Scholarly article on topic 'Education, Cultural and Intercultural Relation'

Education, Cultural and Intercultural Relation Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Elena Basarab (Cocoş)

Abstract Social progress is determined by cultural and educational factors that make it possible. By culture and higher education are tangible goals. A culture becomes valuable being compared to other cultures. The individual is inclined to multiculturalism, opting to value various registries. Multiple cultural duplicity and membership can be ascertained from all of us. Spiritual evolution is the result of plurality, while the mixture is the result of singular views. School should be based on the intrinsic multiplicity of culture, such as managing social institution to meet the aspirations of different individuals. The first step towards understanding and acceptance of the others is the knowledge and the respect for the cultural diversity.

Academic research paper on topic "Education, Cultural and Intercultural Relation"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 180 (2015) 36 - 41

The 6th International Conference Edu World 2014 "Education Facing Contemporary World

Issues", 7th - 9th November 2014

Education, Cultural and Intercultural Relation

Elena Basarab (COCO§)a*

aUniversity of Craiova, 13, A.I.Cuza Street, 200545, Romania

Abstract:

Social progress is determined by cultural and educational factors that make it possible. By culture and higher education are tangible goals. A culture becomes valuable being compared to other cultures. The individual is inclined to multiculturalism, opting to value various registries. Multiple cultural duplicity and membership can be ascertained from all of us. Spiritual evolution is the result of plurality, while the mixture is the result of singular views. School should be based on the intrinsic multiplicity of culture, such as managing social institution to meet the aspirations of different individuals. The first step towards understanding and acceptance of the others is the knowledge and the respect for the cultural diversity.

©2015 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of The Association "Education for tomorrow" / [Asociatia "Educatie pentru maine"]. Keywords:Education; Culture; Interculturalism; Multiculturalism; Cultural Pluralism;

This work emphasizes the vital role of education and culture in our perfection as individuals. Progress is the result of the encounter with the other. Under the dome of globalization and migration, educational problems diversify. In this new world, accepting other's diverse experiences becomes vital. This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the causes of the difficulties faced by education and, proposes identifying barriers to intercultural education and teachers make recommendations in this area, and in the promoting interculturalism in general. In terms of social dynamics, education plays the mandate very seriously: to respond appropriately to the right to difference, to equality, to provide effective solutions promoting diversity in schools. Work Education, Culture and intercultural relations focus on inter-ethnic relations, the contact

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 0040-752297136 E-mail address:ileanabasarab@yahoo.com

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of The Association "Education for tomorrow" / [Asociatia "Educatie pentru maine"]. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.082

between different cultures, the role of education in the context of diversity. Modern society emphasizes the role and purpose of the school in a pluralist world, based on diversity. In such a world, who needs to change: the school or the students? This paper emphasizes the idea that we ought to respect the differences between students, education must be accessible to all regardless of their cultural, ethnic, religious, social development.

It is also emphasized that a valence embracing diversity in intercultural education or multicultural interaction. Both the multicultural education mechanism and intercultural education are focused on: Understanding the situation of culture in modern societies, better communication with people from other cultures, attitudes adapted to the cultural diversity, open minds for social interaction.

Throughout the paper there are references to the role of education, the role of culture and social interactions in relations, creative individuals aimed at a common humanity. It promotes equity, the value of diversity, social justice, and equal distribution of power among different ethnic groups.

Multiculturalism in education is rich and complex, the differences resulting from the emphasis on learning climate, or the teaching-learning modes. Certainly, intercultural education should be based on democratic values that promote cultural pluralism in a diverse society and a changing world

Education must capitalize all schools and communities, all students and all teachers, using curriculum entirely, all the methods used, and systems evaluation. See notes that multiculturalism is used to characterize static situations, while interculturalism refers to the interaction, instead, of reciprocity. Intercultural education aims for diversity is education for all.

In Europe, the development of intercultural education is the result of pressures on institutions made by waves of immigrants that began after World War II in industrialized countries. It gained momentum in the 60s and 70s due to the presence of migrants in Western European countries. Initially we tried to ignore the phenomenon, but this was not enough. Today, diversity concerns are included in educational policies and practices.

In any issue, social, economic, political, managerial, necessary contact between people, be they managers, professionals, politicians, members of international organizations and ordinary people.

When the contact takes place between individuals, groups or human ethnic communities, history and different cultural roots, then we say that we are dealing with contact between cultures. All contacts between cultures are the economical, social, political, organizational, including cultural established between institutions, agencies, businesses, organizations and human communities in different countries based on agreements, bilateral or multilateral agreements.

Emphasizing professional mobility of labour in Europe and beyond, in America and Canada, anywhere in the world, increasing the percentage of those who can afford to travel the world are other examples of contacts between cultures an outlook on mutual knowledge culture and civilization of other peoples. Direct contact with other ways of life is beneficial because it resizes and deepens knowledge in various areas of life, traveling means being relaxed, but more importantly, real libraries that inform and persuade people live on life, culture and way of life of other people.

Our age is essentially an era of contacts between cultures, driven by the extensive process of European integration and globalization. In the area of contact between cultures include and contact between nations, peoples and countries that are part of their whole cultural richness, spiritual and humane in these new trends. We arrive thus at the contact between individuals as the "raw material" of nations and peoples and all they are the bearers of cultural models with distinctive social life trajectories. (Cobianu -Bacanu, 2006)

The final conclusions of the paper are that those who stand to gain from contact between cultures are people, human groups, peoples and nations, thus, better known are considered right, enjoy their material and cultural achievements peaks by building a national and international environment of peace, understanding and cooperation for solving collective problems or global community. Result on worldwide scale this contact is a form of transition from conflict to dialogue of civilizations and cultures of their fertile benefits through education, and intercultural relationships for all parties, important in that it marks the possibility of building a powerful real human solidarity, so necessary to the new challenges faced by humanity today.

Key concepts are education, culture, interculturalism, cultural pluralism, intercultural communication, intercultural education, making them indispensable defining and clear. Education, according to the Dictionary of sociology, social action is the set of cultural transmission, generation, organization and management of

individual or collective teaching. It can be formal, non-formal and informal ( Zamfir &Vlasceanu, 1993).

From the sociological point of view, education can be considered both as a system and as a process. The education system reflects the relationship between the global social system and the education system. Systemic approach to education allows the high lighting of specific functions and structures of the institution. The education system is an open system (in relation to global social system), with a teleological character (oriented towards the certain finality, medium and long term), self-regulating and entropy, disorganization including some potential for optimization (Mahler, 1977).

Analysis of the educational system - from the perspective of sociology of education - allows "defining educational institution in terms of theories aimed at explaining the development of the personality in training and the process of socialization, a process carried out by various means of social integration, subjective and objective." (Dubet, 1996)

On a value ratio there are multiple approaches to valuing education axiological, economic, sociological, political, etc. Economic behavior has between its components and the size of valuing those activities that require people a long time to produce them.

"In recent years, Romanians have learned things, and this often under the influence of necessity, expensive trial and error approach. The continuous dissolution of social norms, regulations, concepts such as human capital, social capital, professional competence can not operate outside values or lack of values of the other. The role of education and learning, are vital in a civilized society. First because education contributes to the formation and development of individual personality. However, the level of economic development of a country depends on the education of citizens, and therefore requires a clear conception of the role of education in society." (Ilie, 2014)

In many papers the question is brought up weather the need to improve higher education in the context of the needs of knowledge society is really a priority. Knowledge a social paradigm insists that institutions of higher education are more important than ever, because they are the means of developing global economies. In a globalized world, which is in a continuous transformation in general and higher education in particular, these factors are strongly influenced by certain socio-demographic characteristics such as size of the population, the incidence of demographic phenomena (engaging) , the development of information technology, financial capital etc..

Culture is the set of behaviors and symbols carrying meaning, socially inherited and transmitted through various practices; a system of representation, a system by which people communicate and develop their knowledge and attitudes towards life (Zamfir &Vlasceanu, 1993).

Cultural pluralism emerged from the study of divided societies in terms of ethnic, racial, religious and ideological standards and involves coexistence of several types of political culture in a society (Zamfir &Vlasceanu, 1993).

Interculturalism refers to support for inter-cultural dialogue and self-segregation trends challenging cultures (Multiculturalism's Double-Bind: Creating Inclusivity Cosmopolitanism and Difference, 2009).

Intercultural communication is a form of communication that is intended to share information between different cultures and social groups. This term is used to describe a wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally occur in an organization made up of people from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational groups Intercultural education is the result of symbiosis between education and cultures. The first type of cross-cultural studies in education are those related to cultural transmission, and the role and impacts on minority status on the school context. Cultural context of the classroom is a vital topic in anthropology education, in two ways: micro-and macro-ethnographic ethnographic. Micro-ethnographic studies are focused on issues such as the relationship pupil / student, teacher / student teaching and teacher's role.

Spindler made a comparison between elementary school in Germany and the USA, in cities with similar demographic targeting teacher style, cultural interactions school students in the group. German classes characterized by standardizing expectations while the Americans have a lighter structure. Records of both schools resulted debate among teachers of collective needs and expectations. (Cuco§, 2000).

Macro-ethnographic studies based representative school-community relationship is Warren's monograph on education in Germany (Rebhausen) and that of Singleton on Japanese school. In the first half of the twentieth century opened only tracks intercultural ethnographic research, due to economic and political constraints. Nowadays an enhance opportunities facilitated the progress of science and technology in communication. Researchers can work with their colleagues on the issue of intercultural education.

Culture determines the individual's behavior, adaptive response to the challenges of historical, socioeconomic and environmental. The appearance of two phenomena: cultural transmission and acculturation (the phenomenon of borrowing behavior and values from one group to another as a result of contact between the two groups). The degree of acculturation is given by compulsory years of school, work and daily interactions, the age at which we operate with a different cultural group, socio-economic situation. Enculturation involves the transmission to the progeny of the culture of that group for an optimal integration, while socialization refers to changes that occur in relation to the environment and meeting with each other. It involves all voluntary testing and awareness. A culture differs from other cultures and become valuable in relation to them. Individuals are multicultural and fed with a mixture value. Knowledge is the first step towards accepting the other and a different culture.

The human being is universal through school. Culture interacts with the family and social environment determines the individual's development profile. Migration and migration agents have always existed. They do not respect borders and territories. Proposed Renewal of them leads to new interpretations, participants in assigning, meanings on multiple memberships. First generation immigrants schemes will reinterpret their culture as cultural features of society that integrates receipt, while their descendants will reinterpret after new culture paradigms receptors, a series of cultural data (customs, habits) inherited from the parents (Abou, 1981).

Align the culture of others is not simple, it involves several steps: knowledge, acceptance, nonverbal communication, the environment, timely reporting other. (Berry, 1992) proposed a model based on cultural transmission: vertical transmission by itself, oblique transmission from parents, horizontal transmission from congeners.

A further part of the crop which is difficult to be detected until you come into contact with it. Intercultural communication requires patience and will be the initial time .Cultural comparison to the one that comes in contact with a foreign culture. Intercultural learning which assumes that as I know others know me better is a major landmark of any educational program based on the growing receptivity to differences. Novelty value requires the formation of intercultural competence based on translations and interpretations standing on intersemiotic exercises. People who come into contact with other cultures will carry out a symbiosis between old cultural experience and novelty generated by another culture.

Everything is seen through the eyes and instruments existing cultural schemes. Stability and change are the two components of intercultural communication. Internal changes due to external pressure results that lead to assimilation Piaget. Linking individual-conditioned world is governed by multiple appeasement and assimilation. Expanding optics for what is foreign and the ability to accept the other is enriched today rationalization and internationalization. The transition from one culture to another culture engages multiple levels of educational achievement. (Clanet, 1993).

Actually the difference resides on institutional level, group level, the relational, psychological level. The greatest merit of multiculturalism is the reaction of anti-global homogenization. Cultural pluralism is the result of tolerance, acceptance of the other, the existence of joint that allows equal opportunity to assert their own identity. The '70s are the ones that led to openness to cultural plurality. School was faced with an undeniable reality: the schooling of children come from different backgrounds, different cultures due to massive migrations, schooling and socio-professional integration of newcomers (kids and parents), without losing sight of the native population. It went from assimilating differences or their denial in respect of the right to cultivate their own customs, traditions, language.

Intercultural education is based on school-family collaboration and ongoing training for different cultures, helped by learning with differentiated roots in individual psychology as a result of valuing staff codes that have the same home with the kids. Do not neglect the fact that the school is facilitating equal exchange between cultures and has as main objective the harmonization of cultural and social. Intercultural

education should take into account the content knowledge and the relationships between individuals. Based on dialogue between cultures, despite differences, education's role is to develop an attitude of solidarity, openness, acceptance, diversity enrichment and learning, a new reception, recognition and cooperation, dialogue.

Migration, development and diversification of information and communication networks, globalization, make a complex modern society, forcing teachers to adapt to new realities. If the school is to form universal consciousness, the teacher should rethink their style and take into account cultural differences, to exploit these differences to work together with parents to avoid conflicts arising from cultural differences. People are able to move and interact with individuals and cultures. Driven by curiosity and interest to bring their behavior within the dominant norms and values that characterize new media and companies in contact, they want to know and understand more and more of what they see or visit.

The native culture, internalized through education, socialization, customs, values and norms of the society of origin raises issues of adaptation, integration, communication to real cultural shock at the time of contact with different value systems. Interactions in economics, military and cultural fields, went hand in hand and created areas of cultural interference, depending on your historical and geopolitical context. Let us remember that the twentieth century witnessed two world wars were ample opportunity confrontations and intercultural exchanges, not to mention the current conflicts and their civilization and religious dimensions (Georgiu, 2010).

Conclusions

1. The battle for resources, globalization, migration and capital flows have created the favorable interaction between cultures. Global economy, global security, global communication facilitated by new technologies, is responding to new needs.

2. Approaches and intercultural encounters have become an everyday fact, based on the acquisition of skills, abilities and capabilities. Individuals need to build multiple identities relatively new in relation to social contexts, political and cultural issues. The typical case of intercultural communication is illustrated by immigrants who live multiple experiences as they progress through trails dotted with moments that oscillate between drama and real cultural shock until adaptation and integration in the new society. Just awareness of each other's differences (politeness, punctuality, how to be and talk, emotions and how they live and they externalize, food habits, dress, taboos, religion, attitude towards family, education, government) with origin in cultural values leads to intercultural communication.

3. In various situations, either when traveling as tourists or when we want to settle down as immigrants either daily experience must correlate inside with the outside, the scene backstage, forms the background facts with values. Acquiring intercultural competence involves operating the correlations and differences between these dual realities. Education's role is to prepare young people to understand and accept differences, be open and tolerant attitude to be able to collaborate and communicate effectively with partners in other cultural areas. Education Pioneers must fight to protect the cultural differences and the formation of a favorable environment for their coexistence in favor of human development. Course management and harmonization adversarial cultural differences and different identities is one of the problems of the contemporary world.

4. School represents the space in which the human being is made perfect through education, by adhering to general values, personal and social communication unanimous accepted. By communication on what are the components of intercultural communication are, is a mandatory requirement of modern society. People need to be prepared for the multicultural reality of picking and institutions; and in turn, they have to welcome those who value different codes. World is a breeding ground of cultural clashes and interferences. Intercultural education puts the teacher in a position to negotiate values, behaviors, resembling anxiety among students and the teachers, as a result of deviation from the norm, and the opening of access to the affirmation of freedom of multiple identities. The clash of cultures and cultural dialogue outlines complex situations on a social and educational level.

5.The divisions can be mitigated through education behalf of the new world order. Also intolerances of any type may disappear if it is thus promoted within intercultural behavior. A multicultural society is based on the integration, providing cultural security members, and giving everyone an equal chance to participate in the economic and intercultural education with the help of school we will track the formation of cultural attitudes and behavior that forms in response to cultural pluralism with undeniable integrative virtue. Interculturalism is a new challenge for education in contexts of economic, political, cultural characteristic of the European continent.

Acknowledgements

***,,This paper is supported by the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number SOP HRD/159/1.5/S/136077"

This work was done within the project "Romanian culture and European cultural models: research, timing, durability" co-financed by the European Union and the Government Romania European Social Fund Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007 -2013 grant agreement no. HRD /159/1.5 /S /13607

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