Scholarly article on topic 'Political Marketing Strategy of Jakarta Governor Election in The 2012s'

Political Marketing Strategy of Jakarta Governor Election in The 2012s Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{Election / "Information and Communication Technology" / "Jakarta Governor" / "Political Party" / "and Political Marketing Strategy"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Dharma Tintri Ediraras, Dewi A. Rahayu, Ary Natalina, Winda Widya

Abstract Party caders in election systems are important, focus of attention of the media, public and fellow politicians. When there is a change in party targeting, academic analysis has tended to focus on the “elective ability” of the new candidates as the reason for the change, and debated their potential success in improving the campaign performance of electoral. This paper, however, looks beyond these criterions for the winner” strategy (Jokowi-Ahok), and offers an analysis of their team success performance using a broader political marketing framework of Jakarta's Governor election held in twice laps, July and September 2012s.

Academic research paper on topic "Political Marketing Strategy of Jakarta Governor Election in The 2012s"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 81 (2013) 584 - 588

1st World Congress of Administrative & Political Sciences (ADPOL-2012)

Political Marketing Strategy of Jakarta Governor Election in The

Dharma Tintri Ediraras a*, Dewi A. Rahayu b, Ary Natalina c, Winda Widya d

_a'b'c'dGunadarma University, Jl. Margonda Raya 100 Depok 16424, Indonesia_


Party caders in election systems are important, focus of attention of the media, public and fellow politicians. When there is a change in party targeting academic analysis has tended to focus on the 'elective ability' of the new candidates as the reason for the change, and debated their potential success in improving the campaign performance of electoral. This paper, however, looks beyond these criterions for the winner' strategy (Jokowi-Ahok), and offers an analysis of their team success performance using a broader political marketing framework of Jakarta's Governor election held in twice laps, July and September 2012s.

©2013 TheAuthors.Published byElsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under the responsibility of Prof. Dr. Andreea Iluzia Iacob.

Keywords: Election, Information and Communication Technology, Jakarta Governor, Political Party, and Political Marketing Strategy.

1. Introduction

Indonesia political maturity retested in election of Jakarta Governor in the 2012s. It is an amendments Act as stipulated in Law no. 32 of 2004 and Government Regulation No. 6 in the 2005s. Looking back, National Electoral for President and Vice President held in the 2009s successful, safely and orderly manner, indicating healthy democratic life of Indonesia citizens. Follow the acceptable ratio of public becomes more critics, for winning the battle in the Elections is determined by the strategy implemented by candidates and parties to reach the target voters. The strategy is absolutely necessary for anyone who wants to Glencore in competition (Porter, 1998).

The Governor political parties in the developed world begin to embrace the marketing concept and process. The UK Conservative Party has used the services of Saatchi and Saatchi in the 1980s, as did the Irish President, Mary Robinson in her campaign in the 1990s (Dunnion, 1998). The British Labour Party has incorporated focus groups in its 1990s activities (Gould,1998). In Germany, the Green Party and SPD used marketing management techniques to defeat Helmut Kohl (Baines et al. , 1999a). Nevertheless, marketing planning for political parties has, until now, been neglected in the literature and there appears to be a lack of consideration of the strategic components associated with political marketing campaigns (Butler and Collins,1996; Baines et al. ,1999b, O'Cass, 2001a).

Academic research that explores the political marketing theories and empirical researchs to test the theory more and more done. So the stronger reason to assume that political marketing has now led to a separate scientific discipline (Butler&Collins, 1996; O'Cass 2001a). In its development, political marketing has undergone several definitions emphasis. The emphasis is changing from time to time, such as: O'Leary and Iredale (1976) places

* Corresponding author: Dharma T Ediraras. Tel.: +62-21-7888-1112 Ext.455 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under the responsibility of Prof. Dr. Andreea Iluzia Iacob. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.480

emphasis on the use of marketing mix (marketing mix) to market a political party. Yorke and Meehan (1986) proposed the use ACORN as a basis for targeting voters. Lock and Harris (1996) believe that political marketing should pay attention to the positioning. Wring (1997) suggests to use opinion research and environmental analysis. Because, according to Wright, the condition of the area is very different from other regions. Smith and Sounders (2002) emphasized the importance of using the process for mapping segments want and need of voters. So that candidates can positioning him personally.

In this paper, findings from a recent qualitative research investigation, which focused on developing a political marketing strategic implementated by party caders and Jokowi-Ahok, the winner of Jakarta Governor Election held in twice laps, July and September in the 2012, are outlined.

2. Discussion

Basic study of political marketing, conceptually as "Political marketing in simply terms is a marriage between two social science disciplines - political science and marketing". As a scholarly study of political marketing had been developed a diverse and changing definitions. Shama (1975) and Kotler (1982) places emphasis on the process of transactions between voters and candidates. O'Leay & Iradela (1976) emphasizes the use of marketing mix to promote political parties. Lock & Harris (1996) suggested that attention to the positioning of political marketing. Wring (1997) used opinion research and environmental analysis.

Meanwhile, according to Nursal (2004) which first published the book on marketing Indonesian politics, defined as a series of activities planned, strategic but also tactical, dimensionless term and short term, to spread the political meaning to the voters. So the political marketing aims to establish and instill hope, attitudes, beliefs, orientations and voting behavior. Voter behavior is generally expected to support a variety of dimentions, especially settled on a particular party or candidate (Firmansah, 2008a). Jokowi-Ahok are carried by two political parties (PDIP and Gerinda) had formulated market positioning, market differentiation and market brand exactly. Thema "HOPE, CHANGE and BETTER SERVICE, We Can" was a core message in their campaigning, hipnoticed and mixed emotions. Indeed these brought a new hope for public of Jakarta who had been pessimistics and sacartics due to behaviour of birocrates and elits. Main issues are budget properly and lining birocrates, City planology within confort and safety, and Housing, Education, Healt and energy made in the campaign messages are prominent and 'sexy.

In an election campaign or a political campaign, political marketing is a process. The process should be done through two main things, namely marketing programs and voters segmentation (Firmansah, 2008b). Political market segmentation is a identification process of type voters. Thus Jokowi-Ahok worked smart n achieving young voters and middle class who are mostly educated voters, urbans voters and Chinese ethnics of intellectual and entrepreneurial voters. With a slogrn, "Hope, Change and Better Service, We Can", in the campaigning contained of issues about traffic jam, flood, public services, embrace all ethnics and tribes, and revitalization of Betawi cultural heritages; these are significant for young people and modern citizen in Jakarta. Public are surfeited of government system undered Foke, previous Governor. The Incumbent got many critiques regarding with all Jaka^'s problems. By utilizing Information Communication and Technology, especially Blackberry messanger, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, the campaign maked Jokowi regarded a figure representing youth, elderly, and women voters. While Ahok had been targeting Chinese ethnic voters , entrepreneurs and labor/workers. He has promised to eliminate briberry and watergate (Illegal Payments), to emhance social welfare with health insurance program and increasing regional of minimum wage. Although populist, but these appear to be local and normative policies.

Marketing program is for potitioning a political product called 4Ps (Product, Price, Promotion and Place). Voters segmentation is to determine the level of voters in several categories, so the packaging can be done according to political product category (Firmansah, 2010). In the meantime Foke (Incumbent governor) -Nachrowi, another team which is supported by 8 big and coalition parties and conservative voters, such as the elites and the bureaucrates who are considered more representative of the upper class citizens. Indeed last they were supported by the famous superstar dangdut singer, Rhoma Irama. But this would be controversial, Foke-Nachrowi deemed unpopular and aware of citizens's need, based on his leadership experience as a incumbent serving governor. Moreover, during his campaign, aware of electoral violation abuses, money politics and budget spending inaccountability. So image

segmentation failed for incumbent team. For political parties and candidates, at least the concept of political marketing can be done through several methods: communicating messages and ideas; developing self identity, credibility and transparency; interaction and response to internal and external communities by political parties ; imaging; provide training , processing and analyze data for campaigning advantages. Continuous influence and encourage community to support a political party (Newman, 1994).

Political Marketing can be defined as the process of analysis, planning, implementation, and election, which are designed to create, build, and maintain a mutually beneficial exchange relationship between the parties with the voters, for the purpose of achieving political objectives marketers (O'Cass, 2001b). Political Marketing as a discipline has gradually find its own framework. Adapted to the framework core marketing literature, which is built based on predictions and perspectives of political science (Lock and Harris, 1996).. In terms of positioning, basically, Foke-Nachrowi, the runner-up team collected 1.476.648 votes (34,05%) at 1st lap in July 2012 and 2.120.815 votes (46.18 %) at second lap in September 2012, is not much different with Jokowi-Ahok. The winner team luckyly could unity and embrace all tribe and race, native betawi and urbans, chineHse and newcomers. His reputation as an officer who started from a very good image and success with a gentle temperament and mature but firm in administration while serving as mayor of Solo. Build the image and convey through the media is very important (Baines,, 2002). Jokowi-Ahok also portray the partner as an agent of change. With jargon "Change" is carried on every campaign promise to change the chaotic Jakarta into a human city. He once promised to change the system of governance of the city greener ynag and appropriate transportation to reduce congestion is already very severe, with a starting budget discipline and remove all illegal levies on all service people, both individuals and employers. Image owned Jokowi is perfect, except look likes as a man who was very polite to his mother; loyal and loving family, Jokowi also capable of displaying a calm personality, willing to listen, aspirational, inspirational, and charm. It's also what makes him a leader regarded as a mature, strong and understanding. While Ahok may seem still emotional, rush but has a firm capability and a realistic vision.

While planning the marketing aims to generate political and public support figure (Baines et al, 2002). Although still in the planning stages, it does not mean ignoring the role of the mass media. Instead, at this stage, the role of mass communication channels are needed (Dowling, 2002; Davies, 2003). Actually Foke had a good reputation as a deputy governor since two eriods, but his credibility failed when made a controvercial comments and inperfect solution of woman victims in public transportation crime and inadeque reporting of budget revenues and spending of Jakarta Governmental. Indeed also a weakness coordination and communication during his tenure as governor. Besides, Foke's program was an idealistic campaign for citizens of Jakarta commonly.

Baines (2002) and Nursal (2004) say there are three approaches that can be taken to seek and obtain political support, namely: 1) Push Marketing, which candidates or political parties trying to get support from the stimulus given directly to the voters.; 2) Pass Marketing, where marketing products through a person or group of political influence that can affect the opinions of voters.; and 3) Pull Marketing, where marketing of politics through the mass media that focuses on the image or the image of the political product. Jokowi-Ahok use all the strategies above approach and had great success.

In the case of Push Marketing, Ahok-Jokowi team win successful with 1.847.157 votes (42,60%) at 1st lap and 2.472.130 votes (53,82%) at second lap in September Jakarta 2012, is a matter of facts that how Jokowi-Ahok dare to finish the campaign at the grassroots before his opponents do the same thing in that area in the first lap. Meaning Jokowi-Ahok move faster to exert political marketing to the group directly. Statement of support from 970,000 people in Jakarta is the best precedent for Jokowi-Ahok in each champaign. In terms of the campaign when dealing with his opponents in the first lap, 6500 volunteers of Jokowi-Ahok have joined the campaign team with 89 offices in Jakarta. PDIP and Gerinda are brought candidates seriously to work on the new governor. This is the first time in history, a candidate for governor of Jakarta couple making post campaign in each district across Jakarta. Jokowi-Ahok and volunteers in Jakarta are famous for the unyielding call and face to face visit residents along downstreet and kampoungs. During August and September 2012, nearly 1.1 million homes and 580,000 residents turned by phones and ICT to support Jokowi-Ahok. Two parties managed to make every campaign Jokowi-Ahok Jakarta crowded with tens of thousands of residents. Based on data from the Reuters news agency, campaign-Ahok Jokowi throughout last week in various parts of Jakarta crowded with 400,000 supporters.

The standpoint of approaches Pass Marketing, Jokowi-Ahok supported only two political parties but a number of public, academics, celebrities and many more, as well as a giant national television network and big families of former first and 2nd president of Indonesia too. No less important that the swing voters of residents of Jakarta have

managed to make a new hope which ultimately lead to vote and support Jokowi-Ahok in the second lap, having previously had abstained in the first lap.

The standpoint of pull marketing, Jokowi-Ahok used printing, broadcast and social media based internet as a campaign tools. Jokowi's television advertice expenses were three times larger than the incumbent. One secret of victory lies in the use of internet via BB, FB, Twitter and Youtube to recruite volunteers and supporters, also to collect funds and sponsorship. The first successful example of the use of Twitter in Indonesia: POKOKE (not Foke) JOKOWI integrated with organizational change model that emphasizes political participation and volunteer feedback on a large scale and broad spectrum increased rapidly. This enthusiasm ever happened in the last days before Election Day. The concept of social networking is done on the internet such as "Facebook" and "Twitter" combined with updated accurate database constantly.Finally those managed to mobilize volunteers and supporters of Jokowi-Ahok and they moved on the ground effectively. Even stronghold Jokowi-Ahok dare refuse allotment of campaign funds from the government due to confidence could reap funding independently, one through ICT in raising funds, selling trinkets, T-shirts and plaid shirt red and blue, cap, and others. The result is not useless, Jokowi-Ahok 's campaigen enabled to reap a campaign fund of the IDR 16.089.431.757. Instead, Foke's campaig still did a conventional approach by taking a share of the IDR 62.574.182.486, and at risk should not be seeking more funds. Finally, they are quite troublesome because the funds thinning on the final days of the campaign, while Jokowi-Ahok at the same time could spend tens of millions dollars to broadcast a 30-minute campaign ads in all the TV and radio networks. For important messages stick in the minds of the citizens of Jakarta in a number of controversial issues that need clarification, with the release of a number of comparative adverticement, which is sometimes labeled negative ads by the opposition. In the ad, the speech and debate themes, Jokowi repeatedly stressed that the governor of Jakarta's aware or many problems still can not be resolved as severe congestion, which is now very popular in the eyes of the people of Jakarta. While ndifferent Jokowi, he promised to change it all.

3. Conclusion

In carrying out mobilization, a political party enabled to utilize the resources they have. Resource use can be done through political marketing. Political Marketing is a new science that tries to combine marketing theories in political life. As a branch of science, it can be said of political marketing is still a teen, but its presence has been a trend in politics in developed nations that embrace democracy (O.Cass, 2001a and Nursal, 2004). Political parties and individual candidates vying utilize this knowledge to good campaign strategy to mobilize voters, political support in the general election the head of state or head of the region as well as to maintain the image all the time in the pause elections (O.Cass, 2001b).

Jokowi & Ah ok, new Governor and deputy as winners of Jakarta Governor Election in the 2012s suggest political marketing strategy is an effective key to success, but as research has grown, examples have come to light that indicate that changing a political organisation , so that it responds to public demand is not such an easy exercise. Even when parties try to become market oriented and respond to public demand, and elect new leaders to do so, many different factors prevent that leader from implementing a political marketing approach. So further research is proposed to investigate determinants of political marketing strategy implementation in certain situation.

The current political situation as well as a washing machine for the national political parties that have often perceived as the power-hungry. Apparently, the problem of power is not the problem but rather the party or nonparty systems requires the humanitarian problems, values, and a strong moral and this must be built over time. In this situation, it is understandable if citizens of Jakarta need a governor and his deputy are bringing new hope. Regardless of political marketing strategy, ultimately the product (candidate for governor) in the market (Jakarta Governor Election, in 2012) has been determined by the buyers (voters) in twice direct laps, July and September. .


This work was partly funded by Directorate of Higher Education (Ditlatabmas), Ministry of National Education, Indonesia, and Thank to anonyms reviewers at Conference on National Research Grant Dissemination, Jakarta, 1 -2 December 2011.


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