Scholarly article on topic 'Forms and Techniques of Writing and Translating in the 19th Century: Cultural and Linguistic Patterns'

Forms and Techniques of Writing and Translating in the 19th Century: Cultural and Linguistic Patterns Academic research paper on "Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)"

Share paper
{"Forms of writing" / "Linguistic models" / "Linguistic interferences" / "Lexical turns of phrase" / Translations}

Abstract of research paper on Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music), author of scientific article — Ana-Elena Costandache

Abstract Throughout its development, Romanian literature experienced different mutations, avatars of its own formation and transformation. Each period framed new expressions, forms and visions on the writers’ world and the development of literature was actually a development of the ways of expression, a renewal of the already known stylistic paradigms. During the 19th century, European literatures provided the Romanian one with “a list” of authors whose creations were cultural and linguistic models to be followed. The latter ones approached already established translation and writing forms and techniques. Thus, the new aesthetic canons were grafted/overlapped the literary basis already existing in the Romanian provinces. As a result, our approach is meant as an incursion in the Romanian socio-cultural space so as to observe the forms and techniques of writing of the time, as well as the lexical turns of phrase that conferred originality to the Romanian writers.

Academic research paper on topic "Forms and Techniques of Writing and Translating in the 19th Century: Cultural and Linguistic Patterns"

Available online at

SciVerse ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 63 (2012) 119 - 128

The 4th Edition of the International Conference: Paradigms of the Ideological Discourse 2012

Forms and Techniques of Writing and Translating in the 19th Century: Cultural and Linguistic Patterns

Ana-Elena Costandache*

Assistant, PhD, "DunareadeJos" University, Faculty of Letters, Str. Domneasca, no. 47, Galati 800008, Romania


Throughout its development, Romanian literature experienced different mutations, avatars of its own formation and transformation. Each period framed new expressions, forms and visions on the writers' world and the development of literature was actually a development of the ways of expression, a renewal of the already known stylistic paradigms. During the 19th century, European literatures provided the Romanian one with "a list" of authors whose creations were cultural and linguistic models to be followed. The latter ones approached already established translation and writing forms and techniques. Thus, the new aesthetic canons were grafted/overlapped the literary basis already existing in the Romanian provinces. As a result, our approach is meant as an incursion in the Romanian socio-cultural space so as to observe the forms and techniques of writing of the time, as well as the lexical turns of phrase that conferred originality to the Romanian writers.

© 2012 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dunarea de Jos UniversityofGalati

Key-words: forms of writing, linguistic models, linguistic interferences, lexical turns of phrase, translations.

* Ana-Elena Costandache. Tel.: +4-074-064-0759. E-mail address:,

1877-0428 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dunarea de Jos University of Galati doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.10.019

1. Introduction

Placed at the crossroads of Western, Eastern and Balkan worlds, Romanian literature has permanently been open to the "universal" cultural horizons, in a continuous attempt to be synchronous with the products and "productions" that were considered a value standard in the age. Starting from this idea and going on its own, "national" way, adapting itself to the characteristics of European esthetical thinking by imitation or "mechanical import" [1], the writers of 1848 succeeded to re-invent a literature that is genuinely modern.

1.1. Cultural models

Cultural models from neighbouring countries were adopted and adjusted to the socio-cultural Romanian context of the 19th century. Likewise, Romanian language did not remain indifferent to the influences of languages spoken in Europe, as it is a known fact that political borders were never the same as linguistic ones. They cannot be precisely set and Romanian language came into contact and became "richef' thus producing a semi-hybrid vocabulary. As a matter of fact, the concept of "influence" next to that of "interference" should be understood in terms of the movement of ideas from one society to another, from one literature to another. The modification of cultural forms also favoured the overlapping of cultures, so that it is possible to identify certain "similar concepts and images in apparently distant cultures" (my translation) [2]. Influences coming from outside the borders of the country mainly aimed to "satisfy the people's necessity for illusions" (my translation) [3] and the Romanian intellectuals educated abroad (such as Ghe. Asachi - in Vienna, or V. Alecsandri and I. Heliade Radulescu - in Paris) adapted their writings to the horizon of expectations of the reading public in the Romanian Lands.

The limitation to models alone cannot be considered appropriate, as the value of a culture does not depend only on the models that it chooses, but most specifically on the values that it offers to society. Eugen Simion remarked that "cultural models have a stimulating role [...] and their value is judged according to the effects they have on a culture. Romanians have repeatedly appealed to France and found in its literature what they were looking for. [...] After all, a cultural model has as much value as the ones who use it" (my translation) and he continues with the French model: "France has always sent us signals and its signals led to a state of insomnia within culture. This very insomnia happened to produce, if not always masterpieces, a fervent desire to free ourselves from the compound of our Eastern inertia..." (my translation) [4].

Nicolae Iorga also wrote on the French model, claiming that "the Western influence of French Romanticism does not stand for another era; in the same era, there are two distinctive currents. [...] So that, this issue should not be followed chronologically, yet on many lines, connected to each person's biography. There shall be a separation between the ways in which certain writers from Moldavia and from Muntenia received the French influence. There can be no mention of the writers from Ardeal at this time, except, to some extent, Codru Dragu^anu: they are too much under the Germanic and Hungarian influence, more Germanic than Hungarian, so that they have their own originality" (my translation) [5].

The model of French civilisation has been extensively studied and commented: "The France of our time is, without a doubt, the cradle of civilisation. We know how to appreciate the tremendous advantage of the one who settles here in order to study man and society; as the organisation of the French society is the most striking result of this truth. Man has the awareness of his independent nature and his liberty. In France, the idea of liberty has already come into being and it has become the main element of social order. We will not hesitate to derive the right of ownership from the right of personal freedom and to state that liberty without ownership is a word without meaning. Liberty is, truly, nothing more than the manifestation of intellectual activity" (my translation) [6].

The Romanian culture of the time felt the need of adopting the French model which promoted "art" as an established materialisation of fiction. As early as the 18th century, French literature as a whole was aspiring to the title and dignity of "art", trying to take a philosophical shape. Thus, under the name of "philosophy", the

Western cultural world included a much larger array of meanings and the Romanian culture did not remain indifferent to the European model which engulfed all domains.

Whether they adopted themes and motifs specific to Western literatures (especially French ones, such as love, nature, solitude, death, history, national specificity, etc), or they translated entire works by European authors (such as Ghe. Asachi, V. Carlova and I. Heliade-Radulescu, who translated from Lamartine and Volney, Gr. Alexandrescu translated from La Fontaine and Florian, C. Negruzzi and C. Bolliac translated from V. Hugo), the linguistic "echoes" which are "borrowed" are visible at all levels of the literary genres. Neologisms of French origin were easily integrated in the Romanian language system, but they had the disadvantage of being accessible to a limited social group, which usually included intellectuals who had studied abroad. However, the imitations of the translated models preserve the translators' print as they suggest the imitating artist's state of mind rather than that of the imitated artist.

1.2. Writers and translators

As Paul Cornea [7] noted, it was difficult to specify the exact extent to which some translations were a source of inspiration for certain original local works. From this point of view, the influence can also be seen as an artistic intention that is visible especially at the level of the vocabulary used by the Forty-Eighters who were writers and "translators." Yet, the problems of the translations were not that simple, since the translators - the writers who were Forty-Eighters - oscillated between two worlds, two cultures, more or less different. Likewise, the idea of "translation and interpretation" was surely familiar to those who dared to bring into the Romanian language new literary and lexical forms. As a result, we will review a few examples of translation in order to create an overview of the literary and linguistic values promoted by the translators of 1848. For example, Ghe. Asachi and I. Heliade-Radulescu translated the same poem by Al. de Lamartine, L'Isolement, yet, the differences are clear:

Table 1

"Souvent sur la montagne, à "Dacá soarele acufundá in "Adeseori pe munte, cand

l'ombre du vieux chêne, ochean a sa faclie, soarele apune,

Au coucher du soleil, Pe munte m-a^ez, la umbra Eu, obosit de ganduri, la umbra

tristement je m'assieds; invechitului stejar, rezemat,

Je promène au hasard mes §i duioasa a me prívala o In jos peste campie vederea-mi

regards sur la plaine, preumbl pe-asta campie se repune,

Dont le tableau changeant se Din a caria felurime mii de Privind cum se destinde cu-

déroule à mes pieds. zugraveli rasar. ncetul treptat.

Ici gronde le fleuve aux Raúl dincoace rasuna cu Aici spumega raul in undele-i

vagues écumantes, spumoase unde inalbite, muginde

Il serpente, et s'enfonce en Ce-ntre maluri mfloriti jarpind §i jerpuind se pierde in departat

lointaine obscur: fuge impregiur, ascuns;

Là, le lac immobile étend ses Lacul dincolo intinde a sale ape Lacul colo-^i revarsa apele lui

eaux dormantes adormite dorminde,

Où l'étoile du soir se lève Sau al sarii ste rasare din a Pe care steaua serii ivita le-a

dans l'azur. ceriului azur. patruns.

Au sommet de ces monts De paduri posomorate acea Seara-^i arunca inca o raza

couronnés de bois sombres, culm-încununatâ rubinoasâ

Le crépuscule encore jette un S-aureazâ încâ de raze ce lucesc P-al muntilor naît vârf de brazi

dernier rayon; din a lor tron, încoronat;

Et le char vaporeux de la Ç-amu carul cel de abur din Ç-a umbrelor stâpânâ în caru-i

reine des ombres umrâ întunecatâ rourat

Monte et blanchit déjà les bords Sa ridicâ ç-înalbeazâ geana a lui Pâçaçte, çi albeçte o pânzâ

de l'horizon..." [8] horizon..." [9] fumegoasâ..." [10]

Translation of the poem The Isolation of Lamartine (fragment)

"Often upon the mountain, in the shade of the old oak tree With the setting of the sun, I sadly take a seat; My gaze shifts haphazardly as I stare across the plain The ever-changing scenery unfolding at my feet.

Here the river rumbles, crashing waves of foam, It snakes along and disappears in a far-off land There the lake so still spreads out its sleeping waters Where the evening star rises in the blue.

At the summits of the mountains crowned with somber woods, Still the setting sun casts its final ray, And the hazy chariot of the queen of shadows Rises, already bleaching the horizon's end."

Ghe. Asachi's variant is entitled Meditation and it preserves the French versification; I. Heliade-Radulescu entitles his translation Solitude, which is closer in meaning to the original.

The translations above try to preserve as faithfully as possible the meanings of the original. Asachi's translation seems more laborious, by using forms such as "acufunda", "§arpind", "s-aureaza", "j-inalbeaza". Asachi preserves the rhythm specific to the source poem, although the changes in his version are significant: "je m'assieds" from the original is turned into "acufunda". Similarly, the use of "dincoace" and "dincolo", which correspond to "ici/ la," could have been avoided by a simple "aici". Moreover, Asachi is more interested in accurately rendering the romantic atmosphere and its meanings rather than the detail of Lamartine's poetical expression, and by translating the title L'Isolement with Meditatie, Ghe. Asachi directs the reader towards the specific meditative melancholy of the French poet's verse. Likewise, the characterization "duioasa" in the first stanza tries to replace the translation into Romanian of the adverb "tristement". On the whole, the major meanings of the words are almost faithfully preserved, although some problems with rendering the word order in Romanian can be noticed. I. Heliade Radulescu's version seems to be more faithful, due to its closer resemblance to the original. The tendency to render the entire atmosphere, the meanings and significations of the original, keeping Lamartine's versification - they all contributed to the almost faithful translation. Out of his desire to come as close as possible to the original version, Heliade Radulescu translated the epithets "ecumantes" and "dormantes" by the antithetic version "muginde" - "dorminde". The meaning of the epithet "ecumantes" can be translated by the appropriate word "spumegande", but the translator preferred "muginde", thus associating the motion of the waters with their sound, thus creating a double image, both visual and auditory.

On the same note and following the Lamartine model as well is the poem Lacul (The Lake) translated by I. Heliade-Radulescu, N. Skelitti and Constantin Stamati. The original version starts with the following stanzas and Heliade-Radulescu's translated version begins thus:

Table 2

"Ainsi, toujours poussés vers de nouveaux rivages, Dans la nuit éternelle emportés sans retour, Ne pourrons-nous jamais sur l'océan des âges Jeter l'ancre un seul jour?

Ô lac ! l'année à peine a fini sa carrière, Et près des flots chéris qu'elle devait revoir, Regarde ! je viens seul m'asseoir sur cette pierre Où tu la vis s'asseoir!..." [11]

"Astfel tot la tarmuri noua ímpin^i calea ne-ncetata, Duíji catre vecinica noapte, ínapoi far-a veni, In oceanul de varste noi nu vom putea vrodata O zi ancora-a-ntari?

O, lac! abia-^i sfar^i anuí drumul ce iar §i-l gateóte, §-aproape de drage valuri unde ea era-a veni, Pe piatra unde-ai vazut-o, aci, iata, ma prívente, Viu singur a...m-odihni!..." [12]

Translation of the poem The Lake of Lamartine (fragment)

"Thus driven forth forever to new shores, Born toward Eternal Night and never away, Sailing the Sea of Ages, can we not Drop anchor for one day?

O Lake! The year has scarcely spun its course. Now, by the waves she meant to see again, Watch how I sit, alone, upon this stone On which you saw her then."

This time, Heliade-Radulescu's translation is "poorer", as the verse does not flow smoothly, being slowed by the word order: "o zi ancora-a-ntari" sau "ea era-a veni," but mostly by some terms which are not rendered accurately. The translator, thus, departed from the original text and from the atmosphere and he almost gave up the romantic attitude.

The two others translations are the following:

Table 3

,,Impin§i far'încetare tôt câtrâ noue maluri Râpiti în noapt' eterna far a mai reveni Când vomu puté noi oare pe-a secolelor valuri Sa ancorâmu o dzi?

O lacu! Eatâ câ anul cariera sa sfirçesce Çi lâng'a taie valuri ce-amanat-mi a vedzutu Sa m-odihnescu vinu singuru pe peatr'aici privesce Pe care a çedzutu." [13]

„Impinçi far-incetare spre liniçtit liman, In etern întuneric pierim delaolaltâ, Çi nu se poate oare pe-acest etern noian S-aruncâm ancora vreodatâ? O, lacule senine, un an nu s-au plinit, Çi lâng-a tale tarmuri ce dorea ea sa vazâ, Acum vezi câ çed singur pe-acea piatrâ mâhnit, Pe care ea iubea sa çazâ." [14]

Another poem by Lamartine, Le poète mourant (The Dying Poet) was translated by I. Heliade-Râdulescu as follows:

Table 4

"La coupe de mes jours s'est brisée encor pleine;

Ma vie hors de mon sein s'enfuit à chaque haleine;

Ni baisers ni soupirs ne peuvent l'arrêter;

Et l'aile de la mort, sur l'airain qui me pleure,

En sons entrecoupés frappe ma dernière heure;

Faut-il gémir? faut-il chanter?...

Chantons, puisque mes doigts sont encor sur la lyre;

Chantons, puisque la mort, comme au cygne, m'inspire

Aux bords d'un autre monde un cri mélodieux.

C'est un présage heureux donné par mon génie,

Si notre âme n'est rien qu'amour et qu'harmonie,

Qu'un chant divin soit ses adieu!..." [15]

"A vietii mele cupa se sparse inca plina, In lungi suspine viata-mi se duce declina

Nici lacrimi, nici suspinuri n-o pot intarzia!

In bronzul ce ma plange in sonuri precurmate A mortii mana rece ultima-mi ora bate. Sa gem oar'? sau mai bine sa eaut a canta?

Sa cant, caci al meu suflet e inca p-a mea lira;

Sa cant, caci mie moartea ca lebedei inspira

Pe tarmuri d-o-alta lume un grid melodios. Semn bun acesta este, geniul mi-l face. De este-al nostru suflet amor, cereasca pace, Un cant divin dar fie adio d-aci jos..." [16]

What is remarkable in the translated variant is the reversed word order, which is meant to emphasize the stylistic significances. "A vietii mele cupâ" has the original "La coupe de mesjours"; "A mortii mânâ rece" is in French "l'aile de la mort", "al meu suflet e încâ p-a mea lira" - "mes doigts sont encor sur la lyre" and the rhetorical interrogations are more personal in translation than in the specific French impersonal "il": "Sa gem oar'? or mai bine sa caut a cânta?" - "faut-il gémir? faut-il chanter?" proposing antithetic terms, standing for two opposing states of mind: the verb "a geme" is usually associated with pain, while the verb "a cânta" is connected to the feeling of satisfaction and fulfilment.

The examples and the models of translations are numerous and diverse. We wanted to put in evidence the beauty of the translations (the specific lexicon used in the different regions of the country) and not to make contrastive analyses.

Table 5

"Salut ! bois couronnés d'un reste de verdure ! Feuillages jaunissants sur les gazons épars ! Salut, derniers beaux jours; Le deuil de la nature Convient à la douleur et plaît à mes regards.

Je suis d'un pas rêveur le sentier solitaire; J'aime à revoir encor, pour la dernière fois, Ce soleil pâlissant, dont la faible lumière Perce à peine à mes pieds l'obscurité des bois." [17]

„Salutare, lemne triste, ce verzi, galbene-nnegriti, Frunzi ce, câzînd risipite pe livezi, va veçteziti! Salutare, voi frumoase zile ce ati mai râmas! In voi tînguirea firii urmeazâ c-un slab, trist pas. Ea se cuvine durerii, mie-mi place s-o privesc; Singuratica cârare, uitat pâçind, o citesc. A! sa mai vâz înc-o data soarele îngâlbenind, A cârui luminâ slabâ abia pâtrunde sclipind La piciorul meu ce sunâ frunza, lemnul cel uscat, Intunericimea deasâ în pâdurea ce-am câlcat." [18]

Translation of the poem Autumn of Lamartine (fragment)

"Greetings, forests crowned with remaining green! Yellowing foliage on the sparse grass! Greetings, last gorgeous days! Nature's mourning Evokes my pain and gratifies my eyes!

I walk the lonely path in dreamy steps, And want to see again, for the last time, This waning sun and pale whose feeble light Barely pierces the woods' dark at my feet!"

Table 6

"C'est à vous, mon Esprit, à qui je veux parler. "Vino acum de fatâ çi stai lajudecatâ,

Vous avez des défauts que je ne puis celer: Tu care le faci astea, duh, fiintâ ciudatâ,

Assez et trop longtemps ma lâche complaisance Ce vrei sâjoci o rolâ în lumea trecâtoare:

De vos jeux criminels a nourri l'insolence..." [19] De ce treabâ-mi eçti bunâ, putere gânditoare..." [20]

Translation of The Ninth Satire of Nicolas Boileau (fragment)

"Look ye, my mind! A lecture I must read, Your faults I'll bear no more - I won't indeed! Too long already has my bending will Allow'd your tricks and insolence their fill."

Gr. Alexandrescu distinguished himself in the same field, translating fables, which inspired him to the extent that he wrote original texts. The examples of his translations are adequate, on Florian's or La Fontaine's model (Florian's Le renard qui prêche, translated by Gr. Alexandrescu as Vulpoiulpredicator):

Table 7

"Un vieux renard cassé, goutteux, apoplectique, "Un vulpoi coprins de boalâ,

La putere foarte prost,

Mais instruit, éloquent, disert, Insâ învâtat în çcoalâ,

Et sachant très bien sa logique, Lógica çtiind de rost,

Se mit à prêcher au désert. Fâcu plan ca sa vorbeascâ

Son style était fleuri, sa morale excellente. Çi sa predice-n pustii;

Il prouvait en trois points que la simplicité, Se silea sa dovedeascâ,

Les bonnes mœurs, la probité, C-un stil dulce, vorbe mii,

Donnent à peu de frais cette félicité Câ cu o simplicitate

Qu'un monde imposteur nous présente Çi eu traiul cel cinstit,

Et nous fait payer cher sans la donner jamais..." Cu nâravuri laúdate,

[21] E oricine fericit;..." [22]

Translation of the fable The Fox as a preacher of Florian (fragment)

"An old fox, gouty, apoplectic.

All broken down, but learn'd and wise,

Eloquent and skilled in logic,

His art at moral teaching tries.

And to the desert rais'd his cries.

His style was fine, his moral good;

Under three heads his sermons stood;

He plainly proved simplicity,

Good manner's and integrity.

Must end in that felicity

To which a lying world allures,

But never to our hopes secures,

Although we pay for a large fee.

At first he met with no success;

None ever came to hear him preach,

Save a few squirrels, more or less,

Who change to fall within his reach;

Or timid does, of little name,

Who could not spread the preacher's fame."

Similar to the previous work, the richness of the French vocabulary seems primordial: "Un vieux renard cassé, goutteux, apoplectique" is in Romanian "Un vulpoi coprins de boalâ,/ La putere foarte prost". The antithesis between the physical aspect and the moral traits is respected (in French, the fox is "instruit, éloquent, disert/ Et sachant très bien sa logique" and in Romanian "La putere foarte prost/ Insâ învâtat în çcoalâ"), but the versification is changed, as N. Manolescu noticed, since Alexandrescu "does not trust Florian's alexandrine, which he breaks in two trochaics of 7/8 syllables" (my translation) [23].

Another example is Florian' fable Le renard et le paon (The Fox and the Peacock) with the following translation:

Table 8

„L'aimable et tendre Philomèle, „Filomela dragastoasa

Voyant commencer les beaux jours, Vazínd vremea cea frumoasa,

Zile dulci de fericiri,

Racontait à l'écho fidèle Povestea cu intristare

La eho rascíntatoare

Et ses malheurs et ses amours. Tristele-i nenorociri.

Atunci ínsa deodata

Le plus beau paon du voisinage Un paun i se arata

Maître et sultan de ce canton, (Domn era intr-acel loc).

Élevant la tête et le ton, Veni plin de suparare;

Minios c-un ton mare

Vint interrompre son ramage: Astfel ii vorbi pe loc:

C'est bien à toi, chantre ennuyeux, „Nu vezi ca nu-ti §ade bine,

Avec un si triste plumage, Câ nici nu ti se cuvine,

Et ce long bec, et ces gros yeux, Cu acel cioc urîcios,

De vouloir charmer ce bocage!..." [24] Cu a ochilor grosime,

Cu a penii-ntunecime

Sa cînti în ast crîng frumos?..." [25]

2. Conclusions

Models and translations of this type could be followed by other works rich in linguistic elements which contributed to the modernization of Romanian language. The numerous translations or adoptions from already established literatures of the Western world resulted in the cultural education of the masses, but especially in shaping a pertinent opinion which aimed to develop the awareness of the readership. Literary translations were actually meant to encourage the assimilation of Western values, but mostly the reception of ethical and aesthetic meanings which happened differently from one country to another, from one era to another, in keeping with to the moral, artistic or ideological aspirations and needs of the people interested in culture. As a result, Romanian literature registered, in the period of 1830-1860, the illustrative stage of creating an original and modern pattern of thought and imagination, thus participating in the exchange of ideas between different European aesthetic systems which dominated the 19th century.


[1] Vârgolici, Teodor. (1985). Aspecte ale romanului románese din secolul alXIX-lea. Bucureçti: Eminescu, 25.

[2] Dutu, Alexandra. (1982/ Literatura comparatâ istoria mentalitâtilor. Bucureçti: Univers, 150. (the original text: "concepte çi imagini similare m culturi aparent distantate").

[3] Dragan, Ioana. (2001). Romanul popular în Románia. Literar paraliterar. Cluj: Casa Cârtii de Stiintâ, 63. (the original text: "satisfacerea necesarului de iluzii al oamenilor").

[4] Blaga, L., apud Eugen Simion. (1998). Fragmente critice, I, Scriitura taciturna scriitura publica. Bucureçti: Grai çi Suflet - Cultura Nationalâ Bucureçti, 119. (the original text: "modelele culturale au un rol stimulativ [...] çi valoarea lor se judecâ în functie de ceea ce provoacâ într-o cultura. Românii s-au adresat în repetate rânduri Frantei çi au gâsit în literatura ei ceea ce câutau. [...] In fond, un model cultural are atâta valoare câtâ valoare are eel care îl foloseçte"; "Franta ne-a trimis mereu semne çi semnele ei au dat o stare de insomnie în cultura. Din aceastâ insomnie s-a întâmplat sa iasâ, dacâ nu totdeauna capodopere, o dorintâ aprigâ de a scâpa din complexul inertiei noatre râsâritene...").

[5] Iorga, Nicolae. (1988). Istoria literaturii româneçti. Bucureçti: Minerva, 146. (the original text: "influenta apuseanâ a romantismului francez nu înseamnâ o altâ epocâ; în aceeaçi epocâ, se deosebesc doua cúrente. [...] Aça încît trebuie urmâritâ problema nu pe o linie cronologicâ, ci pe mai multe, în legâturâ cu biografía fiecâruia. Se va face o impartiré între felul cum anumiti scriitori români din Moldova çi din Muntenia au primit influenta francezâ. De ardeleni nu poate fi vorba în vremea aceasta, afarâ, întrucâtva, de Codru Drâguçanu: ei sunt prea mult supt influenta germanicâ çi ungureascâ, mai mult germana decît ungureascâ, aça încît îçi au originalitatea lor").

[6] Cornea, Paul, Zamfir, Mihai. (1968). Gândirea româneascâ în epocapaçoptistâ (1830-1860), I, II, Antologie, studiu çi bibliografie de P. Cornea. Text stabilit, note çi medalioane biografice de M. Zamfir (Anthology). Bucureçti : Editura pentru Literatura, 463. (the original text : "Franta epocii noastre este, farâ putintâ de tâgadâ, leagânul civilizatiei. Çtim sa apreciem imensul avantajal celui care se açazâ aici pentru a studia omul çi societatea; câci organizarea societâtii franceze este rezultatul cel mai frapant al acestui adevâr. Omul are conçtiinta fiintei sale independente çi a libertâtii sale. In Franta, ideea de libertate a trecut deja în stare de realizare çi a devenit principalul element al ordinei sociale. Nu vom çovâi sa deducem dreptul de proprietate din dreptul de libertate individúala çi sa afirmâm câ libertatea farâ proprietate este un cuvânt farâ sens. Libertatea nu este altceva, într-adevâr, decât manifestarea activitâtii intelectuale").

[7] Cornea, Paul. (1966). Traduceri tradueâtori în prima jumâtate a secolului al XIX-lea, p. 38, in De la Alecsandrescu la Eminescu. Bucureçti: Editura pentru Literatura, 49.

[8] Lamartine, A. de. (1835). Méditations poétiques (Poetical Meditations). Bruxelles : Société Belge de Librairie, 9.

[9] Asachi, Ghe. (1961). Scrieri alese. Bucureçti:Tineretului, 187.

[10] Heliede-Râdulescu, I. (1967). Opere. Bucureçti: Editura de Stat pentru Literatura, 17.

[11] Lamartine, A. de. op. cit., 63.

[12] Heliade-Rädulescu, I. op. cit., 21.

[13] Schelitti, N. (1868). Lacul - A. de Lamartine, "Convorbiri literare", 21, Anul I., Iassi, 1 Ianuarie, 298-299.

[14] Stamati, C. (1998). Imnul läutei româneçti, Chiçinâu: Casa de Editurä „Litera", 239.

[15] Lamartine, A. de. op. cit., 190.

[16] Heliade-Rädulescu, I. op. cit., 166.

[17] Mitterand, Henri. (1986). Littérature. Textes et documents, XIXe siècle. Paris : Editions Nathan, 66.

[18] Heliade-Rädulescu, I. op. cit., 36.

[19] Boileau, N. Œuvres poétiques. Paris : Librairie Hachette, Brodard et Taupin, 73.

[20] Alexandrescu, Gr. (1957). Opere, I. Bucureçti: Editurade Stat pentruLiteraturä çiArtâ, 190.

[21] Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris de. (1960). Fables. Paris: Classiques. Larousse, 88.

[22] Alexandrescu, Gr. (1967). Versuriçiprozä. Bucureçti: EdituraTineretului, 188.

[23] Manolescu, Nicolae. (1999). Poeti romantici. Bucureçti: Editura Fundatiei Culturale Române, 93. (the original text: "nu se încrede în alexandrinul unui Florian, pe care-1 rupe in douä trohaice de 7/8 silabe...").

[24] Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris de. op. cit., 84.

[25] Alexandrescu, Gr., op. cit., 190.