Scholarly article on topic 'Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey'

Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

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Academic research paper on topic "Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey"

Ari et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2015) 11:84 DOI 10.1186/s13002-015-0067-6

JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY AND ETHNOMEDICINE

RESEARCH

Open Access

Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey

Süleyman Ari1, Mehmet Temel1, Mustafa Kargioglu1 and Muhsin Konuk2*©

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Abstract

Background: The traditional knowledge about plants and their uses in Turkey is disappearing in recent years because the new generations of villagers migrate to big cities for a better life. Afyonkarahisar located at the intersection of roads and phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan, and Euro-Siberian) has more than 2500 plant species. This richness of plant diversity promotes the indigenous commuity for the traditional use of wild plants. The aim of the study is to show wild plants' ethnobotanical usages associated with medicinal, food, fodder, and household goods in 31 settlements within the boundaries of Afyonkarahisar province.

Methods: The ethnobotanical data were collected from 46 informants by means of semi-structured interviews from 2012 to 2014. Ethnobotanical uses of plants of the study area were conducted in the vicinity of Afyonkarahisar (5 districts, 8 towns, 15 villages, and 3 neighborhood centers).

Results: One hundred and thirty plant taxa belonging to 39 families were recorded and collected. Hundred and seventy-eight different uses of these plants were documented and used generally for medicinal (84), food (68), fodder (16), household goods (3), dyes (3), handicrafts (3) and religious (1).

Conclusion: This study provides interesting uses of plants in the local community of Afyonkarahisar and its surrounding area, in what purpose they make use of plants, how they make use of them and obtained results will contribute to economy of villagers. Since the local people, especially in villages, are poor and do not have health care, they use the plants to treat illnesses, food, fodder, household goods and other uses (evil eye). Also this study will light the way for posterity for next generations.

Keywords: Afyonkarahisar, Ethnobotany, Food plants, Medicinal plants

Background

People have interacted with plants since ancient times. This interaction has contributed to flourishing of scientific fields such as ethnobotany and paleoethnobotany [1]. Ethnobotanical studies began in the early 1800s when John W. Harsberger, a famous botanist, proposed ethnobotanical study for the first time [2]. The scope of plant use has changed since the 1800s to this day. The frequency and purpose of use of plants by people vary in regard to social, cultural, and economic needs. Plants are used for purposes of food, medicine, fuel, industry, ornament, and effects. Purposes of use also vary in regard to people's priority of needs [1, 3-9]. Turkey, with more than 11,000 taxa is a flora-rich country due to its

* Correspondence: mkonuk@gmail.com

2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Engineering and NaturalSciences, Uskudar University, 34662 Istanbul, Turkey Full list of author information is available at the end of the article

Bio Med Central

climate and phytogeographical positions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan, and Euro-Siberian) is a significant position as being a flora-rich country. The endemic plants in its flora occupy 1/3 of total taxa. Anatolian people have been using these plants as food and medicine since Paleolithic times [10, 11]. Approximately 1000 taxa are used for medicinal purposes and 350 plant species are used in internal and external trade [12]. Afyonkarahisar is located where the three regions intersect. This makes Afyonkarahisar a flora rich region, people use the plants arund their environment for different purposes.

Turkish people living in rural areas use especially wild plants. Generally, the usage of plants are for food and medical purposes. In recent years, traditional ethno-botanical knowledge and prevalence of medicinal plants have been investigated by researchers in different areas of Turkey [13-41]. As a results of these studies a great

© 2015 Ari et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

increase on the level of traditional knowledge of plants occured. On the other hand, more detailed studies are needed to focus region by region. Therefore this study was carried out to extend Afyonkarahisar's ethnobotan-ical knowledge due to a limited ethnobotanical studies [42-46] conducted in the near region; living in suburbs and in villages; protecting and maintaining their traditional culture and customs and rich uses of plants by local people. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine the local and scientific names of the plants, (2) to document and analyse the traditional ethnobotanical knowledge herited by local people living in Afyonkarahi-sar and its surrounding area.

Methods

Study Area

Afyonkarahisar is 1034 m above sea level. It is located 38° 45'N latitude and 30° 32' E longitude. The total area of Afyonkarahisar is 14,295 km2 and it occupies 1.8 % of Turkey's land. In north of Eskifehir, northwest of Kutahya, east of Konya, south of Isparta, west of Ufak, southwest of Denizli and Burdur are located (Fig. 1) [46]. Despite the fact that Afyonkarahisar is located in the Aegean region, its climate is similar to that of the central Anatolia region. Winters are cold and tough with intense snow, summers are hot and dry, and spring and autumn months feature rain. Precipitation is raining in spring and autumn [47]. According to Erin^ [48], the index value of Afyonkarahisar is 23.9 lm. In the vegetation of Afyonkarahisar, cedar and blackpine are found along with various species including relict ones. However, blackpine forests, the dominant factor of forest formation, have been significantly destroyed and oak groups have replaced them. The destruction is greater especially in fields around settlements, and these fields have turned into anthropogenic steppe [47]. The main livelihoods of the local community in the research area are tree felling, sheep and cattle husbandry, and agriculture. Animal husbandry consists of small numbers of cattle per household (average one), kept for meat and milk, with dairy products being sold in local bazaars. Since the area consists largely of forested hillsides, crop production is restricted to small fields, and annual incomes from agriculture are therefore relatively low. Monthly incomes are in the region of US $230-350 for workers and shepherds, and $350 for agricultural workers in those months that they work. On average, 50 % of the population is young (under 30 years), 30 % are middle-aged (30-50 years), and 20 % are old (50+ years). Although 80 % of the middle-aged and nearly 80 % of the older generation is not literate, almost all young people are literate.

Data collection

Specimens were collected by the authors in Afyonkarahisar and its surrounding area in the years between 2012 and

2014. Thirty-one settlements were visited for field research. Two hundred people were contacted, and 46 of them accepted to become our informants who have ethnobotanical experience. Thirty-five of them were male and 11 of them were female. Data were collected from nine informants between the ages of 35 and 50, 17 informants between the ages of 50-65, and 20 informants over the age of 65. Interviews with the men were usually carried out in the teahouses where they come together, and with women in their homes, bazaars and gardens. A questionnaire was administered to the informants through face-to-face interviews. Information that had been carried to the region from the outside and that was not used or confirmed were not included and recorded. During the interviews, the below questions were asked to the participants.

(1)Name and surname

(2) Age and sex

(3) Educational level

(4)Are plants collected in your region?

(5) Do you have any contact with plants?

(6) Can you show the plants you use in your region?

(7) Can you tell the local names of the plants you use in your region?

(8) In which season do you collect the plants you use in your region?

(9) When collecting plant, which parts of the plant do you collect and how do you collect them?

(10) Which parts of the plants do you use? (Flower, fruit, leaves, root, tuber, young shoots, branch, galbula, cupula, stem, above ground parts etc.).

(11) How do you prepare and administrate the plants' parts?

Answers given above questions with doubt were not recorded. Specimens were collected and identified by the authors according to Davis [49] and the studies related to the flora Afyonkarahisar by Kargioglu et al. [44, 45]. Plants were photographed as well as being observed in the research field. Voucher specimens are saved in the Herbarium of Afyon Kocatepe University (AKUH). Herbarium numbers of the plant taxa were given in Table 1.

Results and discussion

As seen in Table 1 and Fig. 2, the number of plant taxa used by the indeginous community of Afyonkarahisar and the surrounding area is 130 that belong to 93 genera and 39 families, and a total of 178 ethnobotanical uses (remedies) were recorded. Medicinal use occupies the first place with 84 types of use. The others are food with 68, fodder with 16, handicrafts, painting and effects with three types of use each, and other (evil eye) with one. According to results, the percentage of species in

Fig. 1 The study area and Afyonkarahisar's location map

families are Asteraceae (14 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Rosaceae (8 %), Caryophyllaceae (5 %), Chenopodiaceae (5 %), Polygonaceae (5 %), Boraginaceae (4 %), Brassicaceae (4 %), Fabaceae (4 %), and 41 % of them are composed of other subgroups. The richest subgroup rate in terms of frequency of ethnobotanical uses is 15 % Asteraceae, followed by 10 % Lamiaceae, 9 % Rosaceae, 4 % Brassicaceae, 4 % Caryophyllaceae, 4 % Chenopodiaceae, 4 % Fabaceae, 3 % Boraginaceae, and 42 % other subgroups. The richest genus in terms of ethnobotanically significant is Rumex L. with 5

taxa, followed by Quercus L. with 4 taxa. Seven other 7 genera share thirt place with three taxa each. When we compare the studies of other reseachers [5, 7, 30, 35, 38, 41], the families of Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae are the most common families. But in the study of Dogan [11] the usage order of the families was a bit different than our findings. He reported that the highest number of taxa is similarly Asteraceae, but others were as Boraginaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Geraniaceae. Rumex and Erodium are the most represented genera.

Species

Plant Family Local Name Parts Used Uses

Preparation and Administration

Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. (AKUH 7506) Acanthaceae Amaranthus retroflexus L. (AKUH 7509) Amaranthaceae

Conium maculatum L. (AKUH 7520) Apiaceae

Eryngium campestre L. var. virens Link. (AKUH 7528)

Arum elongatum Steven subsp. Araceae

elongatum Steven (AKUH 7542)

Dracunculus vulgaris Schoot. (AKUH 7564)

Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. (AKUH 7597) Asparagaceae

Tragopogon latifolius Boiss. var. Asteraceae

angustifolius Boiss. (AKUH 7514)

Helianthus tuberosus L. (AKUH 7521)

Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria L. (AKUH 7545)

Hieracium pannosum Boiss. (AKUH 7548)

Anthemis wallii Hub.-Mor. et Reese (AKUH 7501)

Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea. (AKUH 7504)

Lactuca serriola L. (AKUH 7502)

Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium. (AKUH 7534)

Achillea teretifolia Willd. (AKUH 7532)

Centaurea depressa M. Bieb. (AKUH 7560)

Cichorium intybus L. (AKUH 7557) Scolymus hispanicus L. (AKUH 7503) Bellis perennis L. (AKUH 7511)

Ayipençesi

Paja pancari, kizilbacak

Yilan kamiji, gumarcik ot

Çakirdikeni

Basur otu

Yilan biçagi

Dag sogani, ada sogani

Tekesakali, yemlik

Yerelmasi

Papatya

Sakiz otu

Papatya

Karakavuk, çitlik, çengel sakizi

Tarla marul, aci marul, dilli tura

Ayva denesi Yaraotu

Stem, Leaf Fodder Food

Flower

Infection Infection

Root, Tuber Hemorrhoid

Infection

Above ground Circulatory system parts

Leaf Stomach disease

Root, Stem Food

Flower Respiratory system

Root Oraland dentalhealth

Flower Asthma and shortness of breath

Leaf Painkiller and stomach disease

Leaf Diet and attenuator

Leaf, Flower Diseases of the digestive system

Above ground Diseases of the digestive, skin and acne parts

Gökbaj

Aci günek, çiftlik otu

Leaf Food

Leaf Painkiller and stomach diseases

Stem Digestive diseases

^ayi r papatyas i Flower Medical, respiratory diseases

Stem and leaf are consumed by animals for fodder. The plant's leaves are fried in oiland consumed.

The plant oilwere removed and the stem is driven to kill germs in the stem structure.

Infusion as tea.

Plant tuber part turned into powder by in effect simulating the board. The capsule was consumed.

The leaf part is used as a salve on a wound. Infusion as tea.

The leaves are directly consumed.

Root and stem parts are directly consumed. Infusion as tea.

The root of the plant is suspended in the sun, the resulting liquid such as milk dry up like chewing gum is for chewing.

Infusion as tea.

The leaves are used in salad.

The leaves of the plant are consumed as part of a salad. Infusion as tea.

The plant's above ground parts boiled water by putting a quantity of 15 min is suspended. Tea mixed with oilis applied on acne and wounded regions.

The leaves of the plant are consumed by making a taco.

The plant's leaves are made of salad and rolls.

The fleshy parts of the stem of the plant is consumed directly in the blister pack

Flower of the plant is dried, boiled water for 3-5 min by joining strength, juice drink.

3 Q. Et

Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (AKUH 7513)

Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss.) Eig. (AKUH 7562)

Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii (AKUH 7556)

Artemisia campestris L. (AKUH 7589) Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AKUH 7573) Inula anatolica Boiss.(AKUH 7576) Berberis crataegina DC.(AKUH 7629)

Anchusa leptophylla Roemer & Schultes Boraginaceae subsp. leptophylla (AKUH 7505)

Cerinthe minor L. subsp. auriculata (Ten.) Domac (AKUH 7558)

Anchusa undulata L. subsp. hybrida (Ten.) Coutinho (AKUH 7552)

Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch subsp. glandulosa Hub.-Mor. (AKUH 7561)

Anchusa azurea Mill. var. azurea. (AKUH 7553)

Alyssum desertorum Stapf. var. desertorum Stapf. (AKUH 7554)

Sisymbrium altissimum L. (AKUH 7590)

Brassicaceae

Barbarea sp. (AKUH 7583)

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (AKUH 7507)

Sinapis arvensis L. (AKUH 7508)

Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma Ehrh. (AKUH 7512)

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. subsp. media. (AKUH 7510)

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke var. vulgaris (AKUH 7515)

Sariggek Galgan Kenger Pelin

Flower, Leaf Fodder

Stem Digestive tract, stomachache, kidney stones

Fruit Skin disorders, eczema, hemorrhoids After roasting, the fruit portion is consumed.

The plant flowers and leaves parts exposed to animals as bait.

The meaty parts in the stem of the plant is removed, directly from the defeated are consumed. Decoction as tea.

Young shoots Appetizer and Leaves

Civanpergem Leaf, Flower Pain relievers, stomach, respiratory distress,

shortness of breath disorders

Basur otu Flower Hemorrhoids

Berberidaceae Sarigali Leaf, Fruit Kidney stones, liver

Ball i k Otu, Kuzu Stem, Flower, Food dili

Sariçiçek Sigirdili Havaciva otu

Flower, Leaf Fodder

Diabetes

Hemorrhoids

Kuzu dili, Ball i k Leaf otu

Yozmercimek Fruit

Hardal otu

Leaf, Flower Food, Fodder

Aci tere Leaf

Pastariz, bicibici Leaf

Hardal

Caryophyllaceae Toklubaji

Kujekmegi,

urgancik,

kazayagi

Toklubaji

Leaf Leaf

Leaf Leaf

Body resistance, vitamin Food

Food Food

Food Food

Decoction as tea. Decoction as tea.

Flower is boiled in water. It is used as a treatment for hemorrhoids district.

Leaves are effective for preventing kidney stones when they are consumed 15-20 days as salad. The fruit of the plant part (grape) is consumed directly.

Stem and flowers are put into the dough.

Leaves and flower parts are exposed to animals.

The plant's leaves are boiled and are consumed by joining into the dough.

Decoction as tea, the region also has a therapeutic equivalent of hemorrhoids.

Fresh leaves of the plant are boiled and put into dough.

Consumed directly by shepherds.

Leaf of the plant parts consumed in the form of rolls wrapped in phyllo dough. Leaves and flowers of the plant are given to animals.

The plant's leaves are made of salad.

The plant fresh leaves are consumed in the form of pastry wrapped into rolls.

in dough.

Boiled fresh leaves is consumed in taco. The plant's leaves are made of salad

The leaves of the plant is consumed wra Fried in oiland consumed.

3 Cl t

Agrostemma githago L. (AKUH 7628)

Dianthus zonatus Fenzl. var. aristatus (Boiss.) Reeve (AKUH 762G)

Dianthus zonatus Fenzlvar. zonatus (AKUH 7598)

Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) Cullen (AKUH 7623)

Chenopodium album L. (AKUH 7588) Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium album L. subsp. album var. album (AKUH 7582)

Chenopodium foliosum (Moench) Asch. (AKUH 763G)

Beta trigyna Waldst. & Kit. (AKUH 7625)

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (AKUH 7626)

Atriplex sp. (AKUH 7627)

Cistus laurifolius L. (AKUH 7624) Cistaceae

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. (AKUH 7621)

Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (AKUH 7619)

Astragalus flavescens Boiss. (AKUH 7618)

Astragalus microcephalus Willd. (AKUH 7615)

Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia (AKUH 7611)

Sak izl i k otu Basur otu

Sigilotu

Mor çiçek

Sirken Sar i sirken

It üzümü

Ki r i spanag i Süpürge

Tellice Pinar

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus Cupressaceae G i li g i li (AKUH 7622)

Katran agac i Kokar ard i ci

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (AKUH Equisetaceae Ki rk kilit 7617)

Euphorbia macroclada (Boiss.) (AKUH Euphorbiaceae Sütlegen 7616)

Vicia cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Velen. Fabaceae Efek

(AKUH 7613)

Ejek geveni

Burçak

Flower Flower

Flower

Leaf Leaf

Flower

Digestive disorder Hemorrhoids

Skin diseases, warts

Flower, Leaf Fodder

Food Food

Leaf Digestive and stomach diseases

Branch, Stem Household goods

Immune system

Leaf, Young Crafts, coloring, digestive shoots

Leaf, Galbula Cholesterol, diabetes

Infusion as tea.

Flower part is boiled in water in 3-5 min. It is drunk for hemorrhoidaldisease by the use of 10-15 sessions

Infusion as tea.

It is consumed as fresh by animals..

The plant's leaves are boiled, consumed in dough.

The plant's leaves are roasted and the eggs are added on to it.

Fruits are eaten in fresh.

Fried in oiland eaten by shepherds.

Turned into a broom is used as household goods.

Infusion as tea.

The leaves and young branches of the plant are boiled, green, yellow and tones are obtained. The leaves and shoots are boiled in water to drink.

The plant's fruit and leaves are boiled in water for 10-15 min for a drink. Fresh fruits are edible or boiled to prepare juice.

Stem Digestive and infection diseases

Leaf Skin diseases, warts

Stem Respiratory, sinusitis and arthritis diseases Decoction as tea

Stem Infection

The plant body part turned into tar at high temperature and used for cleaning of the infection and digestive problems.

Juniper leaves, broken in and they are applied into the warty zone 30-40 sessions.

Flower, Fruit Food, fodder

Leaf, Flower Fodder

Above ground Fodder parts

Flower, Leaf Respiratory diseases

The plant is removed from the body in the form of liquid milk. Liquid bread into the stained area and ingested for treatment malaria.

Flowers and fruits are consumed directly.

The plant's leaves and flower parts are consumed directly by animals

Spiny part is burned by shepherds. A hammer or mallet were crushed for animals to eat.

Infusion as tea.

3 Cl Et

Astragalus pisidicus Boiss. & Heldr. Sögüt geveni (AKUH 7612)

Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. Fagaceae Palamut

macrolepis (Kotsch) Hedge&Yalt. (aKUH

Quercus cerris L. var. cerris (AKUH 7608) Kizilmeje

Quercus infectoria Oliv. subsp. boissieri Gerçelik (Reuter) O.Schwarz (AKUH 7610)

Quercus pubescens Willd. (AKUH 7595) Tüylü meje

Hypericum perforatum L. (AKUH 7566) Hypericaceae Binbir otu

Hypericum perfoliatum L. (AKUH 7555) Binbirdelik otu Juglans regia L. (AKUH 7607) Juglandaceae Ceviz kabugu

Tymus longicaulis C. Preslsubsp. Lamiaceae Dag kekigi longicaulis var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas (AKUH 7601)

Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. Yabani nane,

typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides Doguma (AKUH 7600)

Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. Bodurmamut,

chamaedry. (AKUH 7603) sanciotu

Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum Dag çayi (Link) letsw. (AKUH 7599)

Thymus zygioides Griseb. var. lycaonicus Mor kekik (AKUH 7606)

Salvia cryptantha Montbret & Aucher Kir çayi, japla ex Bentham (AKUH 7602)

Marrubium globosum Montbret et Ogulotu Aucher ex Bentham (AKUH 7578)

Salvia tomentosa Mill. (AKUH 7579) Karakekik

Salvia virgata Jacq. (AKUH 7592) Kir kekigi

Phlomis armeniaca Willd. (AKUH 7593) Zorlatma otu

Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus Beyaz kekik var. sipyleus (AKUH 7604)

Mentha pulegium L. (AKUH 7605) Yarpuz

Teucrium polium L. (AKUH 7591) Aci ot

Linaceae Keten

Above ground Body resistance, immune system, cancer parts

Cupula of the Crafts, painting plant

Infection, hemorrhoids, Skin disorders, eczema

Fodder Fodder

Above ground Painkillers parts

Leaf, Flower Digestive system

Fruit Peel Skin cancer, crafts and coloring

Flower Lowering cholesterol and sugar.

Leaf Body resistance, vitamin, respiratory

diseases

Leaf, Flower Painkillers, stomach and hemorrhoid disease

Flower Digestive and stomach diseases

Flower Heart and vascular diseases

Leaf, Flower Respiratory and colds

Leaf Cardiac, vascular diseases

Leaf, Flower Food

Flower Food

Flower Painkillers

Flower Respiratory diseases shortness of breath, influenza

Flower Food

Stem Hemorrhoids

Flower Food

Infusion as tea.

Cupula of the plant by boiling chickpea yolk color is obtained for rug weaving.

It is boiled in water and two spoons of juice is consumed on an empty stomach.

Plant crops are exposed as sheep bait.

The leaves of the plant are eaten by animals. Decoction as tea.

Decoction as tea.

Decoction as tea. It is boiled to obtain dark brown collors and tones for rug weaving.

The plant is consumed in the form of oregano oil. Infusion as tea.

The plant's leaves are consumed in salad Infusion as tea. Dried leaves of the plant are used for spices. Plant leaves are mixed to the dough.

Infusion as tea. Infusion as tea. Infusion as tea. Infusion as tea. Infusion as tea. Decoction as tea.

Dried flowers are used for spices by joining tarhana soup Flower oil is applied to the pain region. Infusion as tea.

Dried flowers of the herb is consumed as spices. Infusion as tea.

Infusion as tea.

The flowers of the plant are consumed directly.

3 Cl Et

Linum hirsutum L. subsp. anatolicum (Boiss.) Hayek var. anatolicum.(AKUH 7596)

Viscum album L. subsp. album (AKUH 7594)

Arceuthobium oxycedri (Dc.) M. Bieb. (AKUH 7584)

Malva sylvestris L. (AKUH 7587) Malva neglecta Wallr. (AKUH 7586)

Morus nigra L.(AKUH 7585) Peganum harmala L. (AKUH 7572)

Chelidonium majus L. (AKUH 7563)

Fumaria asepala Boiss. (AKUH 7543)

Papaver dubium L. (AKUH 7551)

Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana Pinaceae

(Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana (AKUH

Santalaceae

Malvaceae

Moraceae Nitrariceae

Bogem, burj Leaf, Young Respiratory, cough, digestive, intestinalgas shoots reliever

Ard i ç burçu Stem

Ebegümeci Leaf Ebegümeci Leaf

Dogal dut Üzerlik

Plantago lanceolata L. (AKUH 7525)

Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange (AKUH 7531)

Acantholimon ulicinum (Willd. & Schultes) Boiss. subsp. lycaonicum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Bokhari. & Edm. (AKUH 758G)

Acantholimon acerosum subsp. lycaonicum (Willd.) Boiss. var. acerosum (AKUH 7581)

Rumex scutatus L. (AKUH 7569)

Rumex patientia L. (AKUH 7571)

Rumex acetosella L. (AKUH 7574)

Rumex crispus L. (AKUH 7575)

Polygonum cognatum Meissn. (AKUH 7518)

Y lanotu Porsuk

Neurologicaldiseases

Food Painkiller

Infection, aphthae

Above ground The evileye parts

Jahtere Flower

Yaban hajhaj i Leaf Katran çam i Stem

Plantaginaceae Sinirli yaprak Leaf

Iinfection, fungus

Infection

Infection Infection

Flower, Leaf Household goods

Infusion as tea.

Decoction as tea.

Ki rlang i 5 otu Above ground Digestion, hemorrhoids, liver, jaundice, eye parts diseases, skin diseases

After rosting in oil, it is consumed in the form of food.

Infusion as tea. Fresh leaves of the plant participates in the dough.

Marmalade is made from fruit.

It is believed to prevent for the evil eye to strike the bride and son-in-law.

Infusion as tea (1-2 cups a day)

Infusion as tea. The plant's water is applied to fungalregion. The leaves of the plant are consumed by making a salad. Tar in water is drunk for infection.

Leaf of the plant part is driven directly to the inflamed area. It is used for cleaning of the infection.

Leaf of the plant part affected area to be wrapped, provides to outside infection.

Used in homes as decorative items.

Keven, Porsuk Flower

Household goods, infection, tuberculosis Infusion as tea (1-2 cups a day)

Polygonaceae Ekjimen

libada, Sabla Leaf

Kuzukulag Evelik

Çobanekmegi

Leaf Leaf Leaf

Vitamin needs

Food Food

Body resistance

The leaves of the plant are consumed directly. Phyllo dough is made between the rolls. Salad is made. It is consumed directly with salt.

The leaf part is consumed as wheat wrapped (sarma). Leaf of the plant part participates in the dough.

Leaves are eaten directly. Rolls are made, It is eaten.

The leaf part is consumed as wheat wrapped (sarma).

It is eaten as salad. Leaf of the plant part eaten directly.

3 Cl Et

Rumex tuberosus L.subsp. tuberosus L. (AKUH 7519)

Portulaca oleraceae L. (AKUH 7522)

Lysimachia vulgaris L. (AKUH 7577) Nigella sativa L. (AKUH 7559)

Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficariiformis Rouy & F. (AKUH 7567)

Adonis aestivalis L. subsp. aestivalis L. (AKUH 7516)

Rhamnus rhodopeus Velen. subsp. anatolicus (Grub.) Browicz & Zielinski (AKUH 7570)

Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas subsp. elaeagnifolia Pallas (AKUH 7568)

Rosa hemisphaerica Herrm. (AKUH 7549)

Rosa canina L. (AKUH 7550)

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna.(AKUH 7547)

Prunus divaricata Ledeb. subsp. divaricata.(AKUH 7541)

Geum urbanum L. (AKUH 7535)

Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (AKUH 7546)

Malus sylvestris Mill. subsp. orientalis(Uglitzk.) Browicz var. orientalis (AKUH 7540)

Crataegus orientalis Pallas ex M. Bieb. var. orientalis (AKUH 7544)

Cerasus vulgaris Mill. (AKUH 7539)

Prunus armeniaca L. (AKUH 7533)

Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (AKUH 7536)

Ekjikulak

Body resistance, vitamin

Portulacaceae Temizlik otu Above ground Food

Primulaceae Mersin Leaf

Ranunculaceae Çôrekotu Seed

Sariçiçek, Flower

Dügün çiçegi, Mayis çiçegi

Rhamnaceae

Rosaceae

Tavukgötü

Yaglican çehri, Fruit Karaköken

Ahlât

Gündöndü çiçegi

Kujburnu

Öküzgötü

Yabani erik

Da g çayi , meryemotu

Dag elmasi

Ahlât Yozvijne

Fruit Fruit Fruit

Fruit Fruit Root Fruit Fruit

Kayisi kurusu Fruit

Mujmula

Digestive diseases

Respiratory distress, shortness of breath, the immune diseases

Digestion, hemorrhoids, skin diseases

Fodder

Debilitating, diabetes

Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension Food

Urea treatment, hemorrhoids, gastric ulcer

Respiratory, cold Body resistance Respiratory, influenza Food Food

Fruit, Young Diabetes, rheumatism shoots

Fruit Kidney, diuretic

Digestive and intestinal problems Fruit Food

It is eaten as salad. Leaf of the plant part eaten directly.

The plant's above ground parts especially the leaves part joins into the yogurt. It is eaten as salad.

Infusion as tea (1-2 cups a day)

The plant's seed is consumed directly. Also, it is mixed into the honey.

Infusion as tea (3 cups a day)

The stem of the plant parts are consumed by animals. Fruits of the plant part eaten directly.

Infusion as tea(4 cups a day) Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly. Designated as a beverage.

Fruits of the plant part eaten directly.

Dried fruit is boiled for a long time in the water to get marmelata. The fruit is boiled and it is taken orally as cold drink. Infusion as tea(3-4 cups a day)

Infusion as tea(2-4 cups a day) Dried fruit is boiled for a long time in the water to get marmelata.

Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.

Decoction as tea.

Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.

The fruit of the plant is dried, boiled and drunk as juice.

The ends of the branches and shoots of the plant parts are welded, cold drink. Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.

Infusion as tea(8-10 cups a day) Compote is done from fruits.

Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly. Compote is done from fruits.

Fresh fruits are boiled to prepare jam. Decoction as tea.

3 Cl Et

Salix alba L. (AKUH 7538) Salicaceae Sögüt Leaf Painkiller, stomach and respiratory diseases, shortness of breath Infusion as tea(2 cups a day)

Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. genistifolia (AKUH 7537) Scrophulariaceae Geyjenik, Meryem otu Flower Fodder Animals consume directly.

Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. confertiflora (AKUH 7517) Geyjenik, Meryem otu Leaf, Flower Skin disorders, eczema Portions of the leaves and flowers are boiled. It is applied 23 times a day for eczema areas.

Verbascum sp. (AKUH 7527) Öküz kuyrugu, s i g i rkuyrugu Leaf, Flower Respiratory, asthma, shortness of breath, skin diseases, warts, eczema Infusion as tea(2-4 cups a day) It is applied 2-3 times a day for eczema areas.

Linaria grandiflora Desf. (AKUH 7529) Sar 15 i n Leaf, Flower Fodder Animals consume directly.

Urtica dioica L. (AKUH 7526) Urticaceae Is i rgan Leaf Cancer, leukemia Decoction as tea.

Urtica urens L. (AKUH 7530) Daglayan Leaf Skin cancer Decoction as tea.

Urtica pilulifera L. (AKUH 7524) Is i rgan otu Leaf Food Decoction as tea.

Tribulus terrestris L. (AKUH 7523) Zygophyllaceae ^oban pokerten Flower, Leaf, Root Kidney sand, hemorrhoids Leaves are consumed to make taco. The flower oilis applied for hemorrhoids.

When the 130 taxa's usage types are analyzed, it can be seen that the most frequently used parts were leaves (68), flowering branches and flowers (44), fruits (22) and stem (18) (Fig. 2). The usage frequencies of plant parts are observed to be different from local to local [5, 7, 30, 35, 38, 41].

Medicinal use occupies the first place among 178 types of use with 84 remedies. The province of Izmir, Denizli, Ankara, Bilecik, Balikesir, Mugla are close to our study area. The results of analysis showed that the percentage of the uses shows some similarities. The medicinal plants (47.2 %) are the most cited in Afyonkarahisar. This is almost in agreement with former studies by Ertug et al. [7] in Buldan (Denizli) with 42 %, Ertug [41] in Mugla with 43 %, $im§ek et al. [5] with 60 % in Ankara, Ugulu et al. [35] with 67 % in Izmir and Guler et al. [30] with 58 % in Bozuyuk (Bilecik). These results revealed that local people prefer widely to use the plants

for medicinal purposes. The reasons for using the plants widely could be economic, because reaching them easily in folk bazaars and actars with a small amount of money. On the other hand, cultural aspects also play an importan role to use the plants for medicinal purposes.

The rate of food, fodder, others (household goods, dyes, handicrafts and religious) are 38.2, 9 and 5.6 %, respectively. The rates are similar with the studies of Ertug [41] in Mugla (38, 15, 5 %) and $im§sek et al. [5] in Ankara (36 %, others (4 %)). According to the data obtained from field work field, plants used by people for infection (10 %), respiration (9 %), stomachache (8 %), skin diseases, wart, eczema (7 %), digestion (7 %), hemorrhoids (6 %), painkiller (5 %), body resistance (4 %), blood sugar regulator (3 %), and other diseases (41 %) (Fig. 3, Table 1). Polat & Satil [38] reported that various diseases are gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory and throat diseases, diabetes, kidney ailments, healing cut and wounds, hemorrhoids, anorexia

Fig. 3 The use aim and usage percentages of the plants in the study area

and hypertension stabilizer in Edremit Gulf (Balikesir). This shows us that the priority of people in using medicinal plants in different localities is different to treat ailments.

We have seen that the culture and ethnobotanical informations that people have gained with centuries of traditional methods are disappearing. Especially today, we can say that increasing of purchasing power and the wealth level has led to a decrease in the use of plants, with more people buying convenience foods, to use cultivated plants, and supplying their medication needs by buying pharmaceuticals from a pharmacy. We determined that in areas where purchasing power is low, people are more prone to ethnobotanical culture.

Particularly, the facts that there are no pharmacies in villages and towns, economic power is low, increased contact with plants, and success in solving some medicinal problems with culture they gained over generations promoting ethnobotanical culture. In comparison to some studies conducted in near areas (in Anatolia), there are some differences in local naming, purpose of use, and how to use plants.

While Agrostemma githago "Sakizlik otu" is used in medicinal purposes especially in digestive and alvine conditions in the study region. It is used as ornament along with medicinal purposes [23]. We saw that the plant Amaranthus retroflexus was used both as food and for medicinal purposes, especially to treat conditions such as influenza or cold [23]. It was also observed that the plant is called different names such as "Paça pancari" and "Kizil-bacak" in different localities. Bellis perennis, which is called as "Çayir papatyasi", is used for medicinal purposes to treat respiratory diseases. It is also used for cold and flu, stomach-ache, strengthen hair [19]. It is noted that Capsella bursa-pastoris "Çoban çantasi" is consumed as food by informants, it is also used as food and fodder [1], as food, medicine, fodder and other [23] and as food and medicine [50]. People eat it in meal, roast, soup, or salads [11], cooked as meal with rice and eaten with garlic-yogurt [22]. We note that the purpose of use as food is common in the compared studies.

Cerinthe minor subsp. auriculata is given to the animals as fodder; people are also reported to use it as food in times of famine [1]. Chelidonium majus, called "Kirlangiç otu", is used especially as food and medicine by locals, and it is reported that it benefits conditions related to liver and hemorrhoids. Previous study showed that Chelidonium majus is used to treat wart [23]. In some regions, its medicinal uses and purposes differ.

It was reported that Dianthus zonatus was used to treat wart by the studies [1, 23, 50] as we found the same purpose. On the other hand, Ficus carica L. is used to treat wart in Bozuyuk (Bilecik-Turkey) [30]. Dracuncu-lus vulgaris is called "Deli otu" and is used for infections, and the same aim was reported in the previous studies

[1, 23, 50]. It is called as "Yilan bircagi, kopeksiyen" in Edremit (Balikesir-Turkey) and used for hemorrhoids, carminative (for animal) [38]. Hypericum perforatum shows the same usage as painkiller in the study region and this was repoted in the previous studies [1, 23, 50]. It is also used for stomachache by the report of Guler et al. [30]. While Portulaca oleracea, "temizlik otu", is greatly consumed as food in Afyonkarahisar, it is used as salad, pickle and jam in Mersin and Adana provinces (Turkey) [18]. Urtica dioica, called "Isirgan", is used to treat cancer and leukemia by informants. In the other studies, it is used for medicinal purposes [1, 23, 50] and for dye [20, 27]. The plant Vaccaria pyramidata var. grandiflora is used as fodder in the study region.

Sample survey of some plants is conducted according to compared data. We can come to the conclusion that both local names and uasege purposes of the plants are either the same or vary sometimes. People's frequency of contact with plants, relation status, passing the plant to next generation, means, and environmental conditions may cause this variety. When we compared some of the plants with some studies in Turkey and in the other countries, we found some differences. While Anchusa azurea var. azurea is used to treat stomachache, vulnerary, and female sterility as reported in other region [51, 52], we found that it is used as food in the study region. Capsella bursa-pastoris is used as an astringent; in burn wound care, for constipation and intestinal spasm, as a diuretic, a hemostatic, and for intestines, kidney swelling, rheumatism, and urinary disorders [23, 53-55], we report that it is used as food. Peganum harmala is used for the eliminating the evil eye in our study and used as an analgesic, to treat epilepsy and headache [56], rheumatic pain [44]. Papaver dubium is used to treat cold [57], while it is used as food and sedative in our study. Mentha longifolia is used to treat halitosis, constipation, common cold, fever, and general weakness and is antispasmodic [58, 59], while it is used to treat Vitamin C deficiency in this study. Morus alba is used to treat cancer in our study, while it is used to treat anemia, blood forming, dizziness, hepatitis, incontinence, insomnia, and palpitations in other locals [40, 60]. Plantago major is reported to be used by wrapping its leaf around wounded area causing suppuration to flow out. In other studies, it is used to treat, cicatrizer, constipation, hemorrhoids, and wounds [58, 61]. While Tribulus terrestris is used to treat athlete's foot, eczema, kidney and gallstones, hemorrhoids, and warts [38, 62], our study showed that its leaves are consumed by forming wraps. Local people also drink its oil, and it is reported to benefit kidney gravel. The oil of the plant is applied to area affected by hemorrhoids.

Salix alba is reported to be used to treat athlete's foot and vaginal itching [23], we found that it is used to treat pain, stomachache, and respiratory conditions in this study. Urtica dioica is used to treat asthma, blood sugar,

and intestinal pains, and is used as a diuretic, galacta-gogue, and post-partum depurative [63, 64] while it is used to treat cancer and leukemia in our study. Crataegus monogyna is used to treat respiratory conditions and cold while it is also used to treat arythmia, cardiotonic, diabetes, and is a vasodilator [23].

The majority of the Origanum vulgare, Thymus spp., Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, Rosa canina, Melissa officinalis, Mentha longifolia etc. species are well known in European folk medicine for their digestive properties, which is also one of the reasons cited for the selection of plants for teas to accompany meals [65, 66]. In the Russian study area, the most used medicinal herbs are Hypericum perforatum and Plantago major. The Russian respondents considered it important to use medicinal herbs during winter times to prevent flu and common colds [67]. Amaranthus spp. [68, 69], Arum elongatum and Lactuca spp. [70], Atriplex sp. [71, 72], Malva neglecta [73], Malva sylvestris [70, 74], Morus nigra, Ono-pordum anatolicum [70, 75], Plantago major [76], Rumex patientia, Sinapis arvensis [1, 11, 70-80], Salvia spp., Beta trigyna [81, 82], Urtica dioica [83], the leaves of taxa are used for preparing food (sarma = stuffed food etc.) in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. In our study we observed that Peganum harmala burn incense is believed in to bring about good deed. In the wedding day, the bride and groom are being incensed to get rid off the evil's harm. It is used in Pakistan for emotional disturbances, painful menstruation, seizures, insanity and itchy skin. Abdominal pain and smoke has insecticidal properties [84].

Pinus nigra in Anatolia (spoon making, animal fodder, wetland making), Cedrus libani (bowl and spoon making), Salix alba (basket weaving), Juglans regia (dyes), Quercus infectoria (dyes) are used for different purposes [85].

The local names and common families and some species were shared in Anatolia and central Asia (Uzbekistan) [18, 86, 87]. For example, yarpuz/nane for Mentha sp., Qoratut/dut for Morus sp., itburnu/ku§ burnu for Rosa sp. (Tablo 1) [87]. In this case, it is a sign that the culture of Anatolia common with central Asia as coming the roots from there.

Conclusions

This study documented and analyzed traditional ethno-botanical knowledge and 178 different remedies of 130 taxa belonging to 39 families. The results of this study indicated that the local community of the study area used the plants as medicinal (84) and food (68) fodder (16), household goods (3), dyes (3), handicrafts (3) and religious (1). The most common cited usages of plants are still folk medicine and food. Because villagers are generally migrating to big cities and benefiting from the

facilities of modern medicine, the heritage of traditional ethnobotanical knowledges is decreasing dramatically. Although this relieve some of the pressures on some plant species, documenting and analizing the indigenous wild plants' ethnobotanical usages through ethnobotan-ical studies is still important for the conservation of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions

SA, main author, involved in the study design, conducting of interview, field work, literature Review and general data collection and systematization. MT wrote the first draft, and MK2 wrote ms, designed figures, references and participated in fieldwork. MK1 diagnosed the plants, and participated in fieldwork. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgement

We express our thanks to The Coordination Unit of Scientific Research Projects at Afyonkarahisar Kocatepe University for financial support. We would like to thank local communities for sharing their knowledge and experiences. Our special thanks also to Dr H Shazly (Swansea-UK) due to checking its English.

Author details

department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Science & Arts Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Uskudar University, 34662 Istanbul, Turkey.

Received: 11 April 2015 Accepted: 30 October 2015 Published online: 23 December 2015

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