Scholarly article on topic 'Study of some effective factors on empowerment of the experts in educational institutions'

Study of some effective factors on empowerment of the experts in educational institutions Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{Empowerment / Self-effectivness / "Meaning fulfeeling" / Self-determination}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Asefeh Mostajeran Gortani

Abstract Todays empowerment is essential needs of educational institutions that their staff responses to clients and stakeholders effectively. The researcher tries to find which psychological aspects and managerial factors lead to empowerment. The research method is descriptive. Tools are two questionnaires. Pupulation was 1500 experts of educational institutions in Tehran .Sample was selected by Morgan table and is 312 subjects. The method was random samplin and the Freedman test and pearson correlation was used. Based on colleted data, there are direct and significant relationships between psychological aspects and mangerial factors. Also, applying participative management can make staff more empowerment.

Academic research paper on topic "Study of some effective factors on empowerment of the experts in educational institutions"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 (2011) 1960 - 1964

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2011)

Study of some effective factors on empowerment of the experts in

educational institutions

Asefeh Mostajeran Gortani*

M.A graduated of Educational Management,Islamic Azad University,Tehran Centre,Iran* E-mail address:asefehmostajeran@yahoo. com. Tel. :00989122267727; fax: 00982166580541 Adress:No.34, West Niloofar St,South Ramin Alley,Ferdos Blv.Sadeghieh Squ, Tehran, 0098,Iran

Abstract

Todays empowerment is essential needs of educational institutions that their staff responses to clients and stakeholders effectively . The researcher tries to find which psychological aspects and managerial factors lead to empowerment. The research method is descriptive. Tools are two questionnaires. Pupulation was 1500 experts of educational institutions in Tehran .Sample was selected by Morgan table and is 312 subjects. The method was random samplin and the Freedman test and pearson correlation was used. Based on colleted data , there are direct and significant relationships between psychological aspects and mangerial factors. Also, applying participative management can make staff more empowerment.

© 2011Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selectionand/orpeer-reviewunder responsibilityofDr Zafer Bekirogullari. Keywords: Empowerment; Self-effectivness; Meaning fulfeeling; Self-determination

1. Introduction

In today's human life, we experience surprising progress and changes. Orga nizations, particularly educational organizations, as subsets of human life which are totally humanity systems should prepare themselves to face with tremendous progress to survive and prosper otherwise they cannot keep track of the competitive world. This doesn't mean technological or technical prepare however, it means staff should be prepared as main and valuable capital. Dynamics of any organization rely on considering developing and transcending human force. Today, a gap between nations and societies is sagacity and ignorance. Therefore, major challenge is the challenge of informed and capable human force. Human force is considered as most important, expensive and valuable capital and organization source.

* Corresponding author. Tel.:00989122267727; fax: 00982166580541. E-mail addressasefehmostajeran@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr Zafer Bekirogullari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.446

Asefeh MostajhraaGortcmi hProsedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29(2011) I960 - 1964

It can be simply put that without efficient and empowerment people it is impossible to achieve organizational goals. Thus, human resource plays major and basic role in success or fail of organizations. The fact has been demonstrated for a long time that those organizations achieve considerable success that pays special attention to their human forces.

Management practitioners and organizational psychologists suggest creating culture of staff empowerment to encounter forthcoming challenges of organizations. To empower human force and consequently to empower an education organization can prepare the organization against changing conditions and ensure them to survive in unstable conditions. Empowerment has a multidimensional concept including organizational, managerial as well as psychological factors.

The study has examined organizational, managerial and psychological aspects. The purpose of the study is to identify some effective factors on empowerment of educational organization staff.

In education organizations if service suppliers are empowerment people the organizations can grow and transcend that in turn directly affect on growth and development of society. Empowerment is a new alternative for top managers to apply human forces in vanguard organizations in the competitive world.

The study aims to answer what effective factors on empowerment of specialists in education organizations are. The paper aims to answer two main questions: 1) in which psychological aspects of empowerment experts are stronger or weaker? 2) which factors are more effective in empowerment of experts?

According to Peter Deraker , new organization environment are mostly described by terms like chaos, speed, rapid changes which include flexible, self-directed, entrepreneurial, responsible, innovative specialists with discretionary power. Under such condition, organizations are more dynamic and flexible and also managers pay more attention to interests and voices of specialists. As a result, specialists consider themselves as owners of the organization. Currently people are inevitably chosen to satisfy needs of sources and human forces of organizations. To improve their job organizations determine strategies along with their path to achieve their goals. Empowerment is one of existing strategies which is related to human force development that is critical response to needs of contemporary management. Empowerment is a process to achieve continuous improvement in organization performance. It is inner and personal feeling that people recognized in them. So, how such feeling is occurred? Organization should attempt to empower their staff.

The research has investigated managerial factors and psychological aspects through a questionnaire. Managerial factors are: participative management, reward based on performance, job enrichment; psychological aspects of the study including: self-effectiveness, meaning fulfeeling , self-determination and trust.

Findings of the study indicate that in terms of experts and specialists, there is significant and positive correlation between participative management and empowerment that the significance valuably is high. Kanugo& conger (1998) and other practitioners argue organizations which provide opportunity for their staff to participate in decision making variously, their staff probably feel more empowerment. In forerunner organizations, collaboration is achieved to highest possible level. People interact collectively in various areas. Specialists in education organizations have participative morale. The participative morale leads to higher empowerment morale in people. These organizations involve specialists in their decision making that they are administrators of the decision. Paul Ramsden (1997) argues organizations which their staff collaborate on activities such as planning, implementing, and application they regard creativity and autonomy of the staff as values. Also, building quality groups and task teams increase job quality in these organizations.

Findings of the study were confirmed by some studies in 2004 and 2008 in the country and Fox's research (2000). Furthermore, the study demonstrates that there are positive and significant correlation between rewarding based on performance and staff empowerment. We know two components increase people's motivation:

1. Recognize and robust individual qualifications

2. Participate and influence on decision making process

Kanugo& conger (1998) argue organizations by rewarding particularly based on people performance create empowerment feeling in them. By the way, accurate system of rewarding is required plenty experience of managers as well as their good judgment. This can lead to increase empowerment feeling of people and direct them to acquire more skills. These findings confirmed by Abdollahi (2003) in Iran and studies of Johnson and Thomson (1996) and whetten & Cameron (1998).

Asefeh Mostajeran Gortani/ Procedia -Socialand Behavioral Sciences 29(2011) 1960 - 1964

2. Methodology

The research method is descriptive. Tools of research are two questionnaires : one is Whetten & Cameron questionnaire and the other is researcher-made multiple choice questionnaire. A standard questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire have been applied to collect data and some information is obtained by library study. Pupulation of the study was 1500 experts of educational institutions in Tehran .Sample was selected by Morgan table and it included 312 subjects (both male and female). Method of sampling was stratified random sampling . In order to determine psychological aspects , the Freedman test was applied and the pearson correlation was used to recognize managerial factors. To analyze colleted data both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied.

Table S:Thr drahlt of FdrrSman trat

Aspects Average

Self-effectiveness 3.62%

Trust 2.27%

Meaningful feeling 3.79%

Self-determination 2.63%

Regarding to the finding which obtained by Freedman test about psychological aspects, being meaningful is the highest rank and being effectiveness and influential are in next ranks respectively.

Table 2: Correlation brtwrrn investigator factor anS empowerment

The investigator factors Participative management Reward based on performance Job enrichment

Correlation between investigator factor and empowerment 0. 876 0.857 0.798

The results suggest that there are significant and positive correlation between given factors (participative management, rewarding based on performance, modeling desirable performance, job enrichment and empowerment). According to the findings it can be concluded that proper administration of each factors in organizations lead to people empowerment.

3.Results and discussion

The study shows that there is positive and significant correlation between reward based on performance, participative management and experts' empowerment. A systematic thinking skill helps staff to understand relationship between job processes and organized consequences of other behaviors. When an individual or a team is encouraged due to their creative and innovative performance in fact this can be regarded as a job exemplar for other members. In general perspective, modeling is a systematic way through that organization can measure their activities based on the best criteria in industry and service.

The results of the study shows there is positive and significant correlation between a job enrichment factor and experts empowerment. Job enrichment allows staff to personalize their job. Job enrichment is designed so as to need more capacities and talents of people. Having a task team is main and effective factor of job enrichment. Managers play a key role in job enrichment of organizations. The task and self-directed team does works professionally. The results confirmed by the study have done in Iran in 2009.

Another area of investigation of the study is which aspects of empowerment are stronger (or weaker). To answer the question the questionnaire has been applied and Freedman has been used to grade the aspects. Results indicate that among psychological aspects of empowerment being meaningful is the highest rank; therefore experts of the education organization honor given ideals and standards and follow valuable and vital goals. It can be inferred that the experts honor what they do to besides material profits; they have more fundamental, personal and human ideals

Asefeh MostajeranGortcmi hProcedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29(2011) I960 - 1964

and standards. Whetten (1998) asserts being meaningful is an opportunity which people feel that they follow essential and valuable goals of business. In another word, they feel they move on a road which their efforts are estimated. According to Tomas and velthous (1990) being meaningful means to have valuable job goals and personal interest in the job. Hackman and Waldhome (1980) consider being meaningful as a harmony between job obligations with values, beliefs and behaviors. Also, according to whetten and Cameron (1998 ) being meaningful means people at first step be commitment, participating-oriented and focus on energy.

In grading aspects being effectiveness and influential in second and third level respectively which show experts believe in their capability to influence on the environment and task, similarly they think they do their tasks effectively and enable them to encounter new challenges so they will grow. According to practitioners self-effectiveness is one of the main and effective elements of empowerment.

Unfortunately the lower grades of self-determination and trust indicate that experts cannot make decision totally independently. Relationship between superiors and subordinates should be considered pathologically. It can be examined the aspect in terms of two perspectives. First, people imagine they are not treated fairly. Second, they probably need to reidentify trust entity and honest as well as intimacy are replaced by pretending. Shelton (2002) and Spritzer & Mishra (1997) and Algoson (2003) argue managers should create trust environment before doing any action to empower their staff. To create trust and reliable feeling 5 factors are very important including: stable behavior, fairness, attention, frankness and reliability.

Empowerment is the most hopeful concept of the third millennium. Empowerment allows managers to apply knowledge, skill and experience of all people in organizations. Top managers play surprising role in this area. Empowerment requires commitment and participation of superior managers. The plan related to it should be initiated from top of the organization pyramid. Empowered managers can empower their staff. Superior managers of the education organizations should provide conditions to promote culture of participative management among staff that they do their task in enriched jobs. This can be internalized in organizations by building professional teams of empowerment. Generally, superior managers should start empowerment from the top of the pyramid of organizations and provide appropriate conditions to implement factors and components of empowerment eventually lead to increase job satisfaction in staff which in turn causes to increase quality of work life too. Since empowerment gives inner power and autonomy to people. Finally, we realize according to experts of education organizations implementing factors of empowerment such as participative management, job enrichment, modeling desirable performance and rewarding based on performance in organizations lead to increase empowerment feeling in people and being meaningful among psychological aspects of empowerment achieves the highest score. This means people in organizations honor their job extremely and their job gives meaning to them that can create empowerment feeling more effectively.

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