Scholarly article on topic 'Bandung Urban Sprawl and Idle Land: Spatial Environmental Perspectives'

Bandung Urban Sprawl and Idle Land: Spatial Environmental Perspectives Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Vevin S. Ardiwijaya, Tresna P. Soemardi, Emirhadi Suganda, Yuswanda A. Temenggung

Abstract This paper addresses the growth of the urban population resulting in sprawl urban form and its relationship to land abandonment (idle lands). Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) in West Java was selected as a case study. Bandung urban topography is a shaped basin, thus has restrictions in the urban's physical growth. This research uses the Geographical Information System (GIS) approach to obtain urban land use patterns and the distribution of idle lands. The land use data were used the historical data from year 1991 to 2012. This paper discusses the impacts of the idle lands due to the urban sprawl, in the term of economic, ecological, and social aspects. This research found the number of idle lands scattered in various parts of the city. Based on these findings, the policy for managing urban development and the idle lands could be potentially improved.

Academic research paper on topic "Bandung Urban Sprawl and Idle Land: Spatial Environmental Perspectives"

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APCBEE Procedía 10 (2014) 208 - 213

ICESD 2014: February 19-21, Singapore

Bandung Urban Sprawl and Idle Land: Spatial Environmental

Perspectives

Vevin S. Ardiwijayaa,b*, Tresna P. Soemardia, Emirhadi Sugandaa and Yuswanda A.

Temenggungb

aEnvironment Science Study Program, University of Indonesia bNational Land Agency, Indonesia

Abstract

This paper addresses the growth of the urban population resulting in sprawl urban form and its relationship to land abandonment (idle lands). Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) in West Java was selected as a case study. Bandung urban topography is a shaped basin, thus has restrictions in the urban's physical growth. This research uses the Geographical Information System (GIS) approach to obtain urban land use patterns and the distribution of idle lands. The land use data were used the historical data from year 1991 to 2012. This paper discusses the impacts of the idle lands due to the urban sprawl, in the term of economic, ecological, and social aspects. This research found the number of idle lands scattered in various parts of the city. Based on these findings, the policy for managing urban development and the idle lands could be potentially improved.

© 2014 TheAuthors. PublishedbyElsevierB.V.This isanopen accessarticleunder theCCBY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society Keywords: population; urban sprawl; idle lands; GIS; environment

1. Introduction

Urban development expands along with the increasing of the population. Urban population growth, both from the natural increasing (births and deaths) and urbanizations, endorses sub-urbanizations to the outskirts. Though this outskirts are the fertile, productive, and irrigated agriculture land. The urban expansion also

"Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-811-852-051. E-mail address: vevinsa@gmail.com .

2212-6708 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society doi: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.040

extends to the considered as conservation and preservation area in the hills, ie. forests, wetlands, and wildlife habitats. [8][12]

Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) continues to develop with high economic growth, above 8 percent per year[3]. Services sector and creative industries become the main sectors in its growth profile. Geographically, BMA is basin shaped, where the boundaries are hills and mountains, which giving more restriction to the urban physical growth than plain area.

In fact, one of the most important negative impacts of this urban's physical growth is the urban sprawl growth. This urban sprawl become more uncontrolled, more land use converted from agricultural to non-agricultural land. The effect of the urban sprawl spreading is more rarely water sources and clean water at dry season, more floods at rainy season, highly sedimentations, more air pollutions, and more low quality of water surface because of industries and domestics[5] [8]. These situations also indicated in BMA [6].

Related to urban land resources, the residences who live in the spreading area of BMA choose to live in the suburbs. Since the land prices in the suburbs are cheaper than the centers. The urban central developed as business and office area. The Developers, who lack the capital or actually as the speculators, let the lands or buildings become displaced. This causes the land to be idle in the city center. Meanwhile in the suburbs, the speculators, consciously or not, buy the cheap lands and wait for the right time to build or sell the lands or buildings for gaining profit from increasing value of the lands. A lot of the fertile agriculture purchased from the farmers and then just abandoned [5].

The purpose of this paper attempting to analyze the impact, in terms of economic, ecologic, and social aspects of population growth resulting in urban sprawl form and its relationship to land abandonment (idle lands). This research uses spatial information of urban land use patterns and the distribution of the idle lands.

2. Methodology

This research uses spatial analysis method. The spatial information system could help to analyze the correlations and interactions between population growth, urban physics, idle lands distribution, and environment impacts in time series and a spatial way. Ecological, economical and social indicators, based on the underlying data, could be used to simulate and to assess spatially related decisions [6].

BMA consists of Bandung City as a capital city of West Java, five districts and eight sub-watersheds. We used all districts to study of urban land use patterns and samples to study the distribution of idle lands. The land use data used the historical data from year 1991 to 2012. Primary survey conducted in the middle of 2013 to obtain the distribution of idle lands. Figure 1 shows the method to fulfill this paper purpose.

The series of land use data interpreted from remote sensing data. The data were processed using Geographical Information System (GIS) approach to overlay and to analyze the spatial information. The next steps performed analysis of population growth and urban physical growth with an exponential regression mathematical equation, mapping the distribution of idle land parcels and model, and analysis of environmental perspectives (causes and enviroment impacts). The last of this paper offers the conclusions of the research.

3. Results

3.1. Bandung Urban Growth

BMA's population increased from 5,079,348 in 1991 to 9,341,995 in 2012. The average of population growth is above 3% per year. Similarly, the physical area also increased from 3,428,249 hectares in 1991 to 6,581,286 hectares in 2012. BMA physical growth from 1991, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2008, and 2012 presents in spatial information as indicated in Figure 1. Based on this results it appears that the physical growth showed

the sprawl follows the pattern of the access road to the north, east, south, and west (yellow arrows). rate of urban physical growth is about 4.92% and rate of population growth is about 2.96%.

Fig. 1. BMA physical growth 1991 - 2012, processed from [2]

Fig. 2. (a) Populations versus urban area (b) Population growth versus physical urban growth

3.2. Idle Land Spatial Distribution

Based on figure 1, the research conducted the idle lands spatial distribution at 13 sample locations. The sample chosen follows the access road in the north, east, south and west. The idle lands percentages from each administrative boundary presents as in Table 1. The causes of land abandonment in BMA is land speculation, consciously or not, due to the investment habits of the people to the land, land dispute, unappropriate land use, and deteriorating of land physical condition such as prone to flood or become less fertile.

Table 1. Idle lands percentages at 13 sample locations

Parts North access West access South access East access

Centre 7.62% - - -

Inner Suburban 11.61% 17.42% 5.96% 3.72%

Outer Suburban 44.83% 6.07% 7.37% 45.05%

Outskirts 41.72% 51.55% 8.99% 71.93%

4. Discussions

4.1. Bandung Urban Growth

Based on Figure 2 and math equations, the population is growing faster than urban physics. In terms of growth, the rate of urban physical growth in 1991-2012 is higher than the rate of population growth, but ideally as large or even smaller, because of the increasing of population density. It means, there is a wasteful land use in the suburbs. These wasting lands are for residential and industrial use, used or not, and abandoned lands as well.

The rate of population and urban physical grew significantly in the interval 1997-2001, but then back to normal in the interval 2001-2005. This is due to the monetary crisis in 1997. At the beginning of the crisis of land use changes in the suburbs grow slower, but lot of abandoned lands. This is due to the number of investment stalled because of bad debts and a bad banking system [4]. As a result, the urban physical growth showed a high percentage of that time, even though a lot of land left unutilized and abandoned. After a period of crisis in the interval 2005-2012, the economy continued to recover. Also did in BMA, investment continue to grow, population began to increase normally, and then the urban physical growth has increased. Population growth does not rise too high, but the rate of urban physical growth rose higher. Based on spatial information, physical growth are more prevalent in the western part of BMA. This indicates by the splitting of the new district (East Bandung District) in 2007 as a caused.

The urban sprawl results land located far away one to another, or to the city center. The town center remains as center activities, so people move every day from their houses in the suburbs to the downtown. Therefore, the urban developed with extensive infrastructure (road, rail, public transportation, clean water networks, electricity networks, and others), and more expensive of course. The expansively growing suburb area causes the longer time of travel from house to work. Public transportation is becoming increasingly economical, so people prefer private car or motorcycle. This situation results in congestion, which progressively worse. Therefore, air pollution in the BMA to be getting worse. In addition, the government provides urban services such as public transport, roads, policies, markets, and schools. This led to the rise of lucrative landowner/speculator. This means that there is transfer of income from taxpayers to them. Similarly occurred in BMA, investors from other regions also play a role in the kind of development sectors.

4.2. Idle Lands

The factors that cause land abandonment could categorized based on natural physical factors, institutional society factors, socio-cultural factors, and economic factors [9]. These are the BMA's factors:

• Natural physical or ecologycal factors, are in terms of the land is located, such as flood-prone areas that directly increases the risk of failure for the landowner. Another example is the land that has a very thin soil layer or no/little water sources, so it is not productive for the use of agricultur, forest, or even settlement.

• Institutional society factors, are related to the land tenure system that potentially would determine the occurrence of land abandonment. Those factors are due to dispute of land ownership that refers to inoptimally, the status of absentee lands (land owners were not at the land is located), the status of land as collateral, and many occur in the northern part of BMA which have been defined as a watershed region, and inappropriate land use to plan, then the use of such land has to be halted and idle.

• Socio-cultural factors, allocation and ownership of customary land (lahan adat) are unclear. Customary land allocation in regional spatial planning generally is not arranged in strict structure and spatial pattern.

• Economic factors, are land speculation causes as described earlier, lower interest rates for savings and high inflation that encourages people to invest their money into the lands as a safe investment, and landowners poverty who lack of capital, labor, knowledge, and technology in the use of their land.

Table 1 shows a number of idle lands where scattered in various parts of BMA. The idle land distributions of north, east and west access road have a high percentage compared to that in south access. Even some locations have displaced nearly half the whole area. The idle lands and buildings abandoned at center, when primary survey done. These idle lands because of the town become older, old buildings needs renovation that can be reuse, or suburbanization. In inner sub-urban, land has been used as high-density residential, commercial and light industrial combination. Idle lands become to be rare. West and south outer sub-urban is a fertile agricultural region. Land use change to be non-agriculture is quite common. Land abandonment occurs when land clearing and quite short. Land abandonment of north inner suburban caused by housing developer whom lack of capital to build, especially because of the monetary crisis in 1997. The abandonment affects land disputation with local community. The same way with north, east outer suburban that is industry development region, half of region untapped and let idle. Last, idle lands in outskirt generally caused ecological issues. Hilly BMA outskirt characteristic caused landslides or unfertile, so that unused optimally.

Fig. 3. Idle land spatial distribution model

Idle land distribution sample locations show when urban physic widespread, the idle lands also extends, as Figure 3 illustrated. The relation of urban sprawl and the idle lands as follows: in the beginning, the urban physic was area of "a", with the idle lands distribute in it. Then, the urban grew to 'b'. When urban physic was 'b', the idle land distributions also extend. Idle lands at the center (ex 'a') have been mostly used, so then the distribution of idle lands to be relatively less. Urban then developed further to 'c'. Idle lands distribution extends to 'c'. Idle lands at inner suburban (ex 'b') have been mostly used, so then the distribution of idle lands to be relatively less, but idle lands in ex 'a' area to be more. Land wastage occurred in center to outskirt.

The relation of urban physic and idle lands distribution inverted, in outskirt area that projected to grow the

speculators bought agricultural lands at low prices. If the player were housing developers, they would build little houses/buildings. Local government then has to build or extend road access quality. Although development could predicted from the regional planning, growth lead to be sprawl and could be any direction.

Therefore, the management of idle lands is not just re-use but turned into 'green' development. This paradigm shift would increase the value added of the idle land. At first the idle lands are only profitable for landowners/speculators and there may be little to urban revenue, but idle lands will have a higher value if it is re-used or re-cycled, even more higher profit if included in urban development program [10][11].

5. Conclusions

This paper has highlighted urban sprawl growth in BMA. It indicates the emergence of idle lands in the center or outskirts. When urban physic widespread, idle lands also extends spatially. This condition occurs vice versa, idle land affect urban sprawl and lead to any directions. The negative impacts are environmental degradation, less profitable socio-cultural land, and resulted in not optimal revenue. A number of idle lands scattered in various parts of BMA. The idle land distributions in the north, east and west access roads have higher percentages compared to that in the south access, because of efficient use of the fertile land in the south. Based on this finding, it could be a strategic recommendation for improving the urban development management and land policy, especially how to avoid the idle lands in the managing of urban development.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the University of Indonesia for conducting the study. In addition, we are grateful for National Land Agency (BPN) for all data and for awarding the scholarship.

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