Scholarly article on topic 'The Effects of Self-regulation Skills on TEOG Exam'

The Effects of Self-regulation Skills on TEOG Exam Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Nazife Süer, Sertel Altun

Abstract In this study, the effects of secondary school students’ self-regulation skills on TEOG examination were examined. Motivational Strategy Scale, developed by Pintrinch and De Groot (1990) and adapted to Turkish by Üredi (2005), was used as the data collection instrument. TEOG exam scores of the students were obtained from their school administrations. The study group of the research consisted of 412 students attending the 8th Year Classes of 75th Year Secondary School of Güngören District in the province of Istanbul. To analyse the data of the research, multi regression analysis was used. The research showed that the variables of self-efficacy and anxiety were effective in predicting the TEOG exam,and that use of cognitive strategy came after self-efficacy and anxiety with respect to impacting the TEOG exam achievement, and also that self-regulation and intrinsic value dimensions were not effective in predicting the TEOG exam scores.

Academic research paper on topic "The Effects of Self-regulation Skills on TEOG Exam"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2191 - 2199

INTE 2014

The effects of self-regulation skills on TEOG exam

Nazife Suera, Sertel Altunb

a!5. Yil (75th Year) Secondary School, Gungoren, Istanbul 34220, Turkey bYildiz Teknik University, Faculty of Education, Istanbul 34220, Turkey

Abstract

In this study, the effects of secondary school students' self-regulation skills on TEOG examination were examined. Motivational Strategy Scale, developed by Pintrinch and De Groot (1990) and adapted to Turkish by Uredi (2005), was used as the data collection instrument. TEOG exam scores of the students were obtained from their school administrations. The study group of theresearch consisted of 412 students attending the 8th YearClassesof 75th Year Secondary School of Gungoren District inthe province of Istanbul. To analyse the data of the research, multi regression analysis was used. The research showed that the variables of self-efficacy and anxiety were effective in predicting the TEOG exam,and that use of cognitive strategy came after self-efficacy and anxiety with respect to impacting the TEOG exam achievement, and also that self-regulation and intrinsic value dimensions were not effective in predicting the TEOG exam scores.

©2015TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

Keywords:Self-regulation, Self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, TEOG exam

1. Introduction

Due to the fact that educational levels of societies are considered as the main criteria in determining their development levels, societies make effort to narrow the gaps between them, in terms of development, through education. (Erdogan, 2010).The central exams play a key role in educational lives of students in Turkey as their admissions into and placements in high schools and universities depend on the exam scores achieved, which means that they may become students of education bodies either with high education standards or poor education standards. Once the student has achieved a good score in the central exam, s/he will have the privilege to have an education in a school where the quality of education is better. Starting from this point, families display a tendency to

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-000-000 00 00 E-mail address: sertelaltun@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.020

make the greatest effort within their own means in order to provide their children with a qualified education as part of their short term goals, and therefore with a bright future as part of their long term goals.

While the exam oriented education system gives rise to the mentioned effect upon the parties concerned, it confronts us as a reality affecting the system negatively as one of the factors that inhibit achieving the desired student profile. However, success in education should not be perceived as the performance displayed in exams only. (MEB, 2013a). Taking this into consideration, the Ministry of National Education abolished the Placement Test called SBS, the student selection exam for admission to secondary education as from 2013-2014 Academic Year with the aim of relieving students of the exam stress.A new transitional system,abbreviated to TEOG and standing for transition to secondary education from primary education in Turkish, to replace the exam abolished has been introduced.The new system aims to present a pluralistic approach eliminating the conventional approach of raising monotype individuals through secondary education, observing respect to differences as well as securing students. The new system allows 6th, 7th and 8th year students' school test scores to be included in calculating their final scores to be used in their admissions to secondary education bodies besides their scores achieved in centrally designed and applied Turkish, Mathematics, Science and Technology, History of The Turkish Revolution, Religion and Morals and Foreign Language tests each term (MEB,2013b). While exam achievement is quite important in our country, the TEOG exam which is a new system in this research has been considered worth scrutinizing in order to put forward the variables that affect the student exam achievement and understand them.

A lot of factors that could have an effect on the course achievement or exam achievement of the student can be mentioned.The concept self-regulation, which plays an affective role in students' own learning process, lies on the focal point of the researches done on academic success in recent years (Uredi, 2005). Self-regulation, which is defined by a great number of theoretical points of view, has been defined by Pintrich (2000) as "an effective and constructive process in which the students determine their own learning purposes, try to arrange their cognitions, motivations and behaviours, and are directed and limited by their targets and the contextual features in their environment". It is defined by Risemberg and Zimmerman (1992) as "determining targets, developing strategies in order to realize these targets and, managing whatever gained thanks to these strategies". Self-regulation skill is considered as a mechanism that assists in explaining the differences of achievement among the students, and this means an increase of the achievement (Schunk, 2005). In spite of the fact that the concept self-regulation is interpreted through various theoretical points of view, researchers have focused on two elements in the organization of the learning process of individuals which are self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs which are the sources of motivation enabling the usage of these strategies.

Self-regulation strategies, according to Zimmerman (1990), are the processes implemented by students which they believe will be of help to them and serve as a tool in gaining the knowledge and skills required to meet their objectives. These processes are the cognitive strategies such as self-regulation, which contains the metacognitive strategies for the planning, monitoring and changing the cognition, and students' managing their efforts to do an academic assignment in the classroom and repeating, making sense and organizing for use in order to learn, remember and understand (Pintrich ve De Groot, 1990). However, in addition to the usage of the cognitive and metacognitive strategy in order to achieve success, the individual should not only use the cognitive strategies, but also the belief, will-power and affective factors so that the self-regulation processes will be effective (Pintrich, 2000). Motivational beliefs are the beliefs of learners about the event and the object, or the topic (Boekarts, 2002). Individuals opinions on their abilities to learn are beliefs linked to one another, which are being certain about their knowledge and skills, judgment of proficiency, output expectation and appreciation of academic duties (Pintrich and De Groot, 1990). The beliefs of students related to their own management and proficiency levels may provide an important clue in predicting their future applications and participations. In the field literature, Alan has put forward the fact that self-regulating learning strategies and motivational beliefs influence achievement in researches that examine the relationship between self-regulation and achievement (Malpass, O'neil, Herold and Hocevar, 1999; Pintrich, 1999; Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons, 1990; Azevedo, Cromley, Winters, Moos and Greene, 2005; Cleary and Zimmerman, 2004; Chen, 2002; Canca, 2005; Uredi, 2005). According to the data of the Program of International Student Assessment,PISA 2012, arranged by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and which is one of the most comprehensive educational researches of the world, when the self-regulation and motivational beliefs in Mathematics lesson are examined, in spite of the fact that the intrinsic motivation or the approach towards the lesson is above the OECD average in Turkey, this positive attitude did not reflect on the results as an academic success, and our country took a place in the last rows in Mathematics Achievement. According to the PISA reports, self-efficacy in Mathematics displays a tendency of rising among the

countries whose Mathematics Anxiety levels are low (OECD,2013).

In this study, the level of motivational strategies' predicting the TEOG exam scores related to learning has been examined in terms of self-regulation. In this context, an answer to the question "To what extent do the self-regulation skills on predict the scores achieved in the TEOG exam?" was seeked for.

2. Method

The Model of the Reserch

Of the screening models, the relational screening model was applied in the study. The relational screening models are research models aiming to determine the existence or degree of the covariance among two or more variables (Karasar, 2006). Study Group

Of the 412 students attending the 8th Grades of 75' Yil (75th Year) Secondary School in Gungoren District in the province of Istanbul, 213 (51,7 %) of them were girls , and 199 (48,3 %) were boys. Data Collection Tools

In the study, Self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs of the students were examined using the "Motivational Strategies Scale Related to Learning" developed by Pintrinch and De Groot (1990).It was adapted to Turkish and its validity and security checks were by Uredi (2005). The measuring scale consisted of two sections, which were self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs. The measuring scale within the section of self-regulation strategies comprises of two scales as Cognitive strategy usage and Self-regulation; and within the section of motivational beliefs, there were three scales which were self efficacy, intrinsic value and exam anxiety. 20132014 school year, 1st Semester TEOG exam scores of the students were obtained from the school administration. Analysis ofthe Data

To what extent the motivational strategies related to learning predict the TEOG Achievement was tested by using SPSS 16.00 program via "Multi regression analysis".

3. Findings

The subjects of Turkish, Mathematics, Science, Revolution History and Kemalism, Foreign Language, Religion and Morals included in the TEOG exam were handled separately in order to find an answer to the question "To what extent the self-regulation skills on effect the scores achieved in the TEOG exam?", which was the problem of the study. In order to find an answer to this question, first of all, the arithmetic average of the related variables, their Standard Deviations and minimum-maximum scores were found. The data obtained are as follows, given in Table 1.

Tablel: Self-regulation skills and descriptive statistics related to the TEOG scores with respect to various

subjects

Variables N Min. Max. JC SS

Cognitive strategy usage 412 21,00 85,00 64,58 12,04

Self-regulation 412 16,00 63,00 42,58 8,83

Self efficacy 412 17,00 63,00 44,27 11,45

Intrinsic Value 412 16,00 63,00 48,29 8,79

Anxiety 412 4,00 28,00 17,57 6,65

TEOG Turkish Test Achievement 412 5,00 100,00 64,77 19,63

TEOG Mathematics Test Achievement 412 5,50 100,00 42,46 21,03

TEOG Science Test Achievement 412 10,52 94,73 55,66 16,97

TEOG Revolution History and Kemalism Test Achievement 412 15,00 100,00 56,61 20,17

TEOG Foreign Language Test Achievement 412 5,00 100,00 37,98 17,20

TEOG Religious and Morals Test Achievement 412 20,00 100,00 64,05 16,13

N: Participation number, -V: Arithmetic Average, SS: Standard Deviation, Min: Minimum Value, Max: Maximum Value

In the study, regression analyses were made individually for each lesson in order to determine the predictability rate of the independent Variables (Self-regulation Skills) on the dependant variable (TEOG score according to different subjects) with the aim of finding an answer. The hypothesis required in order that the

regression analysis can be made is that each of the independent variables at issue should display a linear relationship with the TEOG score, which is a dependant variable. For this reason, Pearson Correlation Analysis was made in order to determine the relationship between the independent variables (Self-regulation Skills) and dependant variables (TEOG score according to various subjects) before the regression analysis. The findings obtained as a result of the analysis are presented in Table 2.

Table 2: The Relationship Between Self-regulation Skills and the TEOG scores belonging to all the subjects

Variables

TEOG scores according to subject

Turkish

Mathematics

Science

Revolution History and Kemalism

Foreign Language

Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge

Cognitive strategy _usage_

,286**

,272**

Self-regulation

,170**

Se If-efficacy

,526**

,396**

,404**

Intrinsic Value

Anxiety

237** -,228**

,236**

_ 349**

,218** -,224**

,212** -,252**

,151* -,153*

,253*! -,200*

'P<,01

When the Relationship Between self-regulation skills and the TEOG scores belonging to all the subjects in Table 2 is examined, it is seen that there is a meaningful correlation in the positive direction in a level of p<,01 between the Cognitive strategy usage, Self-regulation, self - sufficiency and Intrinsic Value Variables and the TEOG exam scores belonging to each leasson; and a meaningful correlation in the negative direction in a level of p<,01 between the Anxiety and TEOG exam scores belonging to each lesson. After the relationship at issue was seen, a regression analysis to find out the predictibality of TEOG scores through motivational strategies related to learning was carried out.

The Level ofPredicting the TEOG Score ofthe Self-regulation Skills:

The multi regression analysis results are given in the Table below in order to find an answer to the question "To what extent do self regulation skills on effect the scores achieved in the TEOG exam?", which is the problem ofthe study

Table 3: The results of multi regression analyses to determine the predictibality of TEOG scores through self-regulation skills

Standard Scores Standardized scores

SUBJECTS Variables B SH B t

Fixed 39,56 6,12 - 6,46**

Cognitive strategy usage ,29 ,11 ,17 2,51*

£ Self-regulation -,19 ,15 -,08 -1,30

S H Self - efficacy ,50 ,11 ,29 4,29**

Intrinsic Value -,00 ,14 -,00 -,03

Anxiety -,40 ,14 -,13 -2,83**

R = 0,42 R2 = 0,18 F= 17,87**

Fixed 22,509 5,94 - 3,78**

g Cognitive strategy usage ,04 ,11 ,02 ,37

B Self-regulation -,10 ,14 -,04 -,70

j= Self - efficacy ,99 ,11 ,54 8,80**

s Intrinsic Value -,24 ,13 -,10 -1,72

Anxiety -,62 ,13 -,19 _4 47**

R = 0,57 R2 = 0,32F = 39 43**

Fixed 40,45 5,30 - 7,62**

Cognitive strategy usage ,03 ,10 ,02 ,36

<y = Self-regulation -,21 ,13 -1,62

<y Self efficacy ,59 ,10 ,40 5,88**

Intrinsic Value ,01 ,12 ,01 ,15

Anxiety -,30 ,12 -2,44**

R = 0,42 R2 = 0,17 F= 17,42**

Fixed 36,47 6,23 - 5,85**

= 1s Cognitive strategy usage ,25 ,11 ,15 2,18*

■= fr'iS Self-regulation -,32 ,15 -,14 -2,10

% s a 5 JS >3 «a* Self efficacy Intrinsic Value ,64 -,06 ,11 ,14 ,36 -,02 5,39** -,44

Anxiety -,45 ,14 -,14 -3,09**

R = 0,44 R2 = 0,19 F= 19,76**

Fixed 17,86 5,45 - 3,27**

W) Cognitive strategy usage ,26 ,10 ,18 2,54**

W) = Self-regulation -,10 ,13 -,05 -,75

- Self efficacy ,54 ,10 ,36 5,20**

JM Intrinsic Value -,30 ,12 -,15 -2,37

® fa Anxiety -,10 ,12 -,03 -,79

R = 0,39 R2 = 0,15 F =14,60**

<u Fixed 40,63 5,00 - 8,12**

5 _ „ "3 2 & Cognitive strategy usage ,25 ,09 ,18 2,65**

v 1 « g S is J § g § ¡2 Self-regulation Self efficacy Intrinsic Value -,21 ,46 ,00 ,12 ,09 ,11 ,32 ,00 -,1,75 4,86** 0,04

oi Anxiety -,24 ,11 -,10 -2,10*

R = 0,43 R2 = 0,18 F =18,96**

*p<,05 **p<,01

When all the subjects included in TEOG exam are taken individually in Table 3; the regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Turkish scores are meaningful predictors each in explaining the Turkish Achievement of the self-regulation skills (F:17,87, p<.01). The cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value, which are the independent variables and the anxiety variables explain together the 18% of the variability on the TEOG Turkish score, which is a dependant variable. It has been found that self efficacy (t=4,29, p<,01), cognitive strategy usage (t=2,51,p<,05) and anxiety (t=-2,83, p<,01) variables are meaningful predictors in explaining the Turkish Achievement each.

Regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Mathematics scores show that the self-regulation skills are meaningful predictors of the Mathematics Achievement each (F:39,43, p<.01). The cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value, which are the independent variables and the anxiety variables explain together the 32% of the of the variability on the Mathematics Achievement, which is a dependant variable. It has been found that self efficacy (t=8,80, p<,01) and anxiety (t=,19, p<,01) variables are important predictors of Mathematics Achievement.

The regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Science score are meaningful predictors each in explaining the self-regulation skills in Science Achievement (F:17,42, p<.01). The cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value, which are independent variables and the anxiety variables explain together the 17% of the variability on the Science Achievement, which is a dependant variable. It has been found that self efficacy (t=5,88, p<,01) and anxiety (t=-2,44, p<,01) variables are meaningful predictors of Science Achievement each.

The regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Revolution History and Kemalism show that

the self-regulation skills are meaningful predictors in explaining the Revolution History and Kemalism Achievement (F:17,42, p<.01). The cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value and anxiety variables which are independent variables together explain 19% of the variability upon Revolution History and Kemalism Achievement, which is a dependant variable. It has been found that self efficacy (t=5,39, p<,01) , anxiety (t=-3,09, p<,01) and cognitive strategy usage (t=2,18, p<,05) variables are meaningful predictors of Revolution History and Kemalism Achievement.

The regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Foreign Language score show that self-regulation skills are meaningful predictors in explaining the Foreign Language Achievement (F:14,60, p<.01). The cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value and anxiety variables, which are independent variables together explain 15% of the variability upon the Foreign Language Achievement, which is an independent variable. It has been found that self efficacy (t=5,20, p<,01) and the cognitive strategy usage (t=2,54, p<,01) variables are meaningful predictors of the Foreign Language Achievement each.

The regression analysis results related to predicting the TEOG Religion and Morals score show that the self-regulation skills are meaningful predictors in explaining the Religion and Morals Achievement (F:18,96, p<.01). The Cognitive strategy usage, self-regulation, self efficacy, intrinsic value and anxiety variables, which are independent variables jointly explain 18% of the variability upon the Religion and Morals, which is a dependant variable. It was found out that the self efficacy (t=0,32, p<,01), cognitive strategy usage (t=0,18, p<,01) and anxiety (t=0,10, p<,05) variables are meaningful predictors of Religion and Morals.

4. Conclusion, discussion and suggestions

In light of the findings obtained in the research, it is seen that the sub-dimensions of the self-regulation skills in different subjects predict the TEOG exam meaningfully. The results can be summarized as follows:

• "Self-efficacy", which is a sub-dimension of the motivation scale, is the most important variable in predicting the TEOG score of all the subjects (Turkish, Mathematics, Science, Revolution History and Kemalism, Foreign Language, Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge).

• "Anxiety", which is a sub-dimension of the motivation scale, is the second important variable in predicting the TEOG score except for the English lesson.

• "Cognitive strategy usage", which is the sub-dimension of the self-regulating learning strategies scale, is the variable that predicts achievement and is the variable that predicts TEOG score and the achievement in the subjects of Turkish, Revolution History and Kemalism, Foreign Language, Religion and Morals after self-efficacy and anxiety.

• It was found out that the "Self-regulation and Intrinsic Value" dimensions are not effective in predicting the TEOG score.

In the study, was discovered that self-efficacy, which is a meaningful predictor in each subject, is the most important variable in predicting achievement. It was observed that the students that have a high self efficacy perception are more resistant to difficulties confronted throughout the learning activities (Zimmerman, 2001) and made more efforts (Williams, 2006). Otherwise, the students with lower self efficacy levels, who have lost their beliefs in themselves and who have given in will not struggle.In the research that was carried out by OECD on this topic, due to the fact that the students who have a low self efficacy level have problems in the fields such as class participation and self- direction, it is emphasized that the possibilities of their displaying a low academic performance increase. Furthermore, like low motivation, low self efficacy may give rise to the students' not being able to make career plans matching their skills, as well (OECD, 2013). In parallel to the conclusion in this study, the studies made on self efficacy and academic success in the literature show that the higher the students' levels of self-reliance increase, the higher their academic success increases (Zimmerman and Martinezpons 1990; Schunk 1996; Pintrich 1999; Malpass, O'neil, Herold and Hocevar 1999; Altun 2005; Him 2006; Alci 2007; Yama? 2011; Mutlu2012).

Another conclusion that has been reached in the study at hand is that the variable of Anxiety is effective in predicting the TEOG score except the English lesson. According to the findings at hand, it has been found that there is a meaningful relationship between exam achievement and anxiety in the negative way, in other words, as Anxiety increases, the score received from the TEOG exam decreases. The students' exam anxieties increasing makes a negative impact on their achievement. The fact that there is too much anxiety in the exams may cause the students to have difficulties in the questions. According to Kurt (2006), Anxiety is a feeling that is experienced in the possibility arising from the individual's inner and outer world, or in any situation perceived or interpreted as dangerous by the

person. According to PISA 2012 report, while the student's academic performance of the person whose anxiety is high decreases, the students most of whom are 15 years old stated that they felt desperate and stressful when they dealt with Mathematics. When the reason of anxiety was researched, however, 59% of the OECD countries worried about the fact that mathematics would be difficult, 31% were stressed when they were solving a Mathematics problem, 33% were stressed when they were doing homework, 30% felt hopeless when they were solving a problem, and 61% were worried about receiving a low mark (OECD, 2013). In the same study, there are two fields in which the students in Turkey feel more anxiety compared to the other countries. It appeared that the students felt helpless while they were solving a Mathematics problem, and that they were much stressed when they were doing Mathematics homework. In our country, the fact that the exams create a great pressure on the students because they feel that they have to be successful in an exam they take with a mentality that considers academic success and exam achievement the same is an unavoidable fact. The result obtained in this study is in a quality that supports the studies in the literature, and a meaningful relationship in the negative way has been determined between the exam anxiety and achievement (Malpass, O'neil, Herold and Hocevar 1999; Hofer and Yu 2003; Uredi and Uredi 2005; Him 2006; Yamag 2011).

Another result that has been obtained in the research is that the cognitive strategy usage was effective in predicting the achievement in the TEOG score in the subjects of Turkish, Revolution History and Kemalism, Foreign Language and Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge, and that the cognitive strategy usage was not effective in predicting the achievement according to the TEOG Mathematics and Science scores. In that case, if we start out with the subjects, it appeared that while the cognitive strategy usage was effective in predicting the achievement in the verbal lessons, it was not effective in the non-verbal lessons. As a reason of this situation, while the cognitive strategies used in the education of the verbal lessons and the cognitive strategy measured in the exam showed parallelism, there may not be such a parallelism in the non-verbal lessons. According to Heo (2000), the cognitive strategies used in the self-regulation process enable the learners to attain, store and express the knowledge in the learning process in a more effective way. The cognitive strategies include the interpretation strategies that enable the activation of knowledge in a working memory and the repeating strategies used for simple processes, and storing knowledge in a long term memory by establishing the inner connections among pieces of knowledge of the students and the organization strategies that enable them to select the appropriate knowledge (Hofer, Yu, & Pintrich, 1998). The conclusion reached in this study supports the related literature, and the self-regulating learning strategies affect the academic success in the positive way. (Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons 1990; Paterson 1996; Schunk 1996; Pintrich 1999; Altun 2005; Uredi and Uredi 2005; Alci 2007; Kitsantas, Steen and Huie 2009; Puteh and Ibrahim 2010; Altun and Canca 2011; Cheng 2011; Tongug 2013).

In the present study, the self-regulation and intrinsic value dimensions are not effective in predicting the achievement of any subject. The students who adopt the kind of learning which is based on self-regulation possess qualities such as being able to set a target that is unique to themselves, knowing what they are doing in learning, progressing with self-assured steps in their own achievements, being able to manage time effectively, being able to get productive and learning by discovering (Pintrich, 2000). At this point, the fact that the concept that we express as success within our educational context is used only for the good results to be achieved in the exams cause education to be dragged into an environment of competition. Instead of learning, adopting or discovering the subject, students give priority to be successful in the exam only by memorizing some patterns of knowledge in the way that will appear in the exams they are to take as from a very young age. As a result of the study, it was seen that rather than structuring knowledge, students to take the TEOG exam study in an exam oriented way, that is not permanent, that is based on rote learning, that brings about anxiety of achieving good scores. The effect of the variables at issue related to the PISA exam was examined, and according to the data obtained, it was seen that there was a decrease in both the inner motivation and the motivation directed to the target of the students in Turkey between 2003 and 2012 (ERG, 2014). Given these, it can be said that the belief that learning is necessary only for exams since students take exams almost every year in our country has been adopted. Instead of students who are curious, and who are open to learning and development, students who believe that whatever knowledge they have gained will lose significance once the exam is over exist our education system. The exams cause the student to ignore the piece of knowledge which they think will not be of help to them in exams but seek for whetever they think will contribute in this process. In spite of the fact that school achievement and the significance attributed to school are desired to be increased through TEOG, which is the new system introduced, it is an unavoidable fact that the learning level will not be able to get out of the framework of exam oriented context as long as there is an "exam" ahead.

5. Suggestions

• When the positive effect of the self efficacy belief on academic success and the negative effects of the exam anxiety on achievement are taken into consideration, activities boosting students' self efficacy beliefs and decreasing the exam anxiety should be organized.

• Educative seminars aiming to provide students, parents, teachers and administrators with the content reached through this study, which is self efficacy, anxiety and cognitive strategy usage as boosters of success, should be given.

• Activities directed towards the development of the learning strategies based on self-regulation could be organized by the teachers for students with respect to cognitive strategy usage, which has an important effect on achievement.

• Studies similar to this research could be carried out with larger study groups, and the results could be opened to discussion.

• Exam achievements of the students who attend different types of schools and their self-regulation skills could be examined and a comparative study could be carried out.

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