Scholarly article on topic 'The Analysis of Music Teachers’ Questionnaire Survey on Issues of Developing Harmonic Hearing'

The Analysis of Music Teachers’ Questionnaire Survey on Issues of Developing Harmonic Hearing Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Galina Zavadska, Jelena Davidova

Abstract The developmental tendencies of the society determine the choice of a new pedagogical paradigm at all stages of higher education. In Latvia, the development of music teachers’ harmonic hearing takes an important place in their study process. The investigation on the music teachers’ opinion about issues of developing harmonic hearing can identify and reveal essential problems pertaining to music teachers’ professional training. Research aim to study music teachers’ opinion about the problems of developing harmonic hearing on the basis of the developed questionnaire. Research methods a survey, computer data processing by SPSS, data analysis. The paper deals with the analysis of the conducted research on music teachers’ opinion about children's compositions (Miller, 1999) and on music teachers’ opinion about pupils’ individual differences in music classes (Hewitt, 2005). The questionnaire on issues of developing harmonic hearing designed for music teachers is presented. To examine the current situation in the field of developing music teachers’ harmonic hearing in Latvian educational institutions and abroad, a questionnaire survey among professional music teachers was conducted. The results obtained from the questionnaire survey will contribute to the development of strategy and methodology for developing music teachers’ harmonic hearing at sol-fa classes.

Academic research paper on topic "The Analysis of Music Teachers’ Questionnaire Survey on Issues of Developing Harmonic Hearing"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 (2013) 2602 - 2613

4* International Conference on New Horizons in Education

The analysis of music teachers' questionnaire survey on issues of

developing harmonic hearing

Galina Zavadskaa*, Jelena Davidova

"Daugavpils University, Faculty of Music and Art, "Daugavpils Latvia bDaugavpils Univers ity, Faculty of of Education and Management, "Daugavpils Latvia

Abstract

The developmental tendencies of the society determine the choice of a new pedagogical paradigm at all stages of higher education. In Latvia, the development of music teachers' harmonic hearing takes an important place in their study process. The investigation on the music teachers' opinion about issues of developing harmonic hearing can identify and reveal essential problems pertaining to music teachers' professional training.

Research aim: to study music teachers' opinion about the problems of developing harmonic hearing on the basis of the developed questionnaire.

Research methods: a survey, computer data processing by SPSS, data analysis.

The paper deals with the analysis of the conducted research on music teachers' opinion about children's compositions (Miller, 1999) and on music teachers' opinion about pupils' individual differences in music classes (Hewitt, 2005). The questionnaire on issues of developing harmonic hearing designed for music teachers is presented. To examine the current situation in the field of developing music teachers' harmonic hearing in Latvian educational institutions and abroad, a questionnaire survey among professional music teachers was conducted. The results obtained from the questionnaire survey will contribute to the development of strategy and methodology for developing music teachers' harmonic hearing at sol-fa classes.

©2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityofThe AssociationofScience,EducationandTechnology-TASET,SakaryaUniversitesi, Turkey.

Keywords: harmonic hearing, questionnaire, opinion.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +37126568474. E-mail address: g.zavadska@inbox.lv

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.300

1. INTRODUCTION

The developmental tendencies in the contemporary society determine the necessity to choose a new pedagogical paradigm in all stages of higher education. In Latvia, the development of music teachers' harmonic hearing occupies an important place in their training process, because a music teacher is often simultaneously also a conductor of a school choir, amateur choir or some other choir. The research on this issue, done in Latvia, and findings from it (Davidova & Marnauza, 2003; Marnauza, Kriumane, Gzibovskis, 2005; Znutins, 2009; etc.) testify to this fact and also allow us to broaden our perceptions about the tendencies in the development of Latvian music culture.

The effectiveness of musical activity largely depends on the development level of musical hearing, first of all (Kazkayasi, Yetiser & Ozcelik, 2006). Harmonic hearing is a component of musical hearing. A consecutive and purposeful development of harmonic hearing is also an integral condition for polyphonic choral singing. The quality ofintoning in a choir or in a vocal ensemble depends on the development level ofharmonic hearing. The problem concerning the development of harmonic hearing is one of the most essential issues in music pedagogy. In traditional investigations, harmonic hearing is viewed as one of the principal human musical abilities (Vigners, 1936; Teplov, 1947; Seashore, 1967; Petrushin, 1997; Hallam, Gross & Thaut, 2009). Though thorough investigations in the field of the development ofharmonic hearing have been carried out, it is vital to study the opinions and experience of teachers as well: a comprehensive research on teachers' opinions about the development ofharmonic hearing may contribute to identifying and determining the problems existing in the sphere of professional training of music teachers, as well as to constructing a further pedagogical process and also to tackling practical tasks oftraining and educating prospective music teachers.

Research aim: to explore music teachers' opinions about the problems of the development ofharmonic hearing, based on the designed questionnaire.

Research methods: questionnaire survey, data processing in SPSS program, data analysis.

2. METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

To prove the topicality of the research and explore music teachers' opinion about the current situation in the field of the development ofharmonic hearing, teachers' questionnaire survey is conducted in professional education institutions of Latvia and abroad (Belarus, Lithuania, Estonia). A questionnaire survey is one of the most widely spread and effective methods for collecting primary sociological and statistic information. According to A. Pipere (Pipere, 2011), a questionnaire is one of the most widely spread and effective methods of collecting information, which helps to study either the current situation of the practice of pedagogical work or teachers' opinions relating to the problem under the research.

In this research, the advantage of a questionnaire survey as a method of pedagogical investigation is seen in the following:

• a questionnaire survey provides an insight about the situation in a contemporary music education, about the level and the need to develop music teachers' harmonic hearing;

• being anonymous (without psychological pressure), a questionnaire survey leads to more well-founded answers on respondents' part;

• a questionnaire survey helps to collect information from a sufficiently great number of music teachers;

• the structure of the offered questionnaire contributes to identifying and determining the problems existing in professional training ofmusic teachers;

• structuring of questions enables us to make the analysis of different forms and methods of developing harmonic hearing, to evaluate their topicality and interrelations with other problems;

• the use of different type of questions - closed-ended questions, which contain a full list ofanswer choices, and semi-closed questions, which include a list of prepared questions, but also provide an opportunity to give one's own answers. The advantages of semi-closed questions are as follows: a) they make it possible to avoid

misunderstanding the questions, b) they make it simple to fill in the questionnaire and process the obtained data;

• the data obtained from a questionnaire survey can be computer-processed;

• singling out essential and problem questions provides the opportunity to concentrate efforts and resources on dealing with the most vital problems.

3. THE PROCEDURE AND RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH

The conducted questionnaire survey was individual. R. Weiss (Weiss, 1994) and J. Creswell (Creswell, 1998) recommend researchers to conduct pilot interviews before the study begins in order to test their research questions. A pilot study allows the researchers to get a clearer idea of what they want to know and how they can best find it out without the expense and effort of a full-fledged study. They are used commonly to try out survey questions and to refine research hypotheses (Grossman, 2013).

A pilot study was carried out in 2011. In the first questionnaire survey, 60 music teachers from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Belarus took part. R. Weiss (Weiss, 1994) states that choosing 60 respondents completely independently of each other will result in a statistically significant survey of most populations. The questionnaire contained seven questions and a table with forms of work for the development of harmonic hearing at music classes, which had to be assessed by five parameters of the Likert-Scale. First were the questions of sociological nature, pertaining to music teachers' age, education and work experience. They were followed by the specific ones, relating to the research theme - the development of harmonic hearing. The data received from the questionnaire survey were processed by computer SPSS program.

4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE FIRST STAGE OF A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

The analysis ofthe received results showed that the average age ofthe respondents was 43.5 years, the youngest being 25 years old, the oldest - 63 years old (See Figure 1).

Fig. 1. Respondents' age

Length ofrespondents' pedagogical experience fluctuates between 1 and 44 years, the statistic mean being 20.5 years (See Figure 2).

Experience of pedagody

Fig. 2. Respondents' experience of pedagogy

A more detailed processing of statistic data is shown in Table 1

Table 1. Statistics of respondents' age and experience of pedagogy

Age Experience of pedagody

Mean 43,58 20,69

Median 42,00 21,00

Mode 42 20

Std. Deviation 8,904 9,128

Range 38 43

Minimum 25 1

Maximum 63 44

25 37,00 15,00

Percentiles 50 42,00 21,00

75 48,00 27,00

5 teachers -respondents had secondary special education, the rest - 55 respondents - higher education (See Table 2).

Table 2. Respondents' education

Frequency Percent

secondary special 5 8,3

music pedagogy 55 91,7

Teachers - respondents having a master's degree constituted 43.3%, those having abachelor's degree - 56.7%

Table 3. Distribution of respondents by scientific degrees in percentage terms

Frequency Percent

No 34 56,7

Yes 26 43,3

The analysis of the survey data on the question How much time in percentage terms was devoted to the development of harmonic hearing duringyour musical-pedagogical training? Yielded the following results:

Table 4. Time (in percentage) allotted to the development ofharmonic hearing in current practice

Frequency Percent

10%-20% 20 33,3

20%-40% 40 66,7

66.7% of respondents stated that 20% - 40% of their training time was allotted to the development ofharmonic hearing, whereas 33.3% ofrespondents indicated 10% - 20%.

The answers to the question How much time in terms of percentage do you think is expedient to allot to the development of harmonic hearing? providedthe results as follows: 31.7% ofrespondents indicated 10% - 20% of the total time ofclasses, but 68.3% ofrespondents - 20% - 40%.

Table 5. Time necessary for developing harmonic hearing

Frequency Percent

10%-20% 19 31,7

20%-40% 41 68,3

Practically all respondents recognized the importance for music teachers to develop harmonic hearing: answers of 59 respondents were positive, the answer of 1 respondent - negative.

Table 6. Importance of developing music teachers' harmonic hearing

Frequency Percent

No 1 1,7

Yes 59 98,3

The question Which types of mus ical hearing, in your opinion, are important for the profession of music teacher? was given a detailed cluster analysis. The respondents were offered either to choose three out of the given seven types of musical hearing which, in their opinion, were important for a teacher of music or to give their own answer variants. Table 7 shows the frequency dynamic of the choice of different types of musical hearing made by the respondents.

Galina Zavadska and Jelena Davidova /Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 (2013) 2602 - 2613 Table 7. Importance of developing music teachers' harmonic hearing

Responses_

Percent of Cases

N Percent

Melodic 48 26,1% 81,4%

Harmonic 54 29,3% 91,5%

Timbrai 7 3,8% 11,9%

Inner 24 13,0% 40,7%

Metrorhythmic 32 17,4% 54,2%

Vocal 10 5,4% 16,9%

Polyphonic 9 4,9% 15,3%

Total 184 100,0% 311,9%

The table shows that among all types of musical hearing harmonic hearing takes the leading position - 91.5%, next comes melodic hearing - 81.4%, and the third position is taken by metrorhythmic hearing - 40.7%. The least important, in respondents' opinion, is timbrai hearing - 11.9%.

Table 8 shows the distribution ofthe choice of types of musical hearing, depending on respondents' scientific degree. Respondents - masters ranked melodic hearing as the first, while respondents, having a bachelor's degree - harmonic hearing. Metrorhythmic type of musical hearing again takes the third position among the priorities.

Table 8. Distribution of the choice of types of musical hearing depending on respondents' scientific degree

Masters_

No Yes

Melodic 26 22 48

Harmonic 31 23 54

Timbrai 2 5 7

Inner 16 8 24

Metrorhythmic 20 12 32

Vocal 9 1 10

Polyphonic 1 8 9

Total 34 25 59

The cluster analysis allowed dividing all respondents into homogenous groups. The division made according to the respondents' choice produced two groups. The first group of respondents - 28 people (46.7%) is characterized by the fact that they do not choose inner hearing at all, harmonic hearing and melodic hearing -100%, metrorhythmic - 75%, they do not choose timbral, inner and vocal types ofhearing, polyphonic - 25%.

Clusters

Input (Predictor) Importance □ 1.0 □ 0.8 □ 0.6 □ 0.4 □ 0.2 □ 0.0

Cluster 2 1

Description

53.3% 46.7% (?Ff.

Inputs Inner 1 (75.0%) Inner 0 (1 00.0%)

Melodic 1 (62.5%) Melodic 1 (1 00.0%)

Vocal 0 (68.8%) Vocal 0 (1 00.0%)

Metro rhythmic 0 (65.6%) Metrorhythmic I (75.0%)

Tim bra I 0 (78.1 %) Tim bra I 0 (1 00.0%)

Harmonic 1 (81.2%) Harmonic 1 (1 00.0%)

Polyphonic 0 (93.8%) Polyphonic 0 (75.0%)

Fig. 3. Division of respondents into homogenous groups

The second group - 32 people (53.3%) - is characterized by the fact that each respondent in this group chooses inner type of musical hearing; moreover, none ofthe other types of musical hearing reaches 100% importance. The color diagrams below clearly show the respondents' priorities in each group.

Fig. 4. Percentage of the choice of the types of musical hearing by homogenous groups of respondents (the first and the second)

The analysis of the first and the second cluster group was made in order to reveal the quantitative indicators of respondents' choice (See Table 9).

Table 9. Quantitative indicators of cluster groups

ClusterGroupl_

Melodic 28 20 48

Harmonic 28 26 54

Timbrai 0 7 7

Inner 0 24 24

Metrorhythmic 21 11 32

Vocal 0 10 10

Polyphonic 7 2 9

Total 28 31 59

On the basis of indicators given in Table 9, the Test Statistics was done in order to reveal the dependence of respondents'age and pedagogical experience on the choice ofpriorities given to types of musical hearing. However, this test did not provide statistically signifficat results: inclusion of the respondents in different groups does not depend on preliminary given paramétrés.

The data collected from the questionnaire survey are not sufficient for a qualitative analysis of the choice made by the cluster groups. The analysis of the table, showing the forms of work for the development of harmonious hearing during music classes, assessed by applying the Likert-Scale, did not produce statistically significantly results either. This can be attributed to the fact that the respondents had not been offered discussable questions which would involve alternative questions. This shortcoming initiated working out the next stage of the questionnaire survey - a pilot study, where the respondents will be given alternative answers to questions concerning the development ofharmonious hearing and work forms at music classes.

5. CONCLUSIONS

1. The first stage of the conducted music teachers' questionnaire survey on issues ofharmonic hearing resulted in identifying the current problems relating to music teachers' training:

• Practically all the respondents recognized and marked the importance of developing music teachers' harmonic hearing (59 respondents out of60);

• 68.3% ofrespondents marked that 20% - 40% of music class time should be allotted to the development ofharmonic hearing. However 33.3% ofrespondents indicated that in the current practice only 10% -20% oftime is devoted to the development ofharmonic hearing.

• The cluster analysis showed that harmonic type of musical hearing takes the leading position among other types of musical hearing offered for respondents' choice - 91.5%, and it is followed by metrorhythmic hearing - 40.7%. According to the choice made by the respondents, the least important is timbral hearing - 11.9%.

2. The cluster analysis of homogenous respondents' groups revealed some shortcomings in the conducted questionnaire survey, because the collected data turned out to be insufficient for a qualitative analysis. Problems also arose over the analysis of respondents' assessment of work forms for the development of harmonic hearing at music classes (Likert-Scale). The analysis of the statistic data is the basic information for constructing a further stage of the research - pilot study, where for the respondents alternative answers to questions concerning the development of harmonic hearing and work forms at music classes will be given.

Acknowledgemen ts

This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the Project "Support for the implementation of doctoral studies atDaugavpils University! AgreementNr. 2009/0140/1DP/1.1.2.1.2/09/IPIA/VIAA/015.

References

Davidova, J. & Marnauza, M. (2003). Evaluation of a music teacher's as conductor's professional maturity. Proceedings of the 3rd International Research in Music Education Conference. Exeter: University ofExeter, 48-55.

Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Researc h Design: Choosing among five traditions. London, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Hallam, S., Gross, I. & Thaut, M. (2009) The Oxford Handbook of Music Psyc hology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hewitt, A. (2005). Teachers' personal construct models of pupil individuality and their influence in the music classroom. Music Education

research, 7 (3), 305-330.

Kazkayasi, M., Yetiser, S. & Ozcelik, S. (2006). Effect of musical training on musical perception and hearing sensitivity: conventional and high frequency audiometric comparison. The Journal of Otolaryngology, 35 (5), 343-348.

Marnauza, M., Kriumane, L. & Gzibovskis, T. (2005). Education of music teachers and the content of music subjects in general education schools: Opportunities to improvement [Muzikas skolotaju izglitiba un visparizglitojosas skolas muzikas macibu prieksmeta saturs: Та pilnveides iespejas], J. Davidova (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference "Problems in Music Pedagogy". Daugavpils: Saule, 21-42 (in Latvian).

Mellor, L. (1999). Language and music teaching: The use of Personal Construct Theory to investigate teachers' responses to young people's musiccompositions. Music Education Research, 1(2), 147-158.

Petrushin, V. (1997). Psyc hology of Music [Музыкальная психология] Moskow: Vlados. (In Russian).

Pipere, A. (2011). Methods of obtaining research data and their characterization. [Datu ieguves metodes petijuma un to raksturojums. K. Martinsone (Sast.) Ievads petniecTba: Strategijas, dizaini, metodes] Riga: RaKa, 157-191 (in Latvian).

Rascevska, M. (2005). Construe ting and adoption ofpsychological tests and surveys. [Psihologisko testu un aptauju konstruesana un adoptacija] Riga: RaKa (in Latvian).

Teplov, B. (1947). Psychology of Music and Musical Abilities [Психология музыки и музыкальных способностей]. Moscow, Leningrad: Publishing house of Pedagogical Sciences (in Russian).

Crossman, A. (2013). Pilot Study Retrieved [22.03.2013], from http://sociology.about.eom/od/P_Index/g/Pilot-Study.htm Seashore, С. E. (1967). Psychology of Music. New York: Dover Publications.

Weiss, R. (1994). Learning from Strangers; The art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York: The Free Press.

Znutins, E. (2009). Choir singing traditions as developmental tendencies of oral and non-material cultural heritage of mankind in general education school choirs of Latvia [Kora dziedasanas tradlcijas ka cilveces mutvardu un nemateriala kulffiras mantojuma attistibas tendences visparizglitojoso skolu koros Latvija], J. Davidova (Ed.) Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific Conference „Problems in Music Pedagogy". Daugavpils: Academic Press „Saule" of Daugavpils University, 359 - 370 (in Latvian).

Appendix A.

Education

Questionnaire for teachers

secondary special: theory of music choir conducting other

higher: theory of music

music pedagogy

master's degree in pedagogy: yes_

Length of your work experience in pedagogy__

□ □

Length of your sol-fa teacher's work experience (if you have it)_

Which types of musical hearing, in your opinion, are important for the profession of music teacher, (mark 3 possible variants):

1. Melodic

2. Harmonic

3. Timbrai

4. Inner

5. Metrorhythmic

6. Vocal

7. Polyphonic

The development of musical hearing in your musical- pedagogical preparedness takes (how much in percentage?):

10% - 20%_

20% - 40%_

A different variant (write it down, please)_

Is it important to develop music teacher's harmonic hearing, in your opinion?

What percentage of classroom time should be givenjust to the development ofharmonic hearing, in your opinion?

10% - 20%_

20% - 40%_

A different variant (write it down, please)_

Please, fill in the table below according to 5 parameters (Likert-Scale). How important, in your opinion, is the role of working forms used at

music lessons for the development ofharmonic hearing?

Completely disagree - the lowest assessment for the criterion selected,

Completely agree - the highest assessment for the criterion selected

Undecided - You cannot answer the given question. It would be desirable, if you used this variant of answer as seldom as possible. If needed, other variant of answers can be filled in in the free space.

Working forms

Singing

Completely disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Completely agree

Harmonic singing of intervals

Two-part singing

Polyphonic singing a capella

Canon singing

Singing of chord sequences

Singing of folk songs for choirs Other forms

Kinds of music dictations

Two-part dictation where one voice is written down and the second voice should be added

Dictation of one voice with accompaniment

Harmonic dictation in the given key Polyphonic dictation Analysis by hearing

Analysis of intervals Analysis of chord sequences

Analysis of fragments from the given piece of music Other kinds Creative tasks

To compose the accompaniment for the given melody To compose the second voice for the given melody

Vocal improvisation of two (or more) voices Other tasks