Scholarly article on topic 'Heavy Metal and Music Education'

Heavy Metal and Music Education Academic research paper on "Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)"

Share paper
{"Heavy metal" / "pedagogical materials" / "music education" / "music teacher education" / "music pedagogy"}

Abstract of research paper on Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music), author of scientific article — Ari Poutiainen, Esa Lilja

Abstract This article discusses the benefits of applying heavy metal repertoire when teaching general aspects of Western music. Many young people frequently listen to heavy metal and subsequently have much of its repertoire in their auditory memory. Since heavy metal is tied to the fundamentals of Western tonal music tradition, it can be employed when the basics of rhythm, scales, and harmony are introduced to students. We suggest that using heavy metal repertoire provides a ground for constructive pedagogy and should be more often incorporated in music education. We support our view with examples drawn from the classic heavy metal era.

Academic research paper on topic "Heavy Metal and Music Education"

Available online at

SciVerse ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 (2012) 517 - 526

The 5th Intercultural Arts Education Conference: Design Learning

Heavy Metal and Music Education

Ari Poutiainena*, Esa Liljab

a University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 8, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland b University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland


This article discusses the benefits of applying heavy metal repertoire when teaching general aspects of Western music. Many young people frequently listen to heavy metal and subsequently have much of its repertoire in their auditory memory. Since heavy metal is tied to the fundamentals of Western tonal music tradition, it can be employed when the basics of rhythm, scales, and harmony are introduced to students. We suggest that using heavy metal repertoire provides a ground for constructive pedagogy and should be more often incorporated in music education. We support our view with examples drawn from the classic heavy metal era.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection cnd/or peer re view under responsib ility ofProfesso r Heikki Ruismak i and Adjunct Professor Inkeri Ruokonen

Keywords: Heavy metal; pedagogical materials; music education; music teacher education; music pedagogy

1. Introduction

Although heavy metal plays a significant role in many young pupils' life, this particular music genre is still rarely applied, employed, or referred to in music classrooms. There seems to be a notable contradiction between genre's popularity and its educational status. Reasons for this seem to be two-fold.

First, the general attitude towards heavy metal has been rather rejective in the academic community. This reflects the political atmosphere of the 1980s in the USA, where a moral panic was raised by the PMRC (Parents' Music Resource Center ran by certain US senators' wives) and subsequent censorship was aimed towards popular music and heavy metal in particular (e.g., Walser 1993, 137-151). A recent study shows that a general stereotype of a heavy metal fan is still rather negative, conveying such aspects

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +358-50-318-398-4. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Professor Heikki Ruismaki and Adjunct Professor Inkeri Ruokonen


as low education, substance abuse, and suicidal tendencies (Fried 2003). However, there seems to be a difference between the North American and European attitudes towards heavy metal. For instance Cadwallader's (2007) study on British students contradicts with these stereotypes. He concludes that amongst gifted students, heavy metal is one of the most popular musical genres, and those who appreciate heavy metal use it cathartically, for dispelling negative emotions. Finnish scholar Kurkela (1996) suggests that heavy metal can contain significant positive mental representations, and thus it should be understood as a safe environment for non-verbal work with the many issues of growing up.

Second, it seems that music teacher education has not encouraged teachers to incorporate heavy metal in the music curriculum. More conventional or less contradictory musical styles (e.g., classical music) and materials are preferred instead. Many music teachers of today, however, are quite familiar with classic heavy metal since they have grown up listening to it and in some cases also playing it. Young students (e.g., students born after 1990) also appear to be surprisingly well-acquainted with classic heavy metal repertoire. (Classic heavy metal refers to the metal of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s. For an encompassing definition of this term see Lilja 2009, 21-47.) It seems that they have familiarized themselves with the music through radio and their parents' music collection. According to our experience in working with music teachers and teacher students, many of them know central parts of the classic heavy metal repertoire by heart. There seems to be an opportunity to combine teachers', students', and at the end also pupils' interests and achieve more effective learning through integration of heavy metal and music education.

In Northern Europe heavy metal has secured a strong status in popular music culture (see e.g., Lilja 2009, 46-47). "Metallic" musical expression is widely appreciated and accepted. In Finland heavy metal has already been successfully applied to educational purposes to some extent (see Wahlström 2007). In this article we elaborate this view and suggest that heavy metal conveys a wealth of elements and aspects that can be employed for the benefit of music pedagogy in schools.

2. Research Materials and Methods

For this article we closely examined a selection of approximately 200 albums of classic heavy metal music recorded between the late 1960s and early 1980s. In order to find representative examples to support our case, we employed various auditory and print music based methods and forms of music analysis. In our study we also applied our long experience in performing, recording, teaching, and analyzing music.

Music teachers often rely on classical or folk music. (For a examples of conventional music education pedagogy and its musical preferences in Finland, see for instance Linnankivi et al.,1994 and Ahonen, 2004.) Classical and folk music offer a wealth of material that can be utilized in teaching the fundamentals of Western music. Today, however, it is rather common to apply auditory examples from CDs and Internet. This aspect (together with other recent changes in cultural policy and music education) has encouraged teachers to evaluate anew the genre focus in classrooms and has subsequently brought contemporary forms of popular music to the school environment.

Like any other type of popular music, heavy metal conveys fundamental parts of Western music tradition. We demonstrate in the following that classic heavy metal repertoire supports music education in this respect. We show that heavy metal repertoire can be employed when syncopation and polyrhythm, scale material (including major and minor tonalities, modality, pentatonic and blues scales), riffs, improvisation, and sound processing are taught. We approach these aspects through some of the most popular classic heavy metal compositions.

Furthermore, we suggest a learning model that relies on internalizing idiomatic patterns. This model is supported by our teaching experience: We have tested our views while teaching music on various levels and in diverse environments for years. According to this learning model, students are first guided to point out those musical patterns they are already familiar with. After this realization they are lead to recognize similar patterns in other musical styles. New patterns (i.e., patterns that are not similar to those already internalized) can be studied and learned through associations. In this regard, the old and the new materials are compared and differences are indicated. Recognizing idiomatic patterns in any type of music forms a base for learning and appreciating various kinds of music regardless of the genre. This learning model is a practical application of pragmatic constructivism (i.e., the educator guides learners to self-directed analysis, conceptualization, and synthesis of knowledge) discussed by Rauste-von Wright et al. (2003, 161). They conclude that learning never starts from a scratch; a student is not a tabula rasa. Instead, they suggest that a better metaphor would be a board full of drawings, in which generating of new prints is governed by the already existing ones (Ibid., 163).

3. Riffs and Rhythmic Patterns

Riffs (i.e., short and repetitive melodic or harmonic passages) appear to be beneficial for studying musical parameters. Young heavy metal fans have often internalized several different riffs. Since riffs are typically short and repetitive, they convey various musical aspects in a compact form.

Heavy metal riffs frequently employ syncopation (i.e., disruption of regular stress patterns). Syncopation typically refers to rhythmic stressing that falls in between the basic pulse (see e.g., Cooper & Meyer 1960, 99-100). When learning syncopated rhythmical patterns, students often find it helpful to compare the syncopated parts to the basic pulse, which is frequently supported by the drum beat. Through this comparison they learn how to simultaneously listen to and comprehend two rhythmic layers - the one of the riff and the other of the basic pulse. In a class room setting this realization can be achieved, for instance, through ensemble playing or listening to original recordings and singing along with the riff while tapping the basic pulse.

Smoke on the Water by Deep Purple (1972) presents a fundamental example of a syncopated riff (Figure 1). This kind of syncopation has been a part of popular music since ragtime, so it is not surprising that similar patterns are to be found in other popular music styles as well. For instance, The Who's Substitute (e.g., Live at Leeds, 1970) and many Scott Joplin's ragtime compositions employ this rhythmic figure in rather different stylistic settings.

"Smoke on the Water"

basic pulse

G5 Bb5 C5


G5 Bl>5 Dl>5 C5

7 J> |J> J_JU_t



Fig. 1. "The first half of Smoke on the Water riff against the basic 4/4 pulse"

The upper line of Figure 2 presents a simple polyrhythmic pattern that is quite possibly derived from African-Cuban music. Within the African-Cuban context this pattern is sometimes called charleston or tresillo (see Laukkanen 2005, 33-34 and Schuller 1968, 19). According to relative durations and rhythmical impulses, it can also be referred to as the 3+3+2 pattern. The 3+3+2 pattern is repeatedly

employed in classic heavy metal and can be heard, for instance, in the opening riff of Black Sabbath's Paranoid (1970) or m phrase endings of Iron Maiden's Iron Maiden (1980). The lower line of the Figure 2 presents a typical variation of the 3+3+2 pattern, the so-called cinquillo. Cinquillo was frequently utilized in early jazz (Laukkanen 2005, 35 and Schuller 1968, 24). The riff in Led Zeppelin's Whole Lotta Love (1969) presents a heavy metal application of cinquillo. This pattern is applied also in the phrase endings of Jimi Hendrix's Hey Joe (1983 [1967]). Both patterns in Figure 2 should be practiced and performed against the basic 4/4 pulse.

3+3+2 pattern cinquillo pattern ■■ -

ii - » — ■i J J~.J J

Fig. 2. "3+3+2 and cinquillo patterns"

Sometimes the 3+3+2 pattern is extended to last for two measures, in a form that could be abbreviated as 3+3+3+3+2+2. This extension can be found, for example, in Black Sabbath's Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath riff (1973) (Figure 3). This particular extension is also employed in the guitar break of Iron Maiden (CD time indices [1:52-2:07]) and the ending section of Led Zeppelin's Stairway to Heaven (1971), starting approxi^tely at [6:40]. In Jimi Hendrix's Crosstown Traffic (1983 [1969]) the 3+3+2 pattern has been extended even further. It appears in the form that could be abbreviated as 3+3+3+3+3+3+3+3+2+2.

ii un tr n-----ttv w 3 - 3 - 3 - 3 - 2 - 2

Fig. 3. "3+3+3+3+2+2 in Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath'

The bossa clave of Brazilian origin is actually the same pattern as the above mentioned 3+3+3+3+2+2 extension, only starting a fourth note later (Laukkanen 2005, 37). Rainbow's Gates of Babylon riff (1978) is a fine example of this pattern (Figure 4). The end of this particular riff also includes a repetition of the 3+3+2 pattern.

(2)-3 3 rt* 3 - 3 - 2 - 2 ffl ñ=ñ Ft 3-3-2 3-3 - 2

= :' = w= w= i^p J-Bí/jj^j 1

Fig. 4. "The boss a clave in Gates of Babylon"

By identifying typical rhythmic patterns in familiar material, in this case heavy metal riffs, students can learn to identify similar patterns in other types of music as well (cf. Wahlstrom 2007, 73-83). This

idea is in accordance with constructive learning principles (see e.g., Rauste-von Wright et al. 2003, 162163) and can naturally be applied for learning scales and harmonic patterns as well.

4. Scales and Modes

Heavy metal is a particularly useful source for learning scale material. In addition to the familiar major and minor scales, various church modes and pseudo-oriental scales are frequently employed or referred to in heavy metal repertoire. Heavy metal thus offers excellent means to introduce and study scales typical to Western music tradition.

Learning scales could be started with pentatonic scales - they are easy to recognize and in constant use in early heavy metal. Several Deep Purple compositions from the first part of the 1970s include riffs that are built around the minor pentatonic scale. In this regard, the riffs in Black Night (1988 [1970]), Strange Kind of Woman (1988 [1971]), and Speed King (1970) are very representative. If students are already familiar with these popular pieces of music, it is practical to introduce the concept of pentatonic scales through those, and then teach them to recognize these scales in other styles of music. From pentatonic scales teachers can proceed to seven-note scales (e.g., church modes) by adding semitones in between the notes of a pentatonic scale. This is an effective way to approach and discuss characteristic scale colors. Figure 5 below illustrates how D Dorian mode can be approached through D minor pentatonic scale.

Fig. 5. "D minor pentatonic (open note heads) supplemented into D Dorian"

Heavy metal riffs provide a wealth of examples of church modes. AC/DC's Highway to Hell (1980) and Hell's Bells (1980) employ the Dorian, Iron Maiden's Run to the Hills (1982) Mixolydian and Remember Tomorrow (1980) Phrygian, Black Sabbath's Paranoid (1970) Aeolian and Symptom of the Universe (1975) Locrian mode. (For further discussion of heavy metal and modes see Lilja 2009, 152183.) It seems that in heavy metal the darker modes have later replaced the lighter ones. Whereas Mixolydian and Dorian dominate the early 1970s, and Aeolian is in frequent use in the early 1980s, the metal recordings of the late 1980s popularized darker scale colors: Metallica's 1988 album ...And Justice for All is fluid with Locrian mode, for instance. Examples that introduce the so-called pseudo-oriental modes can be found as well. The mode that is often referred to as hijaz is employed in Rainbow's Gates of Babylon (Figure 4 above) (for a detailed discussion on pseudo-oriental modes see Lilja 2009, 172-175 and Tagg 2003, 555). In music classes pseudo-oriental modes can serve as an introduction to characteristics of music traditions of Eastern Europe, Middle East, and Spain, for instance.

Examples of various types of modulation can also be found in classic heavy metal repertoire. Ozzy Osbourne's Crazy Train (1981) and Iron Maiden's Prisoner (1982) modulate between relative minor and major. Ozzy Osbourne's Revelation (Mother Earth) (1981) and Uriah Heep's July Morning (1971) modulate between parallel major and minor (see Lilja 2009, 178-183). Modulations between the church modes can be found as well: Iron Maiden's Murders in the Rue Morgue (1981), for instance, presents shifts between the Mixolydian and Dorian modes. Free shifts of tonal centers are introduced in Iron Maiden's Aces High (1984), which is based on Aeolian riffs and modulates between multiple tonal centers (see Lilja 2009, 170 and 203-204).

5. Harmonic Patterns

Regarding harmonic patterns, heavy metal repertoire offers a variety of examples that are also frequently employed in other Western music genres. Dominant chord chains (i.e., V/V/V/V, etc.) represent a popular harmonic progression that was established already in the Baroque era. Deep Purple's Burn (1974) at approximately [2:48-3:10] is a good example of this particular progression in heavy metal use. Also subdominant chains (i.e., IV/IV/IV, etc.) appear frequently in heavy metal compositions. This progression can be found in Jimi Hendrix's Hey Joe (1983 [1967]), Deep Purple's Hush (1988 [1968]) and Strange Kind of Woman (1988 [1971]), and Black Sabbath's A National Acrobat (1973). (Lilja 2009, 83-84.)

Other chord patterns and harmonic formulas that are shared in many musical styles are so-called "Rising Sun" pattern (named after the Animals' hit of the 1960s), the "Saints" pattern (named after a gospel classic When the Saints Go Marching In), and the twelve-bar blues formula. (For further study see Lilja 2009, 183-194.) The "Rising Sun" (Aeolian I-III-IV-VI) appears in Ozzy Osbourne's Rock 'n'Roll Rebel (1983) and Iron Maiden's Running Free (1980). The "Saints" (actually a voice leading pattern included in the chord progression I-V7/IV-IV-IVm-I6/4-V-I, popularized already in the Romantic era) is employed, for instance, in Led Zeppelin's Baby, I'm Gonna Leave You (1969) and Black Sabbath's Snowblind (1972) and Black Sabbath (1970). The twelve-bar blues formula is applied frequently in classic heavy metal: The formula is often creatively approached and thus has various representations. In respect to pedagogical interest, Led Zeppelin's Moby Dick (1969) and Since I've Been Lovin' You (1970), AC/DC's Hell's Bells (1980), Motorhead's Stay Clean (1983), and Deep Purple's Mistreated (1974) offer inspiring examples.

6. Improvisation and Sound Processing

Collective and solo improvisations are a characteristic part of classic heavy metal (live) performances. In this respect, this genre includes a wealth of examples that can be employed for introducing and discussing both jamming (i.e., collective or group improvisation) and soloing (i.e., solo improvisation). Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is a classic figure to be mentioned in this regard. His group's long version of Voodoo Chile (1968) demonstrates several aspects of both jamming and soloing. These aspects are also frequently present in many heavy metal concert recordings and concert films of the 1970s. Led Zeppelin's The Song Remains the Same (1976 [VHS]), Deep Purple's California Jam 1974 (2005 [DVD]), and Black Sabbath in Concert 1970 (2004 [DVD]) are representative in this respect.

Similarly sound processing can be comfortably addressed through heavy metal: Heavy metal groups and performers typically utilize electronic sound modification possibilities and various sound effects in innovative fashion both on live and studio recordings. Jimi Hendrix's influence on electric guitar expression and sound processing alone is remarkable: The way he employed electric guitar in his live performances still continues to inspire young guitarists. When discussing creative studio techniques in more general terms, for instance Led Zeppelin's Whole Lotta Love (1969) can be referred to as a multifaceted example.

7. Personal Growth and Music

In addition to the above examples of heavy metal repertoire's pedagogical usage, incorporating heavy metal in music education has other benefits. Heavy metal can play an influential part in adolescents'

mental development as an accommodating milieu: Within music the various physical and mental pressures that growing up typically generates can be safely met.

Kurkela (1996) discusses the relation of a young person's aggression and music, and makes connections between issues typical to puberty and music consumption. In his earlier work (1994) he demonstrates how various mental powers are projected to music and how music represents and reflects feelings. Kurkela (1996) argues that music can work as a container, an "environment" where a human mind can conduct diverse subconscious processes of mental activity and growth. Consequently music can appear as a safe area in which young individuals can comfortably face, for example, their fears, awakening sexuality, confusion, and frustration. Within music they can subconsciously learn to deal with diverse challenging matters and related emotional powers (e.g., aggression). Many issues are easier to handle and discuss as musical projections. Later the results of this kind of mental processing can be removed back from the container (i.e., music) to person's self-hood.

Kurkela concludes that death metal (a harder form of heavy metal) with all its negative and even destructive representations should be understood as a natural environment for non-verbal work that is also necessary in growing up. This seems to be in line with Cadwallader (2007), who similarly concludes that young individuals often use heavy metal for dispelling negative emotions. In this respect it seems that heavy metal has multi-level value as educational material: The aggression it expresses can have a deeper, positive, and progressive meaning and status in adolescents' mental well-being.

8. Present Finnish Teaching Materials

It occurs that in today's Finland heavy metal repertoire is a relatively accepted source of school music education. A small survey on contemporary Finnish school music books (that often include selections of sheet music) reveals that some distinct examples of classic heavy metal can be found. Heavy metal songs are typically introduced as material for school rock bands or guitar study. Black Sabbath's Paranoid and Uriah Heep's Easy Livin' can be found in Musiikin mestarit 8-9 (Hyyppa et al. 2004, 62-65). Musa 9 includes an application of Led Zeppelin's Stairway to Heaven and a selection of popular guitar riffs (Juutilainen & Kukkula 2005, 18-19 and 90-91). In the riff selection Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, and Metallica are well represented. Deep Purple's Smoke on the Water appears in Musa 7 (Juutilainen & Kukkula 2003, 38-39) and Black Night is included in Musa soi 7 (Juutilainen & Kukkula 2010, 42-43). As an example of more contemporary heavy metal repertoire Metallica's Nothing Else Matters appears both in Laulu soi (Juutilainen & Rentola 1996, 141-151) and program appendix (Ohjelmistovihko) of Selvat savelet 8-9 (Kangas et al. 1997, 89-93). All these publications are targeted to pupils at age 14-16 years.

Regarding Kurkela's and Cadwallader's views, it is rewarding to notice that in Finland heavy metal is already incorporated in music education to some extent. Heavy metal is not totally isolated from Finnish music education. However, there still is a notable difference between heavy metal's significant status in many young students' life and the frequency it is employed in school books.

9. Discussion

Heavy metal is not an isolated music genre, but a fusion of various elements and aspects that appear in other genres. Like many other styles of popular music, heavy metal reflects the characteristics of Western music tradition. Although heavy metal rhythmically leans on African-American and African-Cuban conventions, its harmony and melody are closely tied to the traits that were established earlier in classical

and various types of folk music. In this article we have demonstrated heavy metal's connections to Western music tradition and how these connections could be applied in music education.

An important aspect that speaks for "metallic" music education is heavy metal's appeal amongst young people. Teachers should be able to use heavy metal's popularity to their advantage. The more the music education is connected to the music pupils consume, the more interesting and motivating the teaching will appear. Above we have introduced a selection of subjects and examples that can be applied for this particular goal. The research we have conducted suggests, however, that this is only the beginning.

Societies are changing fast. School music pedagogy should follow the time's lead and adapt to it. While it is important to learn to read music, it is as necessary to support and make a conscious use of the students' pre-existent auditory musical framework and skills. By acknowledging the repertoire students already possess in their musical memory, these two skills - reading and hearing - can often be easily connected.

We conclude that there should not be any musical boundaries in classrooms. Regarding contemporary pedagogical goals and material, heavy metal is as suitable and applicable as any other music genre.


We wish to acknowledge guitarist and educator, MA Antti Sunell for his advice on heavy metal repertoire in contemporary Finnish school music books.


Ahonen, K. (2004). Johdatus musiikin oppimiseen. Helsinki: Finn Lectura.

Cadwallader, S. M. (2007). The Darker Side of Bright Students: Gifted and Talented Metal Fans.

Occasional Paper No. 19, 1-17.

Cooper, G., & Meyer, L. B. (1960). Rhythmic Structure of Music. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fried, C. B. (2003). Stereotypes of Music Fans: Are Rap and Heavy Metal Fans a Danger to Themselves or Others? Journal of Media Psychology, vol. 8 (3), 1-27. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from

Hyyppa, K., Kangas, P. & Suomela, M. (2004). Musiikin mestarit 8-9. Helsinki: Otava. Juutilainen, E.-M. & Rentola, S. (1996). Laulu soi. Helsinki: WSOY. Juutilainen, E.-M. & Kukkula, T. (2003). Musa 7. Helsinki: WSOY. Juutilainen, E.-M. & Kukkula, T. (2005). Musa 9. Helsinki: WSOY. Juutilainen, E.-M. & Kukkula, T. (2010). Musa soi 7. Helsinki: WSOY.

Kangas, P., Paavilainen, A., & Suomela, M. (1997). Selvat savelet 8-9: ohjelmistovihko. Helsinki: Otava. Kurkela, K. (1994). Mielen maisemat ja musiikki: musiikin esittamisen ja luovan asenteen

psykodynamiikkaa. Helsinki: Sibelius Academy.

Kurkela, K. (1996). Nuoren aggressiivisuus ja musiikki. In L. Suurpaa & P. Aaltojarvi (Eds.), Nain nuoret: nakokulmia nuoruuden kulttuureihin (pp. 328-357). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.

Laukkanen, J. (2005). Afrikkalais- ja afrokaribialaisperaiset rytmiset avaimet savelletyssa ja improvisoidussa jazzmelodiassa. Master's thesis. Helshiki: Sibelius Academy.

Lilja, E. (2009). Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony. Helsinki: IAML Finland.

Linnankivi, M., Tenkku, L., & Urho, E. (1994). Musiikin didaktiikka. Helsinki: WSOY.

Rauste-von Wright, M., von Wright, J., & Soini, T. (2003). Oppiminen ja koulutus. Helsinki: WSOY.

Schuller, G. (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tagg, P. (2003). Modality. In J. Shepherd, D. Horn, D. Laing, P. Oliver, & P. Wicke (Eds.), Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Volume II: Performance and Production (pp. 552-555). London: Continuum.

Wahlstrom, K. (2008). Oppilaan oikeat hakusanat: Oppilaslahtoisyyden ja asiantuntijuuden yhteennivoutuminen rytmimusiikin kitaraopetuksessa ja opetussuunnitelman uudistamisessa. Master's thesis. Helsinki: Helsinki University of Applied Sciences.

Walser, R. (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Hanover: University Press of New England.

References - Discography

AC/DC (1979). Highway to Hell. Atlantic.

AC/DC (1980). Back in Black. Atlantic.

Black Sabbath (1970). Black Sabbath. Vertigo.

Black Sabbath (1970). Paranoid. Vertigo.

Black Sabbath (1972). Vol. 4. Vertigo.

Black Sabbath (1973). Sabbath Bloody Sabbath. Castle.

Black Sabbath (1973). Sabotage. Castle.

Deep Purple (1970). In Rock. Harvest.

Deep Purple (1972). Machine Head. EMI.

Deep Purple (1974). Burn. EMI.

Deep Purple (1988). Singles - A 's&B's. EMI.

Hendrix, Jimi (1968). Electric Ladyland. MCA.

Hendrix, Jimi (1983). The Singles Album. Polydor. Iron Maiden (1980). Iron Maiden. EMI. Iron Maiden (1981). Killers. EMI. Iron Maiden (1982). The Number of the Beast. EMI. Iron Maiden (1984). Powerslave. EMI. Led Zeppelin (1969). Led Zeppelin. Atlantic. Led Zeppelin (1969). Led Zeppelin II. Atlantic. Led Zeppelin (1970). Led Zeppelin III. Atlantic. Led Zeppelin (1971). Led Zeppelin [IV]. Atlantic. Metallica (1988). ...And Justice for All. Vertigo. Metallica (1991). Metallica [Black Album]. Vertigo. Motorhead (1983). No Remorse. Castle. Ozzy Osbourne (1981). Blizzard of Ozz. Epic. Ozzy Osbourne (1983). Bark at the Moon. Epic. Rainbow (1978). Long Live Rock 'n' Roll. Polydor. Uriah Heep (1971). Look at Yourself. Bronze. Who, The (1970) Live at Leeds. Polydor.

References - Audiovisual Material

N.a. (2004). Black Sabbath in Concert [DVD]. Germany: Masterplan.

Ehrmann, B., Ship, S. & Wilbrink, E. (Executive producers). (2005). Deep Purple: Live at the California Jam 1974 [DVD]. United States: EMI Music.

Clifton, P. & Massot, J. (Directors). (1976). Led Zeppelin: The Song Remains the Same [VHS]. United States: Warner Bros.