be said that problem-centered designs are based on re-constructionist philosophy. In problem-centered designs learners' social problems, needs, interests and abilities are emphasized. They are focused on individualistic and social problems. it is aimed to develop problem solving skills. it is re-constructionist. In this study life conditions design, one of the problem-centered program designs, is used. By this design, instructors try to improve students' comprehensions and help them to gain generalization skill about "real life" problems. Especially, in problem-centered design it is aimed to answer following questions for students:

• Why questioning is important? People are curious about nature since they were born, they try to learn and understand. For this reason they ask various questions and investigate to find answers for these questions.

• Why conducting an experiment is important? Each students has his/her own learning style. Some students learn by touching, some students learn by looking, some students by hearing while some others learn by moving. Conducting an experiment embrace learning preferances involving many different styles.

• Why making a prediction is important? Making a prediction about events and situations contributes students to improve their analytical thinking skills. To illustrate making a prediction about result before the experiment gives an opportunity to test correctness of the predictions.

• Why is analytical and scientific thinking important? From the early ages gaining students an analytical and judgemental points of view (like only saying "why?" instead of "what?") teaching a way of thinking scientifically is important due to provide students a chance to reach information by investigating and questioning instead of memorizing.

Problem-centered program designs can be divided into three sub categories: life conditions design, core design, social problems and re-construction.

Life conditions design depends on three fundamental hypothesis: accomodation of society to changing conditions of society and for this accomodation exposing the things that should be done in education, if subjects are arranged according to life of society to established connection between environment in which learners live and subjects in program, and if learners participate in their learning process and implement their learnings, they contribute to development of society. The most important feature of life conditions design is that it encourages students to use problem solving strategies.

Core design has the characteristics of subject-centered program design more than learner-centered program design. In this approach designing is done before learner enter the system. Social problems are at the center. Learner is encouraged in the way of seeing society as a labratory. This design is developed by combining the lessons. it is based on cooperative learning models.

Social problems and re-construction design emphasize connection of society' s social, political and economic developments with program design. It is thought that educators will contribute society's development by programs they prepare. In this approach it is urged that time causes continuous changes and these changes will ideally arranged or actualized by school.

Standarts of infinited blue program are associated with the standarts of primary and secondary school programs being approved by National Education Board. These association can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1. Association beetween program of standarts (example) Standards of infinited blue program Primary and secondary schools' curriculums_

Social sciences: 6th grade

Learning domain: production, distribution and consumption Unit: Resources of our country

5. discuss the effects of consumption of unconscious consumption on human life. Biology : 9 th grade

Unit 3. conscious individuals - habitable environment

1.2. explain potential reasons and consequences of environmental problems. (BAS 7,12; BTTQ 25). 1.4. exemplify effects of current environmental problems on human health (BAS 3, 7; BTTQ 1, 9, 12, 13).

Geography: 12 th grade Learning domain: environment and individual

E.12.10. questioned the threats toward natural inheritance based on importance of common natural inheritance in ecosystem._

Notice that reduction of biological diversiness threaten the human life.

it is suggested that two courses hours (80 minutes) are allocated for infinited blue program. First minute of the course is allocated to give students a general information about program. Then by using presentation portfolio learning and teaching activities are performed. For this period much time is allocated. For epilogue only a couple of minutes is allocated and short description about TURMEPA is made.

In infinited blue program three fundamental learning and teaching principles are adopted:

• children learn with participation to their learning process and they learn with doing and living.

• Knowledges being planned to teach at school are constructed on their real life experiences.

• Personal interpretations turn common understandings as a result of children interactions with each other. Consequently learning process is a social process.

In infinited blue program appropriate teaching methods are adopted. Narration is used for little time. But hovewer, there are visual and audial stimulators that give a chance to active participation of students. Expectation from the teachers is to show related slayts to his/her students, help them to disclose students' foreknowledge and aruose curiosity of students by asking appropriate questions. Thus they enable students to re-construct new knowledges by comparing with their foreknowledges.

During the learning and teaching process of infinited blue, electronic presentation portfolio being prepared for this program is used. infinited blue teahing modul is electronic-aided education modul. By this modul it is provided students to gain stipulated objectives easily. New communication technologies facilitate the presentation of rapidly increasing to students and by this way it helps teachers. These accomodations of technology are reflected on infinited blue modul.

In infinited blue modul animations, activations, conspicuous pictures and audial stimulators are used. Thus it is aimed that students could use their different senses at the same time as far as possible.

2.2. Program Development

Program development is a practice handling fundamental principles and activities functionally being taken an advantage of determining and accruing the goals contained by program. Program development aspires to development of life and learning conditions around school and school environment. In other words program development is an all coordinated endeavours making for improvement of content and activities by means of appropriate methods, techniques and instruments that they are arranged to improve and actualize the goals of national education and school both at school and outside of the school. That is, program development involves all the details of teaching knowledge. It consists epistemology, learning theories, methodology, teacher activities, asseement of these activities and converging appropriate activities according to results of this evaluation. The elements of educational program are specified as objective, content, arrangement of educational situations and assessment.

Concept of objective consists terminal behaviours that be gained to individual. These are the characteristics being such as to gained by education to individual. If society has individuals equipped with the intended characteristics, it achieves characteristic of being appropriate to expectations and maintains these caharateristics. Objective (target), is actually defined as behhaviour changes that is aimed to achived by students through organized experiences or defined as characteristics being expressed as a behaviour. These characteristics might be knowledges, abilities, skills, attitudes, interests and habits etc. In constructivist approach statement manifesting itself as an educational attainment actually centers upon expectations. Basically this expectation is related with intents more than educational attaintment. In this study modul program is focused on intents along with considering primary school programs (Stake, 1990)

Educational attaintments being peculiar to infinited blue proram are these;

• Apprehend that life is depend on water

• differentiate water aboveground are continuously in motion.

• Discern the role of seas in being formed appropriate circumtances to continuity of life aboveground.

• comprehend the interaction between lands and seas.

• notice seas accomodate more species than lands.

• realize the negative effects of unconscious hunting over the seas.

• Discern the negative effects of unconscious structuring over the seas.

• Itemize domestic wastes leading sea pollution.

• Notice the effects of domestic and industrial wastes over the seas and marine species.

• List industrial wastes leading sea pollution.

• Discern the negative effects of heavy metals over the seas

• Discern the negative effects of sea transportation over the seas

• Notice the negative effects of chemical wastes over the seas

• Realize sea pollution threats the species living in the seas.

• discern that sea pollution causes becomin extinct of marine species.

• Notice reduction of biological diverseness in the seas threating the human life

• Get information about institutions and organizations related with cleaning of the seas

• Make suggestions about what can be done about cleaning of the seas.

Content is divided into two as a descriptive and normative. Descriptive content consists of facts and principles. This type of content do not say people what they should do. Hovewer normative content consists of value judgements, norms and standarts. This type of content explains how people should behave and what the shoul prefer. In this study normative content analysis is used. Subjects being discussed in content of infinited blue program are these:

• Water has a vital imprtance for aboveground life.

• There is reciprocal and continuous interaction between lands and seas: incidents that happen in the lands affect the seas and species living in the seas; the incidents that happen in the seas affects the lands and species living in the lands.

• Seas have extensive biological diversity.

• Domestic and chemical wastes contaminate the seas.

• Contamination of the seas harms the species living in the seas and also humans.

• People benefit from the seas in many different ways.

• Keep the seas clean is important for all species. Everyone has responsibility for this.

• Individuals and institutions engage in preventing contemnation of seas and in cleaning the seas shoul be supported.

To gain students content being arranged according to these principles and to provide students external conditions that students must undergo to achieve the objectives is called as educational conditions or learning-teaching process. In this process methods and techniques being used are based on active learnin and appropriate to the constructivist approach.

In educational program the last phase of the program is an assessment dimension. Assessment provides to determine to what extent behaviour changes occur related with educational objectives and make decision about value of this changes. The purpose of making assessment is to determine the extent of achieving the objectives and to improve inadequacies of educational program according to datas. With testing and evaluation component of the program target behaviours are tested one by one and to what extent terminal behaviours accrue is researcehed and quality of education is controled. Assessment results provide feedback to educational system and make clear the innovationa efforts for system.

During the development of educational program program development team should determine the strategies primarily. it is possible to gather these strategies in two main groups as product based and process based approaches. In this study product based approached is used. Educators who adopt product based approach think educational program as a system and define them as a complicated continuum of the components being organized to serve certain purpose. According to this approach, program development should be objective, global and logical. In accordance with this approach fundamental precise is to designate educational purposes and lay bare them.

3. Conclusion

Infinited blue module with its educational attainments, activities and program dsign approach is very authentic study. As is known as continuous, comprehensive and applied process program development has three fundamental phases. Planning is the first phase of it. It also involves forming work group, preparing study plan, doing needs analysis and meking decision about how program components are arranged. This study is actualized into schedule

plan in collaboration of experts from different fields. Second phase is to test this prepared educational program. At present it is objected to reach 300.000 teachers and at least 6.600.000 primary and secondary school students by means of training two teachers from each school in coastal town. Implementing the program is the process of practising the change. Infinited blue project start with Uskudar town in istanbul December 4, 2006; during three years 11.179 teachers and 3.500.000 in 6.413 school could be trained. Last phase is assessment phase. This phase is to make decision about effectiveness of program. For this reason it is necessary to look all the components of the program one by one. Pilot studies being practised in different towns show that this is a authentic and value added study. General program evaluation study to reach 1st to 12th grades is in planning phase. Datas being acquired from this study contribute the improvement of this effort.

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