Scholarly article on topic 'Heat of Absorption of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N-Dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA)'

Heat of Absorption of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N-Dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA) Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Øystein Jonassen, Inna Kim, Hallvard F. Svendsen

Abstract In this work the heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N- dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA) has been investigated in a reaction calorimeter. The experiments were conducted at the concentrations 2M and 4.2M, and the temperatures 313K, 353K and 393K. The resulting differential heats of absorption were plotted as a function of liquid CO2 loading. An effect of temperature on the heat of absorption was observed for MDEA. This effect was larger at low loadings and the lower amine concentration. This was also observed for DMMEA but here the effect of temperature was larger. The heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous DMMEA is slightly larger than for MDEA.

Academic research paper on topic "Heat of Absorption of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N-Dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA)"

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Energy Procedia 63 (2014) 1890 - 1902

GHGT-12

Heat of absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N-dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA)

0ystein Jonassena, Inna Kimb, Hallvard F. Svendsena*

aNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Sœlands vei 4, Trondheim, NO7491, Norway bSINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.B. 4760, Trondheim, NO734, Norway

Abstract

In this work the heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N,N-dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA) has been investigated in a reaction calorimeter. The experiments were conducted at the concentrations 2M and 4.2M, and the temperatures 313 K, 353 K and 393 K. The resulting differential heats of absorption were plotted as a function of liquid CO2 loading. An effect of temperature on the heat of absorption was observed for MDEA. This effect was larger at low loadings and the lower amine concentration. This was also observed for DMMEA but here the effect of temperature was larger. The heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous DMMEA is slightly larger than for MDEA.

© 2014TheAuthors. Publishedby Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

Keywords: Heat of absorption; Enthalpy of absorption; MDEA; DMMEA; Methyldiethanolamine; Dimethylmonoethanolamine; Calorimeter

1. Introduction

The capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from gas streams is important from both an economical and environmental perspective. In the oil and gas industry the capture of CO2 from a natural gas streams, a process known as natural gas sweetening, is important in order to reach given pipe line specifications and sale gas specifications.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +47 73 59 41 00 ; fax: +47 73 59 40 80. E-mail address: hallvard.svendsen@chemeng.ntnu.no

1876-6102 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.198

Because CO2 is a greenhouse gas there is a need to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere as a way of curbing the effects of climate change.

There are several different ideas and technologies on how to perform CO2 capture, but the most mature and proven technology is absorption of CO2 into aqueous alkanolamines. However, even though the technology is mature there is always a demand for a more energy efficient process in order to reduce the operational costs. About half of the energy requirement when capturing CO2 from exhaust gas from a coal-fired power plant is from the regeneration of the solvent in the stripper reboiler, while the other half is from compression of CO2 for transportation and sequestration [1]. It is believed that innovations in the field of process design will cut some of the operational costs along with the development of new solvents.

The use of alkanolamines in CO2 capture processes has received attention due to environmental issues related to emissions and limited biodegradability [2, 3]. According to the Petroleum safety Authority of Norway chemicals used in off-shore applications are separated into four categories; black, red, yellow, and green based on their biodegradability, bioaccumulation and eco-toxicity. Chemicals that falls within the black or red categories should "only be selected if they are necessary for technical or safety reasons"[4]. Chemicals such as N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine, which are popular solvents in CO2 capture processes, are categorized as red due to low biodegradability [2]. In a study by Eide Haugmo et al. [2] the alkanolamine N,N-dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA) was the only tertiary amine identified as having acceptable environmental properties (categorized as a "yellow" chemical), and was therefore chosen as a candidate for further investigation in this work.

Having reliable knowledge of the heat of absorption of acid gases into aqueous alkanolamines is an important factor when designing units for acid gas removal. The steam required in the regeneration of the solvent can be directly related to the heat of absorption. A low heat of absorption may be beneficial, however, a low heat of absorption may also mean that the solvent will not receive the full impact of if the increased temperature in the regeneration step [1].

1.1. Heat of absorption

Both MDEA and DMMEA are tertiary amines and therefore do not form stable carbamates. Donaldson and Nguyen [5] proposed a base-catalyzed hydration mechanism for the reaction between carbon dioxide and tertiary amines. The following key reactions take place in aqueous solutions of a tertiary amine and carbon dioxide

Ionization of water

2H2O = H3O + OH

Dissociation of carbon dioxide

2H2O + CO2 = HCO3 + H3O

Dissociation of bicarbonate ion

H2O + HCO3 = H3O+ + CO

Dissociation of protonated alkanolamine

RR'R"NH+ + H2O = RR'R'N + H3O

The heat of absorption of CO2 into an aqueous solution of an alkanolamine will then be equal to the heat of reaction from the four key reactions above, combined with the heat of physical dissolution of CO2 into the solvent.

Because tertiary amines do not form stable carbamates the absorbed CO2 will primarily be in the form of bicarbonate ion. This gives a lower heat of absorption than what is seen for primary or secondary amines where the formation of a carbamate complex leads to a higher heat of absorption.

In this work the enthalpy change was measured by a direct calorimetric method. Another possibility would be to estimate the enthalpy change from vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data by using equation (5), a form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation:

lnP«32

_ a(VT)

As discussed by Kim and Svendsen [6] and Svendsen et al. [7], using this equation has some disadvantages. The uncertainty in the enthalpy of absorption resulting from this equation is increased by a factor of ten compared to the uncertainty in the VLE data. In addition, equation (5) does not allow for investigation of the effect of temperature [6].

The heat of absorption of CO2 by aqueous MDEA has been measured by several authors. Table 1 gives an overview of previous work and at which conditions these experiments were carried out.

To our knowledge no data on the molar heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous DMMEA solutions have been published in the literature.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Materials

In this work the following chemicals were used; carbon dioxide (CO2), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA, CAS nr. 105-59-9) and N-N-dimethylmonoethanolamine (DMMEA, CAS nr. 108-01-0). The amines were acquired from Sigma Aldrich with a purity of 99%, and were used as received. All solutions were made with de-ionized water.

2.2. Method

The experiments were conducted using a Model CPA 122 reaction calorimeter (Chemisens AB, Sweden). This is the same type of equipment used in the work of Kim and Svendsen [6, 8], Qin et al. [9] and Liu et al. [10] and has been described in detail by Kim and Svendsen [6]. Therefor only a brief description of the equipment and the method employed will be given here. Figure 1 show a schematic of the experimental setup.

This particular calorimeter is a mechanically agitated stainless steel reactor with a volume of 2000 cm3. The reaction vessel is designed to operate at pressures ranging from 0 to 100 bar and at temperatures between -20 °C to 200 °C. All important parameters, such as heat production, reactor temperature, stirring speed, system pressure and CO2 flow into the reactor vessel were continuously measured and recorded as a function of time. The experiment consists of measuring the heat generated as a function of time during the isothermal absorption of CO2. The CO2 was added from storage cylinders (item 8a and 8b in figure 1) where the temperature and pressure were monitored.

Between 1.2 L - 1.5 L of solution was charged into the preliminary evacuated reaction vessel using the feed bottle (item 7 in figure 1). The feed bottle was weighed before and after the charging procedure. The mechanical stirring was activated and the solution was heated to the experimental temperature.

When reaction temperature and pressure were constant, within ± 0.01 °C and ± 0.01 bar respectively, combined with no heat transfer to or from the reaction system from the circulating heating medium, i.e.

AT = (Trke> _ ) = constant

the system was considered to be at equilibrium. The system temperature and pressure was noted before CO2 was fed from storage tanks 8a and 8b (figure 1) to the solution through the bottom valve of the reaction vessel. The gas flow was controlled by a mass flow controller and the flow rate was limited to a maximum of 1 L per minute. The amount of CO2 added to the solution was determined from a calibrated gas flow meter. The system was then allowed to reach equilibrium before the next loading sequence occurred. The experiment continued until no more CO2 could enter the reaction vessel and the measured heat flow was close to the baseline. The pressure and temperature in the reactor and the amount of heat transferred between the thermostatting media and the system were recorded. The heat flow was calculated by integrating the heat flow peaks.

Figure 1. Experimental setup: 1 - Calorimeter; 8a and 8b - CO2 storage tanks; CO2 flow controller located after valve 5 (V5)

Table 1. Earlier work on the heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of MDEA.

Reference Method used Concentration T/K

Rayer and Henni (2014) [11] Setaram C-80 flow calorimeter 5 and 30 wt % 298, 313 and 343

Svensson et al. (2013) [12] CPA - 202 27 wt % 308, 318, 325 and 333

Arcis et al. (2008) [13] Setaram C-80 flow calorimeter 15 and 30 wt % 318.5

Kim and Svendsen (2011) [8] CPA - 122 30 wt % 313

Carson et al. (2000) In-house displacement calorimeter 10, 20 and 30 wt % 298

Kierzkowska-Pawlak (2007) [14] CPA - 202 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt % 293, 313 and 333

Oscarson et al. (2000) [15] In-house isothermal flow calorimeter 20, 35 and 50 wt % 300, 350 and 400

Mathonat et al. (1997) [16] Setaram C-80 flow calorimeter 30 wt % 313, 353 and 393

Merkley et al (1987) [17] In-house isothermal flow calorimeter 20, 40 and 60 wt % 288.71, 333.15, 388.71 and 422.04

1 i

^Ji V- J3

1 1

1 1

8 000 10 000

Total_Power

Figure 2. Integration of the heat flux peak in a single loading interval.

3. Results

The heat of absorption of CO2 into single amine solutions of MDEA and DMMEA was measured in this work. Table 2 lists the different temperatures and concentrations that were investigated.

Table 2. List of temperatures and concentrations tested

Amine Short name CAS nr. Composition [mol/L-solution] Temp. [K]

N-methyldiethanolamine MDEA 105-59-9 2.0 and 4.2 313, 353 and 393

(only 2.0 mol/L)

N,N-dimethylmonoethanolamine DMMEA 108-01-0 2.0 and 4.2 313, 353 and 393

Figure 2 shows an example of the integration of the heat flux. The baseline and integration borders are set manually and are therefore the main source of uncertainty in the data along with determining the amount of CO2 fed to the reaction vessel. The heat flux peaks and the recorded CO2 flow peaks were integrated by the trapezoidal method and the baselines were assumed to change linearly. The molar enthalpy of absorption was calculated by taking the ratio of the heat flux to the amount of CO2 absorbed by the solution in a single interval. The concentration of amine in the liquid phase was assumed constant and equal to the initial concentration of the solution charged into the reaction vessel. The vapor pressure of amine and water in the gas phase was also assumed constant and equal to the vapor pressure before the first interval was measured. This means that the amount of CO2 in the gas phase could be calculated from the pressure difference in the reactor. This assumption constitutes as a negligible error in the calculation of the molar heat of absorption. In this case the Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to calculate the amount of CO2 in the gas phase. The experiments in figure 5 were carried out with one year in between them, and except for two points in the low loadings, the reproducibility of the experiments are acceptable.

■8 ■e

■3 60 &

■8 40

□ AC ....rffa

A dV 'y

□ X X X

0.2 0.4 0.E O.O 1 1.2 Loading [mol C02 / mol amine]

■8 70

=■ 55 e

| 50 S

2 45 ï. 40

Î35 w

jfc] %.......

éP ML, rfl

x^ X X iR« X X X

0.2 0.4 0.6 O.O

Loading [mol C02 / mol amine]

Figure 3. (a) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 into a 2M solution of MDEA: (x) 313 K, (□) 353 K and (A) 393 K. (b) Enthalpy of absorption on of CO2 into a 4.2M solution of MDEA: (x) 313 K, and (□) 353 K °C.

Figure 4. (a) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 into a 2M solution of DMMEA: (x) 313 K, (□) 353 K and (A) 393 K. (b) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 into a 4.2M solution of DMMEA: (x) 313 K, (□) 353 K and (A) 393 K.

X x x ®

o o X ô *

u c ........ * 0 o

25-,-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 5 0.6 0.7 D.B 0 9 1 Loading [mol COI / mol amine]

Figure 5. Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 into a 4.2M solution of DMMEA at 313 K: (x) parallel 1 and (o) parallel 2.

3.1. MDEA

Tabulated data of the enthalpy of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of MDEA are presented in appendix A. The experimental data are also presented graphically in figure 3. In figure 3(a) the data for the 2M MDEA solution is plotted as a function of the liquid loading of CO2. At 313 K the differential enthalpy of absorption is close to constant until a loading of approximately 0.7, at which point the -AHdiff starts to decrease. The data also show that an increase in temperature increases -AHdiff at lower loadings but also that it decreases faster. This means that the increased temperature reduces the capacity of the amine solvent. In figure 3(b) the results for the 4.2M MDEA solutions is shown and at 313 K the enthalpy of absorption is more or less constant except at the lower loadings where there is some scatter in the data. Here also, the effect of temperature is evident, although the effect is small. A weak increase in the heat of absorption with increasing temperature is in line with data published on MDEA from other authors. When comparing the two concentrations there seems to be a larger temperature effect at the lower concentration. The heat of absorptions for MDEA from this work tends to be slightly lower than what other authors have published.

3.2. DMMEA

All the data for the enthalpy of absorption of CO2 aqueous DMMEA solutions are presented in appendix B. The differential heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of DMMEA is plotted against the CO2 liquid loading in figure 4. At this moment no literature data has been found to compare with data from this work. However, in figure 6 a comparison between the MDEA data and DMMEA data from this work is shown.

The heat of absorption of CO2 into 4.2M DMMEA was tested with the same experimental method with one year apart. The results are in good agreement with each other which means that the reproducibility of the experiment is satisfactory.

In figure 4a it can be seen that the heat of absorption for 2M DMMEA increases when the temperature increases from 313K to 353 K. However, the data at 353 K and 393 K are almost identical. The reason for this behavior is unclear. The effect of temperature is also evident in figure 4b for 4.2M DMMEA. At low loadings the effect is quite strong but it diminishes as the loading increases. The effect of temperature seems to be stronger for lower concentrations of amine. This was observed in the experiments with MDEA as well. The heat of absorption for DMMEA is slightly higher than for MDEA at 313 K for both concentrations (figure 6a). However, this difference diminishes as the loading increases indicating that the CO2 loading has a larger influence on the heat of absorption for DMMEA than for MDEA. When the temperature is increased to 353 K it can be seen (figure 6b) that the difference in heat of absorption between DMMEA and MDEA increases when the concentration of amine decreases. At 393 K (figure 3c) the difference between 2M MDEA and 2M DMMEA increases with increasing loading while the heat of absorption for 4.2M DMMEA is similar to that of 2M MDEA.

4. Conclusion

In this work the heat of absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of MDEA and DMMEA has been investigated in a reaction calorimeter. The experiments were conducted at the concentrations 2M and 4.2M and the temperatures 313 K, 353 K and 393 K. The resulting differential heats of absorption were plotted as a function of liquid CO2 loading. An effect of temperature on the heat of absorption was observed for MDEA. This effect was larger at low loadings and the lower amine concentration. This was also observed for DMMEA but here the effect of temperature was larger. The heat of absorption for DMMEA was observed to be slightly larger than for MDEA.

Figure 6. (a) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 at 313 K: (□) 2M DMMEA, (x) 4.2M DMMEA(1), (o) 4.2M DMMEA(2), (A) 2M MDEA and (0) 4.2M MDEA. (b) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 at 353 K: (□) 2M DMMEA, (x) 4.2M DMMEA, (A) 2M MDEA and (0) 4.2M MDEA. (c) Enthalpy of absorption of CO2 at 393 K: (□) 2M DMMEA, (x) 4.2M DMMEA and (A) 2M MDEA.

Nomenclature

AHdiff differential heat of absorption [kJ / mol CO2] PCO2 partial pressure of CO2 R gas constant

T temperature

Aknowledgement

This publication is based on results from the research program "A Green Sea", performed under the Petromaks program. The author's acknowledge the partners Statoil, Gassco, Petrobras and the Research Council of Norway (200455/S60) for their support.

Appendix A. The heat of absorption of CO2 into a 2.0M MDEA solution at 313 K, 353 K and 393 K, and a 4.2M MDEA solution at 313 K and 353 K.

2M MDEA 4.2M MDEA

Amine conc. a -AHdiff Amine conc. a -AHdiff

[wt %] [mol CO2/mol amine] [kJ/mol CO2] [wt %] [mol CO2/mol amine] [kJ/mol CO2]

313 K 313 K

23.54 0.104 53.053 49.81 0.007 32.401

23.54 0.219 52.435 49.81 0.015 46.111

23.54 0.375 50.610 49.81 0.027 64.015

23.54 0.492 49.460 49.81 0.049 47.914

23.54 0.580 50.281 49.81 0.066 51.157

23.54 0.666 48.509 49.81 0.082 52.623

23.54 0.743 45.640 49.81 0.097 58.089

23.54 0.798 43.711 49.81 0.112 55.379

23.54 0.849 40.532 49.81 0.129 55.379

23.54 0.914 37.552 49.81 0.148 50.972

23.54 0.970 33.895 49.81 0.164 53.990

23.54 1.025 24.169 49.81 0.178 53.132

23.54 1.071 18.165 49.81 0.195 49.962

353 K 49.81 0.211 51.673

23.56 0.039 84.116 49.81 0.270 50.608

23.56 0.079 84.071 49.81 0.315 51.885

23.56 0.116 84.188 49.81 0.369 49.391

23.56 0.158 78.148 49.81 0.425 52.149

23.56 0.194 70.491 49.81 0.491 52.502

23.56 0.236 69.999 49.81 0.554 51.984

23.56 0.272 66.983 49.81 0.620 54.405

23.56 0.310 60.511 49.81 0.673 53.007

23.56 0.348 62.770 49.81 0.839 51.036

23.56 0.387 60.132 353 K

23.56 0.426 53.293 48.65 0.017 79.204

23.56 0.467 55.066 48.65 0.040 63.340

23.56 0.506 57.166 48.65 0.060 60.988

23.56 0.548 53.818 48.65 0.079 59.898

23.56 0.588 51.037 48.65 0.097 57.722

23.56 0.634 48.187 48.65 0.113 58.520

23.56 0.673 48.933 48.65 0.133 55.030

23.56 0.714 42.371 48.65 0.153 54.235

23.56 0.754 42.082 48.65 0.171 55.210

23.56 0.791 36.321 48.65 0.193 54.598

393 K 48.65 0.218 55.568

23.56 0.020 306.802 48.65 0.240 54.797

23.56 0.041 134.917 48.65 0.262 55.740

23.56 0.056 90.945 48.65 0.285 54.496

23.56 0.080 91.664 48.65 0.302 53.304

23.56 0.094 80.968 48.65 0.327 55.249

23.56 0.115 66.313 48.65 0.351 56.124

23.56 0.135 56.445 48.65 0.374 51.090

23.56 0.152 43.783 48.65 0.399 51.977

23.56 0.176 48.536 48.65 0.423 52.926

23.56 0.192 50.516 48.65 0.449 53.612

23.56 0.216 50.078 48.65 0.471 53.708

23.56 0.237 41.164 48.65 0.499 41.377

23.56 0.259 38.606

23.56 0.279 40.029

23.56 0.301 38.889

Appendix B. The heat of absorption of CO2 into a 2.0M DMMEA solution at 313 K, 353 K and 393 K, and a 4.2M DMMEA solution at 313 K, 353 K and 393 K.

2M DMMEA 4.2M DMMEA

Amine conc. a -AHdiff Amine conc. a -AHdff

[wt %] [mol CO2/mol amine] [kJ/mol CO2] [wt %] [mol CO2/mol amine] [kJ/mol CO2]

313 K 313 K (1)

18.07 0.017 60.668 38.14 0.054 62.337

18.07 0.048 71.266 38.14 0.124 62.493

18.07 0.137 65.683 38.14 0.188 62.526

18.07 0.262 64.057 38.14 0.249 61.486

18.07 0.383 57.618 38.14 0.313 58.429

18.07 0.515 55.476 38.14 0.373 58.437

18.07 0.649 49.861 38.14 0.433 56.760

18.07 0.765 45.832 38.14 0.491 55.808

18.07 0.869 42.172 38.14 0.553 55.523

18.07 0.958 34.515 38.14 0.618 52.764

18.07 1.000 25.927 38.14 0.689 50.337

18.07 1.030 18.805 38.14 0.753 48.873

18.07 1.061 11.313 38.14 0.803 50.404

18.07 1.092 12.837 38.14 0.856 45.059

З5З K 38.14 0.900 41.191

18.00 0.036 129.489 38.14 0.939 36.379

18.00 0.082 121.543 38.14 0.964 32.448

18.00 0.130 112.993 38.14 0.982 27.989

18.00 0.193 95.555 З1З K (2)

18.00 0.239 89.278 38.60 0.077 58.219

18.00 0.293 85.634 38.60 0.157 60.041

18.00 0.333 83.878 38.60 0.246 61.397

18.00 0.396 74.917 38.60 0.335 58.947

18.00 0.459 72.993 38.60 0.431 58.242

18.00 0.512 69.974 38.60 0.492 55.205

18.00 0.568 66.396 38.60 0.596 54.452

18.00 0.643 60.585 38.60 0.669 51.846

18.00 0.715 58.451 38.60 0.753 51.724

18.00 0.786 51.744 38.60 0.803 46.903

18.00 0.822 51.739 38.60 0.848 43.625

18.00 0.854 47.738 38.60 0.886 42.748

З9З K 38.60 0.919 39.222

18.00 0.045 a З5З K

18.00 0.100 122.830 38.73 0.030 89.475

18.00 0.157 112.349 38.73 0.063 79.200

18.00 0.205 102.730 38.73 0.096 77.853

18.00 0.251 91.810 38.73 0.132 69.801

18.00 0.299 87.112 38.73 0.166 67.166

18.00 0.331 84.083 38.73 0.202 67.283

18.00 0.377 71.935 38.73 0.236 65.270

38.73 0.271 63.558

38.73 0.307 62.668

38.73 0.341 61.726

38.73 0.373 61.063

38.73 0.407 63.414

38.73 0.442 60.106

38.73 0.481 59.588

38.73 0.523 59.118

38.73 0.569 58.996

38.73 0.615 57.447

38.73 0.653 56.912

38.73 0.688 55.666

38.73 0.704 54.949

38.68 0.017 a

38.68 0.034 124.665

38.68 0.054 99.415

38.68 0.071 76.286

38.68 0.088 73.967

38.68 0.100 65.915

38.68 0.108 59.309

38.68 0.122 67.137

38.68 0.138 62.928

38.68 0.155 59.953

38.68 0.171 56.549

38.68 0.187 60.735

38.68 0.206 57.978

38.68 0.219 59.230

aData point omitted from integration, but loading is still presented in order to show the real loading interval of the next point.

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