Scholarly article on topic 'Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach'

Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Sunku Venkata Siva Rajaprasad, Pasupulati Venkata Chalapathi

Abstract Background Construction activity has made considerable breakthroughs in the past two decades on the back of increases in development activities, government policies, and public demand. At the same time, occupational health and safety issues have become a major concern to construction organizations. The unsatisfactory safety performance of the construction industry has always been highlighted since the safety management system is neglected area and not implemented systematically in Indian construction organizations. Due to a lack of enforcement of the applicable legislation, most of the construction organizations are forced to opt for the implementation of Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 to improve safety performance. Methods In order to better understand factors influencing the implementation of OHSAS 18001, an interpretive structural modeling approach has been applied and the factors have been classified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. The study proposes the underlying theoretical framework to identify factors and to help management of Indian construction organizations to understand the interaction among factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001. Results Safety culture, continual improvement, morale of employees, and safety training have been identified as dependent variables. Safety performance, sustainable construction, and conducive working environment have been identified as linkage variables. Management commitment and safety policy have been identified as the driver variables. Conclusion Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health.

Academic research paper on topic "Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach"

Accepted Manuscript

Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 In Indian Construction organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling approach

SVS Raja Prasad, P.Venkata Chalapathi

PII: S2093-7911(15)00031-1

DOI: 10.1016/j.shaw.2015.04.001

Reference: SHAW 93

To appear in: Safety and Health at Work

Received Date: 2 December 2014 Revised Date: 23 March 2015 Accepted Date: 9 April 2015

Please cite this article as: Prasad SR, Chalapathi PV, Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 In Indian Construction organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling approach, Safety and Health at Work (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.shaw.2015.04.001.

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Original Article

Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 In Indian Construction organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling approach

SVS Raja Prasad1*, P.Venkata Chalapathi2

'"Research Scholar, KL University, Vaddeswaram & NICMAR, Hyderabad, India. 2Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, KL University, Vaddeswaram, India.

Corresponding author. Research Scholar, KL University, Vaddeswaram& Associate Professor, National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), NAC campus, Kondapur P.O., Hyderabad - 500084, India.

E-mail address: sunku.vsrp@gmail.com (S.V.S.RajaPrasad)

ABSTRACT

Background: Construction activity has made considerable breakthrough in the last two decades on the back of increase in development activities, government policies and public demand. At the same time occupational health and safety issues have become major concern to construction organizations. The unsatisfactory safety performance of construction industry has always been highlighted since the safety management system is neglected area and not implemented systematically in Indian construction organizations. Due to lack of enforcement of applicable legislations, most of the construction organizations are forced to opt for implementation Occupational health safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001 to improve safety performance.

Methods: In order to better understand factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach has been applied and the factors have been classified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. The study proposes the underlying theoretical framework to identify factors and to help management of Indian construction organizations to understand the interaction among factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001.

Results: Safety culture, continual improvement, Morale of employees, and Safety training has been identified as dependent variables. Safety performance, Sustainable construction and Conducive working environment have been found out as linkage variables.Management commitment and Safety policy have been identified as the driver variables.

Conclusion: Management commitment has the maximum driving power and most influential factor is the safety policy, which states clearly commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health (OHS).

Keywords: interpretive structural modeling, occupational health and safety, occupational health safety assessment series

1. Introduction

The purpose of health and safety procedures in the construction industry is to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of workers. Due to the relative high accident rates on construction sites internationally, strong health and safety legislation has been devised to minimize accident causation and promote construction workers safety. Construction work is one of the most well-known high-risk occupational areas in modern society and among the most hazardous, as measured by work-related mortality, injury rates, and workers' compensation payments [1].It is accepted that construction workers have a higher risk of work-related illnesses and accidents than workers in any other branches of industry and the public sector.

Occupational health and safety issues in the construction industry have always been a major concern to the management in India. The construction industry is labor intensive and work force is vulnerable to workplace injuries. Protecting employees from injuries is the priority of the management. The Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001:1999 is a comprehensive Occupational Health and Safety management system specification, designed to enable organization to control OH&S risks and improve their performance. The first step in establishing an occupational health and safety management system is the development of formal policy, to ensure that a clear direction is set and aids in formulating a series of steps for enhancing the business performance which forms an integral part of an assurance towards invariable advancement [2].OHSAS 18001 specifications has been framed in consistent with quality and environmental management systems keeping in a view to integrate the systems. Although OHSAS 18001 does not focus on OHS performance metrics nor design of management system. It is challenge to the top management to implement the three systems separately and it would be effective by integrating the systems. The immediate threat to the most of the organizations poor safety performance which will have direct impact on organizational productivity and indirectly affects the morale of the employees and to overcome the situation, OHSAS is a robust tool in the hands of top management. Globally, the construction industry has third highest number of quality management system certifications among all other segments. Most of the construction organizations are to implement safety and environment management systems for continual improvement. [3-5].Management system

certifications on quality, safety and environment have been widely adopted by most of the organizations globally.OHSAS 18001 acts as a proactive control, to minimize risks and improve safety performance[6].Compliance of legal requirements, implementation of safe operating procedures, review of safety policy, conducting risk assessment and safety training to employees were lacking in printing industry in Mauritius and to have better control on OHS issues, it is suggested to implement OHSAS 18001[7].It is presumed that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 can stimulate the atmosphere of safety culture towards sustainable construction in the Malaysian construction industry[8].OHSAS 18001shall be integrated with other management systems like quality and environment which improves OHS performance besides reducing cost of accidents. Sustainable construction during various stages of construction is practical through six principles; monitoring quality, safe work environment, protect the natural environment, utilizing recyclable resources, reducing resources and enhancing reuse is possible through implementation of OHSAS18001[9].The OHSAS certification is relevant to any management interested to enact OHS management system to get rid of or curtail risk to all stakeholders who may be exposed to OHS risks, compliance with OHS policy, manifest compliance to others, uphold and continually upgrade OHS management system and diligent towards compliance of OHSAS certification. Reputation of the organization, work place safety and employee morale will improve by implementing OHSAS18001[10].It has been shown that the OHSAS 18001implementation in the Malaysian automotive industry continue to perform more efficiently and effectively in line with the industry to be the best among the competitors in other countries[11].The OHSAS 18001 standard specifies the requirements for implementing an occupational health and safety management system that allows the organization to develop and implement a safety policy, establish objectives and processes for achieving the commitments of the policy and take the actions necessary to improve the system's performance [12].

The accomplishment of the OHSAS 18001 will rely upon the commitment of all levels in the organization[13].A study was conducted in chemical plants in the state of Kerala in India to investigate the perception of employees on six safety variables revealed that perception levels are varying in plants certified with OHSAS 18001,ISO 9001 and without certification. Perception of

employees towards safety in the plants certified with OHSAS 18001 are higher and the study also underscores the importance of certification to improve safety performance [14]. In the current scenario, the framework of safety, quality and environmental management systems has ended up a crucial prerequisite in industries to stay aggressive. This is on the grounds that the future accomplishment of a firm is reliant on its capacity to enhance its operations by restructuring to defy at this juncture continually[15].The essence of OHSAS 18001 encompass hierarchy, expectations, strategies, and the organizational structure to maintain OHS policy[16].

Safety policy is prime mover to an organization as it set clear direction for better safety performance and also creates awareness among employees towards safety[17].Policy framing is based on the scope of organizations activities and it is commitment of the top management to integrate safety & health with other business activities. Safety Culture refers to "individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to, and style and proficiency of, an organization's health and safety management. Safety culture at an organization level reduces injury rates which ultimately minimize cost of accidents. Safety performance will improve through safety culture resulting into better productivity [18]. Knowledge, skills and positive attitude towards safety is possible through trainings. Knowledge refers to safety information, attitude refers to feelings associated to safety, and behavior represents organizational, management, or employee performance. All employees need to be imparted safety training in order to improve their safety awareness. Safety training is continuous process involving all cadres of employees as it would directly influence on behavior of employees [19]. It is evident that management plays a very important role in an efficient and effective safety program. Management must fully and actively translate ideas into safety actions, including issuing a written comprehensive safety policy, allocating sufficient resources, promptly reacting to safety suggestions and complaints, attending regular safety meetings and training, regularly visiting the workplace [20] .Based on an extensive literature survey combining with discussion with safety consultants, safety professionals and academicians in the field of safety, nine factors have been identified influencing OHSAS 18001 in Indian construction organizations.

The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment Conditions service) Act, 1996 was enacted by Government of India with an aim to safeguard safety, health and welfare of the employees in construction industry [21]. Except a few state governments, others have failed to implement the act fully and as a result the enforcement from government is lacking very much. This practice is continuing till date and clients/contractors have explored for alternate system to improve safety performance, reduce cost of accidents and maintaining company reputation. Many construction organizations in India have felt that OHSAS 18001 is the management system guides the organizations in right path to improve safety performance. However, there is a real dearth of study on implementing OHSAS 18001 by construction organizations in India and it is felt that in the current scenario there was a strong case for carrying out the present study. The purpose of the study is to identify factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001; to find out the relationships between factors; to propose a structural model of OHSAS 18001 implementation; and to classify the identified factors into various categories. The factors are also classified based on their driving power and dependence. To establish contextual relationships among variables; to guide the managers to understand the interaction among variables influencing implementation of OHSAS 18001 in the Indian perspective and is an effort towards stimulating occupational safety and health consciousness. Implementation of safety norms in construction industry is dynamic; mainly due to progress of the work, lack of skilled man power and working conditions. The results of this study can be implemented by managers who work in a dynamic and changing environment in construction organizations. Earlier studies mainly concentrated on post implementation benefits and improvement of safety performance in organizations certified under OHSAS 18001. The objective of the study is to identify the prerequisites of OHSAS 18001 certification prior to implementation.(Comment 4)

2. Materials and methods

Interpretive Structural Modeling was first proposed by Warfield [22].It enables individuals or groups to develop a map of the complex relationships between many elements involved in a complex decision situation .ISM is an interpretive modeling technique based on judgment of experts; Driver-dependency grid does evolve an overall mapping of m-banking influencers and helps in classification/categorization/prioritization of variables for optimum allocation of resources. The concept of plotting drivers and barriers on a common driver-dependency map, to gain strategic insights for implementation can be extended to projects/programs in any field/area[23].ISM methodology was utilized for successful supplier selection process by understanding the dynamics between Supplier selection process enablers.ISM has been developed for a leading telecom service provider in India and the hierarchy of various inhibitors was established based on the outcomes of the final reachability metrics[24].

2.1 Step by step procedure of ISM

The various steps involved in the ISM technique are [25],

> Identification of variables which are relevant to the problem or issues - this could be done by literature review, past research studies and brainstorming session with experts.(comment 1)

> Establishing a contextual relationship between variables with respect to which pairs of variables would be examined;

> Developing a structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) of variables which indicates pair-wise relationship between variables of the system;

> Developing a reachability matrix from the SSIM, and checking the matrix for transitivity -transitivity of the contextual relation is a basic assumption in ISM which states that if variable A is related to B and B is related to C, then A is related to C;

> Partitioning of the reachability matrix into different levels;

> Based on the relationships given above in the reachability matrix, drawing a directed graph (digraph), and removing the transitive links;

> Converting the resultant digraph into an ISM based model by replacing variable nodes with the statements; and

> Reviewing the model to check for conceptual inconsistency, and making the necessary modifications.

2.2 MICMAC Analysis

Matrice d'impacts croises-multipication applique' a un classment (cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification) is abbreviated as MICMAC [26] .MICMAC analysis contains the following three steps,

> Identify relevant variables: usually through brain-storming or based on expert opinions, variables related to the research topic are identified. A complete variable list is crucial for future studies and analysis.

> Build the causal relationship between variables: causal relationship between the variables is built in this stage,

> Identify key variables: this step is mainly about identifying key variables and factors that are important to overall system changes.

3. Results

3.1 Evaluation of ISM

3.1.1 Identification of factors:

A set of factors have been identified after extensive literature survey, past research studies and through discussions with experts in the field of construction safety. The opinions of the experts are strongly aligned with the factors identified from literature survey (comment 1). The factors are shown in the Table 1.

3.1.2 Relationship among variables:

ISM model suggests the use of experts' opinions in identifying the contextual relationship among variables. Thus, in this research for identifying the contextual relationship among the factors influencing in implementing OHSAS 18001, 25 experts from different construction and consultant firms in India were invited to participate in the study. Out of these, 16 experts responded with a response rate of 64%. For this group of experts, six (38%) had worked for 15 years or less, ten (62%) for more than ten years. The majority of respondents held senior positions in their organizations, with 40% being corporate safety managers, 28% safety managers and 32% consultants/auditors. Four symbols (V, A, X, and O) are used to denote the direction of the relationship between the variables (i and j):V- variable i will lead to variable j, A- variable j will lead to variable i, X- variable i and j will lead to each other, and O- variable i and j are unrelated.

Variable 8 leads to variable 9, so symbol 'V' has been assigned in the cell(8,9);variable 5 leads to variable 1, so symbol 'A' has been assigned in the cell (1,5);variables 1 and 6 lead to each other so symbol 'X' has been assigned in the cell(1,6); variables 7 and 9 do not lead to each other, so symbol 'O' has been assigned in the cell (7,9), and so on .The number of pair wise comparisons for developing SSIM are {(N) x (N-1)/2}, where N is number of variables and in the present study the number of pair wise comparisons are 36. The symbols in SSIM were assigned after obtaining the concurrent opinions of the experts. Based on the contextual relationships, SSIM has been developed and shown in Table 2. (Comment 2)

3.1.3 Reachability Matrix

Finally, to convert the SSIM into the binary reachability matrix with the dependence and enabling power all V, A and X is replaced by a digit 1 and O by 0 (zero). The substitution of l s and 0s are according to the following rules.

- If the (i,j) entry in the SSIM is V, the (i,j) entry in the reachability matrix becomes 1 and the (j,i) entry becomes 0.

- If the (i,j) entry in the SSIM is A, the (i,j) entry in the reachability matrix becomes 0 and the (j,i) entry becomes 1.

- If the (i,j) entry in the SSIM is X, the (i,j) entry in the reachability matrix becomes 1 and the (j,i) entry also becomes 1.

- If the (i,j) entry in the SSIM is O, the (i,j) entry in the reachability matrix becomes 0 and the (j,i) entry also becomes 0.

The final reachability matrix is shown in Table 3 is constructed from the initial reachability matrix taking into account the transitivity rule, which states that if a variable 'A' is related to 'B' and 'B' is related to 'C', then 'A' is necessarily related to 'C'; the driving power and the dependence of each factor is also shown. The driving power for each variable is the total number of variables (including itself), into which it may impact. Dependence is the total number of variables (including itself), which may be impacting it. These driving power and dependencies will be used in the MICMAC analysis, where the variables will be classified into four groups of autonomous, dependent, linkage, and independent (driver) variables. 3.1.4: Level partitioning

The reachability set and antecedent set [17] for each variable have been found out from final reachability matrix. Subsequently, the intersection set of these sets has been derived for all variables. The variable, for which the reachability and the intersection sets are the same, has been given the toplevel variable in the ISM hierarchy. From Table 4, it is seen that the 'safety culture', 'Morale of employees' and 'continual improvement' has been found at Level I. The iteration is continued until the level of each variable is found out. The identified levels aid in building the diagraph and the final model of the ISM. The reachability matrix was partitioned on the basis of the reachability and

antecedent sets for each of the variables, and, through a series of iterations, these were grouped into various levels and shown in Tables 5- 8. 3.2 MICMAC analysis

MICMAC analysis is done with the help of driving power and dependence power of variables. . In the MICMAC analysis, the dependence power and driver power of the variables are analyzed. Variables will be classified into four clusters. The four clusters are autonomous, dependent, linkage, and driver/independent. In the final reachability matrix, the driving power and dependence power of each of the variables will be plotted. Autonomous variables (first cluster) have weak driving power and weak dependence power. These variables can be disconnected from the system. The second clusters named dependent variables have weak driving power and strong dependence power. The third cluster named linkage variables has strong driving power and strong dependence power. The fourth cluster named independent variables has strong driving power and weak dependence power [27].

4. Discussion

4.1Diagraph

Diagraph is the model generated from the final reachability matrix. After removing the transitivity links and replacing the node numbers by statements, the ISM model has been generated, which has been shown in Figure 1. It is observed from the Fig.1 that the 'Management commitment' is a very significant critical success factor in implementation of OHSAS 18001, as it comes at the base of the ISM hierarchy. There is no evidence from earlier studies regarding structural model of factors influencing implementation of OHSAS -18001 certification in Indian context. Further, the study provided hierarchy of variables for implementation of OHSAS -18001 in Indian construction organizations; thus hierarchy help all stakeholders for successful implementation of certification by resolving complex issues.(comment 3) 4.2 Driver power-dependence diagram

The driver power-dependence diagram has been constructed and is shown in Fig. 2. The first cluster consists of the autonomous variables that have weak driver power and weak dependence. No variable has been identified as an autonomous variable. The second cluster consists of the dependent variables that have weak driver power but strong dependence. 'Safety culture,' 'continual improvement,' 'Morale of employees,' and 'Safety training' has been identified as dependent variables. The third cluster has the linkage variables that have strong driver power and also strong dependence. 'Safety performance, 'Sustainable construction' and 'Conducive working environment' have been found out as linkage variables in the study. The fourth cluster includes the independent variables having strong driving power but weak dependence. 'Management commitment 'and 'Safety policy' have been identified as the driver variables.

5. Conclusions

To better understand factors influencing implementation of OHSAS 18001in Indian construction organizations interpretive structural modeling approach has been applied. The current study identified nine factors crucial for implementation of OHSAS 18001 and the relationships between them. The results of the study serve as a guideline for top management to concentrate on influential factors and it can assure the successful implementation of OHSAS 18001 in construction organizations. In this case, management commitment and safety policy fall in the category of independent (driver) factors. It is obvious that the management commitment has the maximum driving power and therefore, this is the most important factor and has a great influence on the other factors .The second most influential factor is the safety policy, which states clearly about commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health; well being of employees. The model developed in this research is based upon experts' opinions. The results of the analysis may vary in real world setting as the study considered nine variables, which are directly influencing the adopting of OHSAS 18001. In case a model needs to be developed for organization specific, some variables may be deleted and/or added basing on experts opinion.

Future research could validate the applicability of the hierarchy model in other sectors/organizations, in order to reveal sector-specific characteristics and comparative analysis of factors influencing OHSAS 18001 implementation should be conducted. (Comment 3)

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Table l

Factors influencing implementation of OHSAS 18GG1

Factors Description References

Safety culture OHSAS 18001 can stimulate safety culture. Safety culture has impact on performance. Mohd Arif Marhani, et al(2013) Agwu M0(2012)

Safety performance OHSAS 18001 acts as a proactive tool. Safety performance will depend on culture Matias JCDO, Coelho DA(2002) Agwu M0(2012)

Sustainable construction Stimulates to sustainable construction. Mohd Arif Marhani, et al(2013)

Continual improvement Implementation leads continually. Ramrooop S,et al (2004), Chini AR &Valdez HE(2003), Zeng SX,et al (2003)

Management commitment Depends on management commitment at all levels Hierarchy, strategies, and the organizational structure Management involvement. ¿Sadhra S, et al(2001) Chin-Jung Chao, et al(2008) Hadi Shirouyehzad ,et al(2011)

Conducive working environment Achieved through sustainable construction. Langston CA7 Ding GKC(2001)

Morale of employees. Reduces accident rate. Ledesma AST, et al(2009)

Safety policy Set clear direction. Establish objectives and processes. creates awareness among employees Ramrooop S,et al (2004) Gihan Hosny ,et al(2014) Hinze J&Wilson G (1999).

Safety training Continuous process as it will influence on behavior of employees. Khodabocus BF& Constant KC. Hadi Shirouyehzad, et al (2011)

Table 2

Structural self interaction matrix

Factors 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1.Safety culture A O O X A O V O

2.Safety performance V O X X A X O

3.Sustainable construction A O O V O A

4.Continual improvement A O A A A

5.Management commitment V V A A

6.Conducive working environment A O O

7. Morale of employees. O A

8.Safety policy V

9.Safety training

Table 3

Final reachability matrix

Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Driving power

l.Safety culture 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3

2.Safety performance 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 7

3.Sustainable construction 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3

4.Continual improvement 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 7

5.Management commitment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9

6.Conducive working environment 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3

7. Morale of employees. 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 7

8.Safety policy 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 8

9.Safety training 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 4

Dependence 9 5 9 5 1 9 5 2 6

Factor Reachability set Antecedent set Intersection set Level

1 1,3,6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 1,3,6 I

2 1,2,3,4,6,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

3 1,3,6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 1,3,6 I

4 1,2,3,4,6,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

5 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 5 5

6 1,3,6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 1,3,6 I

7 1,2,3,4,6,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

8 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 5,8 8

9 1,3,6,9 2,4,5,7,8,9 9

Factor Reachability set Antecedent set Intersection set Level

2 2,4,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

4 2,4,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

5 2,4,5,7,8,9 5 5

7 2,4,7,9 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7

8 2,4,7,8,9 5,8 8

9 9 2,4,5,7,8,9 9 II

Factor Reachability set Antecedent set Intersection set Level

2 2,4,7 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7 III

4 2,4,7 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7 III

5 2,4,5,7,8 5 5

7 2,4,7 2,4,5,7,8 2,4,7 III

8 2,4,7,8 5,8 8

Factor Reachability set Antecedent set Intersection set Level

5 5,8 5 5

8 8 5,8 8 IV

Factor Reachability set Antecedent set Intersection set Level

5 5 5 5 V

Fig 1. ISM-based model of implementation of OHSAS 18001

INDEPENDENT LINKAGE

AUTONOMUS DEPENDENT 1,3,6

12 3456 7 8 9

Fig 2. Clusters of factors