Scholarly article on topic 'Poster Session Abstracts'

Poster Session Abstracts Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Academic research paper on topic "Poster Session Abstracts"

Poster Session Abstracts

poster session i wednesday, september 10, 2014

Poster 1-1


Jonathan Strunk, Taylor James, & Audrey Duarte Georgia Institute of Technology

Descriptors: aging, source memory, event-related potentials

Directing attention to task-relevant item-source associations at encoding enhances source memory accuracy through similar neural mechanisms in the young and old. Attention-induced modulations of source memory performance and neural activity may be differentially affected in the young and old, when only some presented source features are task-relevant. The current study investigated how selective attention at encoding affected source memory performance for relevant and irrelevant source features and retrieval event-related potentials (ERPs) in the young and old. Young and old participants studied pictures of objects flanked by a scene image and a color swatch and instructed to either attend to the object-scene and to ignore color or vice versa. ERPs were recorded at test while source recognition decisions for the previously attended and unattended source features were made. Behavioral results showed that source memory accuracy was greater for previously attended than unattended source features, although the attention benefit was greater for the young. Furthermore, older adults showed greater source memory accuracy for the unattended source, consistent with the inhibition deficit hypothesis of aging. ERPs showed that only older adults show sustained post-retrieval monitoring for trials which only the attended source feature was recovered. These results are consistent with the idea that less selective attention during encoding in the old reduced the strength of item-source associations leading to increased demands on strategic search and monitoring operations during retrieval.

Poster 1-2


Jennifer L O'Brien1, Jennifer J Lister2, Susanne Sparkman2, Kyle Clifton2, & Victoria Williams2

1University of South Florida St. Petersburg, 2University of South Florida Tampa

Descriptors: aging, cognition, training

Age-related hearing loss presents several challenges for speech perception, particularly in degraded listening environments. Auditory training aims to improve communication by teaching listeners to focus on incoming acoustic information as well as make new perceptual distinctions in the acoustic signal. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of an adaptive computerized auditory training program (Listening and Communication Enhancement; LACE) on the latency and amplitude of the P3a. Participants included 17 cognitively healthy adults ages 65 and older (Mean age = 70.81) fluent in English. Event-related potentials were obtained in the auditory modality using an attentional blink paradigm across 3 testing sessions (i.e., 10 weeks prior to training, 1 week prior to training, 1 week following training). Grand average ERP difference waveforms were calculated with data recorded from Fz, where the most robust P3a was found. A repeated measures MANOVA was used to examine the effect of training on P3a mean amplitude and latency. An AB effect was found for mean amplitude at all testing sessions, F(1,16) = 6.02, p = 0.026, with larger amplitudes at a short T1-T2 SOA. A significant main effect of training was found for mean amplitude F(2,32) = 9.22, p = 0.001 but not latency F(2,32) = 0.62, p = 0.546. Mean P3a amplitude was significantly smaller at session 3 than at session 1 (p = 0.009), marginally smaller at session 2 than at session 1 (p = 0.056), but did not differ between session 2 and session 3 (p = 0.092). Results suggest a possible training-related reduction in P3a amplitude.

Starkey Laboratories Research Collaboration and Support Grant.

Poster 1-3


Jennifer M Poe, John R Bluntschli, Molly Maxfield, & Michael A Kisley University of Colorado

Descriptors: electroencephalography, age differences, terror management theory Terror Management Theory posits that the knowledge humans possess of their inevitable death can lead to a paralyzing fear were it not for the anxiety-buffering effects of self-esteem and faith in a cultural worldview. Recent studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have found differential responses in attention allocation between death-related and other negatively valenced words and images, particularly in the late-positive potential

(LPP) that occurs between 400 ms to 700 ms after stimulus presentation. We investigated this differential effect between younger and older adults, given older adults' relative closeness to death. We presented positive, negative, and death-related words to older and younger adults and ERPs were recorded in response to these stimuli. A main effect of word type was also found (F(2, 124) = 3.78, p = .026) indicating greater ERP amplitudes for death-related stimuli over negative stimuli, p = .034, and greater ERP amplitudes for negative stimuli over positive stimuli, p = .021. These main effects were qualified by an interaction between age and word type, F(2,124) = 5.65, p = .004, such that younger adults exhibited greater LPP amplitudes for death-related words compared to negative and positive words. Older adults, however, exhibited lower LPP amplitudes for death-related words. These findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for different attention allocation processes based on age and emotional valence of stimuli.

Poster 1-4


LaBarron K Hill1, John J Sollers III2, Roland Thorpe3, Christopher L Edwards1,

Julian F Thayer4, & Keith E Whitfield5 1Duke University Medical Center, 2The University of Auckland, 3Johns Hopkins University, 4The Ohio State University, 5Duke University

Descriptors: aging, compensatory regulation, hemodynamics

Aging is the predominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease in human beings. Yet, for African American adults, disparities in hypertension morbidity and mortality are associated with a significant a truncation in life expectancy. Chronically elevated total peripheral resistance (TPR), a co-determinant of blood pressure, is widely regarded as a major contributing factor to the greater rates of hypertension in African Americans. Little research has examined how TPR and other mechanisms which determine blood pressure change as a function of aging in African Americans. The present study sought to elucidate the pattern of change in computationally-derived estimates of cardiac output (CO) and TPR as a function of age using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from two large (composite N > 800), ethnically-congruent samples of African American adults the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA) and the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA). Overall, analyses confirmed the unique, compensatory nature of CO and TPR. Results suggest that TPR increases significantly from the 2nd to the 3rd decade of life and remains elevated until the 5th decade. Between the 5th and 6th decades TPR declines while CO increases, peaking in the 8th decade of life. To our knowledge, these data are the first to examine age-related patterns of change in hemodynamic determinants in middle-aged and older African American adults. Future research will seek to confirm this pattern and examine the impact of health, socio-demographic and psychological factors.

CAATSA was funded by a grant from the National Institute onAging (1R01-AG13662-01A2) and BSBA was supported by NIH grants(R01 AG24108 and AG024108-02S1)to K.E.W. Research conducted by L.K.H was supported by National Institute of Aging grant (5T32AG000029-37).

Poster 1-5


Siri-Maria Kamp, & Hubert Zimmer Saarland University

Descriptors: eye-tracking, associative memory, aging

Episodic memory declines during healthy aging, with a particular reduction in the ability to encode associations. We used eye tracking and ERP measures to investigate the nature of this deficit. In experiment 1, 18 young and 20 older adults freely encoded pairs of semantically related or unrelated objects for a later recognition test. The older adults' lower recognition performance was accompanied by a smaller number of gaze transitions between the objects of a pair at encoding, compared to the young adults. Furthermore, between subjects and across groups, the number of transitions at encoding was predictive of subsequent discrimination accuracy between intact and recombined pairs at test. In experiment 2, 17 young and 14 elderly participants were instructed to use mental imagery to encode the object pairs. Again, the number of transitions at study was correlated with subsequent discrimination accuracy between old and recombined pairs. Furthermore, for the elderly group, within subjects, pairs that were successfully recognized were associated with a larger number of transitions at encoding than pairs that were later missed. We also analyzed the relationship between this eye gaze transition "subsequent memory effect" to ERP subsequent memory effects. Taken together, our data suggest that eye fixation patterns index attention shifts between the objects of a pair at encoding, and thus the efficiency of associative memory encoding. We thus propose that combining eye-tracking and ERPs provides a useful tool to pinpoint the nature of the age-related associative memory decline.

Poster 1-6


Monika Lohani1, & Derek M Isaacowitz2 ^randeis University, 2Northeastern University

Descriptors: aging, emotional response coherence, flexibility

The current study investigated the degree of coherence (association) between subjective arousal experience and physiological arousal in the context of sadness across the lifespan. The main focus was to pinpoint age and individual difference factors underlying interindividual variability in coherence between subjective and physiological arousal. The primary factors of interest were emotion regulation-relevant abilities that may modulate components of emotional response differently and may help to explain between-individual variability in emotional coherence. Specifically, individual differences in autonomic, emotional task-switching, and expression flexibility were assessed. Participants' (60 younger, 60 older) emotional experiences (via self-report sadness intensity ratings), behavioral facial expressions (corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscles' activation), and physiological cardiovascular responses to sad videos were continuously measured. Contrary to claims of mind-body dissociation in later adulthood, results suggested that older adults' emotional experiences were linked more tightly to their physiological responses, compared to their younger counterparts, at least in the context of sadness. Age, autonomic flexibility, positive task-switching inflexibility, and expression flexibility modulated the extent of association between subjective and physiological arousal during sadness response. Together these findings suggest that variability in subjective experience and physiological arousal may depend on a combination of age and emotion regulation abilities.

Poster 1-7


Kaylie A Carbine1, Tanja Endrass2, & Michael J Larson1 1Brigham Young University, 2University of Magdeburg

Descriptors: performance monitoring, ERN/Pe, perfectionism

Individuals with anxiety disorders tend to exhibit enhanced indices of performance monitoring, as measured by event related potentials (ERPs). One ERP that consistently shows increased amplitude in these individuals is the error-related negativity (ERN), believed to be involved in early error detection. Underlying character traits driving the increase in ERN amplitude are not clear. In individuals with anxiety, perfectionistic traits are correlated with increased ERN and post-error positivity (Pe) amplitudes, another ERP involved in later error detection. However, neural mechanisms underlying perfectionism are not well known. We aimed to study the relationship between perfectionism and indices of performance monitoring in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that healthy individuals with more perfection-istic traits would exhibit heightened ERN and Pe amplitudes. 127 participants (72 female, M = 20.45, SD = 1.94) completed the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. ERP and behavioral data (accuracy and reaction time [RT]) were collected while they completed a modified Eriksen flanker task. There were no significant correlations between ERN or Pe amplitudes and perfectionistic traits (all ps > .12). Accuracy and RTs were also not significantly correlated with perfectionism (all ps > .08). Our results suggest that perfectionism in healthy individuals may not be strongly associated with ERP indices of performance monitoring. Future research may wish to consider additional traits in individuals with anxiety to examine what underlying factors moderate performance monitoring.

Poster 1-8


Stephany M Molina, Belel Ait Oumeziane, & Stephen D Benning University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Descriptors: postauricular reflex, startle blink, emotion

Foreground stimulus complexity and modality can have powerful effects on the magnitudes of reflexes obtained to startle probes during emotional stimuli. In the current study, undergraduate students viewed emotional pictures and listened to emotional sounds, along with geometric shapes that served as anticipatory cues associated with each stimulus valence (pleasant, neutral or aversive). Startle blink and postauricular reflexes during the cues, pictures, and sounds were recorded to assess participants' emotional reactivity to each stimulus type. Mean postauricular reflex magnitudes were largest during geometric cues, followed by those during pictures, and were smallest during sounds. In contrast, startle blink reflex magnitudes were not modulated by stimulus type. Consistent with prior research, startle blink magnitude was greater during aversive than pleasant pictures and sounds, and the reverse was true for postauricular reflex magnitudes. Emotional modulation of the postauricular reflex was stronger during pictures than sounds, whereas the reverse was true for the startle blink. Although participants correctly associated cues as pleasant, neutral or aversive, neither reflex was significantly modulated during cues. However, it is

unclear whether this lack of effect was due to the simplicity of the cue stimuli or due to a difference in reactivity to stimuli whose emotional meanings are learned vs. prepared.

The project described was supported in part by grant MH093692 from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Poster 1-9


Belel Ait Oumeziane, Stephany M Molina, & Stephen D Benning University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Descriptors: event-related potentials, anticipatory, consummatory

Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the robust effects of foreground stimulus complexity and modality can have on informational processing to startle probes during emotional stimuli. In this study, undergraduate students watched emotional pictures. Geometric shapes served as anticipatory cues associated with each picture valence (pleasant, neutral or aversive). ERP components (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential, or LPP) at sites Fz, Cz, and Pz during both cues and pictures to assess participants' processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. N2 amplitude was larger during pictures than cues, but N2 amplitude elicited by startle probes during cues was larger than that during pictures. Consistent with previous literature, N2, P3, and LPP amplitudes were larger during emotional than neutral pictures. Reflecting continuing attention to the emotional stimuli, P2, N2, and P3 amplitudes to startle probes were smaller during emotional than neutral pictures. In contrast, there was no effect of emotion on any ERP amplitude during cues or startle probes during cues. These results were obtained despite behavioral ratings indicating participants learned the emotional associations between cues and picture valences. Thus, ERP amplitude was affected by consummatory but not anticipatory emotional processing of visual stimuli. Furthermore, N2 amplitude tracked the relative visual attention paid during cues and pictures.

This work was made possible by funding from NIMH R21 MH093692.

Poster 1-10


Stephen D Benning, & Geoff Powell University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Descriptors: skin conductance, risk, psychopathy

Judgments of the risks of performing an activity are influenced by the harm entailed in the activity (e.g., getting a rash vs. losing a leg) and the probability of receiving that harm. However, individual differences in numeracy may moderate these effects. Furthermore, psychopathic traits have been associated with greater enjoyment of risky situations and thus might also be associated with reactivity during risky scenarios. A total of 44 participants read scenarios of varying harms and probabilities and then rated the risk of continuing in the activity described in each scenario. Skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during sentence reading and response periods. For the perfect numeracy group, SCLs during low harm scenarios were significantly greater for low probability than for high probability conditions. Similarly, SCLs during responses to low harm scenarios were significantly greater for low probability than for high probability conditions. These effects were not significant for participants with imperfect numeracy. Boldness was positively correlated with SCL during all responses to risky scenarios but not with SCL during the scenarios themselves, whereas meanness and disinhibition were not. Thus, boldness was associated with greater arousal when judging risk. The association of perfect numeracy with greater reactivity during low probability, low harm scenarios suggests the cognitive processing demands of these scenarios may drive the heightened arousal levels observed in this study.

Poster 1-11


Manon Maheux, & Pierre Jolicoeur University of Montreal

Descriptors: aging, attention, working memory

The N2pc and the SPCN (sustained posterior contralateral negativity) are two well-known and widly-used event-related potentials (ERPs) linked to visuospatial attention and visual working memory. However, little is known about the effects of aging on them. Physical changes in the aging eye must be taken into consideration since many of them have an impact on perception. The yellowing of the lens, for example, has an effect on colour vision, an important aspect in this project. A flicker photometry task was used to adjust the luminance of the stimuli for each participant. Furthermore, an overall lower luminance was used for younger participants to compensate for the smaller pupil diameter measured in older participants. Our goal was to study the effect of normal aging on the amplitude and latency of the N2pc and the SPCN using two cognitive tasks (counting and identifying a spatial relationship between two coloured items). Results show smaller amplitude and delayed latency for the older participants compared to a group of younger adults.

Poster 1-12


Brandi Lee Drisdelle, & Pierre Jolicoeur University of Montreal

Descriptors: attention, N2pc

Our objective was to investigate the neural mechanisms of visuo-spatial attention by manipulating the spatial distance and physical similarity of salient items in a simple search task. The N2pc is a lateralized event-related potential (ERP) reflecting the deployment of visuo-spatial attention occurring 180-300 ms post-stimulus at posterior electrodes. According to Luck and Hillyard (1994), the N2pc reflects attentional filtering of distractors and increases in amplitude when there is an increase in need of distractor suppression. Hillimire, Mounts, Parks, and Corballis (2009) demonstrated a reduction in N2pc when salient items are presented in adjacent positions compared to salient items more widely separated and suggest that this reduction is due to an increase in competition between salient items when presented within the same receptive field of neurons participating in attentional selection. In the current study, similarity of stimuli was manipulated using line orientation, where lines with smaller orientation deviations from the target were considered more similar and thus more difficult to differentiate. Distance was also manipulated; a target and a salient distractor where either adjacent or separated by three non-salient distractors. Results demonstrate an increase in N2pc with increasing similarity between a target and a salient distractor and a decrease in N2pc with a decrease in distance between both salient items. No interaction is observed between physical similarity and spatial distance. Neither previous model can easily account for this pattern of results.

Poster 1-13


Dion T Henare, & Paul M Corballis The University of Auckland

Descriptors: competition, dual task, N2pc

Visual selective attention is often considered to be a gating mechanism for higher visual processes like visual working memory. Recent behavioural work has shown that while attention does appear to gate the contents of working memory, working memory load also influences the performance of attention processes. In this experiment we recorded scalp EEG while participants performed a modified version of the localised attentional interference (LAI) paradigm under different levels of working memory load. The behavioural data replicate previous effects in which increased working memory load is associated with decreased performance on the visual search task. The LAI paradigm allows us to show working-memory load effects on the amplitude of the attention-related lateralized components of the event-related brain potential (N2pc, Ptc, and SPCN), which have been related to target selection, distractor suppression, and working memory processes respectively. In addition we have explored the neural correlates of the initial switch between the working memory and LAI task. We observe significant decreases in occipital alpha EEG activity when participants initially switch to the LAI task following working-memory encoding, however this is only true for individuals with high baseline alpha power. This alpha decrease has been related to phasic arousal and alertness in previous task switching paradigms, and its coincidence with behavioural differences in our task suggests that it may be an important factor to consider when studying the interaction of selective attention and working memory.

Poster 1-14


Katharina Limbach, & Paul M Corballis The University of Auckland

Descriptors: EEG alpha oscillations, selective attention, speed-accuracy trade-off In selective attention tasks, EEG alpha power (8-12 Hz) is typically reduced contralateral to the attended side of space. Here, we modulated the speed-accuracy trade-off to investigate the behavioural effect of this alpha modulation in more detail. EEG was recorded while 15 participants performed a cued selective attention task under three different response-deadline conditions. Behaviourally participants were more accurate but slower if they had more time to respond, and faster but less accurate under a stricter response deadline. In accordance with previous reports, we found alpha-power modulation only in participants with high baseline alpha-power ("modulators") and not in participants with low baseline alpha-power ("non-modulators"). Both groups showed similar performance (indexed by d') for validly cued trials, but performance for invalidly cued trials was influenced by both alpha modulation and response deadlines. When given a relatively long response deadline, modulators incurred greater performance costs for invalidly cued targets than did nonmodulators. However when pushed for speed, both groups incurred similar performance

costs for invalid cues. This suggests that modulators use the alpha-power modulation to increase performance in the cued location. On the other hand, non-modulators seem to be able to distribute attention more broadly across the visual field. Interestingly trial-by-trial fluctuations in alpha power do not seem to influence performance in this task.

Poster 1-15


Estate (Tato) M Sokhadze1, Lonnie L Sears1, Guela E Sokhadze1, Stephen M Edelson2, Allan Tasman1, & Manuel F Casanova1 1University of Louisville, 2Autism Research Institute

Descriptors: LRP, spatial attention task, autism

Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as a unique syndrome. It can be surmised that children with ASD are as clumsy and awkward in their motor behavior as they are in reciprocating social interactions. The study investigated reaction time (RT), dense-array ERPs and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) in a modification of Posner cued spatial attention task with horizontal and diagonal valid and invalid target trials. The study was aimed to understand the abnormal functional mechanisms underlying motor preparedness deficits in autism. We recruited 24 children with ASD (14 ± 3 yrs) and 24 controls (15 ± 3 yrs). The analysis included comparison of RT, accuracy, ERPs to imperative cue (S2), and LRP calculated using double subtraction method (C3'/C4'). RT analysis showed a Congruence X Group effect (F = 7.1, p = .011), as ASD had slower RTboth in valid and invalid conditions. Accuracy was lower in the ASD group (F = 7.8, p = .008). Frontal N100 ERP showed a target Position X Congruence X Group interaction (F = 13.4, p = .001), where ASD had more negative N100 during diagonal target condition regardless of congruence. LRP differences were significant at the late stage of the LRP yielding Time (early, late) X Group interaction (F = 6.7, p = .012). Post-hoc analysis showed differences at the 1000-1200 ms post S1 cue (F = 4.8, p = .033). Autism group showed more pronounced differences of LRP in incongruent trials. The results contribute to the understanding of neural mechanisms underlying motor deficits in autism.

The study was partially supported by National Institutes of Health Eureka R01 grant MH86784 to Manuel F. Casanova.

Poster 1-16



Marie K Hensley, Ayman S El-Baz, Estate (Tato) M Sokhadze, Lonnie L Sears, & Manuel F Casanova University of Louisville

Descriptors: autism, transcranial magnetic stimulation, gamma coherence Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive form of neuro-therapy shown to increase inhibition of the stimulated cortex, thus improving overall gamma band coherence in individuals with autism. Coherence is a measurement, varying between zero and one, of correlating gamma activity between two regions of the brain. Coherence suggests how well the different regions are working together to complete a common task. Our objective in this study was to determine the specific locations in the brain where TMS had the most effect on coherence. Two groups of children with autism were enrolled in the study, treatment and waitlist. The treatment group received 18 sessions (one session per week) of TMS. We compared changes in evoked and induced gamma responses in Kanizsa illusory figure test before and after 18 rTMS sessions. The waitlist group also completed the Kanizsa illusory test twice (at onset and end of study). Raw EEG data is collected during these sessions with a 128 channel EEG system and exported into the Brain Electrical Source Assessment software for analysis of source coherence. Results indicate that TMS had the most effect on induced gamma in the frontal region, suggested by a significant increase in frontal coherence after treatment compared to coherence observed in the waitlist group. TMS also increased induced gamma coherence in the fronto-parietal region. However, TMS did not have a pronounced effect on evoked gamma coherence. Our data show that TMS does improve gamma coherence in autism, especially in the induced gamma time frame.

Funded by The Foundation for Education and Research in Biofeedback and Related Sciences.

Poster 1-17


Wen-Pin Chang Creighton University

Descriptors: autistic spectrum disorder, error monitoring, meta-analysis

Error monitoring is vital for efficient goal-directed performance. Poor error monitoring

results in difficult self-examination of ongoing behaviors, which may lead to perseverative

responding and stereotyped repetitive behaviors, features of individuals with autism or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition, anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities, found in individuals with ASD, may underlie poor error monitoring and contribute to social-emotional and social-cognitive impairments in ASD. Consequently, studies have examined differences in error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), indices of error monitoring, between healthy controls and ASD. To determine whether there is reliable evidence of diminished error monitoring in ASD, this present study conducted a meta-analysis of six available, published studies. The results of DerSi-monian and Laird random-effects model revealed that the overall pooled effect size d for the ERN amplitude was 0.79 with the 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.51 to 1.06, Cochrane Q = 3.36, p = 0.64, I2 = 0%. The Egger's regression test of publication bias showed no bias for ERN, B = 4.81, 95% CI ranged from -2.75 to 12.37, p = .15. For Pe, the effect size was 0.38 with the 95% CI of 0.06 to 0.70, Cochrane Q = 4.22, p = 0.38, I2 = 5.3%. No publication bias for Pe was revealed. These results indicate prominent reduced ERN and slightly altered Pe in ASD relative to healthy controls and support the notion of a general impairment in error monitoring underlying social-cognitive disturbance in ASD.

Poster 1-18


William J Gavin1, Brittany K Taylor1, Sidney J Segalowitz2, & Patricia L Davies1 1Colorado State University, 2Brock University

Descriptors: distribution-based ERPs, individual variability, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Developmental literature has shown that children tend to have lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than adults in event-related potentials (ERP). To address this in a visual CNV paradigm with 2000 ms between warning and imperative stimuli, we compared a traditional averaged ERP approach based on segments remaining after a regression eye-blink removal and artifact rejection to a new method with an additional step of removing segment outliers: a distribution-based, outlier-rejected (DBOR) procedure. Outlier removal was conducted by rejecting segments for an individual prior to averaging if the mean segment voltage in the time window of 1500-2000 ms exceeded twice the interquartile range of all mean segment amplitudes. Differences between the procedures were evaluated using data collected on 32 adults and 51 children where imperative stimuli indicated that a Go or Nogo decision was required. Of a possible 40 Go-segments, adults retained an average of 33.56 using traditional and 32.59 using DBOR procedures and children retained 27 and 26.25 segments, respectively. ANOVAs evaluating the 15002000 ms period revealed that across all participants the DBOR procedure resulted in significant reductions in the standard deviations (SD) of each participants' amplitude distribution [F(1, 81) = 67.28, p < .005], in mean amplitudes [F(1, 81) = 7.90, p = .006], and in the median amplitudes [F(1, 81) = 5.02, p = .03]. Given the significant reduction in SD using the DBOR procedure, the use of this procedure should improve the stability of the CNV averaged ERP in future studies.

Funded in part by NICHD (5R03HD046512) & CSU College of Health and Human Sciences to PLD & WJG.

Poster 1-19


Benjamin T Johnson, Brittany K Taylor, Patricia L Davies, & William J Gavin Colorado State University

Descriptors: working memory, error-related negativity, N200

Error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a response-locked ERP component characterized as a negative deflection in voltage following an incorrect response in a forced-choice task. In this study we utilized paradigms varying in working memory (WM) load to test if it affects ERN amplitude. Consistent with the premise that the ERN is a generic performance monitoring signal we hypothesized that changes in WM load would not alter ERN amplitude. EEG data were collected from 29 adults (18-35 yrs) in a single session as they performed three paradigms in a counter-balanced order: a zero WM load task; a single rule, low WM load task; and a two rule, highWM load task. Data analysis revealed that WM load did not affect baseline-to-peak measured ERN amplitudes but did attenuate the post-ERN positivity (PE), F(2, 48) = 11.99, p < .005. In addition, stimulus-locked segmentation revealed significantly greater N2 amplitudes in correct trials versus incorrect trials, F(1, 27) = 87.41, p < .005. N2 latency was significantly shorter for incorrect trails for the zero, t(27) = -4.45, p < .005 and low WM load task, t(27) = -2.40, p = .02 but not for the high WM task. An additional late positivity was also present in the high WM load paradigm. This additional brain processing was diminished in incorrect trials, F(1, 27) = 21.15, p < .005. These findings support the hypothesis that the ERN exists as a generic performance monitoring signal. However, WM load and the occurrence of errors did impact ERP components reflecting attention and evaluation of responses, and altered later brain processing.

Poster 1-20


Kimberly J The, Brittany K Taylor, Jewel Crasta, Mei-Heng Lin, Elliott M Forney, Charles W Anderson, Patricia L Davies, & William J Gavin Colorado State University

Descriptors: brain computer interfaces, P300, motor impairments

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) use EEG signals to create a real-time mode of communication between a user's brain and a computer. BCI are often designed for clients with severe motor impairments to control electronic devices and aid communication. This study evaluated the effects of 5 practice sessions on spelling accuracy for each of 5 typical adults using the P300 speller module of the BCI2000 software. The alphabet was displayed in a 6 x 6 matrix on a screen randomly illuminating a row or column for 125ms with a 125ms ISI. Participants were instructed to count the number of times the target letter flashed (n = 30) during 180 flashes. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classified the participant's brain response to each flash as either a target or non-target letter. Each session used the same 4 words to train the classifier, and then used novel words/phrases totaling 30 characters to assess the success of the participant-classifier interaction. The LDA training results revealed that the targets showed increases in N2 amplitude 240 to 360 ms at parietal sites in the initial sessions. Later sessions revealed additional P3 amplitude changes 350 to 460 ms at frontal sites. Spelling accuracy for session 1 averaged 53%, ranging from 10 to 93%. Accuracy improved 13% from session 1 to 4 and 9% from session 1 to 5. Participants' average rating of the usability of the P300 speller was 6.4 out of 10 with 0 = "not useable" and 10 = "definitely useable." This study provides a basis for analyzing BCI performance across sessions and may yield strategies for improving BCI systems for clients.

This research was funded by the National Science Foundation, grant number 1065513, and by the Colorado State University Occupational Therapy Department.

Poster 1-21


Brittany K Taylor, Patricia L Davies, & William J Gavin Colorado State University

Descriptors: test-retest reliability, contingent negative variation, development The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a slow negative drift in ERPs between a warning and an imperative stimulus, resulting from attentional anticipation generated in the prefrontal cortex. The CNV is often measured as three separate components: O-wave, E-wave, and total CNV. To date, only a handful of studies have examined the test-retest reliability of the CNV components, and only in adults. Past research indicates that the CNV is influenced by development, and that children tend to have smaller, less stable CNVs than adults. Thus, we hypothesized that children would exhibit poorer reliability than adults. EEG data were recorded from 32 adults (19-29 yrs, M = 23.3) and 58 children (7-13 yrs, M = 10.3) while they performed a visual Go-NoGo task during two sessions scheduled one-to-two weeks apart. Reliability indices in Go-trials were calculated using Cronbach's alpha, Pearson r, and consistency and absolute agreement measures of intraclass correlations. Results demonstrated the following reliabilities for the O-wave for adults (r = .58) and children (r = .53), E-wave for adults (r = .19, NS) and children (r = .50), and for the CNV for adults (r = .05, NS) and children (r = .34). Fisher's r to Z transformations were used to explore whether adults had better reliability than children. The results showed no difference in test-retest reliability between age groups for the O-wave, Z = .13, p = .45, the E-wave, Z = -1.62, p = .05, or the total CNV, Z = -1.38, p = .08. Based on previous research the low reliabilities for adults' E-wave and total CNV were unexpected.

Funded in part by NICHD (5R03HD046512) & CSU College of Health and Human Sciences to PLD & WJG.

Poster 1-22


José G Berumen-Salazar, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, & Andrés A González-Garrido University of Guadalajara

Descriptors: numerical cognition, children, event-related potentials The level of mathematics performance in children and its association with the non-symbolic and symbolic numerical abilities is still unclear. Few studies have explored this association using neurophysiological techniques. In order to determine this association, we selected third-graders (n = 36) divided into three groups according to their performance in a mathematics test, WRAT-4: Low (L), Average (A), and High (H) achievement. Then, they were evaluated in two experimental tasks, they determined in a non-symbolic task which of two groups of dots had more elements, and in a symbolic task which of two Arabic numerals was larger. We found that the L group, when compared to the other groups, presented fewer correct responses and longer reactions times in both tasks. ERPs showed a similar pattern for both numerical representations, an early positive followed by a

negative component in parietal sites, about 160 and 220 milliseconds respectively. The L group displayed higher amplitudes in the positive component and lower amplitudes in the negative component compared to the H group in the symbolic task, while in the non-symbolic task these groups presented an inverse pattern. These results suggest that both numerical representations are associated with differences in mathematics achievement in children. Also, children with difficulties in mathematics seem to recruit brain resources in a different manner while processing numerical magnitudes compared to those with adequate performance.

Poster 1-23


Irma Khachidze12, Victor Maloletnev1, & Manana Gugushvili1 1Beritashvili Centre of Experimental Biomedicine, 2Georgian University

Descriptors: ADHD, qEEG, children

It is difficult to differentiate attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from other psychiatric/psychophysiological conditions with comparable clinical manifestations (e.g. anxiety and depression of various etiologies, autism, etc.) in preschool children and teenagers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify criteria from EEG interpretation/reading to reach a more precise and valid diagnosis of ADHD in preschool children. EEG was recorded in 3-6 year-old preschool children with ADHD (n = 27) and on healthy controls (n = 27) of the same age group. To define EEG features in children with ADHD the following EEG measures were assessed: absolute (AI) and relative intensities (RI), dominant (DF) and weighted average frequencies (WAF), and topography of EEG frequency ranges (i.e. Brain Mapping). The basic rhythmicity was decelerated due to the increase in EEG activity in the low-frequency range for RI, DF and WAF (p < 0.05) in ADHD patients. The detected changes were prevalent in the frontal and central regions of the cerebral hemispheres (p < 0.05). The findings of this study are consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD since comparable EEG changes were reported for other conditions with different CNS dysfunction. Additionally, it is not clear whether the deficit in attention is associated with hyperactivity. The study of EEG in various forms of ADHD requires further investigation.

Poster 1-24


Keita Kamijo, & Hiroaki Masaki Waseda University

Descriptors: child, fitness, cognitive control

Several studies argue that the positive association between childhood fitness and cognitive control can be attributed to differences in the child's cognitive control strategy, which can be either proactive or reactive control. To evaluate this relationship, we compared lower-fit and higher-fit children's task performance along with the contingent negative variation (CNV) during a modified AX version of the Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT). The AX-CPT consisted of four types of trials: 64% AX (valid cue - valid probe), 12% AY (valid cue - invalid probe), 12% BX (invalid cue - valid prove), and 12% BY (invalid cue - invalid prove). It has been suggested that proactive control is beneficial for the BX probe but results in deteriorated performance for the AY trials. Although the task performance measures did not differ between groups, higher-fit children exhibited a smaller terminal CNV (tCNV) for the BX trials relative to the AY trials. The smaller tCNV observed in higher-fit children for the BX trials might reflect a more efficient task preparation for the probe, including the adoption of a proactive control strategy. By contrast, lower-fit children might have used a more reactive control strategy, as reflected by the lack of difference in tCNV between the AY and BX trials. These findings support the hypothesis that higher-fit children are more likely to utilize a proactive cognitive control strategy.

This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (24800066) and Scientific Research ((C) 24530925) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Poster 1-25


Santiago Morales, Charles Beekman, & Kristin A Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, developmental trajectories, socioemotional oottcmee.

The extant literature has documented the concurrent and/or longitudinal relations of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and socioemotional outcomes (SEO) such as internalizing, externalizing, and academic functioning (e.g., El-Sheikh et al., 2001). However, no studies, to our knowledge, have evaluated if longitudinal trajectories of

RSA predict these outcomes. The present study tested if trajectory profiles of RSA reactivity were predictive of such SEO. RSA was measured at 24, 42, and 60 months (N = 154; 77 boys). RSA reactivity was calculated using a difference score between RSA baseline and a composite of RSA during six laboratory tasks at each time point. The trajectory profiles were obtained via latent profile analysis. Mothers and fathers reported on children's SEO at 70 months. A three-profile solution best fit the data. The first profile was characterized by a trajectory of RSA augmentation compared to the average; the second profile followed the overall average; the third profile was marked by RSA suppression compared to the average. Further analyses showed that children in the augmentation profile were higher in social withdrawal and internalizing behaviors based on paternal and maternal reports as well as lower in maternal report of academic functioning; children in the suppression profile were lower in maternal reports of externalizing compared to the other profiles (all F's > 3.7, p's < .05, partial eta-squared = .046-.055). These findings illustrate the potential of using physiological trajectories to identify competencies and risks in children.

Poster 1-26


Eric S Drollette, Naiman A Khan, Lauren B Raine, Mark R Scudder, Robert D Moore, Christopher E Komisarz, Arthur F Kramer, & Charles H Hillman University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: obesity, P300, cognitive control

Previous investigations have indicated that childhood obesity is negatively associated with neuroelectric and behavioral indices of cognitive control. However, few studies have explored the sexual dimorphic pattern of central adiposity on underlying neural processes. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the relation of ERPs to measures of central adiposity in 8- to 10-year-old children. Eighty-one (48 females) children performed a modified flanker task while ERPs were collected. In addition, body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Central adiposity ratio calculations (visceral/subcutaneous; V/S) were included in subsequent regression models. Among females, analyses revealed lower V/S (i.e., lower visceral to subcutaneous adiposity) related to greater P2 amplitude, smaller N2 amplitude, and greater P3 amplitude. No such relations were observed for males. Lastly, although behavioral measures were trending in a similar pattern, no significant relations were observed. The results suggest that a lower V/S ratio among females is associated with greater inhibition of extraneous stimuli from further processing (P2); reductions in conflict monitoring (N2); and increases in the allocation of attentional resources (P3). These findings indicate that the detrimental influence of visceral adipose tissue extends to the neural underpinnings of cognitive control in a sexually dimorphic manner. Future research should examine the effects of reducing visceral adiposity on cognitive function among prepubertal children.

Support provided by NIH HD069381.

Poster 1-27


Lauren B Raine1, Matthew B Pontifex2, Naiman A Khan1, Mark R Scudder1, Eric S Drollette1, Robert D Moore1, Wu Chien-Ting3, Keita Kamijo4, Darla M Castelli5, & Charles H Hillman1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Michigan State University, 3Schreiner College, 4Waseda University, 5University of Texas at Austin

Descriptors: cognition, attention, children

Given the increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, a greater understanding of the extent to which fitness relates to brain health and cognition during development is of importance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a physical activity intervention on brain and behavioral indices of cognitive control in children. Children were randomized to a 9-month afterschool physical activity program or a wait-list control. Concurrent with changes in fitness, neuroelectric and behavioral measures of cognitive control were collected using tasks that required modulation of attentional inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Findings revealed that fitness improved among intervention participants; an effect not found for the wait-list control. Intervention participants exhibited greater change in inhibition and cognitive flexibility, and only the intervention group increased attentional resources during tasks requiring increased inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Improvements in neuroelectric function on the attentional inhibition task and performance on the cognitive flexibility task correlated with intervention attendance. These data indicate that the physical activity intervention enhanced cognitive performance and underlying brain function during cognitive control tasks. These findings demonstrate a causal effect of a physical activity program on cognitive control and its neural underpinnings, and provide support for daily physical activity as a means of improving childhood cognition and brain health. Funded by NIH HD055352.

Poster 1-28


Robert D Moore1, Dominika M Pindus2, Lauren B Raine1, Eric S Drollette1, Mark R Scudder1, & Charles H Hillman1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Loughborough University

Descriptors: concussion, children, neurocognition

The neurocognitive outcomes of concussive injuries are of increasing concern in the public consciousness, but most efforts have focused on adult populations, with pediatric populations often neglected. Accordingly, the current investigation examined the persistent influence of concussion on pediatric neurocognition. Thirty-two demographically matched children with (n = 16) and without (n = 16) a history of concussion completed modified flanker and go-nogo tasks while neuroelectric activity was recorded. On the behavioral level, children with a history of concussion trended towards decreased accuracy during the flanker task, and exhibited greater omission errors, lower post-error accuracy and a larger Gratton effect during the incompatible condition of the task. Children with a history of concussion also committed more false alarms during the nogo condition of the go-nogo task. On the neural level, children with a history of concussion exhibited prolonged N2 latency and smaller P3 amplitude across both conditions of the flanker task, while larger N2 amplitude was observed only during the incompatible condition of the flanker task. Further, children with a history of concussion exhibited prolonged N2 latency and smaller P3 amplitude across both conditions of the go-nogo task. Collectively, the current results point to persistent and multifaceted neurocognitive deficits in response to increasing interference/ inhibitory control requirements. Hopefully, these results will engender more comprehensive and targeted evaluations of neurocognition following pediatric concussion.

Poster 1-29


Kristine L Bova, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Gregory M Fosco, & Cynthia J Willner The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, conduct problems, life stress The role of resting RSA in psychopathology has been examined through different theoretical models. The diathesis-stress (DS) model posits that, as an index of regulatory capacity, lower RSA increases individual vulnerability in high risk contexts. The biological sensitivity (BS) model posits that lower RSA restricts the association between environmental risk and behavior whereas higher RSA amplifies this association- for better or worse. Both models, however, are predicted on clear distinctions between positive and negative "environments" with no clear indication of how these models predict outcomes in environments where both risk and protective factors exist. This study examines 207 kindergarten children ranked by their teachers as high in aggression, recruited from a demographically high-risk school district. Against the backdrop of high demographic risk, variation in environmental quality was examined via parent-reported levels of social support, stressful life events, and disciplinary practices. Consistent with the DS model, among children with relatively lower resting RSA, exposure to harsh punishment and greater number of stressful events was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported aggression. Consistent with the BS model, among kids with relatively higher RSA, higher parental social support was associated with lower teacher-reported peer problems. Higher RSA appears to afford some degree of protection in contexts of extreme adversity, and may facilitate children's ability to maximize the presence of protective factors.

Poster 1-30


Cynthia J Willner1, Michelle K Jetha2, Sidney J Segalowitz3, & Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp1 1The Pennsylvania State University, 2Cape Breton University, 3Brock University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, emotional face processing, social-emotional behavior problems

Attention biases to threat are hypothesized to contribute to both anxious and aggressive social behavior problems. To shed light on the nature of processing biases associated with emerging social behavior problems, the present study assesses emotional face processing in children using event-related potentials. The sample consists of 239 1st-grade children, n = 107 high-externalizing and n = 132 low-externalizing based on teacher-reported symptoms at entry to kindergarten. Current teacher ratings of behavior and EEG data were collected in the spring of 1st grade. Children completed a Go/No-go task in which they were shown computer-generated faces of 4 primary emotions balanced across gender and race. Peak amplitude differences for angry and fearful vs. neutral faces were examined for the occipital P1, temporo-parietal N170, and parieto-occipital P2 peaks. Analyses revealed that neither the P1 nor N170 amplitudes to angry/fearful vs. neutral faces were associated with externalizing problems or social withdrawal. In contrast, greater social withdrawal

was associated with smaller P2 amplitudes to angry (vs. neutral) faces, particularly at left side sites, whereas greater externalizing problems were associated with smaller P2 amplitudes to fearful (vs. neutral) faces, again particularly on the left side. These results suggest that both social withdrawal and externalizing behaviors in children are associated with diminished perceptual-attentional processing of threatening faces, although they may be differentially associated with the processing of angry vs. fearful faces.

Funding for this project was provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, The Social Science Research Institute at The Pennsylvania State University, and the Institute of Education Sciences (grant R305B090007 to the first author).

Poster 1-31


Douglas J Angus1, Kevin Kemkes2, & Eddie Harmon-Jones3 1University of Sydney, 2Utrecht University, 3University of New South Wales

Descriptors: anger, motivation, feedback-related negativity

Research has indicated that an event-related potential sensitive to information about gains and losses - feedback-related negativity (FRN) - is attenuated by emotional states and traits associated with increased withdrawal-related negative affect. In contrast, anger, a negative but approach-motivated state, may increase the FRN, based on theory and evidence linking anger with increased reward responsiveness. Male participants (n = 100) underwent two mood inductions designed to elicit feelings of neutrality and anger. Induction order was counterbalanced across participants. After each mood induction, participants completed a gambling task, in which they had to decide which of two doors had a reward behind it. On 50% of trials, participants received gain feedback (an up arrow), followed by an erotic image. On the other 50%, participants received loss feedback (a down arrow), followed by a neutral image. FRN amplitude differed as a function of gain-loss but did not differ between mood inductions. However, FRN after the anger induction was significantly correlated with participants' self-reported attraction to the erotic stimuli. The association between attraction and FRN after the anger induction remained significant after induction order, trait anger, FRN after the neutral induction, and perceived performance and agency during the gambling task were statistically controlled. These results suggest that FRN amplitude is associated with the perceived appetitive properties of rewarding stimuli, particularly in contexts associated with increased approach motivation.

D.J Angus is supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award.

Poster 1-32


Nicholas J Kelley, & Brandon J Schmeichel Texas A&M University

Descriptors: self-regulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, avoidance motivation Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of approach-motivated tendencies. For example, experiments manipulating frontal brain activity via transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have found that greater right than left frontal cortical activity increases self-control over approach-motivated responding (e.g., risk-taking in a gambling task; Fecteau et al., 2007). The current experiment assessed the effects of manipulated increases in right versus left frontal cortical asymmetry on the inhibition of avoidance-motivated responses. Prior to tDCS, participants used a joystick to pull neutral images toward and push threatening images away from the self. Then they received 15 minutes of tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity, increase relative right frontal cortical activity, or sham stimulation. After stimulation, participants had to pull threatening images toward or push neutral images away from the self. This response requires self-control insofar as pushing (not pulling) threatening stimuli away is the pre-potent response tendency (e.g., Rinck & Becker, 2007). Results revealed that participants who received stimulation to increase relative right frontal cortical asymmetry pulled threats toward the self more quickly relative to other participants. These results lend support to the idea that both approach and avoidance impulses share a common neural mechanism - relative right frontal cortical asymmetry.

Poster 1-33


David Tang, & Brandon J Schmeichel Texas A&M University

Descriptors: self-affirmation, cardiovascular, evaluation

Self-affirmation is known to reduce defensive responding to ego threats. Building on such evidence, the current experiment tested the effects of self-affirmation on heart rate and blood pressure following evaluation and provocation. Participants wrote an essay on a controversial topic and then received either neutral (evaluation only) or insulting (evaluation and provocation) feedback, ostensibly from another participant. Then participants

wrote about their most important value (self-affirmation) or about why artistic skill/ aesthetic appreciation may be important to others (no self-affirmation). Last, they participated in a competitive reaction time game that permitted them to blast the purported insulter with noise. Participants who were insulted showed steady increases in blood pressure and heart rate throughout the competitive reaction time (aggression) task, unless they had self-affirmed prior to the task. Together, these results suggest that self-affirmation facilitates the return to baseline cardiovascular activity following an interpersonal insult.

Poster 1-34


Anna J Finley, Adrienne Crowell, & Brandon J Schmeichel Texas A&M University

Descriptors: startle eyeblink, agreeableness, resource depletion

Research on the startle eye-blink response has documented increases in eye-blink magnitudes when an auditory startle probe occurs while viewing negatively-valenced images and decreases while viewing positively-valenced images. Researchers have capitalized on this effect to measure emotional states. However, few studies have examined individual difference moderators of the emotion-modulated startle eye-blink response. The current research examined the relationship between the startle eye-blink response to positive and negative images as a function of trait agreeableness and self-regulatory resource depletion, respectively. Separate regressions on startle reactions to positive and negative pictures found significant interactions between depletion and trait agreeableness for both image types. Simple slopes analyses were significant only among individuals higher in agreeableness. Specifically, non-depleted individuals higher in agreeableness showed especially small startle responses to positive images and especially large startle responses to negative images, suggesting that individuals higher in agreeableness are particularly sensitive to emotional context. However, when individuals higher in agreeableness were depleted of self-regulatory resources, this effect disappeared, suggesting that agreeableness is a resource intensive trait.

Poster 1-35


Adrienne Crowell1, Brandon J Schmeichel1, & Eddie Harmon-Jones2 1Texas A&M University, 2University of New South Wales

Descriptors: self-control, startle eyeblink, error-related negativity

We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes stronger approach motivated impulses. Numerous experiments have found that startle eye-blink responses are inhibited while viewing positive images, and this inhibition has been related to approach motivation. Evidence also suggests that exercising self-control is associated with a concomitant increase in approach motivation. Participants completed a modified flanker task designed to elicit error-related negativities (ERN) before writing a story that did (controlled writing condition) versus did not (free writing condition) require them to exercise self-control. Participants then completed an emotion-modulated startle paradigm. We hypothesized that participants lower in conflict monitoring (i.e., participants with smaller ERNs) would exhibit inhibited startle eye-blink responses to positive images, particularly after exercising self-control. Writing condition and ERNs interacted to predict startle eye-blink responses to the positive images. Specifically, participants with smaller ERNs who completed the self-controlled writing task showed smaller eye-blink responses compared to those who completed the free writing task. The results supported the prediction that exercising self-control causes increased approach motivation, especially for those with smaller ERNs. The results may help to explain why exercising self-control on one task may increase failure at subsequent self-control tasks (e.g., forgoing control in favor of approaching rewards).

National Science Foundation [BCS-0921276].

Poster 1-36


Erika H Siegel1, Jolie Wormwood1, Lauren Sears1, Justin Kopec1, Karen Quigley1,2, & Lisa Feldman Barrett1,3 1Northeastern University, 2VA Medical Center, 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: affective reactivity, interoceptive sensitivity, individual differences In this study, we explored the relationship between people's ability to consciously perceive changes in their body state (interoceptive awareness) and the intensity and variability in their responses to evocative stimuli (affective reactivity). To assess interoceptive awareness, participants completed a heartbeat detection task in which they were asked to determine whether ten successive beeps were concurrent or not concurrent with their heartbeat. Participants also completed a number of affective reactivity tasks during which we measured self-reported and physiological responses to a range of evocative stimuli across

experimental contexts. Participants completed an acoustic startle habituation task, a picture and sound rating task, a social stress task (mental math), and questionnaires designed to assess individual differences in affective experience and bodily sensations. Consistent with our hypotheses, performance on the heartbeat detection task was related to responses across the affective reactivity tasks. Heartbeat detection performance: a) moderated the relationship between facial EMG activity and valence ratings in the picture and sound rating task, b) negatively moderated the relationship between RSA activity and valence ratings during the picture and sound rating task, c) explained a significant amount of variation in respiration rate and skin conductance responses during the social stress task, and d) correlated with self-reported alexithymia. These data demonstrate that interoceptive awareness is related to affective reactivity across evocative contexts.

This research was funded by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (contract number W5J9CQ-11-R-0017). The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this poster are those of the authors and shall not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documents.

Poster 1-37


Kira Bailey1, & Robert West2 1University of Missouri, 2Iowa State University

Descriptors: action video games, reward processing, event-related potentials The association between action video game experience and the neural correlates of feedback processing related to positive and negative outcomes was examined using a virtual Blackjack game in combination with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed that the frequency of the various outcomes was not related to gaming experience, indicating that the association between action gaming and the ERP correlates of feedback processing are unlikely to result from variation in motivation or skill related to the Blackjack game. The ERP data revealed that action gaming was not related to the processing of positive feedback or negative feedback for losses wherein the dealer's hand contained more points than the player's hand. In contrast, the amplitude of the ERPs for feedback related to busts wherein the players total exceeded 21 was attenuated in high gamers. These findings indicate that action gaming was associated with a reduced sensitivity to feedback related to negative outcomes that arise from the direct action of the individual.

Poster 1-38


Margaret Corum, Therese V Cash, & Sarah K Lageman Virginia Commonwealth University

Descriptors: cortisol, Parkinson's disease, expressive writing

Expressive writing is a brief psychosocial intervention with known emotional and physical health benefits. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their caregivers are at risk for increased emotional distress and elevated cortisol levels. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), captured by assessing cortisol concentrations immediately upon waking, is a metric of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activation that is associated with psychosocial functioning. In this pilot study, individuals with PD and their caregivers were randomly assigned to expressive writing (PD patients = 10, Caregivers = 3) or neutral writing conditions (PD patients = 7, Caregivers = 4). CAR was captured with self-collected saliva samples prior to the first writing session. Participants then wrote about emotional or neutral topics three times within the next two weeks, and CAR was again assessed at one week, 4-month, and 10-month post intervals. A mixed method analysis of variance was used to evaluate initial results. A significant three-way interaction of Participant Status x Condition X Timepoint, F(3, 52.94) = 2.80, p = .049 was observed. The interaction of Condition X Timepoint trended towards significance for patients, F(3, 33.58) = 2.63, p = .067, but not for caregivers, p = .319. CAR was lower for individuals with PD in the expressive writing condition at immediate and 10 month follow ups compared to those in the control writing condition. Expressive writing appears to reduce CAR for individuals with PD but not caregivers and may be a useful method for managing hypercortisolism in PD.

Poster 1-39


Kelly E Harrison, Alyssa M Ames, & Erin C Tully Georgia State University

Descriptors: mindfulness, startle response, affect regulation

Mindfulness is a regulation process of enhanced attention to present moment experiences, including one's feelings and bodily sensations. It is associated with psychological

well-being and more flexible physiological responding in stressful environments. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of mindfulness on affect-modulated startle response patterns. Young adults (N = 68) completed a self-report measure of mindfulness and an affect-modulated startle paradigm in which the amplitude of startle eyeblinks were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. There was a significant interaction between picture valence and mindfulness on startle amplitude, F(2, 124) = 3.38, p = .037. Individuals with high mindfulness displayed the typical startle response pattern, with attenuated startle amplitudes to pleasant pictures and augmented amplitudes to unpleasant pictures, F(2, 62) = 5.25, p = .008. Individuals with low mindfulness displayed a blunted affect-modulated startle response, with a nonsignificant effect of picture valence on startle amplitude, F(2, 60) = .055, p = .947. These findings suggest that individuals with low mindfulness do not engage with salient emotional information effectively enough to trigger appetitive and aversive motivational systems. In contrast, individuals high in mindfulness are attentive, aware of their emotional environments, and effectively engage motivational systems in response to emotional stimuli.

Poster 1-40


Alyssa M Ames, Khadeja Chowdhury, & Erin C Tully Georgia State University

Descriptors: affect-modulated startle paradigm, negative and positive affect The emotion-modulated startle paradigm is an objective measure of the degree to which an individual's physiological stress reactivity is affected by emotional content in the environment. Depression and anxiety have been linked to distinct startle reactivity patterns, but no studies have investigated associations between negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA) and startle response patterns. NA and PA are trait-like characteristics that underlie depression and anxiety. Sixty-eight young adults completed an emotion-modulated startle paradigm in which the amplitude of eyeblinks were measured while they viewed images that varied in emotional valence and self-report measures of NA and PA. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the association between valence and startle amplitude as a function of NA and PA. Individuals with both low PA and high NA displayed blunted startle responding across image valence (partial eta squared = .001). People with low PA and low NA (partial eta squared = .17), with high PA and high NA (partial eta squared = .09), and high PA and low NA (partial eta squared = .16) displayed the typical linear pattern of responding. The stress responses of people prone to experiencing high levels of negative emotions and low levels of positive emotions were not affected by the emotional environment, suggesting that not only depression and anxiety, but also core factors underlying psychopathology, are associated with distinct startle reactivity patterns.

Poster 1-41


Wendy Maxian Xavier University

Descriptors: startle response, skin conductance, imagery task

Startle reflex (Witvliet & Vrana, 1995, 2000) and SCR (Bradley & Lang, 2007) are both used to measure arousal during active imagery tasks. Typical imagery study stimuli include action units, cueing physical expressions of emotion, to differentiate emotional response between subjects. This study assessed whether there were within-subjects differences in arousal responses. To prevent Type I error, action units were not included in the current stimuli. SCR and startle reflex were collected for 71 participants. Twenty-four stimulus statements were presented in a 2 (approach condition) x 2 (repetitions) x 4 (order) mixed design. Order was a between-subjects factor. Statements asked participants to imagine whether they were able or unable to approach media to achieve specific informational goals. During one repetition, startle probes were administered. Neutral emotional state was measured via 8 interstimulus startle probes. SCR was collected during the other repetition. When compared to the neutral condition, startle responses were potentiated in both approach conditions, with the aversive condition eliciting the largest potentiation. SCR data were problematic. Measureable responses were obtained in only 6.32% of trials of responders (n = 50), suggesting that statistical power is not sufficient to rule out Type I error. Startle reflex continues to be a robust measure of the affective foreground, and can be used to differentiate arousal responses during active imagery tasks. SCR should be used when action units are included in stimuli to measure between-group differences.

Poster 1-42


Erin A Hazlett, Nicholas J Blair, Nicolas G Fernandez, Kathryn A Mascitelli, David Banthin, & Marianne Goodman Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Descriptors: affective startle, suicidal behavior, emotion dysregulation Despite progress in understanding risk factors of suicidal behavior, little is known about the role of emotion dysregulation and its underlying neural circuitry which may confer suicide risk. Affective startle eyeblink modulation (ASM) provides a metric of emotion processing and is mediated by the amygdala. This study tested two hypotheses: 1) In a transdiagnostic sample, greater emotion dysregulation measured with ASM during unpleasant picture processing is observed in Multiple-suicide Attempters (MA; n = 33) vs. Single-suicide Attempters (SA; n = 27) vs. Suicidal Ideators (SI; n = 31); 2) GreaterASM during unpleasant pictures is associated with greater emotion dysregulation measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Ninety-one outpatients (primary diagnoses: PTSD, MDD) viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures. Startle probes were presented on a subset of trials at either 4000 or 5000 ms post picture onset. A mixed-model MANOVA on ASM scores showed a significant Group x Picture type interaction indicating the MA group exhibited greater ASM during unpleasant pictures than both the SA and SI groups (post-hocs, p < 0.05) and no group differences for neutral or pleasant pictures, F[4,174] = 3.52, p < 0.009. Across the sample, greater ASM during unpleasant pictures was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, r = 0.34, p < 0.01. These findings show that emotion processing and dysregulation are impaired commensurate with severity of suicidal behavior and ASM may be a useful non-verbal psychophysiological measure of suicide risk. Department of Defense.

Poster 1-43


Sarah Herzog, Steven Freed, Jonathan M DePierro, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: attention bias, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart rate The emotional go/no-go task is frequently used to assess emotional processing, and measures response bias to valenced facial expressions. However, to date this task has not been studied in conjunction with physiological measures such as heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), which have been shown to bear on emotion regulation in other contexts. In the current study, 56 women recruited from the community with a mean age of 30.38 (SD = 9.45) completed an emotional go/no-go task that included fearful, angry, sad, and happy faces. Prior to this task, participants completed self-report measures and underwent baseline monitoring of heart rate and RSA. Higher baseline RSA was strongly correlated with a bias toward happy faces (r = .28, p < .05) and was correspondingly negatively correlated with a fearful face bias (r = -.32, p < .05), indicating that those with higher RSA were faster to identify happy faces and slower to identify fearful faces. Higher baseline heart rate was positively related to bias for fearful faces (r = .31, p < .05). The observed correlations between baseline physiology and attention biases were unaffected by other potential mediators, including participant age, overall psychiatric symptoms, and severity of exposure to adverse life events. Overall, the findings are consistent with current research on the positive effects of higher RSA, and perhaps lower HR, in supporting emotional wellbeing. In particular the data suggest that higher baseline RSA may function as a buffer against negative emotions by influencing basic attention processes.

Poster 1-44


Erin Stafford, Andrea Fortunato, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: trauma, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, social cognition Interoception and physiology have both been implicated in psychological distress and social cognition. Here, we present data from a sample with significant psychosocial disturbance, namely adolescents exposed to prolonged familial abuse, to explore the interrelationships among autonomic physiology, affect regulation, and social cognition. This study collected autonomic data from 40 youth living in residential treatment due to self-regulation impairments, which prevent community living. Participants engaged in measurement of baseline physiology, an interoception task (guessing heart rate), and a social cognition task. The social cognition task used has previously shown healthy adolescents to correctly identify 75% of the faces and youth on the autistic spectrum to correctly identify 50%. This sample, on average, correctly named 37% of faces (SD = 15%, Range = 0 to

75%). Interoceptive accuracy (beta = -.460, p = .003) and Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) (beta = .289, p = .046) both predict more accurate social cognition; while sympathetic activation (LFP) (beta = -.183, p = .316) did not significantly account for the variance in social cognition accuracy. Taken together, these findings indicate coherence among perceptions of self, perceptions of other, and the ability to regulate distress, which may be indexed through autonomic indices. These findings highlight the role of autonomic arousal in social cognition, and also, the possibility for conducting physiological research with psychologically fragile populations.

Poster 1-45


Treva C Van Cleave, Vivian Khedari, Sophie Parens, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: heart beat detection, self-injury, trauma

Childhood trauma has been linked to reports of numbing and self-injury. People who engage in self-injury often report lack of body sensations as an antecedent to the behavior, but interoception has never been measured in this population. The heart beat detection task was used to determine interoceptive awareness in a sample of community members, n = 29. Interoceptive awareness was determined by the discrepancy between participants' reported heart rate over a 30 second period, and measured heart rate. Groups above the cutoff score for the Tension Reduction Subscale of the IASC had lower interoceptive awareness, regardless of heart rate, t(27) = -1.92, p = .06. This finding demonstrates a connection between perception of bodily states and self-injurious behavior, consistent with theories of self-harm such as emotion regulation and feeling generation. Additionally, groups above the cutoff score for physical and sexual childhood abuse had lower interoceptive awareness, t(26) = 1.37, p = .18. These findings suggest a pathway from childhood trauma to self-injury that is partially accounted for by lack of interoceptive awareness.

Poster 1-46


Ashley Doukas, Sarah Herzog, Erica Gardner-Schuster, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, mindfulness, heart rate variability Mindfulness, broadly defined as the present-centered, self-directed attentional focus on one's thoughts, emotions, and bodily states, has recently been gaining traction in the psychology literature. Mindfulness has been shown to correlate with emotional well-being, emotion regulation, and a variety of other positive mental health outcomes. Mindfulness interventions are becoming increasingly common in therapeutic contexts, yielding better patient outcomes. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity also associated with emotion regulation and adaptive psychological response styles. However, very little is known about the autonomic correlates underlying the construct of mindfulness, and thus the potential mechanisms of mindfulness interventions. Previous studies based on small samples have found that HRV correlates positively with state mindfulness. The present study is an exploratory analysis examining the auto-nomic correlates of trait mindfulness in 30 community-dwelling adults. Contrary to previous findings, results indicate that baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is negatively correlated with two key components of mindfulness: "Acting with Awareness" (r = -.41, .023) and "Accepting without Judgment" (r = -.44, p = .015). Implications for these findings, as well as their relationship to other relevant psychological constructs, are discussed.

Poster 1-47


Reese Minshew1, Wendy D'Andrea1, & Greg J Siegle2 1New School for Social Research, 2University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: trauma, autonomic physiology, prosody

Traumatic stress is associated with alterations in autonomic activation, including decreased interbeat interval (IBI), and decreased respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). However, a number of contradictory findings have been uncovered by experimental protocols. Studies suggest that these contradictions may be due to a "dissociative subtype" of trauma survivors. The current study hypothesized that each individual trauma survivor may fluctuate between hyper- and hypo-arousal. Participants (N = 41) provided self-report data on measures of childhood trauma, emotional lability, and emotional constriction. Their voices were recorded during an emotionally evocative interview, and the pitch contour of this recording was used for analysis of prosody. Additionally, heart rate was monitored during the interview, yielding a measure of autonomic arousal. Participants who scored high on the measure of childhood trauma also scored high on self-report measures of emotional lability and constriction. A regression model was built with self-report and autonomic variables regressed against score on the childhood trauma measure: this model was statistically

significant (p = .02), and the Adjusted R2 of this model was .20. This model suggests that trauma exposure is related to coherent within-person variance in emotional expression and physiological arousal.

Poster 1-48


Stephanie M Shiffler, Steven Freed, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: heart rate, impulsivity, trauma

The Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) is a tool used to assess risk taking in various populations. In this task, individuals are rewarded for "key presses" which also inflate a balloon that is programmed to pop after a certain number of presses. The paradigm assumes that those prone to risk-taking will be more likely to continue pressing the key and thus pop the balloon, losing the reward. The current study examines autonomic data collected from a sample of 19 youth living in a residential treatment center for at-risk youth. Among the individuals in this program, there is a significant amount of exposure to extreme stress, issues with self-regulation, and other disturbances. This was the second of two sessions of physiological data collection and task completion, between which the subjects participated in a sports-centered intervention program. Baseline physiology was collected, followed by a series of tasks, among which was the BART. Subjects' baseline heart rate (HR) was shown to predict their BART score in that individuals who had lower HR tended to, on average, have a higher BART score (r = -.525, p < .05). This finding may indicate that individuals with a low resting HR are more prone to risk-taking behavior, the converse being that those with high resting HR are risk-averse. Considering the high rates of psychosocial disturbance in the population that this sample represents, these findings may suggest a relationship between heart rate, anxiety, and risk-taking.

Poster 1-49


Nicholas Fehertoi, Kellie Lee, Jonathan M DePierro, Steven Freed, & Wendy D'Andrea New School for Social Research

Descriptors: affect-modulated startle, suppression, interpersonal

Affect-modulated startle, a paradigm in which aversive startle probes are presented in the context of picture stimuli of varying valences, reflects a relationship between physiological reactivity and affective context. Here, reactivity was examined in the context of emotion suppression, a concealing of affect, as well as chronic interpersonal difficulties. Increased heart rate during startle probes was found to correlate with trait suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (r = .45), as well as with interpersonal problems, as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (r = .34). Additionally, trait suppression was correlated with numerous interpersonal problems (vindictive, r = .34; cold, r = .56, socially withdrawn, r = .43). However, both trait suppression and interpersonal problems correlated only with neutral, rather than affective, startle probes, contrary to prior findings by Dillon et al. (2005), who found that experimentally manipulated suppression impacts affective rather than neutral trials. These findings a) extend the literature on expressive suppression and its physiological correlates to trait interpersonal difficulties; and b) suggest that elevated physiologic reactivity may play a role in interpersonal difficulties associated with affective suppression.

Poster 1-50


Xiao Yang, Derek P Spangler, Jared J McGinley, & Bruce H Friedman Virginia Tech

Descriptors: startle modification, attention control, individual differences The startle response is modulated by preceding affective stimuli (Lang et al., 1990). Affective startle modification involves motivational and attentional processes (Bradley et al., 2006). Individual differences in these processes are likely to influence startle modulation. However, few studies have focused on the influence of trait differences in attention. In the present study, the influence of attentional control on startle modulation was explored using a picture viewing paradigm. Eighty-six subjects (mean age = 19.4, 60 female) completed the Attentional Control (AC) scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Thirty-six pictures of different valence and specific contents were presented. Eight trials of acoustic startle stimuli for each valence were delivered during pictures. Facial electromyo-graphy indexed the magnitude of startle blink, which was standardized as a T score within-subject. AC scores were divided into four quartiles. Mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results showed that pictures of erotica and targeted guns had the largest startle inhibition, F(1,85) = 32.46, p < .001, and potentiation, F(1,85) = 27.10, p < .001, respectively. However, the modulation patterns were observed in

the first to third AC quartile, but not in the highest quartile, Fs < 4.03, ps > .059. The results show that subjects with strong attentional control are more likely to switch attention away from pictures when startle stimuli occur, which suggests that startle stimuli activate the defensive system that may involve attention regulatory mechanisms (Derryberry & Rothbart, 1997).

Poster 1-51


Derek P Spangler, & Bruce H Friedman Virginia Tech

Descriptors: heart rate variability, trait, latent

It has been argued that trait emotion regulation is better reflected by baseline high-frequency heart rate variability (HRV) than by task HRV values (Beauchaine, 2001). Others have emphasized the importance of assessing trait cardiac activity across time and situations (Friedman & Thayer, 1998). The present study explored whether HRV's common variance across periods better predicts trait emotion regulation than do single baseline values. Eighty-four subjects (40 women; mean age = 19.6, SD = 1.8) were assessed on trait emotion regulation with the Effortful Control (EC) scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007). ECG was recorded while subjects serially completed resting baseline, mental arithmetic, and recovery periods. HRV was derived from the heart rate time series as spectral power in the frequency of respiration (.15-.4 Hz). Using a hybrid structural equation model (SEM), a latent variable was extracted from HRV during all three periods and was then used to predict EC scores. The relation between baseline HRV and EC was assessed with a Pearson correlation. The SEM model fit well to the data, SRMR = .008, chi-square = .52, p = .77, and the latent variable significantly predicted EC, beta = .257, p < .05. Baseline HRV was correlated with EC, r = .225, p = .04. These results suggest that aggregating HRV across experimental tasks modestly enhances ability to predict trait emotion regulation. These data also highlight the utility of SEM approaches in psycho-physiological research.

Poster 1-52


Jared J McGinley1, Erica A Lee2, & Bruce H Friedman1 1Virginia Tech, 2North Carolina State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, measurement consistency

Root mean squared successive differences in heart period (RMSSD) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) ECG spectral power are two common heart rate variability (HRV) indicators of cardiac vagal activity. Although attention has been drawn to the basic features of RMSSD (e.g., Berntson et al., 2005), less research has been directed at the differences between RMSSD and HF in capturing overall IBI change. These two metrics are highly correlated, but may differ in their abilities to reflect vagal control (Penttila et al., 2001; Porges, 2007). This issue was explored in the current study, which involved three-minute baseline, cold pressor, and recovery periods. HRV measures were derived from ECG recordings during these periods. Subjects were 73 undergraduates (37 female). Across all tasks, the traditionally high correlations between HF HRV and RMSSD were replicated in this study (r = .88-.92). RMSSD, however, consistently had larger correlations (r = .7-.78) than HF (r = 44-.60) with IBI. Similarly, when computing linear regressions to explain IBI change, adding RMSSD as an additional predictor to HF led to a 43% average increase in unique variance explained. Although not typically noted in the literature, RMSSD, compared to HF, consistently explained more change in IBI. These findings suggest that RMSSD may be capturing more than just vagal influences on IBI changes. Based on these findings, future researchers should be more attentive when considering which metric they choose to measure vagal activity.

tests. Results demonstrated SL in children as determined by Probability effects on ERP amplitudes 300-750 ms post predictor in the centro-posterior region and on response times. These behavioral and ERP effects of SL were significantly positively correlated with each other. Crucially, the Probability ERP effect was positively correlated with measures of language ability and cognitive control. These findings validate the use of a probabilistic visual predictor-target task to investigate SL in children and, most importantly, provide neural evidence of a close relationship between SL and language development.

National Institutes of Health: NIH 1R01DC012037-01A1.

Poster 1-54


Gretchen NL Smith, & Christopher M Conway Georgia State University

Descriptors: cognition, structured sequential processing, language

Research suggests that certain language and communication disorders may be caused, in part, by disturbances to more basic learning abilities such as structured sequential processing (SSP) (Conway et al., 2010; 2011). SSP is a domain-general mechanism used to learn patterns of stimuli unfolding in time, especially in the domains of language, social, and motor cognition (Cleeremans et al., 1998). However, it is not known whether language functions can be improved by improving SSP. To test the feasibility of this approach, we developed a novel computerized training task to attempt to enhance SSP in typically-developing adults. Participants (n = 24) were quasi-randomly assigned to a SSP training group, active control, or passive control group. The SSP training involved a computerized visual-spatial sequence reproduction task with underlying structured patterns in the input sequences. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to explore the neural changes to SSP and language resulting from training. Following 10 days of training or control, participants were reassessed with the same baseline measures used before training or control. Results indicated that training modulated the ERPs, as observed in changes to the P3a, P3b, and P600 components. ERP and topoplot results also suggested that SSP training led to a functional neural reorganization of SSP in the frontal region, an area of the brain known to be important for executive functions, controlled attention, and language. Overall, the findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving SSP as a way to improve language functions.

NIH 1R01DC012037.

Poster 1-55


Marjorie Freggens, Jerome Daltrozzo, Joanne A Deocampo, & Christopher M Conway Georgia State University

Descriptors: sequential learning, language

Sequential learning (SL) is a cognitive process allowing people to perceive and learn environmental patterns. Since language acquisition requires learning temporal patterns of speech, SL is thought to be essential for language development and performance. However, to date, the neural evidence supporting such a relationship between SL and language performance is scarce. We explored this relationship using event-related potentials (ERP) with a non-verbal visual SL task in 17 adults (11 females, 18-49 years), who also completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-IV). In the SL task a "predictor" preceded a non-verbal target with varying probability. Results indicated that ERPs to the predictors were modulated by these probabilities, demonstrating that SL occurred. These ERP effects interacted with the PPVT score [750-850 ms post-predictor onset: F(2,14) = 4.44, p = .032] and with the PPVT and a topographic factor [100-200 ms post-predictor onset: F(4,28) = 6.21, p = .006]. These results suggest that acquiring knowledge of the meaning of words appears to rely upon basic sequence processing mechanisms. NIH (1R01DC012037-01A1) grant to Dr C.M. Conway.

Poster 1-53


Joanne A Deocampo, Christopher M Conway, Leyla Eghbalzad, & Jerome Daltrozzo Georgia State University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, language development, sequential learning Sequential learning (SL) is believed to be an essential component of language development. Despite support from behavioral studies, neural evidence of this relationship, especially in children, is scarce. The current study measured event related potentials (ERPs) to a visual SL task in nineteen 7-12-year-old children. The SL task involved incidental learning of probabilistic relationships between predictors and targets presented within a serial input stream of a standard stimulus. Predictors were followed by the target with 90% (high) or 20% (low) probability. In another condition, targets were presented without a preceding predictor. Various aspects of language and cognitive development were assessed with standardized

Poster 1-56


Sonia Singh, Jerome Daltrozzo, Joanne A Deocampo, & Christopher M Conway Georgia State University

Descriptors: sequential, learning, language

Sequential learning (SL) is a cognitive process enabling people to perceive and learn environmental patterns. Since language acquisition is dependent on learning temporal patterns of speech, SL is considered essential for language development and performance. Despite this, there is still insufficient neural evidence supporting a relationship between SL and language ability. We investigated this relationship using event-related potentials (ERPs) to the perception of tones with a SL task in 9 adults (8 females, 18-27 years). Participants also completed a measure of syntactic processing of natural language: the Grammaticality Judgment subtest of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). In the

SL task, a non-verbal "predictor" preceded a "target", with varying probability. Results indicated that ERPs to the predictors were modulated by this probability. There was an increased amplitude of a P300/P600-like component to higher probability predictors, which demonstrated that SL had occurred. This P600 effect interacted with Grammaticality [300-400 ms post-predictor onset: F(8,24) = 3.59, p = .026], thus suggesting that syntactic processing of one's native language is directly related to SL. Together with recent ERP studies of SL using visual instead of auditory stimuli reporting a relationship between a P600 effect of SL and syntactic processing in natural language (as well as receptive vocabulary), these findings suggest a strong and systematic link between neural correlates of SL and those of syntactic processing of natural language.

NIH (1R01DC012037-01A1) grant to Dr. C.M. Conway.

Poster 1-57


Brian K Rundle, & Matthew S Stanford Baylor University

Descriptors: psychopathy, empathy, yawning

Yawning is a behavior found in most vertebrates, but for some species including our own, it often serves as a contagion spread among groups once initialized. Current research focuses on empathy as being largely responsible for the contagious nature of this behavior. Psychopathy is marked by a range of antisocial behaviors which include dampened affect and deficient empathic processing, namely coldheartedness. The relationship between psychopathy and contagious yawning has yet to be fully described; however, it follows that those high in psychopathic traits, in particular "coldheartedness", should be less susceptible to the yawning contagion. One hundred and thirty one university undergraduates (53 male, 78 female) were designated high or low on psychopathic traits as measured by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised. Participants were shown pseudo-random blocks of yawns, smiles, and neutral-face video clips (7-10 seconds each) for 11 minutes; frequency of yawns throughout the presentation was recorded along with ocular electromyo-graphy (EMG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) to validate yawns. Physiological validation of yawns was used to control for "half-yawns" or incomplete yawns. A comparison of means showed a significant difference between the groups' susceptibility to contagious yawning [t(129) = 2.184, p = 0.031] with those lower on psychopathic traits being more likely to yawn. This appears to be the first study to empirically support the empathy / contagious yawning theory.

Poster 1-58


Jesus Chavarria, & Jeanette Taylor Florida State University

Descriptors: self-regulation depletion, psychophysiological measurement The depletion of self-regulation may lead to poorer impulse control and an inability to control actions that may be detrimental to one's livelihood, such as participating in risky activities. The current study sought to measure the depletion of self-regulation physiologically using skin conductance response (SCR) and electrocardiograph readings. To date, the majority of studies measure self-regulation depletion through behavioral tasks, such as the hand grip exercise task. As these tasks measure self-regulation depletion at the end of the task, they are unable to measure self-regulation depletion as it actively occurs. The current study examined the differences in SCRs and heart rate (HR) between college students in a control and self-regulation depletion condition. Group differences between the conditions were examined using analysis of variance between groups. Results indicated that individuals in the depletion condition had a significantly higher average HR (mean = 74.05, standard deviation = 11.8) than those in the control condition (mean = 69.15, standard deviation = 8.97), t(104) = 2.48, p = .02. The mean amplitude of the SCRs was also significantly larger for individuals in the depletion condition (mean = 1.91, standard deviation = 0.51) than the control condition (mean = 0.90, standard deviation = 0.73), t(93.42) = 8.31, p < .01. Individuals show greater autonomic activity as they are presumably engaged in self-regulation. These findings may be a first step in developing a physiological measure of self-regulation depletion as it actively occurs.

Poster 1-59


Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel1, Andrés A González-Garrido1, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez1, & Luis R Campos2 1University of Guadalajara, 2Universidad de Morón

Descriptors: deafness, vibrotactile, P300

Oral language acquisition is intertwined with cognitive development, thus the inability of most deaf individuals to acquire spoken language conventionally has cognitive repercus-

sions. We studied cerebral electric activity in 6 profound deaf and 6 normal-hearing (NH) participants performing a sustained attention task with a working memory component. The AX-CPT task was performed after 5 vibrotactile sound discrimination training sessions (one-hour each; 2.5 weeks) with simultaneous EEG recording. Animal sounds stimuli were delivered by a stimulator system worn on the right index finger [X: dog barking; A: cow mooing; AX: 20%]). Despite no significant behavioral differences between the groups, the general tendency of the experimental group was of slower performance (RT). ERP results after training show a robust P3-like fronto-central positive waveform with a significantly higher voltage in the deaf participants. However, no significant latency differences were observed between groups. These results may imply an additional demand of cognitive resources in order to successfully complete the task, in the context in which the availability of these resources could be facilitated by differential neurodevelopmental cortical changes due to early auditory deprivation.

Poster 1-60


Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, & Cynthia R Cimino University of South Florida

Descriptors: memory, emotion, personality

Prior research suggests that individual differences may modify enhanced memory for emotional stimuli. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity model predicts that those high in self-endorsed trait behavioral inhibition (BIS) will respond more to negative stimuli while those high in the behavioral activation (BAS) respond more to positive stimuli, which will result in a memory bias for negative information in high BIS individuals and for positive information in high BAS individuals. We used ERPs in response to emotional pictures to investigate when in processing these individual differences might occur. Recall and recognition for these images was tested after a 20-minute delay. BAS predicted higher recall for positive images, while BIS was not significantly related. High and low BIS and BAS endorsement was associated with mean amplitude of both early and late ERP components. Larger N2 amplitude to negative images relative to neutral was associated with low BIS, while high BAS demonstrated higher N2 amplitude to negative images. High BIS demonstrated less P1 positivity to positive images while high BAS tended to have higher P1 amplitude to positive images. High BIS was associated with larger LPP amplitude to negative images compared to positive. Furthermore, LPP and BAS predicted positive recall. These results suggest that individual differences impact emotional image processing at the earliest level of processing and are associated memory of emotional material.

Poster 1-61


Heather E Soder, Troy A Webber, Kyle J Curham, Marina A Bornovalova, & Geoffrey F Potts University of South Florida

Descriptors: reward sensitivity, impulsivity, decision-making

The Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) is a negative Event-Related Potential (ERP) component found over the medial frontal electrodes following negative feedback. Previous research on impulsivity and the FRN has shown that high impulsive individuals display a larger positive component to unpredicted rewards and a more negative component to unpredicted non-rewards compared with low impulsives. This suggests that high impulsives are more reward sensitive when evaluating outcomes. The prior study used a passive design where the outcome was not related to the participant's decisions. To investigate the role of active choice on reward sensitivity in impulsivity this study used dense sensor array ERPs in a sample of 50 in two tasks known to elicit an FRN: a passive 'slot machine-like' gambling task where they had no control over the outcome and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) where they had to decide how much to pump up a rewarding balloon that has the potential to pop at any moment. Results showed that high impulsives displayed a more negative FRN to unpredicted non-rewards compared with low impulsives on the passive task, but the FRN on the BART was unrelated to impulsivity. These results suggest that high impulsives show enhanced responses to bad outcomes but only when choice is not involved. One possible explanation is that impulsive individuals register bad outcomes but are unable to apply that outcome information when making choices.

Poster 1-62


Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Ali Sibiga, Geoffrey F Potts, & Marina A Bornovalova University of South Florida

Descriptors: peer influence, feedback-related negativity, risk-taking behavior

The link between peer influence and risk-taking behavior (RTB) - including but not limited

to alcohol and drug use, gambling, and sexual risk behavior - is well established. However,

few studies have examined the physiological correlates of peer influenced RTB and the familial/genetic effects that might potentiate risk for peer influenced RTB. The current study utilized a counterbalanced, within-subjects design wherein 53 undergraduate participants were asked to complete a behavioral risk task (i.e., the Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]) alone and in the presence of "risky" peers (confederates). Confederates provided structured feedback that encouraged risky behavior after participants completed trials on the BART; however, the latter were not required to follow the feedback. Event related potentials (i.e., feedback-related negativity [FRN]) were collected while participants completed the task. Behavioral results indicated that participants took more risks in the peer condition than in the solitary condition (F(1) = 12.28, p = .001, d = 1.07). Moreover, FRN over the medial frontal electrodes was less negative in the peer condition than in the solitary condition after controlling for resistance to peer influence (F(1) = 4.49, p = .04, d = .67). Behavioral (F(1) = 4.18, p = .04, d = .65) data were moderated by familial history of alcohol abuse, while physiological (F(1) = .68, p = .41, d = .25) were not. Results suggest that the presence of risky peers may reduce attentional capabilities and neural sensitivity to negative feedback in situations that include risky decisions.

Poster 1-63


Constanza de Dios, & Geoffrey F Potts University of South Florida

Descriptors: spatial attention, expectation violation, event-related potentials Gate Control Theory suggests that the medial frontal cortex (MFC) selects percepts for further processing using motivation-relevant input from the mesotelencephalic dopamine system, a relationship indexed by the medial frontal negativity (MFN). The current study explored the influence of motivation systems on spatial attention mechanisms by investigating the MFN and early attention ERP components. MFN following expectation violation is larger and most negative to errors or choices resulting in monetary loss. Early components P1 and N1 are larger to stimuli in attended locations. Our design manipulated the visual hemifield in which expectation was violated and responses were monetarily punished or rewarded, thereby producing potentially rewarding or punishing hemifields. We predicted that hemifields where an expectation violation occurred on the previous trial would be attended on the current trial and that stimuli at those locations would produce larger P1 and N1 responses. ERPs were captured from dense sensor array recording in a sample of 30 participants. Results showed that trials whose hemifields were ipsilateral to the previous trial producing a negative response-locked MFN, also elicited larger P1 and N1, suggesting that more attention is allocated to locations violating motivational expectation. Consistent with existing literature on the effect of error commission on attention to perceptual features of stimuli, our finding might be extend this relationship to spatial location.

Poster 1-64


Johannes Rodrigues, Natalie Ulrich, & Johannes Hewig University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: dictator game, midfrontal theta activity, altruism

Recently, many studies have tried to find the neuronal basis of economic decisions. To this end, the dictator game and other paradigms have been used to measure altruistic behavior. In the dictator game, a proposer may divide money between him- or herself and a receiver, who has no opportunity of influencing this decision. The present exploratory study investigated the predictive value of midfrontal theta activity in electroencephalogram (EEG) to information about the receiver, given before the decision of the dictator. Also of interest was the difference of altruistic and non-altruistic dictators in midfrontal theta activity and the succeeding offer. Participants played the dictator game, where the anonymity of the decision of the dictator and the need for money of the receiver was manipulated. Additionally, high altruistic and low altruistic participants were recruited to investigate possible differences in behavior and EEG activity in these two groups. The midfrontal theta activity was able to predict following fair offers especially in high altruistic dictators. This higher midfrontal theta activation for highly altruistic participants may be a physiological basis of altruistic motivation or empathy.

This research was funded by Volkswagen foundation.

Poster 1-65


Natalie Ulrich, Maria Weiss, & Johannes Hewig University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: feedback-related negativity, gambling, near-miss

Research has shown that near-misses, i.e. misses close to a win, are processed and evaluated differently compared to full-misses. A previous study changed the evaluation of near-misses in problem gamblers through a short intervention. We wanted to know whether the

processing of near outcomes (near-misses and narrow wins) in healthy participants could be changed using an informatory intervention. An EEG was recorded while participants gambled on a wheel of fortune delivering full-wins, full-misses, narrow wins and near-misses. Halfway through the gambling session a short intervention was delivered. For one group, it focused on the distinction between skill and chance games and the information content of near-misses in both kinds of games. Here, the participants were explicitly told they were playing a chance game. The second group received an intervention focusing on the closeness of outcomes, e.g. stressing the almost-winning aspect of near-misses, without mentioning the distinction between skill and chance games. An analysis of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) showed that the interventions led to an increase in the FRN measured as peak-to-peak difference. Furthermore, the interventions changed the processing of near compared to full outcomes. Near outcomes elicited a marginally larger FRN only prior to but not after the interventions. On a descriptive level the interventions seemed to differentially influence the processing of near outcomes. Future research should test whether these interventions can also change outcome processing in pathological gamblers.

Natalie Ulrich received a research scholarship from the Elite Network of Bavaria.

Poster 1-66


Jamie Ferri, Anna EF Weinberg, Greg Hajcak Proudfit, & Turhan Canli Stony Brook University

Descriptors: attentional deployment, late positive potential, fMRI

The LPP is thought to reflect concurrent activation of multiple neural systems involved in attention to salient stimuli, and previous studies have implicated the visual cortex, the amygdala, and frontoparietal attention networks as potential contributors to LPP magnitude during passive viewing of emotional pictures. However, LPP magnitude also varies as a function of emotion regulation, providing an additional opportunity to examine neural correlates of variability in the LPP. The goal of the current study was to examine correlations between LPP magnitude and fMRI BOLD activation, both during passive viewing of emotional images and when engaging in attentional deployment, an emotion regulation strategy that involves shifting attentional focus towards or away from emotional information. 30 participants completed an fMRI and EEG version of this task on the same day in a counter-balanced order. Results from the first 11 subjects indicate that LPP magnitude is positively correlated with BOLD activation in the visual cortex and in the amygdala, both during passive viewing of unpleasant compared to neutral images - and when deploying attention to arousing compared to non-arousing regions of unpleasant images. Correlations between LPP magnitude and whole-brain BOLD activation from 30 participants across attentional deployment conditions will be presented.

Poster 1-67


Felicia L Jackson1, Brady D Nelson1, Nader Amir2, & Greg Hajcak Proudfit1 *Stony Brook University, 2San Diego State University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, attention bias modification

The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological response to errors that is increased with trait anxiety. We suggested that an increased ERN reflects heightened sensitivity to threat among more anxious individuals. Indeed, an attentional bias to negative or threatening stimuli is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. In recent studies, a computer-based attention bias modification (ABM) program has been used to reduce attention to threat; ABM has been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms and improve behavioral performance. In the present study, we examined the impact of ABM on the ERN, and examined the relationship between ERN and ABM-based changes in attention to threat. A total of 58 participants completed a single-session of ABM and a flankers task to elicit the ERN - in counter-balanced order. Results showed that the ERN was significantly reduced among participants who completed ABM first. Thus, ABM appears to reduce the ERN. Furthermore, change in bias toward threat during ABM was correlated with ERN across all participants: a larger ERN predicted less successful ABM. Thus, ABM may attenuate the ERN, and ERN may predict response to ABM treatment.

Poster 1-68


Brittany C Speed, Emily M Hale-Rude, & Greg Hajcak Proudfit Stony Brook University

Descriptors: cognitive reappraisal, development, late positive potential Emotion regulation requires cognitive control, and limitations in cognitive control have been associated with poorer emotion regulation abilities. Many studies have examined the neural correlates of emotion regulation in adults, although less research is available in adolescence - a crucial time in the development of cognitive control. The LPP is posited to

index motivational significance; it is generally larger for emotional compared to neutral stimuli, and is sensitive to various emotion regulation strategies in adults, such as directed attention and changes in stimulus meaning (i.e., reappraisal). The present study utilized the LPP as a measure of emotional reactivity and regulation to affective pictures in a sample of adolescents. Fifty participants aged 10-17 viewed unpleasant or neutral IAPS pictures for 3000 ms; an auditory instruction was presented to either decrease negative emotion using cognitive reappraisal (i.e., "decrease"), or continue viewing the picture normally (i.e., "look"). Neutral pictures were always paired with the look instruction; 50% of unpleasant pictures involved reappraisal. Pictures were presented for a duration of 8000 ms. In line with previous research, the average LPP amplitude was larger during unpleasant vs. neutral picture presentation in the initial passive viewing portion of the trial. Following emotion regulation instruction, the LPP was reduced for negative "decrease" compared to negative "look" conditions. To better understand the development of emotion regulation, the impact of age on reappraisal abilities will also be examined.

Poster 1-69


Jennifer N Bress, & Greg Hajcak Proudfit Stony Brook University

Descriptors: reward, depression, developmental

Using temporal-spatial principal components analysis (PCA), we have found that the feedback negativity (FN) reflects reward-related neural activity that is reduced or absent following non-reward - and that this activity correlates with BOLD signal in the mesolim-bic circuit. Two studies have used PCA to demonstrate that reward-related neural activity reflected in the FN is reduced as a function of depression in adults. However, temporal-spatial PCA has not been used to examine the FN in a developmental context. Here, we present data from a large community sample of 8- to 14-year-old girls (N = 145). EEG was recorded during a guessing task in which monetary gains or losses were equally probable on each trial; the resulting ERP waveforms were decomposed using temporal-spatial PCA. Similarly to findings in adults, the PCA factor combination corresponding to the FN was a positivity that was maximal at Cz and peaked approximately 240 ms after feedback; this factor was larger in response to monetary gains than losses. Factor scores related negatively to individual differences in self-reported depression, such that girls with higher depression scores were characterized by a smaller response to gains and less differentiation between gains and losses. Controlling for anxiety - which correlated strongly with depression -increased the magnitude of this effect. These results corroborate and extend previous finding in adults, indicating that the FN may reflect reward-related neural activity; moreover, we replicate previous studies relating depressive symptoms to a reduced FN.

Poster 1-70


Alexandria M Meyer, Greg Hajcak Proudfit, & Daniel N Klein Stony Brook University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, anxiety, development

Anxiety disorders typically begin early in life and often result in chronic impairment; thereby it is important to understand normative versus anxious developmental pathways. There is increasing research focus on identifying biomarkers that predict the onset of anxiety disorders in order to increase our understanding of underlying etiopathogenesis and improve intervention and prevention strategies. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) that occurs fronto-centrally approximately 50 ms after error commission that has been shown to be increased in adults and children with anxiety disorders and has been proposed as a biomarker of risk; however, no study has yet examined whether an increased ERN precedes the onset of anxiety disorders. In the current study, 236 children with no current or past anxiety disorders performed a Go/No-Go task at approximately 6 years of age and returned to the lab 3 years later to complete diagnostic interviews. Parents reported on children's anxiety via the Child Behavior Checklist at Age 6 and diagnostic interviews at both time points. An increased ERN at Age 6 predicted the onset of anxiety disorders by Age 9, even when controlling for baseline anxiety symptoms. This is the first prospective study to demonstrate that increased error-related brain activity precedes the onset of anxiety disorders, supporting the notion that the ERN is a neural biomarker of risk that may aid in the development of novel targets for early intervention.

Poster 1-71


Erin N Burdwood, & Robert F Simons University of Delaware

tic partnerships. In fact, existing research tends to lump "romantic relationships" together in one supposedly homogeneous category, without considering interpersonal factors that might influence an individual's response to his or her partner. The present study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in college students viewing photos of their boyfriends or girlfriends, familiar celebrities, and strangers in order to explore how an individual's neural response to his or her partner is related to relationship quality factors. Observed ERP patterns suggest increased attention to one's partner relative to familiar and unfamiliar faces, regardless of relationship quality. However, level of relationship satisfaction and quality of communication were found to moderate ERP component amplitude. Findings highlight the importance of considering relationship quality factors in facial processing studies, as well as the ability of neural responses to index facets of romantic relationships and patterns of attention.

Poster 1-72


Emilio A Valadez, Yiming Jing, & Robert F Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: culture, electroencephalography, feedback-related negativity When there are repeated encounters between the same two individuals, the individuals often adopt a strategy of anticipatory direct reciprocity (i.e., "If I cooperate now, you may cooperate later"). Consequently, mutual cooperation has become embedded in human long-term social relations. The psychological consequence of this norm is that individuals tend to trust their partners and expect them to reciprocate cooperation if a future encounter is probable. In the present study, 17 Caucasian participants completed a repeated investment game, a modified version of Berg et al.'s (1995) investment game, while brain activity was recorded through electroencephalography (EEG). During the repeated investment game, participants completed 150 trials in which they played the role of the "investor" while a computerized partner played the role of the "trustee," who would either exploit an investor's trusting decision or cooperate. It was hypothesized that feedback-related negativity (FRN) would be of greater (more negative) amplitude when a participant's trusting decision was exploited than when met with mutual cooperation. As expected, results indicated that FRN amplitude was more negative following feedback of exploitation than feedback of mutual cooperation, t(15) = 3.072, p = .008. Results were consistent with the view that exploitation in a repeated-encounter context violates the expectancy for mutual cooperation. Future directions include comparing the present results to those of a Chinese sample and using a task in which participants play each round with a different "partner."

Poster 1-73


Zachary P Infantolino1, Laura D Crocker2, Jeffrey M Spielberg3, Bradley P Sutton2, Marie T Banich4, Gregory A Miller5,2, & Wendy Heller2 1University of Delaware, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 4University of Colorado at Boulder, 5University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: motivation, reward, punishment

Anticipation of reward and punishment elicits increased neural activity in areas such as the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Typically, such responses are analyzed without regard to performance on previous task trials. However, preceding experience may play an important role in modulating neural signals associated with the anticipation of reward and punishment. The present study sought to characterize these modulations as an initial step toward investigating how they may be disrupted in disorders that are associated with past performance unduly influencing current behavior (e.g., depression). Eighty-two healthy participants completed a monetary incentive delay task in which the possibility of reward and punishment varied independently on each trial. Both rewarding and punishing contexts enhanced behavioral performance. Furthermore, previous trial performance altered neural activity during the anticipation phase regardless of cue type. Specifically, after receiving the better outcome on the previous trial, greater fMRI activity was observed in areas associated with reward and punishment anticipation (e.g., nucleus accumbens) and cognitive control (e.g., dorsal ACC) than after receiving the worse outcome. Additionally, responses to cues indicating potential reward were modulated by previous trial performance in areas associated with reward anticipation (e.g., OFC, caudate) and cognitive control (e.g., dorsal ACC). These findings identify a mechanism by which aberrant neural activity may contribute to psychopathology.

Support for this work was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health (P50 MH079485).

Descriptors: romantic relationships, face processing, event-related potentials Associations between neural activity and relationship quality factors have been demonstrated by previous studies of parent-child relationships, but never in the context of roman-

Poster 1-74


Kevin H Roberts1, Lena J Fürst2, Matthias J Wieser2, Daniel J Müller3, & Rebecca M Todd1

University of British Columbia, 2University of Würzburg, 3Centre for Addiction and

Mental Health

Descriptors: neurogenetics, steady-state visual evoked potentials, emotion/attention interaction

A short version of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter gene region has been linked to attentional biases toward threat. The goal of the present study was to probe neural mechanisms underlying such genetically influenced affective biases. We used steady- state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) to examine whether genetic variations influencing serotonin activity are linked to neural activation patterns indexing biased competition, which have been previously linked to social anxiety. Two fully overlapping stimuli types were presented, flickering at different frequencies: A task-irrelevant facial expression varying in emotion (angry, neutral, happy) was overlaid with a task-relevant Gabor grating, which required a response to occasional phase reversals. Subsequently, emotional faces were rated for valence and arousal. Saliva was collected and participants were genotyped and grouped into 5HTTLPR short allele carriers and non-carriers. A competition index was calculated from ssVEP power as a measure of attentional bias for task vs. faces in each expression. 5HTTLPR genotype influenced the direction of bias, with short allele carriers showing more of a bias for the task and homozygotic long allele carriers showing a bias for faces. This was qualified by an interaction between genotype and expression indicating these task/place differences in bias between the groups were greatest for neutral faces. Finally, there was a 3-way interaction between genotype, expression, and history of childhood abuse, suggesting gene-environment interactions can influence affectively biased competition.

This research was supported by a Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) Operating Grant # 491746.

Poster 1-75


Lena J Fürst1, Matthias J Wieser1, Daniel J Müller2, Kevin W Roberts3, & Rebecca M Todd3

1University of Würzburg, 2Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 3University of British Columbia

Descriptors: neurogenetics, steady-state visual evoked potentials, emotion/attention interaction

A deletion variant of the ADRA2b gene is linked to greater availability of extracellular norepinephrine (NE). ADRA2b deletion carriers have been shown to have enhanced emotional memory as well as greater attentional tuning to affectively salient events. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of ADRA2b on affect-biased attention. Here we measured steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) indexing neural competition/facilitation of visual attention in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli. Two fully overlapping stimuli types were presented, flickering at different frequencies: a task-irrelevant facial expression varying in emotion (angry, neutral, happy) was overlaid by a task-relevant Gabor grating, which required a response to occasional phase reversals. Subsequently, emotional faces were rated for valence and arousal. Saliva was collected and participants were genotyped and grouped into ADRA2b carriers and non-carriers. ADRA2b deletion carriers rated neutral faces as more negative in valence than non-carriers, and the presence of angry faces enhanced accuracy of change detection in deletion carriers only. Whereas the largest task-related mean ssVEP amplitude was found in trials with angry faces, suggesting the presence of angry faces generally enhanced attention to task related cues, deletion carriers also showed this pattern in trials with neutral faces. Thus, only deletion carriers showed attentional facilitation by emotionally ambivalent stimuli, which they perceived as overall more negative.

This research was supported by a Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) Operating Grant # 491746.

Poster 1-76


Narun Pornpattananangkul, & Robin Nusslock Northwestern University

Descriptors: reward processing, frontal midline theta, posterior alpha suppression Here we examined how monetary reward modulates neural-cognitive activity across time and frequency. Instructed to button-press 3.5 s after Cue onset, participants were later

provided with feedback on their performance. They received monetary reward for accurate performance on the Reward trials, but not on No-Reward trials. Besides Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), Event-Related Oscillations (EROs) were computed using time-frequency analysis. Firstly, the reward Cue led to a smaller N2, larger P3 and reduced frontal midline theta (FMT) intertrial-coherency (ITC) compared to the no-reward Cue, suggesting that reward affected template-mismatch and stimuli categorization. During movement preparation, the reward Cue enhanced Readiness-Potential starting 1 s before movement while leaving Mu suppression unaffected, indicating specificity of reward influence at slow wave EEG. Later, during feedback anticipation, the reward Cue elevated Stimulus Preceding Negativity and Posterior Alpha Suppression, implying enhanced intro-ceptive and visual anticipation. Following feedback, we found Feedback-Related Negativity sensitive to performance accuracy information while feedback-locked P3 sensitive to reward information. Lastly, we established parallel roles for both reward and accuracy information on the Late-Positive Potential and FMT power and ITC, suggesting that evaluation of reward and negative performance outcome led to sustained cognitive processes and elicited reinforcement signal. Hence, EROs and ERPs complement each other in explaining reward processing at different temporal stages.

NIH T32 NS047987 NU Graduate Research Grant.

Poster 1-77


Samantha J Reznik1, Narun Pornpattananangkul1, Robin Nusslock1, James A Coan2, Lyn Y Abramson3, & Eddie Harmon-Jones4 1Northwestern University, 2University of Virginia, 3University of Wisconsin, 4University of New South Wales

Descriptors: PZ-FZ theta scores, controllability, helplessness

A vast body of work demonstrates that humans exposed to uncontrollable aversive events reduce approach motivation and eventually exhibit withdrawal and disruption of behavior. In a parallel literature, electroencephalographic (EEG) research indicates that greater parietal versus frontal theta activity (PZ-FZ theta scores) at rest is associated with individual differences in behavioral approach and agentic extraversion. PZ-FZ theta scores likely originate from anterior cingulate cortex theta activity. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, PZ-FZ theta scores have not been investigated in the context of a task designed to assess approach motivation. The aim of the present study was to begin to integrate research on PZ-FZ theta scores and human helplessness by examining PZ-FZ theta scores during an established helplessness induction paradigm. EEG data were collected from 77 participants who were exposed to either controllable (n = 28) or uncontrollable (n = 25) aversive noise bursts or a no-noise condition (n = 24). In line with prediction, individuals exposed to uncontrollable aversive noise bursts (i.e., helplessness induction) displayed a significant decrease in PZ-FZ theta scores relative to both individuals exposed to controllable noise bursts or the no-noise condition. Results suggest that the reduced approach related affect induced by learned helplessness may be reflected in decreased PZ-FZ theta scores. This provides additional evidence that PZ-FZ theta scores may serve as a useful neurophysi-ological index of approach related affect.

Poster 1-78


Laura K Morgan, & Michael A Kisley University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Descriptors: attractiveness, cognitive resources, market value

The evolutionary salience of faces capture cognitive resources in a proportional manner: more attractive faces garner more resources. This study investigated how males allocate central processing resources to female faces of varying attractiveness (attractive/ unattractive) when their mating market value was high or low. Males in this study (N = 30) viewed two different black and white image sets of female faces under either high or low mating market value and dichotomously rated the faces as either attractive or not. Mating market value was manipulated by asking the men to imagine that the women they were about to view had rated them as a 3/8 (low) on an attractiveness scale or as a 7/8 (high). During the task, the late positive potential (LPP) was used to measure the allocation of attentional resources to the target faces. The peak amplitudes of the LPP demonstrated that the more attractive faces received the highest allocation of resources (p < .001). Additionally, mating market value and attractiveness interacted such that males in the low-market-value condition allocated significantly more resources to the unattractive faces (p = .03). This suggests that a perceiver's mating market value is proportional to a lower limit of acceptable attractiveness; men that perceived themselves as less attractive allocated significantly more attentional resources to the less attractive women.

Poster 1-79


Isabel A Davis, Laura M Lathrop, & Michael A Kisley University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Descriptors: attention, adult attachment style, event-related potentials Individual differences in adult attachment style influence how people process, interpret, and interact with their surroundings. Previous research demonstrates individuals high in attachment anxiety are overly attentive to attachment-relevant and threatening stimuli, while individuals high in attachment avoidance minimize attention allocated to these stimuli. The current study utilized event-related brain potentials, specifically the late positive potential (LPP), to measure attention allocation towards positively and negatively valenced attachment-related and un-related words as a function of adult attachment style. Thirty-three participants with a mean age of 21.24 years (SD = 3.51) participated in this study. Participants' electrophysiological responses were recorded as they rated the valence of positive and negative attachment-related and un-related emotional words. Together, adult attachment style and relationship status predicted attention allocation to attachment-related words (as measured by the LPP), but not to attachment un-related words. Specifically, the interaction term for attachment anxiety and relationship status was a statistically significant predictor of attention allocation to attachment themed words (Beta = 4.59, p = .003), whereas the interaction with attachment avoidance was not (Beta = 0.82, p > .05). As attachment anxiety increased, individuals in a relationship allocated more attentional resources to the negative attachment-related words, while single individuals allocated more attentional resources to the positive attachment-related words.

Poster 1-80


Paniz Tavakoli1, Alexander Muller-Gass2, & Kenneth Campbell1 1University of Ottawa, 2Defence Research and Development Canada

Descriptors: event-related potentials, attention capture, consciousness There is increasing interest in the use of a physiological measure, the P3a, as a biomarker for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The P3a, a fronto-central positive wave, can be elicited by highly relevant unattended stimuli and is thought to reflect an intrusion into consciousness, causing a switch of attention away from ongoing tasks and toward the potentially more relevant stimulus. The P3a is often elicited in oddball paradigms in which a feature of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus is changed at rare times to form a "deviant" stimulus. A major problem for applied studies is that the time to collect data using oddball paradigms can be very long because the deviants occur so rarely. A more "optimal" paradigm has been demonstrated to efficiently allow for the collection of data in studies examining the mismatch negativity. The present study examines the processing of six different deviants known to elicit a P3a. A separate oddball sequence was run for each deviant. It was expected that the P3a would vary depending on deviant type. In addition, an optimal paradigm was run. The six deviants (each with a probability of .08) were thus run in a single sequence, each separated by a standard stimulus. Results showed that the P3a elicited in the oddball paradigms did vary depending on the deviant that was presented. The amplitude of the P3a also varied in a similar manner when the optimal paradigm was used. The present study thus provides considerable support for the highly efficient use of an optimal paradigm in studies where testing time is limited.

Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Poster 1-81


Pablo Ribes, Rosario Poy, Pilar Segarra, Alicia Fonfría, Carlos Ventura, Angels Esteller,

& Javier Moltó Jaume I University of Castellón

Descriptors: triarchic model of psychopathy, boldness, startle modulation We examine emotional reactivity deficits in relation to phenotypic domains of the triar-chic conceptualization of psychopathy (Patrick et al., 2009), as assessed by regression-based component scores from principal components analysis on three self-report psychopathy scales - Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised, and Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. Blink responses to noise probes during passive picture viewing (intermixed presentation of erotica, thrill, objects, neutral faces, threat, and mutilation scenes, 6 s presented) were recorded in 68 undergraduate females. The expected linear pattern of affective startle modulation (i.e., mutilation, threat > neutral faces, objects, thrill > erotica; all ps < .0002) was moderated by Boldness component scores - represented by TriPM Boldness and PPI-R Fearless Dominance - (p < .0083). There were no main effects or interactions involving Meanness and Disinhibition component scores (all ps > .16). Subsequent hierarchical regression

analyses revealed that Boldness component scores uniquely predicted reduced aversive startle potentiation for threat pictures and, interestingly, less appetitive startle inhibition for erotica as well (8.1% and 4.9% of variance, respectively; ps < .05), consistent with prior findings for fear/fearlessness measures and startle modulation for specific picture contents. Using a multi-measure assessment of triarchic domains, our results confirm that boldness rather than meanness reflects the weakness in defensive reactivity underlying the dispositional temperament of low fear.

Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad PSI2011-22559.

Poster 1-82


Alicia Fonfría, Pilar Segarra, Rosario Poy, Àngels Esteller, Pablo Ribes, Carlos Ventura,

& Javier Moltó Jaume I University of Castellón

Descriptors: triarchic model of psychopathy, meanness, corrugator EMG activity We explored in 85 undergraduate females the differential contribution of boldness, meanness and disinhibition domains - as assessed by regression-based component scores from principal components analysis on three self-report psychopathy scales (Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised, and Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale) - on corrugator EMG activity to IAPS pictures during a passive picture viewing task (intermixed presentation of 66 erotica, thrill, objects, neutral faces, threat, and mutilation scenes, 6 s presented). A repeated measures general linear model including regression-based component scores as continuous between-subjects factors revealed that only Meanness scores moderated the typical corrugator reactivity pattern across picture contents (p < .04). After controlling for Boldness and Disinhibition scores, hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that the reduced corrugator EMG activity for unpleasant -and specifically for mutilations - vs. neutral pictures were uniquely predicted by Meanness scores (6.2% and 6.9% of variance, respectively; ps < .03). Our results indicate that only the meanness domain is related to reduced corrugator EMG activity for unpleasant pictures and, particularly, for mutilation scenes. These findings add to increasing evidence about the differential associations between various psychophysiological indicators and the pheno-typic domains of the Patrick et al.'s (2009) triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy.

Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad PSI2011-22559.

Poster 1-83


Tamara J Sussman, Akos Szekely, Greg Hajcak Proudfit, & Aprajita Mohanty Stony Brook University

Descriptors: perception, threat, anxiety

Anxiety can exaggerate expectations of aversive future events. While the importance of expectation and other top-down effects is acknowledged in the anxiety literature, most research examining threat-related perception in anxiety has focused on bottom-up properties of the stimulus. Emerging evidence suggests that top-down factors such as the expectation of threat can enhance perception The present study examined the influence of experimentally-induced anxiety (threat of shock) and individual differences in anxiety on the cued detection of threatening and neutral stimuli. Two groups of participants, one that experienced threat of shock (N = 23) and one that did not (N = 29), detected perceptually degraded fearful and neutral faces following threat and neutral cues. Threat cues enhanced perceptual sensitivity compared to neutral cues, indicating that expectation of threat enhances perception (t = 7.07, p < .01). Results showed an interaction between the effects of induced anxiety and trait anxiety on perceptual sensitivity following threat-related cues, F(1,41) = 3.52, p < .05. Threat of shock did not influence perceptual sensitivity when trait anxiety was low. However, when trait anxiety was high, perceptual sensitivity following threat cues improved under the threat of shock t = 2.30, p < .05. Hence, expectation of threat enhances perception in high trait anxiety, particularly under threatening circumstances. Present results suggest that top-down effects on threat perception could influence the development and maintenance of anxiety.

Poster 1-84


Jingwen Jin1, Aprajita Mohanty1, Christina Zelano2, & Jay Gottfried2 1Stony Brook University, 2Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine

Descriptors: valence, neuroimaging, context

It is well established that the perception of a stimulus varies with the context within which it is presented. This contextual modulation holds true not only for stimulus quality, but also for stimulus valence. For example, an odorant is perceived as more pleasant or unpleasant depending on the associated verbal label (e.g., "vomit" vs. "parmesan cheese"). Using high-resolution olfactory functional imaging and sensory psychophysical approaches, we examined the contextual modulation of valence coding in olfaction by presenting a

nominally neutral odor (isobornyl acetate, IBA) in two different contexts, once with a pleasant odor (limonene) and once with an unpleasant odor (isovaleric acid). Perceptual valence ratings for the neutral odor varied with context, IBA was rated as relatively unpleasant (IBA-) when it was presented with limonene and as relatively pleasant (IBA+) when it is presented with isovaleric acid (p < .05). Analyses of imaging data revealed greater activation for IBA- vs. IBA+ in caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), regions that have been shown to index change in stimulus valence from pleasant to unpleasant. In contrast, fMRI activity in the amygdala did not show differences between IBA- and IBA+. These results will help clarify the contributions of amygdala and OFC to valence coding in the human brain and provide greater insight into how relative changes in stimulus pleasantness are indexed by the OFC.

Poster 1-85


Jonathan R Krygier1, James AJ Heathers1, James J Gross2, Maree Abbott1, & Andrew H Kemp3 1University of Sydney, 2Stanford University, 3University of Sao Paulo

Descriptors: emotion regulation, heart rate variability

Heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in psychopathology and is associated with individual differences in emotion regulation, which have been linked to psychological wellbe-ing. The current study examined links between baseline HRV and emotion regulation, and the influence of emotion regulation on state frequency measures of HRV. 88 participants viewed 4 sets of pictures (2 positive, 2 negative) and were instructed to either "reappraise" so that they felt nothing in relation to the image, or simply view the image without regulating their emotional experience, while subjective responses to pictures and frequency-domain HRV measures were collected. Baseline HF-HRV was well correlated to reduction in arousal to negative images during reappraisal (r(57) = .311, p = .018) and somewhat correlated with reduced negative valence to negative images during reappraisal (r(58) = -.259, p = .050). Correlations were not significant for positive images. ANOVA revealed significant differences between viewing positive and negative images for all HRV measures and for subjective responses. Subjective ratings of valence and arousal for all images were less extreme in reappraisal than free-viewing, indicating successful emotion regulation. Physiologically, however, there was an effect of reappraisal only for LF-HRV corresponding to image presentation. This suggests that HRV related to individual differences in emotion regulation, and also that the regulation of emotional responses can modify a series of phasic cardiac responses over time.

This research was generously supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.

Poster 1-86


James AJ Heathers University of Sydney

Descriptors: heart rate variability, pulse rate variability, signal analysis In behavioural research, heart rate is increasingly collected via non-electrocardiographic (ECG) measures - typically light- (i.e., photoplethymsmograph) or pressure-mediated indicators of pulse rate. These approaches provide simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive sources of heart rate data. However, the point they designate as the heartbeat is always delayed by the transit time from electrical systole to the pulse wave at the periphery (at the ear, neck, finger or toe). If this time is predictable from properties within the pulse signal, then the beat-to-beat pulse series can be corrected to better represent the ECG series. A model utilizing both transit time/velocity and pulse wave morphology to correct optical heart rate to conform to ECG sources was tested on 40 healthy adults, from whom simultaneous ECG and optical heart rate (finger pulse) were collected. The final model calculates both low- and high-frequency heart rate variability indices (which are notoriously sensitive to error) to a bias of 0.5% (SD = 2.1%). Further refinements may be possible. This suggests that it is possible to a) correct pulse-to-pulse intervals successfully and b) know the amount sample size must be increased to maintain desired experimental power using pulse data. This technique may prove useful to improve accuracy wherever pulse monitoring is used - in opportunistic day-to-day HR recording, for mass-sample experiments, and for HR recording from low power dedicated devices or smartphones.

Poster 1-87


Barbara Schmidt1, Patrick Mussel1, Björn Rasch2, & Johannes Hewig1 1University of Würzburg, 2University of Fribourg

Descriptors: risk, error-related negativity, immediate evaluation

What happens in the brain when we make risky decisions? Based on findings about the error related negativity (ERN) that occurs after erroneous responses in the human electro-

encephalogram, recent psychophysiological research investigates brain responses to risk behavior. The decision to take a risk is not the same as to commit an error, especially as the first is a deliberate choice and the second is usually a mistake, but both responses are followed by an immediate evaluation process. A recent study found more negative response-locked ERN amplitudes after high-risk decisions compared to low-risk decisions in Blackjack. To look closer at the time point of risk choice, we employed a risk game where participants had to select one of two choices in every trial: high-risk or low-risk. We found that an ERN-like early fronto-central component (the peak appears 30 milliseconds after pressing the button for the risk decision) showed more negative amplitudes after high-risk decisions compared to low-risk decisions. Further, participants scoring high on sensation seeking showed more negative amplitudes for this component. This is in line with behavioral correlations: sensation seeking was associated with more high-risk choices. We conclude that this early component reflects an immediate evaluation process of the risk decision.

This research was supported by a Schumpeter-Fellowship to Johannes Hewig by the Volkswagen Foundation.

Poster 1-88


Maciej Sprycha1, & Richard J Servatius12 1Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2VA New Jersey Health Care System

Descriptors: autonomic, heart rate, personality

Vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders may be expressed as differences in associative learning and autonomic reactivity can be the root basis for faster acquisition. To examine autonomic functioning, continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded during delay eyeblink conditioning (500 ms tone conditioned stimulus co-terminating with 50 ms airpuff unconditional stimulus (US)). College students (males = 52, females = 32) completed a battery of self-assessed temperament scales; behavioral inhibition (BI) and trait anxiety (TA). Five minute stimulus free periods occurred before and after the session for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). There was no effect of temperament on baseline heart rate or autonomic responding to the US [p > 0.50]. Consistent with earlier work, the degree of bradycardia related to rate of acquisition. This bradycardia was more prominent in high BI and high TA individuals (ps < .05). A 2 x 2 x 2 [BI x Sex x Phase] assessment of the standard deviation R-peaks (SDRR) pre- and post-conditioning, while controlling for trait and state anxiety, found no change in low BI whereas high BI increased in SDRR; females generally displayed greater SSDRs (all ps < .05). A similar analysis of root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) variability found that low BI significantly dropped, while high BI were stable from pre-training to post-training. Higher parasympathetic reactivity appears to be driving BI individuals which is associated with faster acquisition. Faster acquisition may in turn be the basis for development of avoidance symptoms in anxiety disorders.

This study was funded by the Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute (SMBI).

Poster 1-89


Alejandra Torres-Araneda, & Carlos Cornejo Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

Descriptors: facial mimicry, empathy, interspecies

Humans spontaneously and automatically mimic the facial expression they observe in members of their own species. But the scope of this type of imitation remains unknown, particularly in reference to interactions between different species. In this study we addressed the evolutionary relevance of this phenomenon by asking if humans deploy facial mimicry when seeing facial expressions of chimpanzees in a within-subject experiment. For this purpose we evaluated whether two specific facial expressions of chimpanzees (Silent Bared Teeth, SBT; Relaxed Open Mouth, ROM) evoke facial mimicry in humans. Facial muscle activity was measured by means of surface EMG during the presentation of pictures of both humans and chimpanzee faces with different facial expressions (N = 40, 10 pictures of 5 facial expression for each species). Also an autism spectrum and an empathy questionnaire were applied to explore relations between the intensity of facial mimicry and empathy. We found that humans have a tendency to imitate these facial expressions found in chimpanzees (SBT and ROM). Also this tendency is only evident in the Zigomaticus Major and Masseter muscles allowing us to differentiate the mimicry of these two expressions. Moreover, more intense mimicry was correlated with higher scores on the empathy questionnaire and lower scores on the autism spectrum questionnaire, therefore disclosing the intimate relationship between this crucial kind of social ability and facial mimicry. These results open the question of how old in evolutionary terms this relationship could be. CONICYT

Poster 1-90


Yanli Lin, Tim P Moran, Hans S Schroder, & Jason S Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: worry, error-related negativity, verbal processing

Anxious apprehension/worry is associated with exaggerated error monitoring. This relationship has been implicated as a risk factor for a wide range of cognitive and behavioral disruptions associated with anxiety. Delineating the cognitive mechanisms underlying the association between worry and error monitoring may clarify the development and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. The present study utilized a two-experiment design to test the hypothesis that verbal processing, in particular, plays an integral role in the worry-error monitoring relationship. We examined the relationship between worry and error monitoring, indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN), as a function of hand of error (Experiment 1) and stimulus orientation (Experiment 2) across two samples of female undergraduates. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that worry was only correlated with the ERN on right-handed errors - executed by the linguistically dominant left hemisphere. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2. Critically, results of Experiment 2 further revealed that the worry-ERN relationship on right-handed error trials was only significant when flanker stimuli were presented horizontally (known to activate verbal processes) but not when flanker stimuli were presented vertically. Together, these findings demonstrate that the worry-ERN relationship involves left hemisphere verbal processing, elucidating a potential mechanism to help explain error monitoring abnormalities in anxiety.

Poster 1-91


Ryan P Coppens, James D Bender, & David G Gilbert Southern Illinois University

Descriptors: electroencephalography, N170, nicotine

The N170 electrophysiological brain response has been demonstrated to occur in response not only to facial recognition but to complex visual displays as well. The N170 has also been shown to be modulated by emotional valence of faces. Results from smokingabstinent dependent smokers (N = 209) revealed an increased amplitude of the occipito-temporal N170 in the hemisphere contralateral to the presentation of the emotional distractor during a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task. Additionally, the valence of the emotional picture distractors affected N170 amplitudes. Specifically, smoking-related and negatively-valenced distractors evoked smaller N170 amplitudes than neutral and positively-valenced ones. sLORETA-based tomographic results revealed differences of current source densities between smokers who received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or placebo patches(PLA) post-cessation. Participants in the NRT condition demonstrated reduced current source densities in limbic and emotionally-relevant areas including parahippocampal gyrus (BA28&34), insula (BA13), and posterior cingulate (BA 30 & 31) for N170s following smoking and negatively-valenced distractors. For N170s following neutral and positive distractors, relative to PLA, NRT was also associated with reduced current source densities in parietal and non-emotional brain areas including inferior parietal lobule (BA40), postcentral gyrus (BA 1,2,&3), precentral gyrus (BA4&6), and superior temporal lobe (BA 38).

This study was supported by NIH grants R01DA12289 and R01DA036032 awarded to the last author. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

poster session ii

_THURSDAY september h 22h_

Poster 2-1


Curtis D Von Gunten, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: P300, affective valence, context effect

This experiment investigated the role of contrast effects in affective priming using event-related potentials (ERPs). Past studies have shown that neutral stimuli elicit more favorable responses when presented in the context of negative, as opposed to positive, stimuli (and vice versa). However, the information processing operations responsible for these effects have remained elusive. Here, ERPs were used to investigate the potential differences in early attention (N1), evaluative categorization (P300), and response output processes (LRP)

which contribute to contrast effects within the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Behavioral findings replicated typical affective priming and contrast effects, despite the use of a long SOA (1,000 ms). For the ERPs, the processing of neutral primes as a function of context valence did not differ for the LRP or N1 components. For the P3, the results were more complicated. Valenced primes elicited greater P3s than neutral primes, but the processing of neutral primes did not differ as a function of context. However, planned contrasts between positive primes and neutral primes presented in a negative context, and between negative primes and neutral primes presented in a positive context, revealed no difference suggesting a contrast effect. This advances our understanding of the psychophysiological underpinnings of contrast effects.

Poster 2-2


Joseph B Hilgard, Christopher R Engelhardt, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: 2d4d ratio, aggression, video games

The ratio of the length of the index finger to the ring finger (2d4d ratio) has been proposed as a physiological index of prenatal testosterone exposure. Research suggests that 2d4d ratio may predict aggressive behavior, but results have been mixed. It has been suggested that 2d4d's predictive power may be greater when participants are provoked. In this study, male participants first played a violent or nonviolent video game, then were provoked by a confederate through the use of insulting feedback. Participants were then able to assign the confederate to immerse his hand in painfully-cold water for either a brief or a long time. We report effect sizes and confidence intervals for the effect of 2d4d on provoked aggressive behavior with and without the further impelling factor of violent game content. Results are discussed in the context of I-Cubed Theory, the General Aggression Model, and the broader literature on 2d4d ratio.

Poster 2-3


Meredith P Johnson, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: self-regulation, bias, error-related negativity

Affect regulation plays a key role in several theories of prejudice reduction. Here, we tested whether engaging in emotion regulation strategies (ERSs) while performing an implicit racial bias task (Weapons Identification Task; WIT) would alter neural and behavioral manifestations of bias. Participants either suppressed or reappraised in a positive light the distress associated with making errors during the WIT while EEG was recorded. Originally, we hypothesized that if participants experienced less distress when they made errors, they would be less motivated to correct their behavior. We predicted this would reduce accuracy and increase expression of racial bias. Furthermore, we expected that the error-related negativity (ERN), hypothesized to originate from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and reflect distress over errors, would be reduced during ERSs. However, contrary to initial predictions, results indicated that engaging in either ERS actually increased accuracy and reduced biased responses. Process-dissociation analysis revealed that this pattern was driven by participants exerting more control during the WIT while engaging in ERSs. Additionally, reappraisal (but not suppress) was found to increase ERNs. This may reflect the recruitment of overlapping cingulate cortical regions during reappraisal that are typically utilized during error monitoring while performing the WIT.

Poster 2-4


Hannah I Volpert, Meredith P Johnson, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: alcohol, university-affiliation

College-aged consumers have long been a targeted group of the alcohol industry. Recently, beer companies have directly linked their products with college athletics via marketing campaigns that place university sports logos on beer displays, posters and billboards. This practice takes advantage of two related phenomena: (1) the fundamental need to belong to ingroups (e.g., one's university), and (2) the transfer of motivational salience from the ingroup to anything it appears to endorse. The current study tested the consequences of this practice for attentional biases among heavy drinkers. 89 University of Missouri (MU) undergraduates, ages 18-20, completed a modified dot-probe detection task in which bilateral beverage cues (alcohol or water) superimposed on ingroup (MU) or outgroup (University of Toronto; UT) backgrounds preceded the onset of a lateralized target object while EEG was recorded. Amplitude of the occipital P1 ERP component served as a marker of early orienting of attention to beverage cues. Consistent with predictions, heavier

drinkers demonstrated significantly larger P1 amplitudes to targets that followed MU beer vs. UT beer, F(1, 85) = 5.81, p = .018, indicating greater deployment of attention to ingroup-alcohol-cued locations. In contrast, the P1 did not differentiate these two types of trials among lighter drinkers (F < 1). These results suggest that pairing beer with their university exacerbates alcohol-related attention biases in heavy-drinking, underage students, consistent with enhancement of motivational salience.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

beta suppression over the motor strip because greater beta suppression is associated with preparation for action. Results revealed that pre-goal positive states evoked greater beta-suppression as compared to a neutral pre-goal state or a positive post-goal state. Moreover, beta suppression in a positive pre-goal state related to a greater recall of centrally presented words during positive pre-goal trials. These results suggest that pre-goal positive states activate neurophysiological processes associated with approach motivation, and that such motivational processes are related to narrowed attentional scope.

Poster 2-5


Kimberly A Fleming, Hannah I Volpert, Meredith P Johnson, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: P300, alcohol, marketing

Although research suggests an association between alcohol marketing exposure and youth drinking, causal relationships have yet to be identified. Prior work in our lab suggests that, by taking advantage of the fundamental need for group affiliation, products associated with a valued ingroup (e.g., students' university) implicitly convey that the product is desirable and trustworthy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that beer brand/ingroup university pairings increase the motivational salience of these brands for underage college drinkers and that this effect varies as a function of individuals' identification with their university. Seventy-one University of Missouri (MU) students aged 18-20 completed a visual oddball task while EEG was recorded. Critical targets were popular beer and water brand images superimposed on ingroup logos (MU) or neutral university logos (U ofToronto). University affiliation was assessed with a set of self-report items. Analyses showed two primary effects: (1) an ingroup bias effect, such that P3s were larger to MU than UT images (t = 10.17, p < .01); (2) a beverage by identification interaction, such that strongly identified students had larger P3s to MU beer than to MU Water (t = 2.05, p = .04) and larger P3s to MU Beer than to UT Beer (t = 8.93, p < .01), while more weakly identified students did not show these differences. These results suggest that the degree to which individuals are identified with their university is associated with individual differences in the attentional and motivational salience of university-targeted alcohol marketing.

NIAAA R01 AA020970 (PI: Bartholow) NIAAA F31 AA022551(PI: Fleming; Mentor: Bartholow).

Poster 2-6


Nicole C Mechin1, Hunter Threadgill1, Zach Beasley1, Josh A Hicks2, & Philip A Gable1 1University of Alabama, 2Texas A&M University

Descriptors: frontal-asymmetry, alcohol, impulsivity

Much past work has linked impulsivity with alcohol use, but what is it about impulsivity that leads to alcohol use? The current study sought to examine whether approach motivation - assessed through greater left than right frontal asymmetry - might be one mechanism explaining the link between alcohol and impulsivity. If approach motivation mediates this link, then individual differences in trait impulsivity should predict greater left-frontal activity to alcohol pictures but not to neutral pictures. In the current study, participants completed measures of trait impulsivity. Then, they viewed pictures of alcoholic beverages and neutral (rock) pictures while EEG activity was recorded. Results revealed that greater trait impulsivity predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry during alcohol pictures but not during neutral pictures. These results demonstrate that individual differences in trait impul-sivity potentiate the effects of alcohol cues on asymmetrical frontal cortical activity. More broadly, results suggest that individual differences in impulsivity may enhance approach motivation toward alcohol cues, suggesting that approach motivation may mediate the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use.

Poster 2-7


David L Adams, Allison F Bouslog, Lauren E Browning, & Philip A Gable University of Alabama

Descriptors: approach motivation, beta suppression, memory

Using the monetary incentive delay paradigm, past research has found that pre-goal positive states are associated with narrowed cognitive scope. Presumably, pre-goal states narrow attentional scope because such states evoke high approach motivation. However, past work has not linked pre-goal states in a monetary incentive delay paradigm with neurophysiological processes associated with approach motivation. The current study sought to investigate neurophysiological processes associated with motor action tendencies to examine the role of approach motivation in pre-goal positive states, and how these action tendencies relate to attentional scope. Participants completed a monetary incentive delay task where words were presented in the center and periphery of the screen. We examined

Poster 2-8


Kira Bailey, & Bruce D Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: alcohol sensitivity, cognitive control, event-related potentials Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated that low sensitivity to alcohol (LS) is associated with attentional bias for alcohol-related cues (Bartholow et al., 2007, 2010; Shin et al., 2010), and that the presence of such cues elicits approach motivational tendencies that can disrupt inhibitory control (Fleming & Bartholow, 2013). The goal of the current study was to determine if attentional bias for alcohol cues disrupts LS individuals' cognitive control in an addiction Stroop task where the proportion of alcohol and neutral words was manipulated across blocks. LS participants were less accurate on alcohol word trials in the Mostly Alcohol block compared to the Mostly Neutral block, and were less accurate than high sensitivity (HS) participants for alcohol trials in the Mostly Alcohol block. For LS participants N2 amplitude was greater for alcohol trials compared to the neutral trials in the mostly neutral block. For the HS group, N2 amplitude was similar across blocks for alcohol and neutral words. These findings show that LS individuals experience conflict (N2 amplitude) when indicating the color of alcohol words, consistent with the idea that the motivational salience of alcohol cues disrupts cognitive control. Moreover, decreased accuracy for alcohol trials in the Mostly Alcohol block among LS individuals suggests that when the environment is saturated with alcohol cues, the increased attentional bias they experience disrupts their ability to effectively resolve the conflict.

Poster 2-9


Joseph S Baschnagel, Jonathan Schwartz, Brandon Dziedzic, Matt Duell, & Vanessa Aube Rochester Institute of Technology

Descriptors: alcohol, startle, affect

This study compared affective modification of the startle eye-blink response to affective and alcohol related images and the Big 5 personality traits. Participants included 26 undergraduate students (9 Female). Participants viewed positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System and alcohol and neutral beverages from the Normative Appetitive Picture System (10 of each condition, 50 total). Acoustic startle probes (98 dB, 50 ms duration) were presented during half of the pictures in each condition, with SOAs of 3 and 5 secs, and during 5 ITIs. To assess affective reactions to alcohol cues an ANOVA analysis comparing percent change from ITI baseline scores in startle magnitude for positive, negative and alcohol cues was conducted. Results indicated a marginal quadratic interaction F(1,25) = 4.1, p = .05 with startle responses to positive (mean percent change: 4.5, SE = 5.3) and alcohol (mean percent change: 5.2, SE = 6.7) images being lower than responses to negative images (mean percent change: 17.5, SE = 6.7), suggesting that in this sample alcohol cues were associated with positive affective states. Due to current sample size limiting power, we limited analyses of trait variables to correlations to explore relationships between startle reactivity and the personality trait scores measured with the NEO-FFI3. The only significant correlation between the three startle conditions and the trait measures was a negative correlation between startle responses during positive pictures and levels of openness (r = -.43, p = .04).

Poster 2-10


Daniel E Bradford1, Rachel A Korhumel1, Anton Makhiboroda1, Kristen M Grabinski1, Gregory J Raupp1, John J Curtin1, & Megan E Piper2 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Descriptors: addiction, startle, anticipation

Most smokers attempting to quit will relapse, even when using evidence-based cessation treatment. Stress clearly impacts relapse yet little research has precisely examined stress

reactivity among smokers. Further, most research on relapse focuses on affect surrounding self-administration without addressing important pre-consumption processes such as anticipation of use. We examined the effects of anticipation and actual smoking on stress reactivity in 34 deprived daily smokers, 37 non-deprived daily smokers and 37 non-smoker controls. Using a cued shock stressor task to induce stress, we measured stress reactivity via startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety. After completing the task once, smokers anticipated smoking a cigarette resting in front of them while they completed the task a second time. Smokers then smoked before completing the task a third and final time. Non-smokers anticipated and drank water as a control. Anticipation of smoking significantly attenuated both startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety to shock cues for deprived smokers relative to non-deprived smokers (p's < .05). Smokers' startle potentia-tion was not reduced by smoking beyond the prior effect of anticipation. These results suggest that anticipation, rather than actual drug consumption, may drive the reinforcing effect of reduced stress reactivity in smoking and other drug use. Future research is needed to understand this effect of anticipation on drug use motivation and behavior to determine whether anticipation would make an effective intervention target for addiction treatment.

The research was funded by University of Wisconsin start-up funds and NIH grant 1KL2RR025012 for Megan E. Piper and NIDA grant R01 DA033809 for John J. Curtin.

Poster 2-11


Jeffrey M Engelmann1, Francesco Versace1, Jonathan C Gewirtz2, Bruce N Cuthbert3, & Paul M Cinciripini1

1The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2University of Minnesota, 3The National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: smoking, late positive potential, cue reactivity

Smokers who overvalue cigarette cues relative to natural rewards have more difficulty quitting smoking. If this pattern of response is already present in young smokers, it can be used to identify those at higher risk of further developing nicotine dependence and to offer them appropriate treatment. In the current study, we tested whether event-related potentials (ERPs) could be used to identify young smokers who overvalue cigarette cues relative to natural rewards. The participants (n = 52, mean age = 22 years, mean number of years smoking = 6) completed an affective picture viewing task that included cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. We used the late positive potential (LPP) to classify individuals based on their brain responses to each picture category. A k = 2 means cluster analysis identified two groups. Smokers in the first group (n = 28) had significantly larger LPPs to cigarette pictures than to pleasant pictures (p < .001). Those in the second group (n = 24) had significantly larger LPPs to pleasant pictures than to cigarette pictures (p = .002). This suggests that brain responses to cigarette cues vs. natural rewards can be used to identify young smokers at highest risk of developing nicotine dependence. These individuals may be candidates for interventions aimed at increasing the motivational significance of natural rewards and decreasing the motivational significance of smoking.

Data collection was supported by the University of Minnesota's Interdisciplinary Training Program in Cognitive Science (T32-HD007151) and data analyses were supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (K01-DA034752).

Poster 2-12


Georgia Panayiotou1, Maria Karekla1, Spyros Christos Champi1, & Bradley N Collins2 1University of Cyprus, 2Temple University

Descriptors: smoking urges, emotion, stress intolerance

Smoking urge is influenced by internal and external smoking cues, including negative affect. This study examined the effect of laboratory induced stress using the PASAT task on smoking urges among 35 (female = 25) college student smokers. The PASAT induces stress using a mathematics task of increasing difficulty. Subjective ratings of negative affect, Heart rate, Skin Conductance Level and Corrugator reactivity were measured during a resting baseline, a practice session and 3 levels of task difficulty. Heart Rate Variability during baseline was also examined in a sub-group of subjects. Individual differences in stress-intolerance (anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance) were also assessed. Smoking urges and negative emotions (frustration, irritability, stress) significantly increased, while positive emotions decreased from pre- to post-task. Among psychophysiological measures, only skin conductance significantly increased linearly from baseline to the final level, probably reflecting increased effort and attention. Analyses of covariance indicated that increased urges from pre to post task were mediated by subjective negative affect, whereas physiological changes and performance on the PASAT were not significant mediators. The ratio between LF and HF components of HRV spectra was not significantly associated with increased smoking urges, but trends indicated a positive association between LF/HF ratio and increased smoking urges. Results are discussed in terms of the role of emotion and emotion regulation and tolerance in smoking cravings.

Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation

Poster 2-13


Ryan P Coppens, James D Bender, & David G Gilbert Southern Illinois University

Descriptors: P3b, electroencephalography, nicotine

The effects of nicotine replacement, relative to placebo, on P3b amplitude was assessed in 209 nicotine-dependent individuals during a rapid visual information processing task during which lateralized emotional distractors were presented prior to one-third of the target stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to a placebo patch or to a nicotine patch and P3s were assessed during a prequit baseline and at 3-days and again at 17-days after smoking cessation. There were significant differences between nicotine and placebo patch groups for negative, smoking, and positively-valenced emotional distractor conditions such that P3b-CNV amplitudes were greater for subjects who received nicotine patch relative to participants who were on placebo. Additionally, participants on the nicotine patch had a significantly greater stimulus-preceding negativity (CNV) prior to the onset of the target stimuli than participants who received placebo patch during the post-cessation sessions. These findings are consistent with previous findings and theory suggesting that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can decrease distraction, especially by negatively valence stimuli. The finding that nicotine was associated with greater stimulus-preceding negativity supports the view that NRT can enhance attentional focus during tasks requiring long periods of sustained attention. In summary, NRT appeared to enhance vigilance as assessed by stimulus-preceding negativity during target digits and by target P3b while also reducing distraction, especially by negatively-valenced distractors.

This study was supported by NIH grants R01DA12289 and R01DA036032 awarded to the last author. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Poster 2-14


Erika H Siegel1, Molly Cannon1, Paul Condon1, Karen Quigley1, & Lisa Feldman Barrett1,2 1Northeastern University, 2Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: emotion and physiology, meta-analysis, autonomic nervous system Since William James, researchers have debated how emotions are represented in the body. Basic emotion research suggests that emotions are biological types that configure consistently and specifically within the body for each discrete emotion. Constructivist and context-based approaches assert that emotions are more contextual and that bodily responses vary within emotion category. Dimensional approaches suggest that arousal (and to a lesser extent valence) drive changes in peripheral physiology. In this poster, I present data from a meta-analysis of over 500 articles on autonomic nervous system reactivity in emotion. We tested specific, directional hypotheses representing each perspective and each body signal - across and within each emotion category. We found that the body does not configure consistently and specifically for discrete emotions. Rather, the autonomic nervous system appears to configure for core affect (arousal and valence). Consistent with constructivist approaches, secondary analyses revealed that physiological responses can appear consistent and specific within similar experimental contexts but responses vary widely once experimental context changes (within the same emotion).

Poster 2-15


Elizabeth R Duval, James L Abelson, & Israel Liberzon University of Michigan Health System

Descriptors: attention training, skin conductance, social anxiety

Computer-based attention training is emerging as an effective approach to reduce psychiatric symptoms. Multiple studies have investigated effects of attention training on symptom severity, physiological reactivity, and attention bias toward social threat with mixed results. We aimed to further investigate attention training effects using a variety of behavioral, physiological, and subjective measures. Sixty participants (22 healthy, 38 social anxiety) were randomly assigned to one of three attention training conditions (toward threat, away from threat, control). They completed symptom assessments and a modified dot probe task pre- and post-training, to measure symptom severity and attention bias to threat respectively. Following attention training, skin conductance response and subjective ratings of valence and arousal were collected during a face viewing task to examine emotional reactivity to affective faces. During face viewing, a significant Group X Training X Face Expression X Face Gender interaction emerged for both subjective ratings of pleasantness, F(4, 108) = 2.59, p < .05, and skin conductance response, F(4, 68) = 2.57, p < .05. These findings suggest that facial characteristics (expression and gender) and attention training interact to modulate reactivity to social threat, potentially altering approach/avoidance

tendencies. Future studies should extend this work using improved attention training protocols and neuroimaging measures to assess mechanisms underlying changes in reactivity to social threat.

Poster 2-16


Isabella M Palumbo1, Craig R Wilson1, Jens Foell1, Nathalie Vizueta2, & Christopher J Patrick1 1Florida State University, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: brain structure, amygdala, trait fear

Excessive fear is a key feature of internalizing disorders, and diminished fear has been implicated in psychopathy. Individuals with conditions of these types show contrasting deviations in fear face processing. Recent structural neuroimaging (MRI) research has yielded intriguing evidence of a counterintuitive negative relationship between accuracy in recognizing fearful facial expressions and volume of the amygdala - known to be implicated in fear processing. Based on these lines of evidence, we posited that dispositional fear/fearlessness might exhibit a systematic relationship with amygdala volume. The current study investigated this possibility in a sample of 44 participants assessed for trait fear (cf. Patrick et al., 2012) and tested in an MRI procedure that yielded structural neuroanatomic data. Voxel-based morphometry was used to quantify grey matter volume in pre-selected regions of interest including the amygdala and (for purposes of comparison) the nucleus accumbens. A significant negative association was found between trait fear scores and volume of both the left and right amygdala (but not nucleus accumbens) - with higher levels of reported fearfulness predicting smaller amygdala volume. This finding suggests a relationship between amygdala volume and variations in threat sensitivity associated with differing forms of psychopathology - and perhaps with affiliated deviations in fear face processing.

Poster 2-17


Jens Foell1, Casey M Strickland1, Sarah J Brislin1, Dongju Seo2, & Christopher J Patrick1 1Florida State University, 2Yale University School of Medicine

Descriptors: fMRI, amygdala, externalizing

The construct of disinhibition reflects the dispositional tendency in common among differing impulse control (externalizing) disorders (Yancey et al., 2013). This dispositional tendency has been hypothesized to entail an immediate-cue-driven, as opposed to distal-goal-driven, behavioral style. Consistent with this, prior neuroimaging research has shown enhanced reactivity of the amygdala, a limbic affect- processing region, in relation to some externalizing disorders. The current study used functional neuroimaging to assess activation of differing brain regions during viewing of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 40 female adults with varying levels of self-reported disinhibition. A whole-brain analysis comparing reactivity to emotional versus neutral pictures revealed salient activations for the amygdala and regions of the occipital cortex in particular across participants as a whole. Further analysis using pre-defined regions of interest revealed a significant positive relationship between disinhibition and degree of enhanced amygdala activation for affective relative to neutral pictures. These results indicate that high disinhibition is associated with increased activation of subcortical brain regions during processing of explicit affective stimuli - consistent with the hypothesis of an immediate-cue-driven orientation among high-disinhibited individuals.

Poster 2-18


James R Yancey, Whitney L Catoe, Craig R Wilson, & Christopher J Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: corrugator, fear, psychopathology

Corrugator EMG activity is reliably enhanced during processing of aversive stimuli (e.g. unpleasant pictures or images) and covaries with the reported unpleasantness of affective experience to such stimuli (Bradley et al, 2001; Lang, 1995). Some prior work has demonstrated enhanced corrugator response during aversive processing in individuals diagnosed with fear-related clinical conditions (Cuthbert et al, 2003). The current study sought to replicate previous findings of a relationship between fear psychopathology and enhanced aversive corrugator response and evaluate the role of dispositional threat sensitivity in this association. Participants were 465 adults from the community tested in a picture viewing paradigm that included aversive, neutral, and pleasant IAPS stimuli. Participants were also assessed for DSM-IV disorders and completed a self-report measure of dispositional threat sensitivity (trait fear). Analyses revealed that participants who met

diagnostic criteria for fear disorders showed greater enhancement of corrugator reactivity during aversive as compared to neutral pictures. Higher threat sensitivity also predicted increased aversive corrugator response, and a mediational analysis demonstrated that the relationship between fear psychopathology and corrugator enhancement was completely accounted for by threat sensitivity. Implications and future directions for understanding physiological systems associated with dispositional threat sensitivity will be discussed.

Poster 2-19


Noah C Venables1, James R Yancey1, Robert F Krueger2, William G Iacono2, Matt McGue2, Thomas E Joiner1, & Christopher J Patrick1 1Florida State University, 2University of Minnesota

Descriptors: psychoneurometric, fear, disinhibition

Dispositional tendencies toward high negative affect and weak inhibitory control are each associated with heightened risk for suicide. However, little is known about the biobehav-ioral bases of these associations. The current study examined predictive relations of dis-positional fear and inhibition-disinhibition, assessed jointly using psychophysiological and self-report psychometric indicators, with suicidal ideation and behaviors in an adult community sample (N = 473). Fearfulness was assessed using a self-report scale, as well as heart rate and facial grimace (conjoint corrugator/orbicularis contraction) measures of reactivity to aversive picture stimuli; disinhibition was assessed using scale measures as well as P3 brain potential response variables from lab task procedures. With regard to prediction of suicide risk, combined psychoneurometric operationalizations of fear and disinhibition each contributed uniquely, as well as interactively - such that individuals scoring concurrently high on both fear and disinhibition trait-physiological variables exhibited the highest risk for suicidal ideation and behavior. The current findings highlight the potential utility of combined psychometric-physiological operationalizations of individual difference constructs for predicting key clinical outcomes - as well as for connecting clinical outcomes to brain and other physiological systems.

Poster 2-20


Sarah J Brislin, James R Yancey, Laura D Drislane, Colin B Bowyer, Nina Roche, & Christopher J Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, probe P3, triarchic

The current study examined, in a mixed-gender sample of 200 adults, amplitude of P3 responses to target and novel stimuli in a visual oddball task, and noise probe stimuli in a picture viewing task, in relation to psychopathy facets of disinhibition, meanness, and boldness - assessed using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM). Consistent with previous research, P3 response to both target and novel stimuli in the oddball task was reduced in individuals high in TriPM Disinhibition, which indexes general externalizing proneness (Patrick et al., 2013). Noise-probe P3 amplitude was also reduced in high-disinhibited participants. A more selective association was evident for TriPM Meanness, which reflects callous-aggressive tendencies: This psychopathy facet was associated with reduced P3 to target and novel stimuli in the oddball task, but not to noise-probe stimuli in the picture task. Follow-up analyses showed that relations of Meanness with oddball P3 were attributable to overlap with Disinhibition. Scores on the boldness facet of the TriPM were generally uncorrelated with P3 amplitude (cf. Carlson et al., 2008). These findings point to a pervasive, cross-task deficit in P3 amplitude in relation to disinhibitory/ externalizing tendencies that carries over to correlated callous-aggressive tendencies for oddball task stimuli, but not unwarned noise-probe stimuli.

Poster 2-21


Colin B Bowyer, Rachel L Katz, Eleonora Poli, James R Yancey, & Christopher J Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: fear, distress, startle

Enhancement of the defensive startle reflex during processing of unpleasant stimuli (aver-sive startle potentiation; ASP) has been reliably demonstrated in humans. Increased ASP has been reported in individuals with fear disorders (e.g. specific and social phobia, panic disorder), and Vaidyanathan et al. (2009) demonstrated a positive association between ASP and dispositional threat sensitivity as indexed by self-report measures of situational fear. However, other work suggests that the presence of depressive tendencies (Melzig et al, 2007), or general distress more broadly (Lang & McTeague, 2009), may moderate this association - offsetting the augmentation ofASP otherwise associated with high fear. The current study further investigated this issue in a mixed-gender adult sample (N = 200).

Participants were administered a scale measure dispositional threat sensitivity (trait fear) and general distress and tested in a picture-startle paradigm. Noise probes were presented at varying times during viewing of affective and neutral pictures, with blink responses recorded to index startle. Consistent with previously reported findings, an expected positive association between ASP and trait fear was evident among individuals low in general distress; whereas ASP decreased with elevations in trait fear among individuals high in general distress. These findings have implications both for mechanisms of ASP, and affective processes in fear and distress conditions.

Poster 2-22


Avital Sternin1, Sidney J Segalowitz1, Terri L Lewis2, Jane Dywan1, & Daphne Maurer2 1Brock University, 2McMaster University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, visual deprivation, congenital cataracts We examined the role that early visual input plays in the proper development of the visual system by testing adults who had been born with bilateral congenital cataracts. Cataracts blocked patterned visual input until they were removed surgically and the eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses. All were treated within the first year after birth and had acuity good enough to easily differentiate the test stimuli. Stimulus Set 1 used simple and complex textures to explore early processing regions (V1, V2). Set2 used a series ofmotion stimuli to explore higher-level processing regions responsible for global motion perception (V5). Set 3 used a series of Glass stimuli to examine global form processing (V4). Patients differed from controls in the texture task where N75 components were much smaller for all but the simplest stimuli. As well, patients' P100 and N170 amplitudes did not differentiate amongst texture stimuli, despite their N170s being much larger than those of controls. Further, patients' N170 and P200 response to motion and Glass pattern stimuli were smaller, respectively, and unlike those of controls did not differentiate among stimuli. These results indicate that early visual deprivation contributes to permanent abnormalities in mechanisms that underlie the processing of visual stimuli and are consistent with behavioural evidence of enduring deficits in the ability to process complex stimuli, global motion, and global form.

Poster 2-23


Charles P Davis, Gary Libben, & Sidney J Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: compound words, event-related potentials, reading

Recent electrophysiological research has demonstrated that lexicality, word frequency, and semantic richness index lexical access far sooner than once thought, as early as the P1 ERP component. We examined the time course of compound word processing, taking advantage of the unique features of compound words to assess the timing of lexical-semantic access. Participants were 22 undergraduate students who performed a lexical decision task on 80 real compound words and 80 novel English compound words presented six times each (once in each of six blocks of trials). Forty of the real compounds were the focus of the present analyses. Compounds varied with respect to their constituent semantic transparency, i.e., the extent to which the lexical meanings of constituents were preserved in the whole compound meaning. Thus, compounds ranged from full semantic transparency (e.g., bedroom) to partial transparency (e.g., crowbar) to full opacity (e.g., hogwash). Regression analyses predicted ERP components (P1, N170, P2, P3, and N4) from compound constituent transparency, adjusting for word frequency (WF). WF predicted differences in the latency of the early left-side P1 component. WF and constituent transparency both uniquely predicted left-side P1 amplitude. Constituent transparency, but not WF, predicted amplitude of the left-side P2 and P3, and both left and right side N4. These effects were driven by the opacity of the second constituent. The results suggest that some level of semantic access, independent of word frequency, occurs as early as the P1 component.

Poster 2-24


Angela Dzyundzyak1, Diane L Santesso2, & Sidney J Segalowitz1 1Brock University, 2University of Winnipeg

Descriptors: feedback-related negativity, problem gambling, expectations The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection in the scalp waveforms observed 200-350 ms following the presentation of the outcome on that trial, shown to be attenuated (Torres et al., 2013) and earlier (Oberg, Christine & Tata, 2011) in pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. We studied how the sensitivity of the FRN to expectation about winning and perceived sense of control over the outcome relates to problem gambling (PG) behaviour. Perceived sense of control was manipulated by our use of a modified time-estimation task and a gambling task. In the gambling task, participants

predicted the outcome of each trial prior to presentation of feedback, giving us their expectation concerning winning despite explicit lack of control. Outcomes in both tasks were predetermined ahead of time to ensure equal frequency of wins and losses. The sensitivity of the FRN to the valence and expectedness of the outcome was modulated by PG status: Individuals at-risk for PG were more sensitive to the valence of the outcomes in the gambling task compared to those not at-risk (nonPG). Furthermore, the PG group showed an increased sensitivity to reward characteristics and a decreased response to loss outcomes, contrasting with the nonPG group whose FRNs were sensitive to losses. We did not replicate previous research examining severe pathological gamblers reporting a general attenuation of the FRN, suggesting that a general reduction in the FRN can be observed only after behaviour becomes clinically maladaptive.

Poster 2-25


Lesley J Capuana, Jane Dywan, Raechelle M Gibson, & Sidney J Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cognitive control, aging Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is the variability in beat-to-beat interval of the heart that accompanies normal respiration. Higher RSA (greater variability) is considered an index of greater centrally-mediated parasympathetic influence on cardiac function. Recent views suggest this modulation would be advantageous for cognitive control, especially in older adults for whom cognitive performance might be even more dependent on autonomic regulation. RSA was recorded prior to and during completion of a modified Stroop task involving 3 levels of complexity and a motivation manipulation. Some lures could not be anticipated, and thus, were expected to elicit a "reactive" response strategy. Others could be anticipated by maintaining a specific cue in working memory, and thus, were expected to elicit a "proactive" response strategy. Proactive control is more meta-bolically costly than reactive control, and therefore, we expected its use to be more reliant on flexible autonomic regulation. We found that accuracy rates were similar for both groups but RSA was, as expected, lower in the older group. Within tasks, responses were faster and more accurate for proactive relative to reactive control trials, highlighting the greater efficiency associated with proactive control. Of note, within both groups, higher baseline RSA was associated with increased accuracy on proactive but not reactive trials, thus supporting the view that autonomic cardiac regulation may be most relevant to performance that relies on the use of proactive control, a more resource-dependent cognitive operation.

Poster 2-26


Allan S Campopiano, & Timothy I Murphy Brock University

Descriptors: face perception, sleep deprivation, robust statistics

Sleep deprivation (SD) of 24 hours has been shown to reliably decrease P3 amplitudes suggesting impairments in attention-related processing. One hypothesis is that these effects may be partially driven by earlier deficits in perceptual binding mechanisms. We predicted that SD would affect the face-sensitive N170 component (an index of perceptual binding to faces). Electrocortical responses were measured during alert (2 hours awake) and sleep deprived (20 hours awake) sessions. Participants performed a gender discrimination task while viewing faces that were either clear or distorted with Gaussian noise. A percentile bootstrap test using trimmed means was conducted at the group and single-subject level. This statistical approach has the advantage of increased power, improved control over Type I error, and more accurate confidence intervals when compared to classic t or ANOVA tests. Group results showed a significant interaction such that SD significantly reduced N170 amplitudes to clear faces. Single subject results showed similar statistically significant interactions. Based on our results as well as previous P3 findings, SD causes widespread alterations to both early perceptual binding mechanisms and later stages of processing involved in attention.

Poster 2-27


Karen Milligan1, Leanne Wilkins1, Anabel Sibalis2, Flavia Spiroiu1, Paul Badali3, Louis A Schmidt4, & Sidney J Segalowitz5 1Ryerson University, 2University of Toronto, 3Integra, 4McMaster University, 5Brock University

Descriptors: attention, mindfulness treatment, event-related potentials Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impairments in attention and impulse control. Mindfulness-based treatments

have been shown to significantly enhance attention in children. No studies to date have examined changes in Event Related Potential (ERP) indices of attention in children who participate in mindfulness treatments. This study examined the impact of a 20-week mindfulness treatment on ERP indices of attention, specifically examining the P300 component. Participants included 7 boys with ADHD (aged 12-15) participating in a mindfulness-based martial arts training program and 6 waitlist controls. An audio oddball selective attention task was completed pre- and post- treatment and ERPs were measured. A significant group by time interaction was found, with the P300 latency significantly decreasing for the treatment group but not the control group. Decreased P300 latency suggests enhanced auditory attention and working memory, areas of significant challenge for adolescents with ADHD. The electrocortical improvements found are consistent with studies showing reduced latency of the P300 component for adults who practice mindfulness, meditation or yoga compared to non-practicers. These results suggest that mindfulness can be helpful in improving attention and working memory in boys with ADHD.

Poster 2-28


Christine L Lackner1, Karen Milligan2, Leanne Wilkins2, Flavia Spiroiu2, Paul Badali3, Louis A Schmidt4, & Sidney J Segalowitz1 1Brock University, 2Ryerson University, 3Integra, 4McMaster University

Descriptors: mindfulness martial arts, intertrial coherence, event-related potentials Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or learning disabilities often show difficulties appropriately allocating their attention; this may lead to distractibility and subsequently impact their ability to learn. Attention allocation can be indexed using electrophysiological measures collected during an auditory selective attention task. In such tasks, neural responses are larger in magnitude for attended compared to unattended tones in typically developing populations. In clinical populations these effects are reduced in size. Importantly, after repeated administration of such tasks a reduction in task engagement may be observed with concomitant reductions in the strength of neural responses. We had 11 male adolescents (13-16 y, 8 with ADHD, 3 with a learning disability but no ADHD) participate in an intensive mindfulness martial arts intervention program. ERPs were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks into the intervention. Effects were contrasted with a waitlist control group (13-15 y, all with ADHD). All recordings were decomposed using Independent Components Analysis. ICs were subsequently clustered based on their observed topography and intertrial coherence (ITC). A posterior cluster of ICs showed a strong attended-minus-unattended ITC difference across all three testing sessions in the treatment group. The waitlist control group decreased in the strength of this ITC difference across the testing sessions. These results support the effectiveness of the mindfulness martial arts training program for improving attention control.

Poster 2-29


Haley A Carroll, Mary E Larimer, & M Kathleen B Lustyk University of Washington

Descriptors: cardiac vagal control, mindfulness, substance use

Thought suppression, or effort to reduce thinking about a particular "thought" (e.g., pleasant sensation associated with drug), is included in effective therapeutic strategies for substance use disorders (SUD) such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but paradoxically linked with an increased occurrence of the "thought" (Rassin, 2005). In contrast, mindfulness fosters acceptance of "thoughts." Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) treatment for SUD aims to increase tolerance of negative physical, emotional, and cognitive states. Initial research with MBRP treatment for SUD suggests efficacy (Bowen, et al., 2009) and association with favorable psychophysiological outcomes (e.g., increased cardiac vagal control) when compared to CBT. However, the mechanisms of increased cardiac vagal control related to MBRP are not understood. Thus, the current project compares the effects of thought suppression and mindfulness on cardiac vagal control during stress as indexed by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) in MBRP versus CBT and Treatment as Usual (TAU) (N = 34). Mediation models assessing if thought suppression and mindfulness mediated the effect of MBRP, CBT, or TAU onto psychophysiological outcomes suggest that MBRP is positively related to mindfulness and HF-HRV and negatively related to thought suppression, where CBT is negatively related to mindfulness and HF-HRV and positively related to thought suppression. However, no significant overall mediation models were found. Research should continue to identify contributors to SUD treatment health outcomes.

Poster 2-30


Alex Fennell, Ruth Ann Atchley, Tori Young, & Erik M Benau University of Kansas

Descriptors: meditation, anger

Emerging research suggests that a single meditative session can reduce subjective anger. However, previous studies have only utilized self-reported measures to determine this relationship. The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 non-meditators and 12 meditators (matched for gender) were asked to "relive" a recent experience in which they became angry followed by typing it up. The anger induction was conducted while respiration rate, heart rate (both high- and low-frequency heart rate variability were derived), and blood pressure were measured. Participants completed the task in both a non-meditative and meditative state. Results of a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant meditator X meditative-state interaction (p < .05). Post-hoc analyses showed that meditators were less responsive to the anger induction while in a non-meditative state for all of the utilized measures (ps < .05). Further pairwise comparisons indicated that both groups showed a significant decrease of respiration rate and an increase in high frequency heart-rate variability following anger induction in the meditative state condition (ps < .01). Thus, by the second session of the study, both groups showed similar physiological reactivity to anger induction. The results suggest that a single meditation session can reduce subjective and objective measures of anger, and that routine meditative practice may further reduce anger susceptibility.

Poster 2-31


Diana Henz, Pascal Tanny, & Wolfgang I Schollhorn University of Mainz

Descriptors: Qigong, electroencephalography

Qigong is a common technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine which is applied to strengthen physical and mental health. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed mental state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by dynamic Qigong techniques which involve bodily movements to direct attention to movement control and kinaesthetic sensations. In the current study, we tested effects of background music on EEG theta and alpha activation administered during physical Qigong training. Participants performed the dynamic Qigong technique "Wu Qin Xi" under two different conditions (music, no music), and a control condition (listening to music) in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-minute exercise. Results show decreased theta and alpha activity after Qigong training when accompanied by background music in comparison to the no music condition. We suppose that the observed effects on EEG activation patterns result from shifts of attention to the external environment induced by music, and therefore result in a reduction of intensity of the meditational state.

Poster 2-32


Hans Kirschner, Willem Kuyken, & Anke Karl University of Exeter

Descriptors: self-compassion, affiliative affect, self-perception

Protective effects of the cultivation of self-compassion for mental health have become of great interest. We have previously shown reductions in autonomic arousal and increased positive affiliative affect when individuals were exposed to compassion-based interventions. It is less well understood if the facilitation of self-compassion also reduces negative self-referential processing as is often reported in individuals with depression. To investigate the effect of self-compassion inductions on self-referential processing we studied the effects of two meditation exercises (Loving Kindness Meditation, Compassionate Body Scan) as compared to a rumination, control and positive excitement condition on behavioural and neural responses to a self-referential task (Markus, 1977) in 135 participants. P300 and the late positive potentials (LPP) of the event-related brain potentials (ERP) to positive and negative personality adjectives were recorded before and after the audio exercises. Both self-compassion inductions and the positive excitement condition increased self-reported state self-compassion and decreased self-criticism whereas the rumination condition triggered the opposite pattern. These changes were accompanied by the expected enhanced tendency to prefer positively valenced information about the self and a corresponding increase in P300 and LPP components as compared to the rumination condition. Results indicate that a possible protective effect of self-compassion lies in the activation of the positive affiliative affect system that enhances a more positive self-perception.

Research grant from Compassionate Mind Foundation and PhD Scholarship form the University of Exeter.

Poster 2-33


Sandra Diaz-Ferrer, Blanca Ortega-Roldan, José Luis Mata-Martin, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz, & M Carmen Fernandez-Santaella University of Granada

Descriptors: body dissatisfaction, mirror exposure, skin conductance Body exposure is an important technique to reduce body dissatisfaction in women with eating disorders. However, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological mechanisms involved in two different body exposure techniques in women with body dissatisfaction. Thirty-five university women with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Pure Exposure (n = 17) or Guided Exposure (n = 18). All participants received six 45 min treatment sessions twice a week. Dependent variables were (a) physiological reactions (skin conductance) and (b) subjective psychological changes (body discomfort and feelings of dissatisfaction/ugliness) between the initial and final treatment sessions. In the course of the first body exposure session, the skin conductance responses were stronger than in the final one in both groups. However, in the last session the pure exposure group showed a greater response during the session in comparison to the guided exposure group. The subjective results showed in both groups a progressive and significant decrease in subjective discomfort and feelings of ugliness, as well as a progressive increase, from the first to the sixth treatment session, in body satisfaction with onés own body. These findings suggest that pure and guided exposure treatments have different physiological mechanisms underlying the observed therapeutic changes. However, both procedures seem to be equally effective in reducing subjective body dissatisfaction.

This study has been funded by two research projects of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) [PSI2012-31395 and PSI2009-08417].

Poster 2-34


Javier Rodríguez-Árbol1, Isis González-Usera1, José Luis Mata1, Eliane Volchan2, Carmen M Fernández1, & Jaime Vila1 University of Granada, 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Descriptors: cardiac defense, autonomic space, pre-ejection period The theoretical framework of the autonomic space and the refinement of recording techniques to examine sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart have opened a new door in the investigation of human emotions and defensive reflexes. The aim of the present research was to accurately assess the autonomic influences on the evocation and habituation of the cardiac defense response (CDR), a well-established paradigm of emotional defensive reactivity with two sequential accelerative-decelerative components. The pre-ejection period (PEP) and the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were chosen as the cardiovascular variables that would depict best the topography of the sympathetic and parasympathetic dynamic influences operating during the CDR. The PEP is obtained by means of the synchronic recording of impedance cardiography and electrocardiogram, and is considered an accurate index of beta-adrenergic influences. The RSA is obtained by means of the synchronic recording of respiration and electrocardiogram, and is considered an accurate index of the parasympathetic influences. Sixty young students (30 males) underwent a psychophysiological test with three CDR trials, each elicited by an unexpected burst of white noise, while impedance cardiography, electrocardiogram and respiration were recorded. The variations of the PEP and RSA along the CDR reveal a complex pattern of sympathetic-parasympathetic influences: co-inhibition during first acceration, co-activation during first deceleration and reciprocal activation during second acceleration-deceleration.

Funded by CAPES and Spanish Ministry of Education (Project PHB-2012-0139-PC and PSI2011-28530).

Poster 2-35


Blanca Ortega-Roldan, Sandra Diaz-Ferrer, Pandelis Perakakis, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz,

& Jaime Vila University of Granada

Descriptors: body dissatisfaction, postural control, mirror image

Previous research suggests that body dissatisfaction is negatively related to posturographic stabilisation. However, the relationship of this reduced postural stability with body image-related symptomatology is not known. We examined postural responses of women with high (n = 16) and low body dissatisfaction (n = 14) and their relationships with psycho-pathological measures. Participants stood on a force platform while viewing their bodies in a mirror at a distance of 50 cm. Displacements in the center of pressure (COP) were recorded during 60-second exposure period. Our dependent variables were: i) the area of

body sway, ii) the standard deviation of COP in the medio-lateral/antero-posterior directions, iii) the Eating Attitude Test-40, iv) the Body Image Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, v) the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, vi) the State Anxiety Inventory-Trait, and vii) two Visual Analogue Scales (VAS: Beauty-Ugliness/Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction). Posturo-graphic results showed that women with high body dissatisfaction, compared to women with low body dissatisfaction, exhibited greater: a) area of body sway, and b) displacements in the anterior-posterior/medial-lateral directions while viewing their bodies. Further, the area of body sway was positively correlated with all psychopathological measures and ugliness/body dissatisfaction feelings. These findings confirm the negative emotional impact of body image-related symptomatology on human postural control.

This study has been funded by two research projects of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) [PSI2012-31395 and PSI2009-08417].

Poster 2-36


Stanislav Kozlovskiy, Maria Pyasik, & Alexander Vartanov Lomonosov Moscow State University

Descriptors: working memory, NMR spectrosopy, hippocampus

Previous studies show that asparagine level in the hippocampus might correspond to memory functioning. For example, decreased hippocampal asparagine level results in spatial memory deficits in mice (Kwon, 2000). Asparagine also affects normal long-term potentiation in rat hippocampus (Kapai, 2004). In the present study we compared aspara-gine levels in both hippocampi with working memory test performance in healthy humans. Participants in the study were 8 right-handed females (mean age 59 ± 16) without neurological and mental disorders. All subjects performed verbal and spatial N-back (1- & 2-back) working memory tests. Asparagine levels (2.96 ppm) in both hippocampi were measured in vivo with 1H-NMR spectroscopy (3T MRI). As a control measurement we used asparagine levels in inferior parietal cortex (IPC). The data were analyzed by calculating non-parametric correlations (Spearman, p < 0.05) between individual behavioral and biochemical measurements. There were significant correlations between asparagine levels in the right hippocampus and verbal N-back task performance (r = 0.91, p < 0.003 for 1-back and r = 0.79 for 2-back tasks). Asparagine levels in the left hippocampus correlated negatively (-0.68) with spatial 1-back performance. No significant correlations between asparagine levels in IPC and memory test performance were revealed. Thus, relatively high asparagine levels in the right hippocampus is related to verbal memory capacity, whereas low levels in the left hippocampus correlate with spatial memory test performance.

This study was partially funded by Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (RHSF) project # 13-06-00570.

Poster 2-37


Sarah Reaves, Jonathan Strunk, Paul Verhaeghen, & Audrey Duarte Georgia Institute of Technology

Descriptors: memory, attention, representations

Visual short term memory (VSTM) is a capacity-limited system that represents visual information after it is no longer available via sensory input. Studies manipulating retrospective attention (attention directed to previously viewed stimuli) have shown that the contents of VSTM can be modulated by attention. These studies used repeating stimuli so questions about long-term memory (LTM) representations could not be assessed. The present study used real-world objects as stimuli, which allowed us to ask how retrospective attention manipulations influence the contents of LTM representations and what aspects of a representation retrospective attention enhances (i.e. location, item, or both). Lateralized event related potentials were observed at the VSTM test following uninformative, neutrally cued trials, suggesting maintenance of location information. No lateralization was observed for spatially informative, retrospective cue trials, suggesting that the retrospective cue selectively cued item identity and location information was purged from VSTM. Behavioral retrospective attention effects carried over to LTM: performance on the LTM item recognition task was better for previously retrospectively cued trials compared to neutrally cued trials. Consistent with the idea that retrospective cues selectively enhance item identity, behavioral performance on the LTM location task did not differ by cue type. This result is surprising considering the purging of location information at VSTM following a retrospective cue. These results suggest that memory representations are quite flexible.

Poster 2-38


Xiaoqing Hu, & J. Peter Rosenfeld Northwestern University

Descriptors: memory detection, memory suppression, memory control

The present study examined whether people can control unwanted episodic memories that

are acquired in real-life in a memory detection context. Three groups(n = 26 in each) were

tested: a guilty_suppression group(SP), a guilty_standard group(SG), and an innocent group. Participants in both guilty groups enacted a lab crime to encode crime-relevant details. All participants were given an event-related brain potentials (ERP)- based concealed information test (CIT, the complex trial protocol) aimed to identify suspects who recognize crime-relevant details. Participants in a suppression group were instructed to suppress their lab crime-relevant memories to avoid being detected in the CIT. Next, participants were given an autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT) to measure the effect of previous suppression attempt. Compared to guilty participants who did not suppress memories, participants in the suppression group can block the retrieval of real-life memories, evidenced by reduced base-peak measured parietal-P300 (F = 8.26, p < .01). However, a negativity that followed the P300 was not influenced by memory suppression manipulations, p > .15. Thus, combining the P300 and the negativity was not influenced by memory suppression and achieved the highest classification accuracy AUC = .76(SP) — .86(SG). Finally, following suppression, the aIAT D-score was reduced: .48 vs. .14, p < .05, suggesting suppression reduced the associative strength between the criminal memory and the truth.

Funded by the American Psychological Association Dissertation Research Award.

Poster 2-39


Jonathan Strunk, & Audrey Duarte Georgia Institute of Technology

Descriptors: memory, cognitive control, event-related potentials

An open question in memory research is what role preparatory activity has on subsequent memory performance. The Dual Mechanisms of Control model postulates that the time period in which control processes are brought on-line may play an important role in behavioral outcomes. Event-related potential (ERP) research in episodic memory encoding suggests the time period before a-to-be encoded stimulus may reflect subsequent memory performance. The current study investigates what role an individual's proclivity to use proactive, i.e. before an event, control may have on subsequent memory performance. Participants completed both an incidental memory task containing visual and audio words, as well as a continuous performance task, AX-CPT, while electroencepha-lography (EEG) was recorded. Behavioral results, from younger adults, show a significant positive correlation between measures of corrected recognition (Pr) and how proactive an individual is, as assessed by the AX-CPT. Additionally, this correlation is being primarily driven by an increase in high confidence remembered items. ERP results suggest that prestimulus modulations are reflecting differences between highly confident remembered items and those subsequently forgotten. This suggests that the prestimulus activity reflects a physiological marker of implementing a proactive control strategy, which manifests behaviorally as an increase in high confidence remembered items in younger adults.

Poster 2-40


Echo E Leaver1, & Zane Faulkner2 1Salisbury University, 2Aurora Pavilion Behavioral Health Services

Descriptors: false memory

The fallibility of memory has important implications for various disciplinary fields (e.g., criminal law, counseling/clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, etc.) as well as societal interests (e.g., law enforcement, courtroom processes, social workers, clinical psychologists, etc.). Research on false memory abounds in terms of the ability of researchers to implant memories for plausible and highly implausible negative events. However, the extant literature does not currently answer the question of whether memories for positive events can be implanted. Moreover, previous research has attempted to discriminate between true and false memories by employing different objective and subjective measures, with mixed success. However, to date there is still no conclusive way to distinguish between true and false memories. Thus, the present study expanded upon the current deficits in the research literature by inducing both positive and negative false memory events in participants. Physiological measures (i.e., skin conductance, heart rate, electromyography and pulse plethysmography) were employed in an effort to discriminate between participants' true and false memories. Results indicated that positive and negative events can be implanted at an impressively high rate and with a very simple manipulation. False memories, in general, were found to exhibit a greater arousal pattern than true memories and specifically with EMG, positive false memories elicited greater arousal patterns than positive true memories.

Poster 2-41


Yuri G Pavlov Ural Federal University

Descriptors: working memory

The general aim of this work was to investigate resting EEG markers for working memory performance. For this study we examined 53 volunteers (37 women), aged 17 to 36 (mean age = 21.94, SD = 4.49). Random sequences of letters of the alphabet were the stimuli for the working memory task. Two conditions of tasks with various levels of difficulty were applied. The first modification of the task required keeping the original stimulus sequence in memory without any changes. In the second modification participants had to rearrange the presented sequence of letters in alphabetic order. We analyzed EEG power in alpha (8-13 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), beta1 (14-20 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz) frequency bands and individual alpha frequency. The EEG of high-level performing subjects (1st quartile of the distribution) and low performing subjects (4th quartile of distribution) were compared. We found significant differences of EEG power in the theta band in the F3, F4, F7, F8 and Fz sites between the two experimental groups. These results may suggest that differences in frontal midline theta activity measured at rest state (without any tasks), traditionally associated with anterior cingulate cortex activity, influence on working memory performance.

Study was supported by DAAD and Russian Ministry of Education and Science (grant no. A1373854), and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant no. 13-06-96028).

Poster 2-42


Talia Losier1, Christine Lefebvre1, Mattia Doro2, Roberto Dell'Acqua2, & Pierre Jolicoeur1 1University of Montreal, 2Universita Degli studi di Padova

Descriptors: attentional blink, attention, working memory

The visual Attentional blink (AB) is the difficulty of correctly reporting a second target when it is temporarily close to an earlier one in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Models attempting to explain the AB have long supposed a deficit at a relatively late locus of processing. However, recent models have suggested that encoding targets into working memory (WM) reduces attentional capacity available for the processing of subsequent targets, therefore potentially explaining part of the AB. In this electrophysiological study, costs of encoding into WM were manipulated by having to report two or three targets. The last target was presented laterally in order to measure the N2pc component, which reflects the deployment of visual attention. If mechanisms occupied by a higher encoding load overlap with the attentional mechanisms required to deploy attention to the last target, then N2pc amplitude for the last target should be reduced and possibly delayed when three targets are to be reported as opposed to two. Results support the above model, showing lower N2pc amplitudes with a higher memory load, suggesting that WM load engages mechanisms that overlap with those required to deploy spatial attention. The results suggest that encoding information into working memory is a capacity demanding operation that affects subsequent processing at a variety of levels.

Poster 2-43


Michael A Kursawe, & Hubert D Zimmer Saarland University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, pupillometry, cognitive processing Solving working memory tasks can be subdivided into processes like encoding, maintenance and retrieval. The contributions of different processes to task performance probably vary with task demands as the number of items or kind of feature that must be memorized. We combined pupillometry and event related potentials (ERPs) during the maintenance and test phase of a change detection task with varying set size (1, 2, or 4 items) to unfold the involved processes. In two blocks participants judged either the change of color or shape of colored polygons. In half of the match trials the task irrelevant feature was manipulated which had to be ignored. During maintenance, ERP slow waves were dependent on set size and type of task (color versus shape). Pupil size and N1 amplitude solely followed the number of displayed objects. We interpret the former as correlate of effort and the latter as attentional encoding demands according to set size. During the test display large differences in P3 were visible between match and nonmatch trials for sub-capacity set sizes, but not for supra-capacity set size (4 items). Changing an irrelevant color showed always effects in behavioral and ERP data whereas the effect of a non-matching shape was confined to set size one. The data lead to the conclusion that one to two objects can be actively held in visual working memory dependent on complexity whereas when four objects are task relevant, the test object serves as cue to search among built representations.

This research is part of the International Research and Training Group "Adaptive Minds" and was funded by the German Research Foundation (grant number GRK 1457).

Poster 2-44


Colleen A Brenner, Gabriel Brooks, & Samuel Rumak University of British Columbia

Descriptors: event-related potentials, memory, distracter

The presentation of distracters during the memory delay is detrimental to memory task performance. This study investigated the behavioral and neural response to the presentation of distracters with different timing properties. We administered a visual delayed match-to-sample task with visual distracters presented either early or late during the delay interval to 30 healthy undergraduates. P100, N100 and P300 ERPs in response to the target stimuli and in response to the visual distracters were assessed. There were no consistent differences in ERP amplitudes in response to target stimuli between correct and incorrect trials. N100 amplitude in response to distracters was larger on incorrect compared to correct trials and in response to late compared to early distracters. P300 amplitude in response to distracter stimuli was also larger for incorrect compared to correct trials. Alpha power in anticipation of distracters and in response to the distracters will also be assessed. These findings may indicate that errors are associated with increased recruitment of neural resources when processing distracter stimuli during the maintenance of a target stimulus.

Poster 2-47


Geraldine Gvozdanovic1, Erich Seifritz1, Philipp Staempfli1, & Björn Rasch2 University of Zurich, 2University of Fribourg

Descriptors: affective processing, trauma memory

Posttraumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive events. The encoding of traumatic events involves brain structures including amygdala, striatum, thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex. Activity in these regions was associated with later intrusiveness of memories, as revealed by functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies using the trauma film paradigm (analogue study for intrusion development) in healthy participants. However, the neural correlates of implicit and explicit recall of traumatic memories remain rather unclear. Therefore we investigated the neurophysiological factors of recall processes of traumatic memories in healthy participants. We recorded brain activity using fMRI and simultaneously measured skin conductance response, heart rate, respiratory rate as well as salivary cortisol. Participants watched either a trauma- or a control-film. Subsequently, all participants performed a Sternberg working memory task with emotional distracters (film, scrambled, negative and neutral pictures) to investigate attention-related biases. Preliminary analyses reveal that there was an attention bias with altered reaction times during the Sternberg task. Additionally, the same neutral film pictures that served as emotional distracters were rated significantly more negative and arousing for the trauma- compared to the control film group and were associated with increased activations in parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, results reveal a modulation of neural processing underlying trauma memory retrieval.

Poster 2-45


Mathias Weymar1, Carlos Ventura-Bort2, Andreas Low1, Javier Moltó2, & Alfons O Hamm1 1University of Greifswald, 2Jaume I University of Castellón

Descriptors: emotion, relational memory, event-related potentials

There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, most memory studies presented single items (e.g., words or scenes) in isolation neglecting the associative nature of real-world events. In the present study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of emotion on relational memory. Participants incidentally encoded 144 neutral objects superimposed on background scenes (IAPS) varying in emotional content (48 unpleasant, 48 pleasant and 48 neutral). Participants were instructed to imagine that each object is a part of the scene. One week after encoding, a recognition memory task was performed, in which 144 old neutral objects (originally encoded in the context of emotional and neutral scenes) and 144 novel neutral objects were presented. Behavioral results showed no difference in memory for objects originally paired with emotional, compared to neutral background scenes. Enhanced ERP amplitudes were found for remembered old objects relative to correctly rejected new objects (ERP old/new effect) between 400 and 600 ms for neutral objects in emotional and neutral contexts. Interestingly, neutral objects previously presented in the context of emotional pictures (unpleasant or pleasant) showed an enhanced mid-frontal positivity (around 200 ms), compared to objects paired with neutral scenes. Thus, ERPs were sensitive to differences in the emotional context at encoding, which could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in trauma and stress-related disorders in the future.

Poster 2-48


Matthew A Gannon, & Nathan A Parks University of Arkansas

Descriptors: transcranial magnetic stimulation, event-related potentials, motor cortex Non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is capable of modulating plasticity in human cortex for a period that persists well beyond the time of TMS administration. One such method is that of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in which high-frequency bursts (50 Hz) are applied every 200 ms, administered in trains of 10 bursts. Such a pattern of stimulation has been shown to reliably and consistently induce a state of enduring excitability within a stimulated cortical area, an effect of considerable interest for both experimental and clinical applications. Though the induction of plasticity by iTBS is robust, much remains to be understood regarding the underlying neurophysi-ological changes which accompany this plasticity. Here, we sought to further elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of iTBS-induced plasticity in motor cortex using EEG simultaneously recorded with TMS pulses. A standard iTBS protocol was administered to subjects' right motor cortex. To examine the iTBS-induced plasticity we conducted bilateral pre- and post-iTBS measurements of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). Preliminary data indicate that modulations of cortical TEPs occur in accordance with MEP indices of cortical excitability and further indicate that changes in cortical excitability are not confined to stimulated cortex but are measureable in both left and right motor cortex.

This project was funded by a grant from the Arkansas Biosciences Institute.

Poster 2-46


Jessica Sanches B Figueira1, Leticia de Oliveira1, Isabela VP Lobo1, Mirtes G Pereira1, Erick FQ Conde2, & Isabel PA David1 1Federal Fluminense University, 2Federal University of Pernambuco

Descriptors: emotion, memory, late positive potential

Emotional stimuli may have privileged access to working memory because of their relevance to survival. The aim of this study was to investigate how distracting emotional stimuli can interfere in working memory. Eighteen volunteers (11 women) participated in the experiment in which they should passively observe a neutral or a negative image (mutilated bodies) and, after that, perform a change detection task, while recording ERPs. Two arrays containing 2 (low load condition) or 4 (high load condition) colored squares were presented sequentially, and individuals should respond if the color of one square in the test array was different from the corresponding item in the memory array. As expected, the emotional stimuli elicited a Late Positive Potential (LPP) greater in amplitude than neutral stimuli at centro-parietal sites (t(17) = 3.19, p < 0.05). Interestingly, the emotional effect on LPP (mutilated minus neutral) correlated negatively with the emotional effect on reaction time (mutilated minus neutral) for the 2 squares condition (rho = —0.49; p < 0.05), but not for the 4 squares condition (rho = —0.35; p = 0.16). These data suggest that item's representation in working memory could have been influenced by the impact of emotional stimuli, mainly during the low-load condition.

Poster 2-49


Dorothy J Currey, Matthew A Gannon, & Nathan A Parks University of Arkansas

Descriptors: blind spot, event-related potentials, plasticity

Visual representational plasticity is the alteration of classical cortical representations following retinal deafferentation. The study of visual plasticity in human cortex is challenging as it is most often studied in patients with retinal pathologies. Such patient studies typically only allow extensive long-term remapping of visual cortices to be examined and provide little insight into the rapid, short-term modulations of visual plasticity that underlie long-term topographical alteration. Here, we use the cortical representation of the retinal blind spot in healthy human subjects as a model to examine short-term modulations of neuro-plasticity. The cortical blind spot representation is a region naturally deafferented of visual input during monocular viewing. Thus, short-term visual plasticity can be manipulated simply through monocular viewing of visual stimuli (e.g., right eye) while still permitting blind spot representations to be probed through stimulation of the partner eye (e.g., left eye). To induce short-term visual plasticity, a visual conditioning stimulus (5000 ms of white noise) was presented monocularly to the left or right eye. Following this conditioning period, visual-evoked potentials were measured in response to a visual probe presented to the partner eye, in spatial positions corresponding to the blind spot's location. Preliminary

data indicate robust potentiation of early visual components (P1 and N1), consistent with the induction of short-term visual plasticity within extrastriate retinotopic representations of the blind spot.

Poster 2-50


Kyle R Hill, Isaac Hunt, Cynthia E Perry, Dawson W Hedges, Brent L Nielsen, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Vaughn RA Call, & Michael J Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: performance monitoring, 5-HTTLPR

Older adults typically show reduced performance monitoring relative to younger adults, as measured by the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe). The influence of the serotonin transport polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) gene in error processing provides contradictory findings. Most studies suggest increased performance monitoring in individuals with a genotypic short allele (S/S or S/L) relative to homozygous individuals for long alleles (L/L). However, the A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5-HTTLPR may contribute to varied gene expression, such that long alleles of the 5-HTTLPR with a G SNP result in less-efficient serotonin transportation similar to that of the short allelic variation. We investigated the relationship between A/G SNP expression within the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and ERN/Pe amplitudes. High-density ERPs were recorded while 102 older adults completed an Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral and ERP data were tested using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparisons between correct/incorrect trials, ERN/Pe amplitude means, and 5-HTTLPR phenotypes. Specifically, differences were tested between the L/S and S/S as a single group vs. L/L controlling for A/G SNP across groups. There were no significant differences between the S-allele group and the L/L group in ERN/Pe mean amplitudes when accounting for A/G SNP. These results are in concert with the only previous study that accounted for A/G SNP differences, suggesting a further need to account for the A/G SNP in relationships between 5HTTLPR and performance monitoring.

Poster 2-51


Michael J Larson, Cynthia E Perry, Dawson W Hedges, Brent L Nielsen, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, & Vaughn RA Call Brigham Young University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, error positivity, DRD2

Recent work suggests a relationship between dopamine D2 receptor polymorphisms (DRD2) and event-related potential (ERP) indices of performance monitoring. A potential moderator of these effects in older adults is telomere length. Telomeres, long strings of nucleotides that shield the ends of chromosomes from shortening and weakening with age, are associated with positive cognitive aging and dopaminergic activity. We examined the association between error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes, DRD2 genetic polymorphisms, and telomere length in 104 community-dwelling older adults (58 female; mean age = 70.8) that completed an Eriksen flanker task. There were no initial main effects or interactions as a function of DRD2 genotype (Fs < .25, ps > .62) nor were there significant correlations between telomere length and ERP amplitudes or error-minus correct difference waves (rs < .18, ps > .08). Notably, however, hierarchical regression analysis controlling for age showed a significant association between the interaction of DRD2 polymorphism and telomere length on ERN amplitude (R2 = .09, p = .055), with increased variance predicted by the interaction between DRD2 genotype and telomere length relative to the overall model (R2 change = .05, p = .02, beta = .64, p = .02). There were no significant regression relationships with Pe amplitude. Results suggest a moderating role of telomere length on DRD2 genotype for ERN amplitude, with shorter telomere length differentially associated with either smaller (A1) or larger (A2) ERN amplitude by DRD2 status.

individuals meeting criteria for anxiety or depression (AD) and 69 controls. For the ERN, CRN, Pe, and Pc ERPs within-person variance was larger than between-person variance across groups and components, indicating many trials are needed for adequate dependability (24 to 30 error trials). Slightly fewer trials were needed to achieve adequate dependability in the control group than the pathology group. We put forth generalizability theory as potential way to examine future ERP-related psychometric questions with multiple sources of variability.

Poster 2-53


Ann Clawson1, Peter E Clayson2, & Michael J Larson1 1Brigham Young University, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: event-related potentials, development, cognitive control Cognitive control refers to higher-level cognitive processes used to detect conflict and adjust behavior according to internal goals. Given the importance of cognitive control in regulating behavior, understanding the developmental course of these processes may contribute to a greater understanding of normal and abnormal development. We examined behavioral (response times [RTs], error rates) and event-related potential data (N2, error-related negativity [ERN], error positivity [Pe]) during a Flanker task in a group of 45 youth (ages 8-18), 52 young adults (ages 20-28), and 58 older adults (ages 56-91). Young adults displayed the fastest RTs and lowest error rates. Older adults performed significantly slower than younger adults and youth and made significantly more errors than young adults. For N2 amplitudes, young adults displayed less negative N2 amplitudes than youth and older adults, and youth displayed more negative N2 amplitudes compared to older adults. Young adults displayed less negative ERN amplitudes than youth but there were no differences between older adults and youth or older adults and young adults. Finally, young adults displayed more positive Pe amplitudes than older adults and youth with no significant differences between youth and older adults. Together, these results point to neural inefficiency during early development and again during older adulthood. Cognitive control processing reaches a peak in younger adulthood, marked by improved behavioral performance and differential neural activation.

Poster 2-54


Kaylie A Carbine1, Tanja Endrass2, & Michael J Larson1 1Brigham Young University, 2University of Magdeburg

Descriptors: performance monitoring, ERN/Pe, locus of control

Individuals with autism or schizophrenia have difficulty internally processing errors but exhibit few deficits in performance monitoring when given external feedback. A way to examine the differences between internal and external performance monitoring is using locus of control. Individuals with an internal locus of control believe their actions influence the environment and may internally monitor their actions for errors more closely. Event related potentials (ERPs) could examine the relationship between locus of control and performance monitoring, using error related negativity (ERN; early error detection) and error positivity (Pe; later error detection). We hypothesized that individuals with a more internal locus of control would exhibit increased ERN and Pe amplitudes. 127 participants (72 female, M = 20.45, SD = 1.94) completed the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control and IPC Locus of Control Multidimensional scales. ERPs and behavioral data were obtained while participants completed a modified Eriksen flanker task. Accuracy, RTs, ERN and Pe amplitudes were not significantly correlated with Rotter or IPC scales (all ps > .24). Following a median split on locus of control, control (internal, external) x trial (correct, error) ANOVAs yielded no significant interactions for ERN or Pe amplitudes (all ps > .18). Findings suggest locus of control may not be related to indices of performance monitoring in healthy individuals. Future research examining alternative traits that may modify the difference in internal and external performance monitoring is needed.

Poster 2-52


Michael J Larson1, Peter E Clayson2, & Scott A Baldwin1 1Brigham Young University, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: reliability, error-related negativity, error positivity

Psychometric studies of the ERN, CRN, Pe, and Pc event-related potentials (ERPs) show conflicting information. Integration of these results is difficult with classical test theory, including classical indices of reliability, because classical test theory cannot account for multiple sources of error. We used generalizability theory, which accounts for multiple sources of error simultaneously, as a framework for evaluating the influence of psychopa-thology and number of trials on dependability of measurement. Participants included 81

Poster 2-55


Peter E Clayson1, & Michael J Larson2 1University of California, Los Angeles, 2Brigham Young University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, SEM, individual differences

We examined a model of cognitive control specific to performance monitoring using structural equation modeling (SEM) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Previous findings evidence relationships between anxiety, depression, negative affect, age, sex, behavioral indices (error rates, post-error error rates), and performance monitoring processes. A structural model investigated the relationships among the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), and these variables to examine the complex interrelations in a single

model. Behavioral and high-density ERP data were recorded from 792 participants (443 female; age range: 17 to 52; M = 21.3, SD = 3.7) with a large range of affective symptoms during completion of a Flanker task. Data yielded two latent factors: negative affect and error monitoring. Higher depression scores were associated with worse error monitoring scores. Decreased error monitoring scores and reduced ERN and Pe amplitude were observed in females compared to males. Higher negative affect and increased age were related to reduced Pe amplitude. Notably there were no observed relationships between ERN amplitude and negative affect, depression, anxiety, or age. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are related to error monitoring functioning broadly rather than specifically to ERN or Pe amplitude; negative affect appears more specific to the Pe. Findings advance the need of analyzing individual difference variables and performance monitoring processes using multidimensional constructs and demonstrates the utility of SEM in this regard.

Poster 2-56


Daniel K Bjornn1, Joseph E Fair1, Spencer W Liebel2, Kyle R Hill1, & Michael J Larson1 1Brigham Young University, 2University of Georgia

Descriptors: traumatic brain injury, learning, event-related potentials Errorless learning (EL) is a technique used to improve retention in some clinical groups, with mixed support in TBI samples. We examined the neural time course of EL and errorful learning (EF) in individuals with moderate-to-severe (MS) TBI using the error-related negativity (ERN) and the post-error positivity (Pe). Individuals with MS TBI (n = 16) and matched controls (n = 15) completed a word-learning task with counterbalanced EL and EF learning conditions. EL included presenting a target word and having participants repeat it. EF required them to guess a word using the first two letters of the word as cues. ERP and neuropsychological data were collected and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression. 2 Group (TBI, Control) x 2 Condition (EL, EF) x 2 Accuracy (Correct, Error) ANOVAs indicated a main effect of Accuracy on ERN amplitude (p < .001), and a Group x Condition x Accuracy interaction on Pe amplitude (p < .05), but no other main effects or interactions. Regressions using predictors of age, education, group, AVLT 30 min delay and Trails B were not significantly predictive of ERN or Pe amplitudes in either condition. Despite a reliable ERN, ERN amplitude did not differ according to Group or Condition. Pe amplitudes revealed a differential response for EL and EF error trials in the TBI group, suggesting EL but not EF may have facilitated error recognition in the TBI group. Results are consistent with studies indicating the Pe is associated with the conscious recognition of errors, and the idea that EL is less demanding of memory processes than EF.

Poster 2-57


Christian Panitz, Christiane Hermann, & Erik M Mueller Justus-Liebig-University Gieflen

Descriptors: P300, cardiac fear response, fear extinction

While the cardiac response has been shown to be reliably modulated for feared vs. non-feared stimuli, it is unknown how electrocortical activity relates to this cardiac fear response. Moreover, it is unknown whether fear-related cortico-cardiac processes are altered by fear extinction. Cardio-EEG covariance tracing (CECT) is a validated method to assess cortico-cardiac coupling by cross-correlating single-trial EEG and heart period (HP) within subjects. We conducted a two-day fear-extinction paradigm to assess CECTs in conditioned and extinguished fear. N = 18 participants underwent differential fear conditioning with four neutral faces (CS; presented for 4 s) of which two (CS+) were followed by a loud noise (US), two not (CS-). Subsequently, one CS+ and one CS- were extinguished. One day later, all CS were presented again. CECTs for the second day revealed that the magnitude of cardiac acceleration around 5 s after CS presentation was predicted by EEG-activity (Cz) at the P3 latency. Furthermore, the non-extinguished CS+ produced higher covariation of single-trial EEG and HP than the extinguished CS+ indicating maximal cortico-cardiac coupling for the most threatening stimuli. Taken together, we show that (a) the late accelatory component of the cardiac fear response is modulated by centro-medial EEG activity at 300 ms post-CS and (b) the strength of this modulation is reduced after fear extinction. This suggests involvement of P3-related processes in the expression of the cardiac fear response.

Poster 2-58


Heike Elchlepp1, Christopher D Chambers2, Aureliu Lavric1, & Frederick Verbruggen1 1University of Exeter, 2Cardiff University

Descriptors: action control, event-related potentials

Flexible behaviour relies on a control system that updates action plans in response to changes in the environment. Three experiments used event-related potentials to examine

how people prepare themselves to update actions. In the primary task, subjects responded to the colour of stimuli. On some trials a signal occurred. In the 'ignore' context, participants ignored this change; in the 'double-response' context, they had to execute a secondary response; and in the 'stop' context, they had to withhold the planned response. In Experiment 1 context was cued 800 ms before the primary task-stimulus. Preparing to switch to the stop context elicited a posterior positivity, which has been linked to task switching. Its amplitude correlated with RT slowing. A smaller positivity was also present when preparing a secondary response; its amplitude correlated with the speed of that response. Switching to the ignore context did not elicit a posterior positivity. Only preparing to stop elicited an earlier, fronto-central negativity. Hence, there are commonalities between preparing to stop and preparing to execute a secondary response (general updating) but also stop-specific adaptations. Post-stimulus ERPs in all three experiments showed that context influenced early attentional components, suggesting that an important component of preparatory control is adjusting attentional settings. LRPs show delayed response selection and/or suppression of motor activity in the stop context only, suggesting that preparing to stop resulted in additional changes in response settings.

European Research Council.

Poster 2-59


Tobias Stevens, Stephen Monsell, & Aureliu Lavric University of Exeter

Descriptors: cognitive control, fMRI, meta-analysis

We present a set of meta-analyses of fMRI studies that compared task-set switches with task-set repetitions and studies specifically investigating the neural substrates of task-set preparation. We used strict inclusion criteria focusing on task-set switching specifically (earlier analyses included a variety of switching paradigms). In addition we used an improved meta-analytical method, which overcame a number of confounds of earlier methods. Even though we only included paradigms with a high degree of similarity, the combined results still showed a large amount of variability. Our analyses identified those regions that were consistently reported by studies of task-set switching and task-set preparation, whilst controlling for the differences between studies in the amount of peaks reported. The results showed that specific elements of the frontal-parietal network were consistently involved in changing task-set whilst other parts were not. These regions included the left inferior frontal gyrus, the medial frontal cortex, and the left superior parietal lobe, which were more active during task-set switches. Analyses of contrasts isolating activity associated with preparing for a task-set switch suggested that the left superior parietal cortex is particularly important. An analysis focusing on general preparation for stimuli, pooling over the switch and repeat conditions, revealed activations in the medial frontal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal cortex and smaller-extent activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right precentral sulcus.

Poster 2-60


Lauren E Philbrook, & Kristin A Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: cortisol, children, parenting

Greater child shyness (Rubin & Mills, 1990) and lower child basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (Kennedy et al., 2004) are associated with more controlling parent behavior. Shy children are also more likely to display reticent behavior with peers when they receive more non-supportive maternal reactions to their negative emotions or have higher cortisol reactivity (Davis & Buss, 2012). The current study builds upon this work by longitudinally examining the influences of child shyness and cortisol reactivity on maternal emotion socialization. Two year olds' (n = 53) shyness was measured in response to fear-eliciting stimuli during a laboratory visit. Cortisol reactivity across the visit was calculated as a residualized change score. Mothers reported on their emotion socialization strategies via questionnaire when their children were 5 years old. There were no significant relations between child cortisol reactivity and mothers' emotion socialization, but greater child shyness was longitudinally associated with higher levels of non-supportive maternal reactions to children's negative emotions, r = .34, p < .05. Additionally, child cortisol reactivity moderated the influence of children's shyness on mothers' supportive emotion socialization (beta = —36, t = —2.65, p < .05). Mothers were less likely to use supportive strategies with shyer children who had higher cortisol reactivity than with shyer children who had lower cortisol reactivity (t = —2.45, p < .05). These findings suggest that children who are shyer and more reactive are challenging for mothers' emotion socialization efforts.

NIH (MH075750) to Kristin A. Buss.

Poster 2-61


Santiago Morales, Lauren E Philbrook, Lindsey B Younkins, & Kristin A Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, temperament, academic functioning The purpose of this study was to examine if children's temperament and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) longitudinally predicted externalizing behaviors (EB) and academic functioning (AF). Recent studies find that the temperamental dimensions of exuberance and effortful control interact to predict school outcomes (e.g., Deater-Deckard et al., 2009) such that children high in exuberance and low in effortful control tend to have the worst school outcomes (e.g., reading skills). The present study builds on these findings to establish exuberance and RSA reactivity as predictors of AF - as RSA is an index of emotional control and RSA augmentation is frequently related to EB. Mothers reported on the temperamental exuberance of their infants (18 months; N = 60; partial sample), and on their EB and AF at the end of kindergarten (70 months). RSA was collected during a laboratory visit at 42 months. RSA-R was calculated using a difference score between RSA baseline and a composite of RSA during six laboratory tasks such that a higher score means RSA augmentation. As expected, EB were related to exuberance, r(58) = .42, p < .01, and RSA augmentation, r(58) = .29, p = 02. No variables were directly related to AF. However, the interaction between infant exuberance and RSA-R predicted AF (beta = -.23, t = -2.8, p < .01), such that only for children with RSA augmentation, exuberance negatively predicted AF (beta = —.21, t = -2.8, p < .01). These findings replicate previous studies and add the finding that exuberant children with poor self-regulation (indexed by RSA) had poorer academic outcomes.

Poster 2-62


Xiaoxue Fu, & Kristin A Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: dysregulated fear, cortisol, internalizing symptoms

Dysregulated fear (DF), a temperament profile characterized by high fear in low-threat context, is found to predict social wariness and anxiety during kindergarten (Buss et al., 2013). Fearful behavior is associated with heightened basal cortisol levels in some studies (e.g. Buss et al., 2004). Sustained cortisol elevations might potentiate fear responses and increase risks for internalizing symptoms (McEwen, 2005). As evidence on neuroendocrine risk markers of DF is lacking, we investigated whether the link between increased cortisol activation and internalizing problems was stronger for DF children in a 2-cohort sample of 264 participants. The DF profile was identified at age 2. During kindergarten, 6 home saliva samples were collected over 2 days, and mothers rated children's internalizing symptoms. A significant interaction emerged between DF profile and mean morning basal cortisol level in predicting internalizing symptoms (beta = .58, t = 2.16, p < .05). The DF profile also moderated the effect of total cortisol production averaged across 2 days (calculated as the area under the curve of 3 mean basal levels) on internalizing symptoms (beta = .65, t = 2.24, p < .05). That is, elevated morning cortisol (beta = .33, t = 2.02, p = .05) and overall production (beta = .33, t = 2.03, p = .05) respectively predicted greater internalizing problems in DF but not in non-DF children. Consistent with the fearful temperament literature, our findings indicate that DF children might be more sensitive to the effects of heightened activation of the HPA axis which may increase risk for internalizing symptoms.

Poster 2-63


Pablo Ribes, Roser Poy, Pilar Segarra, Alicia Fonfría, Angels Esteller, Carlos Ventura, &

Javier Moltó Jaume I University of Castellón

Descriptors: error-related negativity, Go/NoGo task, flanker task

In order to explore the convergent validity of the ERN across multiple tasks, EEG data from 256-channel dense array were recorded from 47 participants (25 males) that performed both a Go/NoGo task (1200 trials, 80% Go) and a letter version of the Flanker task (624 trials, 85% flanker trials, half of them compatible) in counterbalanced order. The ERN was defined as the mean amplitude between 0-100 ms after response errors over six groups of midline electrode sites (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz, Oz). Consistent with the different complexity of the tasks, behavioral results showed less errors and longer reaction times on the Flanker vs. Go/NoGo task (7% vs. 35% of errors, and 621 ms vs. 336 ms on correct trials, respectively). A 2 (Task) x 6 (Site) repeated measures ANOVA on the ERN amplitude showed a significant interaction (F = 24.69, p < .0001) indicating task differences on the sites in which the ERN was maximal (i.e., more negative). Paired samples t tests for each task revealed that the ERN was maximal at FCz in the Go/NoGo task, but it was maximal at Fz in the Flanker task. Correlations between the ERN across tasks and sites were high (rs

between .40 and .50) except for Fz (r = .20, p > .05). In line with previous findings (Riesel et al., 2013), our results show good convergent validity of the ERN across tasks - suggesting a common neural mechanism, but also highlight the importance of examining the properties of the ERN at different sites as a function of the specific experimental paradigm, which could be especially relevant in the context of individual differences studies.

Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad PSI2011-22559.

Poster 2-64


Arvid Kappas1, Eva Krumhuber2, & Elena Tsankova1 1Jacobs University Bremen, 2University College London

Descriptors: cultural sensitivity, empathy, electromyography

In the context of a project on technology enhanced education in cultural understanding, we developed a non-reactive text-based vignette paradigm of sensitivity to cultural norm violations. To correct for plausible social desirability effects in the self-report for the vignette paradigm, the present experiment obtained indirect measures of affective reactions to cultural norm violation - electrodermal activity and facial electromyography (EMG) at 3 sites. Twenty-eight adults (17 female) completed computerized versions of the vignettes and a well-established self-report ethnocultural empathy assessment measure (Ethnocul-tural Empathy; Wang et al., 2003) while EDA and facial EMG activity at the Zygomaticus Major, Corrugator Supercilii, and Levator Labii Superioris sites were recorded continuously. Vignettes containing either instances of cultural norm violations or not, were read and then reflected upon. After each episode subjective experience and evaluations of the vignette were obtained. Overall, cultural norm violation scenarios were reported as more upsetting, less excusable, and less realistic than neutral scenarios. During reflection phase cultural vignettes evoked stronger Levator response as compared to neutral vignettes. In addition, Levator response during reflection was predicted by trait ethnocultural empathy. We conclude that our vignette paradigm is powerful and subtle enough to evoke behavioral affective responses associated with cultural empathy, and thus has the potential to add to existing ethnocultural sensitivity assessment tools.

This work was supported by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development project ECUTE (ICT-5-4.2 257666).

Poster 2-65


Christina A Basedow, & Arvid Kappas Jacobs University Bremen

Descriptors: emotion, facial EMG, humans and artificial entities

Do we respond emotionally to artificial entities as if they were human? Research has suggested that humans treat artificial entities in a social way and assign common social interaction rules. What if people are confronted with emotional still images of artificial entities, do they spontaneously react, assigning emotions, with the same intensity, to comparable human stimuli? This study focuses on physiological responses to the presentation of human and artificial entity stimuli and how trait empathy impacts responses. Images of humans and robots, toys and CGI characters, were selected in a first study from a set of N = 190, by 46 participants, and vignettes selected in a second study from a set of N = 52, by 57 participants. A third study paired the images with associated vignettes with 56 participants, creating a collection of 24 images and vignettes (12 human, 12 artificial) with equivalent intensity ratings of the primary emotions anger, sadness and happiness, and the secondary emotion pride. In the main study, 24 stimuli were presented to 34 participants while we recorded facial EMG (Corrugator Supercilii, Zygomaticus Major), and skin conductance. The task of participants was to simply observe the stimuli. Additionally, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980) was completed. Results of facial EMG indicate significant increases of Corrugator activity for sadness and decreases for happiness and significant Zygomaticus activity for all four emotions. Overall, the results suggest that individuals respond surprisingly similar to human and artificial entity stimuli.

Funding provided by the European Commission 7th Framework (Future and Emerging Technologies - EMOTE: Project Number 317923. FP7-ICT-2011-8.

Poster 2-66


John R Vanuk, Dave A Sbarra, & John JB Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion regulation, stress

Cardiac vagal control is proposed as a physiological predictor of affect regulation and is

easily indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Stress and negative affect are

generally associated with lower tonic levels of RSA. In some instances, however, increased levels of RSA can result from physiological attempts to respond to the perceived demands of stressful situations; in these situations, vagal modulation may reflect coping and emotion regulatory effort. In this study, 289 individuals aged 18-34 (30% male) had RSA assessed on 4 occasions within a 2-week period. Predicting resting RSA across these occasions, a significant Sex X Life Stress interaction was observed; men who reported higher indices of life hassles (social and non-social), as well as higher levels of negative affect, had amplified levels of resting RSA. There was no association between resting RSA in women across the range of either stress or negative affect. The results may be indicative of higher levels of resting vagal control associated with mobilization of effort in response to stressful life events. These findings suggest the possibility that men with higher susceptibility to negative affect and life hassles undergo extended durations of increased RSA as a preparatory response to possible negative affective events and stress. Although the response would be advantageous in the short term, overengagement may ultimately decrease vagal capacity and potentially lead to negative health outcomes later in life.

Poster 2-67


Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Jeremiah K Morrow, & John JB Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: worry, error-related negativity, worry induction

Recent research has strongly emphasized the role of worry (i.e., anxious apprehension) in an overactive response monitoring system, as indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN), observed across different anxiety disorders such as OCD and GAD. The Compensatory Error Monitoring Hypothesis (CEMH) suggests that worrying creates diverse cognitive demands resulting in a compromised performance that is compensated by increased transient control as opposed to a preparatory control. This ultimately leads to an enhanced ERN amplitude but similar behavioral performance relative to non-anxious individuals. Under this view, any increase in levels of state worry, like that following a worry induction, should result in an enhancement of the ERN. This study attempted to test this possibility by comparing differences in ERN amplitude before and after a five minute worry induction period that specifically targeted each individual's greatest current worries. Participants represented a full range of scores in state worry symptoms. They completed a baseline flankers task, followed by a 5 min worry induction period after which a second flankers task was completed. A state worry measure was collected after each task. Results indicated that increases in reported worry from baseline are associated with a significant enhancement in ERN amplitudes post worry induction relative to baseline but only in females. The results support to the CEMH and also recent research suggesting a sex difference the relationship between worry and response monitoring systems.

This work was supported in part by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (2011097808).

Poster 2-68


Clemens HW Janssen1, Kay-Uwe Hanusch2, & John JB Allen1 1University of Arizona, 2University of Applied Sciences, Hochschule Fresenius

Descriptors: psychophysiology, emotion, frontal asymmetry

Research has identified a left frontal cortical hypoactivation in individuals suffering from depression. Treatments targeting activation of the left hemisphere are of scientific and clinical interest. Unilateral interventions have been shown to activate either the right or the left frontal region (measured with EEG) when applied on the same side (Dimond et al., 1976) or contralateral (Harmon-Jones et al., 2010). In our study, we examined the effects of a unilaterally applied massage on either the right or the left side of the body and assessed resulting changes in frontal alpha-power and state emotion (PANAS). A bilateral massage served as a control condition. Twelve healthy volunteers with no history of mental illness were randomized to receive either a unilateral massage (left or right side) or a bilateral massage. Resting EEG was recorded for 8 minutes prior and post massage intervention with a specific pattern of eyes open and eyes closed. We expected to find a contralateral effect on EEG alpha power, where the right unilateral massage group shows relatively decreased left frontal alpha power. We also expected post-PANAS scores to reflect the asymmetrical activation, showing decrease in negative affect in the right massage group. Our results suggest a decreased left frontal alpha power in the bilateral condition and increases of right frontal alpha power in the two unilateral conditions post massage. Post negative affect scores were also lower in all conditions. The results of this pilot study suggest that massage has potential as a noninvasive clinical treatment.

Funding was provided from HB Holdings GmbH, a Consulting Company based in Germany.

Poster 2-69


J. L Sanguinetti1, Ezra E Smith1, William J Tyler2, Stuart Hameroff1, & John JB Allen1 University of Arizona, 2Thync, Inc.

Descriptors: neurostimulation, mood, neurotherapy

Recent research showed that noninvasive transcranial ultrasound (TUS) improved mood in chronic pain patients and healthy controls using a clinical imaging ultrasound device. Two experiments with healthy participants using a prototype ultrasound device specifically designed for brain stimulation (U+, Thync, LLC) are described. In experiment 1 (n = 157), two locations were targeted (right fronto-temporal cortex at FT8, or vertex), using three waveforms (A: 30 seconds, higher-intensity; B: 10minutes, lower-intensity; or sham). EKG data and mood data with the Visual Analogue Mood Scales were collected from baseline and three time points after stimulation (10,20, and 30 minutes). An interaction between location, waveform and time (p < .05) revealed that relative to baseline, participants reported increased mood after right fronto-temporal stimulation with waveform A only; no effects were found for waveform B, the vertex location, or for sham. No resting physiological effects of TUS were detected (i.e., HRV). Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested the three waveforms (A, B and sham) at a left fronto-temporal location (FT7). Based on experiment 1, it was predicted that waveform A would affect mood. Consistent with a priori predictions, waveform A caused a significant improvement in mood relative to baseline at 30 minutes post stimulation (p < .05), and unexpectedly waveform B caused a significant decrease 10 minutes after (p < .05); once again, there was no change for placebo. These experiments suggest that TUS can affect mental states and could be used to improve mental health.

Thync, Inc.

Poster 2-70


Michael R Medrano, Ezra E Smith, Marc Casillas, & John JB Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: implicit attitudes, prejudice, response-conflict

This study examined whether conflict-related brain electrical activity is sensitive to participants' implicit racial attitudes. The Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT) has been used extensively to assess racial and other bias implicitly, and is thought to depend on response conflict when stereotypically incongruent descriptors are paired with race category judgments. The slowed reaction time observed in the IAT to stereotypically incongruent pairing has been hypothesized to represent response conflict; this suggests that neural performancemonitoring systems should be sensitive to this conflict. Specifically a mid-frontal response locked negativity, of which the error-related negativity is an example, follows error commission and is also sensitive to conflicting responses. The midfrontal negativity (MFN) reflects an automatic response-monitoring system that signals a need to exert greater cognitive control in choice tasks. In this study, participants completed a race IAT, associating racially stereotypical names and negative or positive polarity words with "European American" and "African American" categories with alternating qualifier of "pleasant" or "unpleasant." Results indicate that a larger MFN occurs in racial stereotypically incongruent conditions: "European American - Unpleasant" and "African American - Pleasant." These results suggest that automatic processes indexed by the MFN are sensitive to response conflict created by implicit prejudice. The findings suggest the promise of using the MFN in future studies of implicit attitudes and prejudice.

Poster 2-71


Maria Carmen Pastor1, Margaret M Bradley2, Maimu A Rehbein3, Markus Junghöfer3, Nasryn El-Hinnawi2, & Peter J Lang2 Jaume I University of Castellón, 2University of Florida, 3University of Münster

Descriptors: emotion, conditioning, neutral stimuli

The present study (University of Florida volunteers) explored single trial aversive learning when either neutral faces or neutral objects were paired with an aversive scream in order to determine whether belongingness facilitates implicit learning. One group of participants (n = 24) viewed neutral faces as CSs, whereas another group (n = 29) was presented neutral objects. In each group, 12 different neutral faces or objects were paired only once with an aversive human scream, whereas 12 other stimuli (CS-) were never paired with the scream. Contrary to expectation, post-experimental reports of contingency (d') indicated better reports of which stimuli were paired with a scream when neutral objects served as CS+, compared to faces. On the other hand, and consistent with previous data, electrodermal CS+/CS- differentiation during extinction was evident when the CS+/UCS contingency was noted, regardless of whether CS+ stimuli were faces or objects. Taken together, the data suggest that belongingness does not facilitate single trial learning, possibly because of greater similarity among the neutral faces, compared to objects. More generally, the data indicate that single trial pairing can be

effective in prompting physiological reactions consistent with aversive learning only if the contingency between CS+ and its pairing with a UCS is detected.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) MH098078; European Union Program FP7 (Marie Curie Actions)- PEOPLE-IRSES-2010-269273-EMOLEARN.

Poster 2-72


L. Forest Gruss, & Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: COMT polymorphism, fear conditioning, steady-state visual evoked potentials

Fear learning in humans can be studied in the laboratory using classical aversive conditioning. In this study, we implemented an instructed, differential conditioning paradigm in which we sought to explore how genetic variability mediates inter-individual differences in fear responding across visual cortex and reflex physiology. Participants were genotyped (n = 85) for several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to brain plasticity, one of which being the COMT val158met polymorphism. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) regulates dopa-mine availability in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an integral part of the fear-learning network. The Val allele is associated with 40% higher enzymatic activity of COMT than the Met allele, implicating greater control of dopamine in the PFC for nonMet carriers. Steady state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded from the scalp while participants viewed rapidly phase-reversing Gabor gratings. Following an initial habituation phase, Gabor stimuli were paired with an aversive loud noise, with orientation of the grating predicting the occurrence/ absence of the noise. Early in acquisition, only nonMet carriers showed visual cortical amplification of the grating predicting threat. These individuals also showed subsequent heart rate acceleration in the second half of the acquisition phase. Results suggest that inter-individual variability in COMT metabolism affects visual cortical discrimination of threat and safety cues as well as autonomic engagement of the fear system.

Poster 2-73


Nathan M Petro, L. Forest Gruss, Siyang Yin, Haiqing Huang, Mingzhou Ding, &

Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: conditioning, attention

Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have indicated that the visual cortical responses evoked by affectively engaging compared to emotionally neutral stimuli are amplified, a process thought to be mediated by re-entrant projections from anterior structures, cortical and sub-cortical. Testing this hypothesis in human observers requires measures of neural communication that possess high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we collected blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) data simultaneously with EEG data during a classical conditioning paradigm in which the orientation of grating stimuli (the conditioned stimuli, CS) predicted the presence/absence of a cutaneous electric shock (i.e., the unconditioned stimulus). Gratings were phase-reversed for a duration of five seconds, at a fixed rate (10/sec), evoking steady-state visual evoked brain potentials (ssVEP). In addition to considering the ssVEP and fMRI data separately, electrophysiological indices of single-trial visual engagement were extracted from ssVEP data and used as regressors on BOLD activation in a general linear model. Preliminary analyses suggest that in CS+ compared to CS- trials, BOLD activation was greater in bilateral occipital gyri, left insula, and bilateral cerebellum. This was paralleled by occipital ssVEP power. Integrative analyses of ssVEP and BOLD indicate that occipital amplification is related to a widespread network of structures. Future analyses will focus on changes in connectivity among these structures as observers acquire and extinguish defensive responses.

Poster 2-74



Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, & Peter J Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: emotion, anticipation, fMRI

Previous research has shown similar patterns of blink startle reflex modulation during emotional anticipation and emotional imagery, suggesting that parallel processes might be involved. In this study, we assessed whether there is an overlap in the brain regions involved in emotional anticipation and imagery in a within-subjects design. In one block of trials, participants anticipated viewing pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures that were each cued by different 6-second colored squares. In a second phase, the same participants read short narrative descriptions of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant scenes and imagined participating in the situations described. Regional brain activation during these tasks was

measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During emotional (relative to neutral) picture anticipation, increased activation was measured in brain areas that are also active during emotional imagery, including the supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG); further, pleasant anticipation specifically elicited medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens activity, similar to pleasant imagery. Of these regions, the IFG may be particularly critical to a process of elaboration that is involved in emotional imagery; in the current study, IFG activation during anticipation was correlated with activity in this region during imagery. Overall, these data are consistent with a hypothesis that emotional anticipation induces spontaneous mental imagery.

Poster 2-75


Robert R Henderson, Margaret M Bradley, & Peter J Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: emotion, pupil, skin conductance

During affective picture viewing, the skin conductance response and pupil diameter are modulated by emotional arousal, with both possibly reflecting activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. While these patterns are reliably evident when analyzing group data, the amplitude of skin conductance change can vary dramatically across individuals, with some proportion of individuals in any group failing to show any electro-dermal reactivity at all ('non-responders'). In this study, we investigated whether pupil diameter can be used as an index of sympathetic activity in individuals who do not exhibit skin conductance responses. Erotic, violent and neutral pictures were presented during free viewing while skin conductance and pupil diameter were continuously recorded. Results replicated previous findings of enhanced skin conductance and pupil diameter when viewing emotionally arousing, relative to neutral, pictures. Substantial variability existed in the amplitude of skin conductance responses between participants, with about a quarter of the sample designated as non-responders. Nonetheless, pupil diameter was significantly enhanced when viewing emotionally arousing, compared to neutral, pictures for both electrodermal responders as well as non-responders, suggesting that pupil diameter may be a useful measure of sympathetic activation during emotional processing.

Poster 2-76


Inkyung Song, Kana Maeji, & Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: steady-state visual evoked potentials, visual attention, contrast-response function

The mammalian visual system prioritizes task-relevant stimuli at low levels of processing. For example, the contrast-response function (an observer's behavioral sensitivity to contrast changes) is affected by instructions in attention tasks. The present study addressed the question how attention affects the electrophysiological contrast sensitivity of neurons at low levels of the visual hierarchy as indexed by steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs). Participants viewed a visual cue, a circle or a square, followed by a target compound stimulus (6 s) consisting of a contrast-increasing Gabor patch stream at the center flickering at 15 Hz and four isoluminant squares on the periphery flickering at 20 Hz. Based on the initial cue, participants were instructed either to detect the size change of one square or to discriminate the orientation of Gabor patches. Preliminary data suggest that attention effects (i.e., greater ssVEP amplitudes for attended than unattended stimuli) emerged for both foveal and parafoveal stimuli. In terms of contrast-dependent amplification in lower-tier visual areas, the power of Gabor-evoked 15 Hz-ssVEPs of intermediate (2~4 s) and high contrast viewing epochs (4~6 s) corresponded to physical stimulus contrast. Attention did not interact with contrast, supporting an additive gain model. For isoluminant squares, power did not differ across contrasts, indicating that competition with high-contrast stimuli did not affect the peripheral targets. These findings suggest that attention additively increases neural population activity under competition.

This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants R01 MH084932-02 and R01 MH097320 awarded to A.K.

Poster 2-77


Ford Dyke1, Maurice M Godwin1, Paras Goel1, Jared Rehm1, Jeremy C Rietschel2, Carly A Hunt3, & Matthew W Miller1 1Auburn University, 2Veterans' Health Administration, 3University of Maryland

Descriptors: motor performance, cognitive processes, electroencephalography Novice motor performance is accompanied by verbal-analytic processes during motor preparation. These processes may be associated with novices' best performances as such processes may facilitate undeveloped motor procedures. Specifically, novices may benefit

from verbal analysis of available instructions for proper task execution. Additionally, novices' best performances may be associated with using working memory to maintain and retrieve instructions during motor preparation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed verbal-analytic and working memory processes during novice golfers' motorpreparation for their best putts. Specifically, 14 novice golfers received proper putting instructions before executing 25 putts to a target. To assess verbal-analytic and working memory processes during motor preparation, EEG was recorded, and EEG spectral power as well as coherence was calculated across the 4 s prior to putt execution. Spectral power and coherence during motor preparation for the five most accurate putts was contrasted with that for the five least. Results revealed marked power in the theta frequency bandwidth across the scalp topography for the best putts relative to the worst (p = .01, p2 = .44), and considerable power in the low-beta frequency bandwidth at the left temporal region for the best compared to the worst (p < .01, p2 = .254). As theta power is associated with working memory and low-beta power at the left temporal region with verbal analysis, results support the hypothesis that these cognitive processes are associated with novices' best motor performances.

Poster 2-78


Jolie B Wormwood1, Anna Neumann1, Spencer Lynn1, Lisa Feldman Barrett12, & Karen Quigley1 1Northeastern University, 2Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: arousal, threat perception, affect

The relationship between negative arousal and threat perception was investigated across three experiments. Threat perception was assessed using a Shooter Bias Task wherein participants attempted to "shoot" targets holding guns and "not shoot" targets holding everyday objects (e.g., a wallet) as they appeared on their computer screen. In the first experiment, participants who listened to negative, high arousal music demonstrated significantly reduced sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish threats from non-threats) compared to participants in a control condition. In a second experiment, the relationship between arousal and threat perception sensitivity was shown to be moderated by participants' expectations about whether the music would influence their mood. Increases in self-reported arousal and electrodermal activity during the music listening phase of the experiment significantly predicted reduced sensitivity in the subsequent threat perception task, but only in the condition where the music was not expected to influence mood or arousal. Finally, in a third experiment, we assessed whether heightened negative arousal caused by exposure to a real-world threat (the Boston Marathon bombings) predicted reduced threat perception sensitivity among members of the affected community near the first anniversary of the event. An affect-potentiated startle task was utilized to assess event-specific physiological arousal by measuring differences in the amplitude of the startle blink reflex while viewing images of the bombings and while viewing neutral images.

This research was funded by the National Science Foundation and by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (contract number W5J9CQ-11-R-0017). The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this poster are those of the authors and shall not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documents.

Poster 2-79


Jolie B Wormwood1, Erika H Siegel1, Justin Kopec1, Lauren Sears1, Karen Quigley1,2, & Lisa Feldman Barrett1,3 1Northeastern University, 2Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial (Bedford) VA Hospital, 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: affective reactivity, individual differences, emotion

In this study, we explored stable individual differences in affective reactivity, or the intensity and variability of a person's emotional responses. We measured self-reported and physiological reactivity to a wide variety of evocative stimuli and across different experimental contexts. Participants completed a startle habituation paradigm, a picture and sound rating task, a social stress task (mental math), and questionnaires designed to assess individual differences in affective experience and bodily sensations. Consistent with our hypothesis, affective reactivity within individuals correlated well across tasks and measures. For example, larger amplitude startle blink reflex in response to an auditory startle probe was related to: (1) greater self-reported arousal and faster respiration rate during high-arousal stimuli in the picture and sound rating task; (2) decreased heart rate and more self-reported displeasure during negative, high-arousal stimuli in the picture and sound rating task; (3) greater perceived stress and reduced parasympathetic withdrawal (assessed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia) during the mental math task; and (4) greater self-reported emotional reactivity (assessed via questionnaire). Interestingly, the degree of habituation to repeated aversive stimuli also appeared be stable across tasks and to be independent from reactivity to initial presentations of aversive stimuli, suggesting that there may be an important temporal component of affective reactivity with unique predictive validity.

This research was funded by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (contract number W5J9CQ-11-R-0017). The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this poster are those of the authors and shall not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documents.

Poster 2-80


Douglas J Angus, James AJ Heathers, & Marc de Rosnay University of Sydney

Descriptors: heart rate variability, wavelet, emotion

Seminal research indicated that "short circuiting" the appraisal of emotional stimuli causes reductions in autonomic arousal. The effect of these manipulations on heart rate variability (HRV), however, is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of "short circuited" appraisals on HRV and heart period (HP) reactivity. Adult participants viewed mildly evocative films, each preceded and followed by a 20-second rest period. Prior to each pre-film period, half of the participants received information about the content of the forthcoming film. HRV was quantified using a time-domain method (RMSSD) and a time-frequency method (continuous wavelet transform; CWT). The instantaneous power of the CWT between respiratory frequencies (0.15-0.40 Hz) was used as an estimate of high frequency HRV (HF-HRV). Results indicate that providing information about emotional stimuli affected HP, RMSSD, and HF-HRV reactivity. Participants who received information showed higher deltaHP relative to those who did not, and these differences were strongest during pre-film periods. Participants who did not receive information had lower overall deltalnRMSSD relative to those who did. These effects appear to be transient, occurring only in the pre-film periods of two films, and post-film period of another. Similar transient effects were observed for deltalnHF-HRV, although there was no longer an overall group difference. These findings suggest that knowing the content of forthcoming stimuli contributes to relative increases in HRV, but this effect is stimuli specific with a rapid time-course.

D.J Angus and J.A.J Heathers were both supported by Australian Postgraduate Awards.

Poster 2-81


Laura Saad1, Erik M Benau2, Laura C DeLoretta1, & Stephen T Moelter1 1University of the Sciences, 2University of Kansas

Descriptors: attentional blink, blink magnitude, cognition

The attentional blink (AB) is a reduced ability to identify the second of two targets (i.e., T1 & T2) presented in rapid succession. We tested the hypothesis that increased brain elec-trophysiological response to T1, as measured by P300 amplitude, is associated with increased AB magnitude. Event-related potentials and behavioral performances were collected from 22 participants using a task designed to elicit the AB. On each trial, participants observed 20 rapidly presented visual stimuli (90 ms per stimulus) with the first target (T1) always being the fifth stimulus and the second target (T2) presented in either the sixth (lag 1-90 ms), seventh (lag 2-180 ms), eighth (lag 3-270 ms), or thirteenth (lag 8-720 ms) position. Behavioral blink magnitude was calculated as the average of lags 2 and 3 (M = 22.17 ± 15.23) and lags 1 and 8 (M = 7.77 ± 13.36). An ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between lag position and accuracy, F (1, 21) = 9.7, p < 0.01. Our hypothesis that AB magnitude is positively associated with T1 amplitude was partially supported by a trend level relationship, r = .28, p = 0.11 (one-tailed). This analysis offers preliminary support for the resource allocation hypothesis. Participants that allocate more attention resources to T1 (demonstrated by higher P3 amplitudes) are more likely to show a lapse in cognitive processing at lags 2 and 3.

Poster 2-82


Laura C DeLoretta1, Erik M Benau2, Laura Saad1, & Stephen T Moelter1 1University of the Sciences, 2University of Kansas

Descriptors: time perception, hemispheric differences, contingent negative variation The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a brain electrophysiological potential associated with time perception. The study tested the priority of the right hemisphere for comparing the duration of a visual target to a memorized standard. Eleven undergraduates memorized the duration of a two-second standard stimulus and compared it to one of five probe durations: 1.25 s, 1.6 s, 2 s, 2.5 s, 3.125 s. The study included 300 trials with 60 from each of the five probe durations. Participants pressed a button to indicate if the probe did or did not match the standard. We hypothesized a negative slope preceding the standard duration and a decrease in negativity (positive slope) after the standard duration, especially in the right hemisphere. Our results showed that subjects accurately identified the standard and rejected long duration probes. One-sample Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests showed significant negative slopes before 2 s for 2 s, 2.5 s and 3.125 s probes at right hemisphere electrode, C4, (p < .05), but not left hemisphere electrode, C3 (p > .1). The slopes after 2 s were significant only in the right hemisphere and only for the 2 s probe (p < .05). The 2.5 s and 3.125 s probes did not show a significant positive slope at electrode C4 (p > .05). The non-significant return to baseline for the long duration probes suggests that the right hemisphere continued to monitor the duration of the probe rather than the memorized duration.

Poster 2-83


Aline F Bastos, André V Santos, José M Oliveira, Fatima S Erthal, & Eliane Volchan Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Descriptors: posturography, defensive responses, electrocardiography Urban violence, including armed robbery, increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Here we investigate motor and cardiac defensive predispositions to exposure of scenes of violence. Stimuli were 16 pictures depicting a man carrying a gun. To simulate a threatening situation with a possible escape route, the gun was pointing everywhere else aside from the observer. Matched control pictures depicted very similar layouts, but a non-lethal object was carried. To increase the realism of the scenes, pictures were selected and/or produced to match the participants' country biotypes. Pictures were presented in blocks (3 s each, 48 s total). Posturographic and electrocardiographic recordings were collected while participants (N = 70, 35 women) passively viewed the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated the degree of perceived threat. The majority of the sample (83%) had experienced at least one event of violent crime. Analysis revealed significant increases in amplitude of body sway for gun pictures compared to control ones. Also, the area of body sway during exposure to gun pictures was positively correlated with scores of perceived threat. There was no difference in the heart rate between conditions. The results suggest that in a healthy, urban sample, realistic pictures portraying conspecific threats were relevant and strong enough to evoke mobilization beyond attentive immobility, indicating a possible predisposition toward an active escape response.


Poster 2-84


Carlos Norte1, Eliane Volchan1, Jaime Vila2, Ivan Figueira1, & Gabriela Souza3

1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2University of Granada, 3Federal University of

Ouro Preto

Descriptors: tonic immobility, heart rate, acoustic stimulus

Tonic immobility is elicited when survival is extremely threatened. This fright reaction is linked to the severity of the most disruptive sequelae of trauma exposure - the posttrau-matic stress disorder (PTSD). Restricted body sway in parallel with accelerated heart rate, under exposure to trauma cues, were shown to be biological markers of tonic immobility in humans (Volchan et al, 2011). Here we tested if reports of tonic immobility predict cardiac reaction to intense acoustic stimulus. Following autobiographical trauma script presentation, tonic immobility report was assessed. About 30min later, an acoustic stimulus (105 dB, 500 ms) was delivered. Electrocardiogram was recorded. Patients (n = 21) with PTSD and matched trauma-exposed controls (n = 15) were tested. Both groups showed initial heart rate acceleration to the acoustic stimulus. Controls returned to basal levels about 20 s after stimulation. PTSD patients sustained the response, returning to basal at about 60 s after stimulation. More importantly, in patients, there was a positive correlation between reports of tonic immobility and heart rate acceleration in response to the acoustic stimulus. Patients who reported higher scores of tonic immobility to trauma script showed higher heart rates to the acoustic stimulus. This finding extends the body of evidence arguing that accelerated heart rate in response to aversive stimuli may be a putative candidate for a cardiac marker of peritraumatic tonic immobility in humans.

This work was supported by FAPERJ, CNPq and CAPES.

Poster 2-85


LaBarron K Hill1, John J Sollers III2, Christopher L Edwards1, Julian F Thayer3, & Keith E Whitfield4

1Duke University Medical Center, 2The University of Auckland, 3The Ohio State University, 4Duke University

Descriptors: total peripheral resistance, heritability, African Americans Chronically elevated total peripheral resistance (TPR) is a suspected contributor to the greater rates of hypertension in African Americans. Previous research suggests that over 50% of the variability in TPR may be attributable to genetic effects and genetic effects may play an even greater role in variability of TPR in African Americans. However, despite its noted importance and clinical relevance, obtaining reliable estimates of TPR remains a complex and costly endeavor, primarily due to the necessity for sophisticated instrumentation as well as associated limitations in deriving cardiac output (CO). In the present study we sought to provide validation for a computationally-derived estimate of TPR (TPRest) using quantitative genetic analysis. Heritabilites were calculated for TPRest during both a resting baseline and orthostasis in a population-based sample of African American mono- and dizygotic twins (mean age = 49.82 ± 14.62) from the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA). Results indicated that there was no relative genetic contribution to TPRest in females. Heritability of TPRest was 46%

and 40%, respectively for baseline and orthostasis in males. These values are consistent with published point estimates of heritability obtained using more validated methods. Collectively, these findings provide support for the validity of TPRest which may be especially useful as a means of extending the capacity of older, large-scale datasets to explore potential predictors and correlates of basal hemodynamic functioning in African Americans.

CAATSA was funded by a grant from the National Institute onAging (1R01-AG13662-01A2) to K.E.W. Research conducted by L.K.H was supported by National Institute of Aging grant (5T32AG000029-37).

Poster 2-86


Cassandra L Baldwin, Kendra L Miller, & Aurora Torres The University of Alabama in Huntsville

Descriptors: arousal, cardiovascular reactivity

Previous research has expounded the effects of music on emotional pleasantness and arousal in response to images after a music prime and the physiological effects of music on discrete emotional responses to concurrent pictures. We examined the physiological and emotional effects of music on responses to unpleasant images obtained from a recently developed picture archive. The study contained a 2 x 2 x 2 (Audio: beep, music by Visual: fixation cross, image by Sex: (male, female) within subjects design with a 2 x 2 (Music Arousal: high, low by MusicValence: pleasant, unpleasant) nested within the Music factor. Undergraduates (7 men, 8 women) were presented with audiovisual stimuli and instructed to rate subjective arousal and pleasantness. Changes in pulse amplitude from baseline and after presentation of pictures were employed physiological measures. For arousal ratings, main effects for MusicArousal and MusicPleasantness were found. Interactions were also found between MusicArousal and Visual and also between MusicPleasantness and Visual. Trends were found for pulse amplitude change scores from images and from baseline. Low arousal music may attenuate responses to concurrent unpleasant pictures. Furthermore, concurrent images and music may be more subjectively arousing than music presented alone, and pleasantness may differentially mediate arousal garnered from highly arousing music on emotional responses to unpleasant pictures; unpleasant music may lead to lower subjective arousal than pleasant music.

Poster 2-87


Rachel L Bailey1, & Annie Lang2 1Washington State University, 2Indiana University

Descriptors: food cues, biological imperative, motivation

Eating food allows us to meet our biological imperatives. Thus, encountering food automatically encourages us to eat. Further, evidence suggests that the hedonic response to food functions over and above the homeostatic, indicating that food intake is rewarding and can be influenced by environmental cues (i.e. how good it looks, smells, tastes). This study investigated how the directness of these cues- how ready-to-eat food appears- in packaging and in food ads influences the biological imperative response to approach food product images. Further, the influence of abdominal adiposity and environmental food cues during exposure to these food cues were examined. In general, results supported that directness of food cues increases motivational activation. Food products with more direct cues elicited the greatest skin conductance level, especially after they were advertised looking ready-to-be-eaten. Further, abdominal adiposity (analyzed according to risk for obesity related diseases) and presence of food during exposure influenced response. Low risk individuals had very similar arousal responses regardless of whether real food was in the room. High-risk individuals showed opposite patterns: immediate increases after food image exposure when food was already present, and delayed but more intense increases when food was not present. The high-risk group also showed the greatest arousal during exposure to the most direct food cues, especially when food wasn't already in the room and the food products had been advertised looking ready-to-eat earlier in the protocol.

Poster 2-88


Qing Liu, Renlai Zhou, & Weigang Chen Beijing Normal University

Descriptors: stress, TSST, virtual reality

This study explored the efficacy of the Trier Social Stress Test in a virtual reality environment (VR-TSST) as compared to an active control group (placebo). The results showed that

compared to the active control, the stress group's electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) significantly increased in the virtual reality environment which suggests the validity of VR-TSST as a standard social stress assessment. Compared to female participants, the male participants showed higher neuroticism scores and greater EDA in resting states, which indicates vulnerability to stress; the subjective stress reports of male participants were also higher and HR variability was greater in the posttest, suggesting that men's resilience to stress may be worse than women's. The correlations of subjective and objective stress indices suggested that individuals who had smaller HRV at the pretest and lower EDA at the posttest would have shorter reaction time on the 0-back task, while those who had smaller HRV at the resting state would have higher accuracy on the 3-back task. In other words, vulnerability to stress is more related to the accuracy of complex cognitive tasks like WM task with high workload, whereas resilience to stress relates to reaction time in simple cognitive tasks like WM task with low workload. We concluded that VR-TSST could be an effective elicitor of stress reactivity. Differences in men's and women's vulnerability and resilience to stress may be the outcome of fluctuation of hormones across females' menstrual cycle.

Funded by the National Basic Research Program of China (No2011CB505101) and the key lab open project of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (2011-SYSKFKT03), as well as the Shangshan funding.

Poster 2-89


Kelly L Arnold, Mary A Ford, Ursula Goldstein, & Aurora Torres The University of Alabama in Huntsville

Descriptors: cognitive appraisal, stereotype boost/threat, verbal reasoning We wanted to see if stereotype threat/boost would affect cognitive appraisal, physiological stress response, and performance on a verbal reasoning task. We also wished to see if personality traits could moderate the effects of stereotype threat/boost. After assessing personality using the BFI (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991), we exposed participants to a stereotype boost, threat, or neutral speech based on selected college major and then asked them to complete a challenging 4 x 4 logic puzzle. Stress appraisal was measured through self-report likert scales. Physiological stress was measured by pulse wave amplitude as recorded by BioPac equipment. Performance was measured by counting correctly marked grid boxes. We predicted that participants exposed to stereotype threat would be more likely to appraise the task as "threatening" (Sawyer & Hollis-Sawyer, 2005), display a greater physiological stress response (Schmader & Croft, 2011), and perform more poorly (Berjot, Roland-Levy, & Girault-Lidvan, 2011) than participants exposed to stereotype boost or neutral speech conditions. The design of the study was a one way (Pre-Test Speech: Stereotype Threat, Stereotype Boost, Neutral Speech) between subjects design with personality traits used as potential covariates. Preliminary data shows trends in that participants under stereotype threat perform best, but have the lowest confidence in their performance. They also tend to have an increased cardiovascular response during the task. There are also trends between sex, race, and performance with caucasian males tending to perform best.

Poster 2-90


Maisy Best, Heike Elchlepp, & Frederick Verbruggen University of Exeter

Descriptors: response inhibition, learning

Response inhibition has typically been assumed to reflect a top-down act of executive control. More recently, however, it has been demonstrated that following exposure to consistent stimulus-stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatised with practice (Verbruggen & Logan, 2008). Consistent with this idea, psychophysiological research has shown that auditory-evoked potentials to nogo stimuli consistently associated with stopping are modulated ~80 ms after presentation (Manuel et al., 2010). In the present experiment, we further investigate this early modulation using an auditory go/nogo task in which the go/nogo rule was reversed following training. On each trial, an auditory stimulus was presented to the left or right ear. In the 'training' phase subjects were exposed to a consistent go/nogo rule (e.g. go = left; nogo = right). This rule was reversed in the 'test' phase (e.g. go = right; nogo = left). We recorded brain potentials in both the training and test phases. Behavioural results showed that performance improved during training; at test, changing the rule produced a small cost. Analysis of event-related potentials suggests that the early modulation of event-related potentials within ~100ms of nogo stimulus presentation reflects associatively-mediated perceptual processes involved in the detection of the nogo stimulus rather than the automatic suppression of responses.

Economic and Social Research Council, European Research Council (ERC).

Poster 2-91


Stephanie M Gorka, Ashley A Huggins, Daniel A Fitzgerald, Brady D Nelson, K Luan Phan, & Stewart A Shankman University of Illinois at Chicago

Descriptors: depression, reward anticipation, panic disorder

One of the hallmark features of major depressive disorder (MDD) is reduced reward anticipation. There have been mixed findings as to whether reward anticipation deficits in MDD are related to diminished mesolimbic activation and/or enhanced dorsal anterior cingulate activation (dACC). One of the reasons for these mixed findings is that studies have typically not addressed the role of comorbid anxiety, a class of disorders which frequently co-occur with depression and have a common neurobiology. The aim of the study was to examine group differences in neural responses to reward anticipation in 40 adults with: 1) current MDD with no lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (MDD-only), 2) current MDD with comorbid panic disorder (MDD-PD), or 3) no lifetime diagnosis of psychopathology. Participants completed a passive slot machine task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. MRI data were acquired using a 3T GE Signa MR scanner (TR = 2 s, TE = 25 ms, FA = 90, Matrix = 64 x 64, FOV = 20 x 20 cm2). Analyses were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM8). There were no group differences in activation of mesolimbic regions; however, the MDD-only group exhibited greater dACC activation during the anticipation of rewards compared with the controls and the comorbid MDD-PD group (who did not differ from each other). These findings provide support for the role of hyperactive dACC functioning in reduced reward anticipation in MDD. They also indicate that comorbid anxiety may moderate the association between MDD and neural responding to reward anticipation.

poster session iii

_FRIDAY, september 12 22h_

Poster 3-1


Greg Perlman1, Catherine R Glenn2, Roman Kotov1, & Greg Hajcak Proudfit1 1Stony Brook University, 2Harvard University

Descriptors: startle, anxiety, depression

Research on children and adults has shown that emotional disorders cluster within a hierarchical model. This model is characterized by a superordinate internalizing dimension and lower order dimensions such as Fear (e.g., Phobia) and Distress (e.g., Major Depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, etc). This fundamental structure largely accounts for the comorbidity among anxiety and mood disorders. Exaggerated fear potentiated startle (FPS) is perhaps the most validated biological marker for emotional disorders, especially those typically ascribed to the Fear dimension. However, it is not clear whether FPS represents a non-specific correlate of internalizing broadly, or a specific correlate the Fear dimension. Thus, in this study, we used structural equation modeling to locate FPS within the hierarchical internalizing structure using data collected on an outpatient sample enriched for emotional disorders (N = 138). Diagnostic data was collected using a semi-structured clinical interview. FPS was operationalized as startle magnitude during aversive images relative to startle magnitude during inter-trial interval. We found that FPS was positively correlated with overall internalizing (r = 0.30, p = 0.03). More specificity was gained by examining the lower order structure. There we found the Fear dimension (r = 0.38, p = 0.01), but not the Distress dimension (r = —0.16, ns), was associated with exaggerated FPS. Implications for biomarker research and psychiatric classification will be discussed.

Poster 3-2


Elizabeth T Comitz, & Terry D Blumenthal Wake Forest University

Descriptors: startle, accessory stimulus effect, flanker task

Does a loud sound improve or impair task performance? The present study assessed the role of acoustic startle stimuli during a flanker task on the acoustic startle eyeblink response and flanker task response time. Participants were shown a flanker task ("In a row of 5 arrows, is the center arrow pointing left or right?"), with a startle stimulus (100 dB broadband noise, 50 ms duration) presented 200 milliseconds before or after the arrows on some trials. Button press reaction time for the flanker task, and eyeblink EMG for the startle response, were measured. When the flanker task stimuli were presented 200 ms before the startle stimulus, those flanker task stimuli acted as prepulses and inhibited the startle response. However, in that same condition, the presence of the startle stimulus sped flanker task reaction time, relative to the flanker task condition without a startle stimulus. Both PPI of

startle and speeding of reaction time were equivalent for congruent and incongruent flanker trials, suggesting that task difficulty did not influence either effect. When the startle stimulus followed the flanker task stimuli, no effect was seen for startle responding, but again, reaction time was faster than without the startle stimulus. The inclusion of a startle stimulus either before or after the flanker task stimuli both improved task performance, in support of the accessory stimulus effect, although startle responding was inhibited in the former case but not the latter. These data suggest that a startle stimulus does not interfere with flanker task performance.

Poster 3-3



Jessica R Washington, Lisa M Manderino, Monica S Hegde, & Terry D Blumenthal Wake Forest University

Descriptors: startle, Go/NoGo task, accessory stimulus effect

Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of a startle stimulus on response inhibition in a Go/No-Go task. Participants were to press a button when shown a green (Go) circle, but not when shown a red (No-Go) circle. Startle stimuli (50 ms, 100 dB broadband noise) were presented concurrently with the circle on some trials, or alone (control trials). Measures included reaction time, accuracy, startle eyeblink EMG, and EMG activity from the thenar eminence of the responding hand (to distinguish overt errors (button press) from covert errors (significant EMG activity)). Startle stimuli sped reaction time on Go trials, and the presentation of a visual stimulus (either Go or No-Go) increased startle magnitude, both examples of an accessory stimulus effect. Although very few overt errors were made on No-Go trials, covert errors were much more common, and were increased by the presentation of a startle stimulus. In a second study, EMG activity was measured from both the responding hand and the idle hand, showing that covert errors were restricted to the responding hand. This shows that this error-related EMG response was not simply a startle response, nor was it due to general motor output or increased arousal. The increased covert error rate in the presence of a startle stimulus may be due to a partially suppressed response, failing to reach threshold for an actual button press, or to a response that was launched and then suppressed. These findings have implications for the relationship between frontal lobe inhibitory circuitry and the brain stem startle circuit.

Poster 3-4


Stacia Gessner, William Murphy, Morgan Erickson, Danielle Conforti, Ellen Gregory, Mark Poirier, & Joan McDowd University of Missouri-Kansas City

Descriptors: attention, emotion regulation, physiological response

This study investigates the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and atten-tional deployment in the processing of emotional pictures. Building on the work of Urry (2010), Bebko et al. (2011), and Sheppes et al. (2011), we examined gaze patterns and physiological responding in participants instructed to use either distraction or reappraisal to reduce the emotional impact of a series of negatively valenced IAPS pictures or to view the pictures naturally (control condition). Gaze patterns were recorded to assess attentional deployment while skin conductance and corrugator data were collected to simultaneously examine the emotional response to each picture. An instruction x picture intensity ANOVA on the gaze data revealed a significant interaction [F(2,16) = 4.18, p < .05]. Follow-up t-tests indicate that, for both high and low intensity pictures, participants spent less time viewing the emotional content of the pictures in the distraction and reappraisal conditions relative to the control condition [t(17) = 7.24, p < .01 and t(17) =-4.87, p < .01] and significantly less time viewing the emotion content in the distraction condition relative to the reappraisal condition [t(17) = -5.01, p < .01], with this pattern appearing more pronounced in the high intensity picture condition. These results suggest that reappraisal involves a more active engagement with emotional stimuli compared to distraction and that level of engagement may be affected by stimulus intensity. Results for Skin Conductance and Corrugator measures will be used to assess the effectiveness of each strategy.

Poster 3-5


Bryan D Fox1, Jared M Bruce1, Christopher T Lovelace2, & Diane L Filion1 1University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2Shepherd University

Descriptors: startle, fatigue, cognition

Clinical neuropsychologists use tests that require a complex interplay of multiple brain systems. As such, it is difficult to accurately measure isolated cognitive deficits, which may be due to reduced processing speed, fatigue, or both. In an attempt to isolate the impact of

these factors on neuropsychological measures, we investigated the use of startle eyeblink reflex latency as a measure of processing speed. Individuals with multiple sclerosis (N = 31) and healthy controls (N = 18) completed neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Startle eyeblinks were recorded in response to acoustic probes presented with visual prepulses at lead intervals of 0-200 ms. Results revealed that while groups significantly differed on fatigue and cognitive measures, baseline peak latency did not differ between groups. A Group X Prepulse Interval ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of Interval [F(5,230) = 4.05, p = .006], and cognitive functioning was negatively correlated with perceived fatigue for all participants (rho = -.273, p = .01). An exploratory stepwise regression was then conducted, using perceived cognitive fatigue as dependent variable. Demographic, clinical, and cognitive performance measures were entered into the model, along with eyeblink latency difference scores: [R = .75, R2 = .56, F(8,60) = 11.21, p < .001]. For the MS group, differences in eyeblink latency explained additional variance in cognitive fatigue (R2chg = .09, p = .02), indicating potential usefulness of startle eyeblink latency measures in examining this relationship.

Poster 3-6


Amy L Underwood1, Fernando Valle-Inclan2, & Steven A Hackley1 1University of Missouri, 2University of La Coruna

Descriptors: attention, startle, prepulse inhibition

Research using rats has shown that an auditory prepulse can suppress the pinna-flexion response to a startle stimulus in the same modality. Other interpretations of these findings (e.g., refraction) are possible. To definitively establish the existence of prepulse inhibition (PPI), three criteria must be met: suppression must be observed when the prepulse is too weak to elicit a measurable response itself, variation as a function of lead time must conform to the classic, non-monotonic pattern, and suppression must be observed cross-modally. We tested for cross-modal inhibition using large, high-contrast checkerboards as prestimuli and trains of six, white-noise bursts (30 ms, 110 dB) as eliciting stimuli. An oddball paradigm was used in which participants counted pink checkerboards among more frequent red ones. The postauricular reflex was recorded from behind both ears. On control trials in which startle stimuli were omitted, the visual stimulus elicited a very brief but pronounced pause in tonic muscle activity. Based on Stekelenburg and Van Boxtel (2003, Psychophysiology, 2003, 39: 707-729), we interpret this as a vestigial orienting response. In order for our simian ancestors to point their ears forward, the posterior auricular muscles would need to be relaxed. We observed little inhibition of the PAR itself. These findings highlight the possibility that PPI of blink and suppression of pinna retraction may both have evolved to support exogenous attention.

Poster 3-7


Ren Xi1, Fernando Valle-Inclan2, & Steven A Hackley1 1University of Missouri, 2University of La Coruna

Descriptors: postauricular reflex, attention, automaticity

According to a widely held view, the human mind works in two ways, automatic and controlled. The defining difference between these two systems is whether the mental process in question benefits from attentional resources or not. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether an extremely automatic response, the post-auricular reflex (PAR), could benefit from attention. The PAR is the fastest human exteroceptive response (9-10 ms latency) and, based on the Lopez model of the pinna-flexion response in rats (Horta-Junior et al., 2008, J. Comp. Neurology, 507: 1763-1779), it is likely to be mediated by parallel di- and tri-synaptic reflex arcs. In the present study, temporal attention was manipulated by comparing trials with or without a visual warning signal (a large, white square; duration = 1000 ms, lead time = 1000 ms). If the PAR is completely automatic, this warning signal should have no effect on reflexes elicited by the auditory stimuli, a train of six white-noise bursts (intensity = 90 dB, duration = 50 ms, onset asynchrony = 100 ms). Otherwise, the PAR should be speeded or enlarged by anticipatory attention. The electro-myography (EMG) results from 33 college students showed that the response to the first white-noise burst was unaffected by the warning signal, but amplitude of Responses 2-6 was significantly reduced, partly due to a baseline shift. We conclude that the primary response of this brain stem reflex is, indeed, fully automatic. Later activity may be altered by the diversion of attentional resources to the visual modality.

Poster 3-8


Olga Rapoport1, Terry D Blumenthal2, Hartmut Schachinger1, Angelika M Dierolf1, & Ewald Naumann1 1University of Trier, 2Wake Forest University

Descriptors: acoustic startle response, prepulse inhibition, event-related potentials The acoustic startle response can be decreased by a prepulse occurring 30-500 msec earlier. This prepulse inhibition (PPI) may be understood in terms of the Interruption and

Protection hypotheses (based on Graham, 1975), in which startle responding interrupts prepulse processing, and PPI is an indication of the degree to which prepulse processing is protected from that interruption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate these hypotheses by measuring both startle responding and evoked potentials (N1, P2) to both prepulse and startle stimuli. We presented multiple trials in four conditions in randomized order: startle stimulus alone (105 dB noise), prepulse alone (70 dB noise), and pre-pulse + startle stimuli with a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 120 or 500 msec. Participants (N = 25) responded with a key press to the startle sound, and 32-channel EEG and eyeblink EMG were also measured. Both the EMG startle response and N1 to the startle stimulus were decreased by a prepulse, illustrating PPI. Reaction time to the startle stimulus was fastest when a prepulse preceded the startle stimulus at 500 msec, illustrating a warning effect. N1 and P2 evoked potentials to the prepulse were not affected by the startle stimulus, suggesting a lack of interruption of prepulse processing by a startle stimulus that occurs within 200 ms of prepulse onset. This may be because, at a 120 msec SOA, a great deal of prepulse processing has already occurred before the startle stimulus is presented, and more still occurs before the startle response occurs.

Poster 3-9


Mareike J Hulsemann1, Wolfgang HR Miltner2, & Ewald Naumann1 1University of Trier, 2University of Jena

Descriptors: hypnosis, cross-frequency coupling, intraindividual correlation Despite the widely acknowledged effectiveness of hypnosis, especially in analgesia, not much is known about the neuronal mechanisms behind it. We therefore conducted an exploratory analysis, investigating whether the coupling of distinct frequency bands changed during periods of rest and trance. Cross-frequency coupling is a mechanism by which neuronal processes communicate and coordinate themselves. In a cross-over design the EEG of 14 highly suggestible subjects were continuously measured during 5 minutes of rest and 5 minutes of hypnosis. Intra-individual correlations of power density measures of all possible band-combinations were calculated, Fisher's Z-transformed, and analysed in a 9 x 3 x 2 ANOVA with the repeated factors caudality (Fp, AF, F, FC, C, CP, P, PO, O), laterality (left, central, right), and condition (hypnosis, rest). The most prominent effect was a strong increase in theta-beta coupling at frontal and frontocentral sites under hypnosis (r = .53) compared to rest (r = .30). Absolute power of theta and beta did not differ between the conditions. Additionally delta-theta and theta-gamma coupling increased under hypnosis at parietal and occipital sites. Prior to a comprehensive interpretation, the effects should be replicated. However, an increase of cross-frequency coupling under hypnosis could represent a higher degree of internally driven neuronal coordination, in contrast to a more externally driven, dissociated state of normal rest. Different patterns of coupling in the two states support the assumption of the existence of distinct states of consciousness.

Poster 3-10


Johannes B Finke, Mauro F Larra, Thomas M Schilling, & Hartmut Schachinger University of Trier

Descriptors: startle modulation, self-face, mood

While there is published evidence that your own face is of superior salience, little is known about graded effects of facial self-resemblance on startle responsiveness, and the relative contribution of affective vs. attentional processes. Pictures from the FACES database (rated as neutral) were digitally morphed to resemble the participants' (N = 29) faces to varying degrees (25-50-75%). Perceptually matched geometrical shapes served as control condition. After SOAs of either 300 ms or 3000 ms, startle responses were elicited by white noise (50 ms, 105 dB), and recorded at the orbicularis oculi via EMG. Prior to the experiment, self-reported mood was assessed by means of the PANAS. Overall, presentation of faces reduced startle magnitude, relative to control stimuli. For probes presented with a SOA of 300 ms, a linear decrease in startle magnitude with higher levels of self-resemblance was observed. The startle modulating effects of self-resembling faces during longer lead intervals was moderated by the participants' current mood: both negative affect and, inversely, positive affect predicted stronger patterns of attenuation in response to self-resembling faces. Our findings suggest that increased self-focus resulting from negative (and lack of positive) mood (but not self-esteem) moderates the effect of self-resemblance on startle under conditions of more controlled and/or affective processing. Moreover, the rapid inhibitory effects of self-resemblance on startle responsiveness found for short lead intervals provide evidence for an automatic processing bias.

Poster 3-11


Thomas M Schilling, Daniel Best, Mauro F Larra, & Hartmut Schachinger University of Trier

Descriptors: baro-afferent feedback, multisensory integration, startle Presenting pairs of unilateral stimuli from different sensory modalities at the same time and sensory hemi-field enhances - whereas presenting them at opposite sides diminishes -motor responses. Baro-afferent feedback is known to modulate psychomotor responses; however, its impact on cross-modal integration processes remains unclear. 38 participants responded by manual button push to the side of louder tone presentation (80 vs. 60 dB(A)) while simultaneous, unilateral airpuffs (10 ms, 50 psi) were applied to the ipsi- or contralateral cornea. Presentation of stimuli was locked to either increased (systole, R-wave + 230 ms) or reduced (diastole, R-wave + 530 ms) baro-afferent feedback. Button push RT and bilateral orbicularis oculi responses (EMG) were recorded. Startle eye blink was reduced in the systolic vs. the diastolic phase. Manual RT was enhanced in same- and delayed in opposite-side stimulus presentation, but the latter effect was modulated by cardiac cycle phase: RT in opposite side pairs was less delayed in the systolic as compared to the diastolic phase. No such result was found for same sided stimulus pairs. Our results indicate that visceral afferent feedback modulates the central integration of simultaneously presented exteroceptive stimuli. Baro-afferent signals may reduce the distractor effect of startle to the benefit of task-relevant psychomotor processes. Given that blood pressure and baro-afferent feedback is increased in physiological arousal, such a mechanism may foster selective psychomotor responses during danger and stress.

Poster 3-12


Daniel Best, Mauro F Larra, Thomas M Schilling, & Hartmut Schachinger University of Trier

Descriptors: cold pressor test (CPT), PASAT

Cognitive performance tasks (e.g. mental arithmetic under time pressure) as well as physical stimuli (e.g. pain or cold pressure) can trigger stress responses. In this study, we compared the physiological and subjective reactions to an arithmetic task (PASAT, "Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task"; 3 minutes) with those to a Cold Pressure Test (CPT; 3 minutes). 42 participants were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: CPT (foot version; n = 14), PASAT (n = 14), CON = control condition (n = 14). Cardiovascular data, stress ratings and saliva cortisol were assessed before, during and after the tasks, respectively. Stronger reactions of saliva cortisol, stress ratings and 0.1 Hz beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure variability (Mayer waves) were observed in response to the CPT compared with the PASAT. No significant differences were found for mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HRV, 0.15 to 0.40 Hz). These results hint at differential stress reaction profiles evoked by cognitive and physical stressors.

Poster 3-13


Mauro F Larra, Thomas M Schilling, & Hartmut Schachinger University of Trier

Descriptors: cold pressor test modification, cardiovascular, cortisol The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently used laboratory stressor. However, when applied in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water for 3 min) the CPT presents some major disadvantages. The dominant hand cannot be used for either physiological measurement (e.g. electrodermal activity) or behavioral response assessment (e.g. button push) during and shortly after the test. Furthermore, the CPT is frequently criticized as insufficient to provoke a full neuroendocrine stress response. Here, we present a simple modification of the CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water. Auto-nomic and HPA axis reactivity were compared to those in the classic CPT. On two subsequent days participants were exposed either to the classic CPT first, and then to the bilateral feet CPT (N = 12, 6 female), or vice versa (N = 12, 6 female). Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) were assessed at baseline and during as well as after the CPT. Both versions of the CPT led to significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate and sAA. Blood pressure responses were comparable, whereas heart rate and sAA reactions were significantly stronger in the feet CPT. Moreover, only the feet CPT elicited a significant increase in cortisol. Thus, the bilateral feet CPT version represents a simple and feasible alternative to the classic CPT, sufficient to provoke a full neuroendocrine stress response under lab conditions.

Poster 3-14


Nicole C Mechin1, Maggie Holland1, Josh A Hicks2, & Philip A Gable1 1The University of Alabama, 2Texas A&M University

Descriptors: approach motivation, alcohol myopia, frontal asymmetry Recent past work has demonstrated that alcohol cues cause a narrowing of attention (i.e., alcohol myopia) in the absence of alcohol consumption. Building upon recent advances regarding the attention-constricting impact of approach motivational states, we believe approach motivation to be the mechanism which narrows attentional scope to alcohol-related images. In the current study, we tested whether greater relative left frontal activation would relate to more narrowed attentional scope to alcohol pictures. Participants viewed alcohol and neutral pictures while EEG was recorded. Following each picture, attention was measured using response times to either a local or global Navon (1977) letter picture. Individual differences in self-reported approach motivation predicted faster reaction times to local targets after alcohol pictures, controlling for reaction times to local targets after neutral pictures. Greater left frontal activation to alcohol pictures also predicted faster reaction times to local targets after alcohol pictures controlling for reaction times to local targets after neutral pictures. Thus, individuals with greater left frontal activation to alcohol pictures had more narrowed attentional scope after alcohol pictures. Results suggest that approach motivation to alcohol cues may cause greater "virtual" alcohol myopia.

Poster 3-15


Brigitte S Rockstroh1, Tzvetan G Popov1, Christian Wienbruch1, Sarah Meissner1, & Gregory A Miller2 1University of Konstanz, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: schizophrenia, oscillations, Stroop

Interference control is considered a critical element of executive functions, the latter constituting a fundamental domain of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Hemody-namic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies relate interference control to activity in a network spanning prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, employing 4-7 Hz (theta) neural activity, but the mechanism of communication in this network is unclear. The present study examined performance and EEG theta oscillations in a Stroop color-word interference task in 17 healthy subjects and 14 schizophrenia patients. Results replicated theta power modulation during interference around 400 ms and 600-900 ms after item onset in anterior cingulate (ACC), left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior parietal regions. In addition, cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling indicated ACC theta-phase to MFG gamma-amplitude coupling as a mechanism implementing interference control. Both theta modulation and phase-amplitude coupling were significantly weaker in patients than in controls. Results suggest a mechanism implementing efficient interference control, with particular emphasis on communication between ACC and MFG in engagement of cognitive control over interference. This advances understanding of the process of interference control in executive function and dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Poster 3-16


Jonathan K Wynn1,2, Brian J Roach3, Junghee Lee2, William P Horan1,2, Judith M Ford3,4, Amy M Jimenez1, Katherine Weiner2, Livon Ghermezi2, & Michael F Green2,1 1VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 2University of California, Los Angeles, 3Veterans Affairs San Francisco Medical Center, 4University of California, San Francisco

Descriptors: schizophrenia, event-related potentials, visual integration Schizophrenia patients exhibit well-documented visual processing deficits. One area of disruption is visual integration, the ability to form global objects from local elements. However, most studies of visual integration have been conducted using an active attention task, which may influence the findings. In this study we examined visual integration using electroencephalography (EEG) in a passive task to elucidate neural mechanisms associated with poor visual integration. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls had EEG recorded while passively viewing figures comprised of real, illusory, or no contours. We examined visual P100, N100, and P200 event-related potential (ERP) components, as well as neural synchronization in the gamma-band range (40-60 Hz) assessed by the EEG phase locking factor (PLF). The N100 was significantly larger to illusory vs. no contour, and illusory vs. real contour stimuli in both groups. P200 was larger to real vs. illusory stimuli in both groups. Compared to controls, patients failed to show increased phase locking to illusory vs. no contours. Also, controls had larger PLF overall compared to patients when viewing real and illusory contours. Finally, positive symptom

severity was correlated with PLF values to illusory stimuli, such that more symptomatic patients had lower PLF. These results suggest that basic processing of visual integration of illusory contours is similar in patients and controls. However, patients have deficits in neural synchronization in the gamma range in the absence of any potential attentional effects.

Poster 3-17


Carol Jahshan, Jonathan K Wynn, Kristopher I Mathis, & Michael F Green VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: biological motion, electroencephalography, schizophrenia The ability to recognize biological motion is a fundamental aspect of social cognition that is impaired in schizophrenia patients (SZ). However, little is known about the neural substrates of biological motion perception in SZ. In the current study, we assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) to human and non-human movement in SZ. 24 SZ and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed a biological motion task while their EEG was recorded. Subjects watched clips of point-light walkers moving coherently (100% biological motion) or randomly (85% and 70% biological motion) and were asked to decide whether the clip resembled human or non-human movement. Three ERPs were examined: P1, N1, and the late positive potential (LPP). SZ identified significantly fewer stimuli as human movement compared to HC in the 100% and 85% conditions. At the neural level, P1 was reduced in SZ but did not differ among conditions in either group. Both groups had the largest N1 in the 70% condition. There was a condition X group interaction for the LPP: HC had a larger LPP to coherent vs. random biological motion; there was no difference among conditions in SZ. SZ were impaired in their ability to recognize biological motion. Our EEG results showed that biological motion did not influence the earliest stage of visual processing (P1). Although SZ exhibited the same pattern of N1 results relative to HC, they were impaired at a later stage (LPP), reflecting a dysfunction in the sustained attentional discrimination of biological motion vs. non-biological motion stimuli.

Poster 3-18


David A Parker1, Matthew E Hudgens-Haney1, William T Oliver1, Lauren K Hayrynen1, Justin B Knight1, Anastasia M Bobilev1, Sophie C Arkin1, Peter F Buckley2, Jennifer E McDowell1, & Brett A Clementz1 1University of Georgia, 2Georgia Health Sciences University

Descriptors: schizophrenia, saccade, oscillations

Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have documented evidence of cognitive control abnormalities. This study investigated neural activity of those with SZ in comparison to healthy groups with high (HCC) and low cognitive control (LCC), the latter of which exhibit similar behavioral abnormalities on cognitive control tasks without exhibiting symptoms of schizophrenia. Participants completed a saccade task with increasing levels of difficulty (split by block) in order to place sufficient demands on cognitive control. Trials consisted of flickering checkerboards in central (15 Hz) and both peripheral visual fields (12 Hz), followed by brightening of one peripheral checkerboard (target) while all kept flickering. The three blocks were: (1) prosaccade and NoGo randomly interleaved; (2) antisaccade and NoGo randomly interleaved; and (3) pro, anti, and NoGo randomly interleaved. Single trial power and inter-trial phase coherence (ITC) was calculated from whole-head EEG (64 sensor) and compared across groups and conditions. During the pre-target entrainment period for the prosaccade and antisaccade trials, SZ exhibited significantly reduced alpha (8-12 Hz) ITC relative to HCC but not LCC. After the target onset in both prosaccade and antisaccade trials, HCC displayed increased theta/alpha (4-12 Hz) power in comparison to both the SZ and LCC groups. These findings suggest that decreased phase coherence during the pre-target period might be due to the etiology of SZ, while theta/alpha power modulations might contribute to the behavioral similarities between SZ and LCC groups. Funding for this study was provided by NIH Grant MH094172.

Poster 3-19


Matthew E Hudgens-Haney1, Lauren E Ethridge2, Jennifer E McDowell1, John A Sweeney2, & Brett A Clementz1 1University of Georgia, 2University of Texas Southwestern

Descriptors: electroencephalography, biomarkers, schizophrenia

Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) may have distinct and shared neurophysiological indicators of disease risk. The Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) project addressed these issues. Previous B-SNIP publications have identified three distinct endophenotypic biotypes with promise as disease risk indicators, using K-means clustering on 9 biomarker variables. This study examined

visual event-related potentials (ERP) not included in construction of the biotypes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the biotypes 1) discriminate psychosis groups more effectively than DSM diagnoses and 2) discriminate groups in a manner similar to tasks included in the construction of the biotypes. Whole-head EEG (64 sensors) data was compared between groups at 3 ERP peaks. T-tests at each sensor indicated the degree to which groups were separated. When classifying psychosis using DSM diagnoses, healthy individuals (N = 59) differed from SZ (N = 43) and BDP (N = 55) at all three times, while SZ and BDP never differed. When classifying psychosis using the 3 biotypes, each biotype differed from each other for at least 2 of the 3 peaks. This indicates that the biotypes discriminate the individuals with psychosis more effectively than their DSM diagnoses. In addition, healthy controls differed from each biotype, with the least difference from Biotype2. Each biotype differed from each other, with the greatest differences between Biotype1 and Biotype3. Therefore, the biotypes discriminate groups in the same pattern as other B-SNIP tasks.

Funded by NIH.

Poster 3-20


David J Schaeffer, Amanda L Rodrigue, Jordan E Pierce, Brett A Clementz, & Jennifer E McDowell University of Georgia

Descriptors: schizophrenia, cognitive control, diffusion tensor imaging Schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by low levels of cognitive control. Recent evidence suggests that deficits of cognitive control in SZ are related to dysconnectivity along major white matter fiber connections. Although low levels of cognitive control are a behavioral hallmark of patients with SZ, some healthy subjects from the general population show comparable deficits in cognitive control. The present study sought to compare white matter integrity (WMI) between people with SZ and otherwise healthy individuals with low levels of cognitive control (LCC). Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate WMI (as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA)) in 15 participants with SZ and 15 healthy participants selected for LCC (determined by span task performance). To test for differences in FA across major white matter fiber tracts, region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted using voxel-wise Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) in standardized brain space and, in a separate analysis, manually drawn ROIs in native space. The TBSS analysis revealed widespread decreases in FA in the SZ group compared to LCC group. With a high degree of concordance, the manual ROI analysis revealed similar decreases in FA in the SZ group compared the LCC group. Taken together, these results provide evidence to suggest that structural deficits in SZ may be specific to the disease itself, rather than a function of normally occurring LCC; patients with SZ may demonstrate pathologically specific alterations related to myelin sheath microstructure or axonal coherence.

National Institutes of Health (R01 MH094172); National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program.

Poster 3-21


Lauren K Hayrynen1, Jordan P Hamm2, Lauren E Ethridge3, Carol A Tamminga3, John A Sweeney3, Godfrey D Pearlson4, Matcheri S Keshavan5, & Brett A Clementz1 1University of Georgia, 2Columbia University, 3University of Texas Southwestern, 4Yale University, 5Wayne State University

Descriptors: electroencephalography, synchronization, schizophrenia Disrupted sensory processing is a common feature of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). These disruptions are often examined with the auditory paired stimulus (PS) paradigm, which typically reveals reduced P50 suppression in patients with psychosis compared to healthy controls (H), indicating deficits of sensory gating in SZ. The present study sought to further investigate these differences by comparing intersensor coherence between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Sixty-four sensor electroen-cephalography data were collected while participants listened to 150 binaural broadband auditory click pairs (4 ms duration, 500 ms interclick interval, 9-10 s interpair interval). To reduce volume conduction errors, a surface Laplacian transformation was performed, resulting in 81 virtual sensors. Synchronization was then assessed for the 3,240 sensor comparisons using intersensor phase coherence, which was then compared across conditions using independent samples t-tests. Initial intersensor coherence analyses suggest differential frontal to posterior cortical synchronization in low frequencies (4-16 Hz) between SZ and H. Differences in coherence to the PS paradigm may provide information about aberrant neural mechanisms, and may also reveal potential biomarkers for identifying and distinguishing between psychotic disorders.

Poster 3-22


Justine M Koehler, Timothy K Murphy, Christiana D Butera, & Dean F Salisbury Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Descriptors: N100, mismatch negativity, P300

The sensory N1 and the cognitive P3 event related potentials (ERPs) are impaired in first hospitalized schizophrenia. Reduced mismatch negativity (MMN) has been shown in chronic but less so in first hospitalized schizophrenia. We examined the relationships between N1, P3, and MMN in first episode schizophrenia and healthy matched controls to determine whether sensory deficits (N1) impact pre-attentive memory (MMN) and conscious attention (P3). Eighty-one healthy participants and 55 first hospitalized schizophrenia patients completed an oddball task, and 19 healthy subjects and 21 first hospitalized schizophrenia subjects also completed a MMN task. ERP measures were z-scored relative to controls. First episode schizophrenia patients had smaller N1 (p < 0.03) and P3 (p < 0.03), but not MMN. Smaller N1 amplitude in schizophrenia was associated with smaller P3 (r = —.38, p < 0.01) and MMN (r = .51, p = 0.02). In healthy controls, N1 was only moderately associated with P3 (r = —.23, p < 0.05). First episode schizophrenia patients with greater WAIS Information scores showed healthier N1 and P3 amplitude (r = —.30, p < .04 and r = .53, p < 0.001, respectively). First hospitalized schizophrenia patients' deficits in early sensory processing (N1) impact later automatic preattentive memory (MMN) and cognitive processing (P3). These data are consistent with bottom-up sensory processes impacting more cognitive processes in schizophrenia. Larger ERPs with better semantic memory function indicate a possible neuroprotective effect of intellect early in the course of schizophrenia.

NIH R01 MH40799, R01 MH58704.

Poster 3-23


Conor S McCandless, Christiana D Butera, Timothy K Murphy, & Dean F Salisbury Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Descriptors: N400 effect, schizophrenia, lexical ambiguity

The N400 event-related potential and working memory are abnormal in schizophrenia. The N400 response to subordinate meanings of ambiguous words is impaired at long stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) in schizophrenia, consistent with a bias towards dominant meanings. The purpose of this study was to examine N400 at different presentation rates to determine the presence of short-term hyper-priming and long-term memory maintenance failure in schizophrenia. Thirty-two psychiatrically healthy and 30 schizophrenia subjects matched for gender, age, PSES, and WAIS Information and Vocabulary subscales viewed word-pairs including unambiguous and ambiguous nouns as Cues. For ambiguous words, associates of dominant and subordinate meanings were included as Targets. For unambiguous words, related and unrelated Targets were presented. Participants indicated if the words were related. Targets were presented with a short (250 msec) or long (1250 msec) SOA. There was a significant SOA by Word by Group effect (p = 0.05). Groups differed in N400 patterns to the different words at the long SOA (p < .05); schizophrenics showed larger N400 to ambiguous Cue subordinate associates than to unrelated words. There were no significant differences between groups in N400s to the different words at the short SOA. These findings suggest weak semantic associates are fully activated at short SOAs in schizophrenia, but are lost quickly in verbal working memory. This implies that semantic associates are present in semantic networks in schizophrenia, and that deficits arise at later stages of semantic processing.

NIH R01 58704

Poster 3-24


Samantha J Lipko, Timothy K Murphy, Christiana D Butera, & Dean F Salisbury Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Descriptors: N400 effect, schizophrenia, lexical ambiguity

N400 is larger to words incongruent with semantic expectancy. Patients with schizophrenia have abnormalities in using context to develop expectancy, particularly for lexically ambiguous words, and show a bias to select dominant meanings. We examined whether strong biasing context would improve the development of semantic expectancies in schizophrenia as reflected in N400. Nineteen chronic schizophrenics and 22 controls matched for age, gender, PSES, and WAIS Information and Vocabulary subscales participated. Subjects read two strongly biasing sentences (self-paced), and then performed a lexical decision to the Target of a Cue-Target word pair. Cue words were unambiguous or homographs (e.g. admit, toast, bat), and Targets were either related or unrelated to the biased Cue meaning. Groups differed in their ability to utilize strong context to modulate N400 (p < .02). Controls generated a significantly larger N400 to incongruous Target words (p < 0.001). Schizophrenia patients only modulated N400 with strong context at

trend-level (p = 0.08). Patients with schizophrenia are unable to fully utilize context even when given a rich contextual framework of strongly biasing sentences. On the other hand, strong context appeared to abolish the dominant homograph bias in schizophrenia; subordinate meaning expectancies did appear to be at least weakly developed. Future research will continue to explore optimal parameters for providing the greatest benefit of context in schizophrenia. NIH R01 MH58704

Poster 3-25


Dean F Salisbury, Christiana D Butera, & Timothy K Murphy Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Descriptors: mismatch negativity, SSA, predictive models

Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) models posit mismatch negativity (MMN) is an epi-phenomenal sensory effect because neurons adapt to repetitive tones, and deviant afferent activity is processed by non-adapted neurons, not by stimulus deviation from a memory trace of past stimuli or a predictive model of stimulus patterns. The present experiment explored whether SSA was necessary to elicit MMN. A single tone paradigm used the Gestalt principle of proximity to form implicit groups of 5 stimuli (330 ms SOA, 750 ms ISI). Pattern models predict MMN will be elicited by an occasional 6th tone. By contrast, SSA models predict no MMN, as the same tone would necessarily activate adapted neurons. Twenty-five healthy adults watched a silent video as groups of tones were presented. In accord with the predictive model, but in disagreement with SSA, repeated 6th tones generated significant negative activity between 140 and 190 ms over bilateral fronto-central sites (nose reference). Peak latency of the extra tone MMN was ~50ms later than pitch deviant MMN. Assuming the pitch deviant MMN indicates the onset timing ofnon-adapted sensory cells, the much later extra tone MMN must necessarily arise from a different set of non-sensory neurons. However, the extra tone MMN was substantially smaller than pitch and duration deviant MMNs. These results demonstrate SSA is not necessary to generate MMN and that the auditory cortex performs pattern analysis sufficient to generate MMN, but that simple stimulus deviant MMNs likely do contain substantial contributions from non-adapted neurons. NIH R01 MH94328

Poster 3-26


Timothy K Murphy, Christiana D Butera, & Dean F Salisbury Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Descriptors: pattern MMN, schizophrenia

Deviants in stimulus patterns elicit MMN. Although simple stimulus parameter MMN is robustly reduced in long-term schizophrenia with a Cohen's d ~1, very few studies have examined MMN to pattern deviants in the disorder. This experiment measured MMN to violations of an increasing pitch pattern in controls and chronic schizophrenia patients. Fifteen healthy control participants and 12 participants with schizophrenia watched a silent film while a series of binaural tones were played. A standard pattern comprised 6 tones, beginning with a 1500 Hz tone and ascending by 500 Hz increments to the final 4000 Hz tone. For deviant patterns, the last tone descended by 500 Hz, to 3000 Hz. Subjects were not informed about the pattern. A statistically significant non-zero MMN was present to deviants in the control group, Fz, p = .046, albeit small, -1.1 ^V. Schizophrenia participants MMN, Fz, -0.7 ^V, was not significantly different from zero, p = .2. However, groups were not significantly different from each other, Fz, p > .5. The effect size was small, d = .24, by comparison with simple stimulus parameter MMN. These preliminary results indicate that healthy participants generated a small MMN to ascending pitch pattern deviants, but it is not clear whether this response is larger than in schizophrenia or whether persons with schizophrenia can generate such a response. Current research is examining the effects of training and instructions on the size of the complex pattern MMN to increase group separation.

NIH R01 MH094328

Poster 3-27


Emily M Owens, Holly K Hamilton, Peter E Clayson, Gretchen L Sholty, Kenneth L Subotnik, Joseph Ventura, Gregory A Miller, Keith H Nuechterlein, & Cindy M Yee University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: stress, P50, N100

Compromised sensory gating is associated with deficits in P50 and N100 suppression to the second of paired auditory stimuli (S1 and S2) and is hypothesized to be a fundamental

neural deficit in schizophrenia. Although sensory gating dysfunction has been found reliably in schizophrenia, it is unclear to what extent gating deficits are influenced by state-like phenomena. We previously observed self-reported life stress to be associated with poorer P50 suppression in healthy controls but failed to detect a similar relationship in schizophrenia patients (Owens et al., 2013). Disruption of P50 suppression has also been observed in healthy controls during a laboratory stress task, implicating altered noradren-ergic transmission involving S2 (Yee & White, 2001). To evaluate potential disruption of noradrenergic function in schizophrenia, the present study sought to determine whether P50 suppression would remain immune to the effects of experimentally-induced psychosocial stress in patients. Specificity of findings involving P50 gating was examined by comparing the effects of psychosocial stress on N100 suppression. Preliminary results obtained from 21 schizophrenia patients in the first episode of illness and 21 healthy controls showed that stress reduced P50 suppression in healthy individuals but not in patients with schizophrenia (p < .05). Further analyses examine the relative contributions of S1 and S2 amplitudes to P50 sensory gating, as these responses are hypothesized to be regulated primarily by dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, respectively.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) P50 MH66286.

Poster 3-28


Thomas Kustermann1, Tzvetan G Popov1, Johanna Kienle1, Gregory A Miller2, & Brigitte S Rockstroh1 1University of Konstanz, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: alpha oscillations, schizophrenia, working memory

Modulation of alpha (8-13 Hz) activity is associated with information gating in long-range neural communication: Alpha power decrease from baseline is proposed to reflect enhanced excitability and enhanced neural communication. This oscillatory change in turn mediates readiness for information intake and allocation of cognitive resources. In contrast, alpha power increase indicates inhibitory protection against interfering information. By this mechanism, abnormal alpha modulation in schizophrenia patients (SZ) may play a role in cognitive dysfunctions. In the present MEG study, alpha power modulation was examined in a visual lateralized cued delayed-response task in 19 SZ and 19 healthy controls (HC). During the delay period (400-1500 ms after visual half field cue presentation) HC showed substantial alpha power decrease contralateral to cue position while in the ipsilateral hemisphere alpha power was increased. SZ failed to replicate this pattern. These observations were confirmed in a 2 (Group) x 2 (Hemisphere) x 2 (Stimulus Hemifield) interaction, indicating significant attenuation of alpha lateralization in SZ. The deficient lateralized alpha power modulation in SZ suggests dysfunctional excitation-inhibition regulation. Such deficiency might contribute to spatial working memory deficits often reported for SZ.

Poster 3-29


Lee J Jasperse, Peter E Clayson, Holly K Hamilton, Emily M Owens, Peter Bachman, Kenneth L Subotnik, Joseph Ventura, Keith H Nuechterlein, & Cindy M Yee University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: N200, working memory, schizophrenia

Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) often show deficits in working memory (WM), but relevant brain mechanisms have yet to be confirmed. Emerging research suggests that the N200 elicited during n-back tasks indexes WM, as well as its dysfunction in SZ. Missonnier et al. (2012) observed shorter N200 latencies in SZ patients than in healthy controls (HCs) using a 1-back task but reported no group differences during a 2-back task, interpreted as signifying poor modulation of WM activity to task difficulty in SZ. No group differences in N200 amplitude were observed to either task. The possibility remains, however, that N200 amplitude may also reflect WM processes, especially given potentially weak associations between behavioral measures of n-back performance and WM (Jaeggi et al. 2010). Utilizing a 2-back task, SZ patients were not expected to display reductions in N200 amplitude or latency relative to HCs. N200 was predicted to correlate with well-validated measures of WM (Wechsler Memory Scale [WMS] Spatial Span, WMS Number-Letter Span, Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pair [CPT-IP]). EEG and behavioral data were obtained from a preliminary sample of 19 SZ patients and 16 HCs. Comparable associations between N200 and WM scores were found across the two groups, with larger N200 amplitude associated with better WMS SS (r = -.36, p = .04) and CPT-IP (r = -.35, p = .04) performance. As in prior research, there were no significant group differences in N200 amplitude or latency. Results provide convergent validation of the n-back N200 amplitude as an index of WM in SZ patients and HCs.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) P50 MH66286.

Poster 3-30


Amri Sabharwal, Prerona Mukherjee, Akos Szekely, Roman Kotov, & Aprajita Mohanty Stony Brook University

Descriptors: emotion perception, schizophrenia, psychoses

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit prominent impairments in socio-emotional processing. Emotional face perception has been found to be a strong predictor of quality of life and functioning in schizophrenia, and the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative has recommended it as an important target for biomarker development. However, it is unclear whether emotion perception-related deficits and imaging biomarkers are 1) specific to schizophrenia or present generally in psychosis and 2) predict real-world functioning. In the present study, behavioral and fMRI data were recorded while patients with schizophrenia (N = 24), other psychoses (N = 26), and controls (N = 29) matched shapes, faces, and identities ofemotional and neutral faces. Compared to controls and other psychoses, patients with schizophrenia showed worse accuracy for emotion matching vs. shape matching [F(2,76) = 7.95, p < .01], indicating that emotion perception deficits are specific to schizophrenia. Furthermore, these deficits correlated with worse occupational and psychosocial functioning. Neurally, we expect emotion face perception deficits in schizophrenia to involve decreased amygdala activity and reduced amygdala connectivity to fusiform face area and superior temporal gyrus. We also expect alterations in this neural circuitry to predict real world functioning. Present research establishes the importance of emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia and seeks to highlight the value of imaging biomarkers in informing clinical applications.

Poster 3-31


Ford Dyke1, Amber Leiker1, Kirk Grand1, Maurice M Godwin1, Andrew G Thompson1, Jeremy C Rietschel2, Craig G McDonald3, & Matthew W Miller1 1Auburn University, 2Veteran's Health Administration, 3George Mason University

Descriptors: attention, event-related potentials, cognitive workload Cognitive workload is inversely related to spare attentional resources (attentional reserve). Attentional reserve can be indexed by the magnitude of attentional orienting to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli, as reflected by the amplitude of the P3a event-related potential component. As such, the utility of P3a in indexing attentional reserve, and hence cognitive workload, depends on the ability of stimuli to elicit contrasting degrees of attentional orienting under varying task loads. Thus, an important question is which types of stimuli are effective at doing so. To answer this question, an experiment was conducted in which participants played the videogame Tetris under incrementally-varied levels of load while being probed with one of four different types of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli: novel complex sounds, repeated complex sounds, novel simple tones, or repeated simple tones. Attentional orienting, as reflected by P3a amplitude, was contrasted among Tetris levels to determine which stimuli were effective in producing load-dependent changes in orienting. Complex sounds elicited significant contrasts (decreases) in P3a amplitude as a function of task load, whereas simple tones did not. Further, complex sounds elicited greater P3a amplitudes than simple tones regardless of task load. Finally, P3a amplitude elicited by all stimuli was positively correlated with their efficacy in producing load-dependent changes in amplitude. This suggests complex sounds effectively index cognitive workload, and they do so by eliciting substantial attentional orienting.

Poster 3-32


Mark A Fletcher, Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Kathy A Low, Rachel Boyd, Benjamin Zimmerman, Chin Hong Tan, Nils Schneider-Garces, Andrew Freeman, Gabriele Gratton, & Monica Fabiani University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: anatomy, aging, cognition

Age and fitness are often associated with changes in cognitive ability. Here we examined whether brain volumes and White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH) mediated these relationships. Healthy older adults (N = 44, ages 55-87) underwent structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and completed neuropsychological testing. FreeSurfer© was used to measure brain volumes (normalized for intracranial volume), while WMH were manually traced (Burzynska et al., 2010). Estimates of Cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) were obtained following Jurca et al. (2005). Mediation analyses were performed in SPSS with PROCESS (Hayes, 2008). Previous studies showed associations between WMH and performance on tests of executive function (Van Petten et al., 2004). Here, mediation analysis showed that WMH mediated the association between age and cognitive flexibility (with education used as a covariate). A significant association between WMH and eCRF was not found. However, eCRF was significantly associated with Medial Temporal Lobe volume (MTLv). Previous research reported an

association between entorhinal/hippocampal volume and fluid intelligence (Raz et al., 2008). Here we used a hierarchical mediation analysis containing two mediators (eCRF and MTLv) to show that they mediated the relationship between age and fluid intelligence (as indexed by the Riddles component of the Kaufman Brief Intelligent Test), using education and gender as covariates. These findings reveal that some of the effects of age and eCRF on cognition are mediated by gray and white matter preservation. ARRA grant #1RC1AG035927 to Monica Fabiani.

Poster 3-33


Chin Hong Tan, Kathy A Low, Benjamin Zimmerman, Nils Schneider-Garces, Mark A Fletcher, Edward L Maclin, Gabriele Gratton, & Monica Fabiani University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: optical imaging, hypercapnia, vascular

During hypercapnic conditions, the increase in arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure in the brain alters cerebral vascular tone and results in the vasodilation of cerebral blood vessels. Conversely, the cessation of hypercapnic conditions is associated with vasoconstriction. Here we provide evidence that cerebral pulse amplitudes measured with optical imaging can index changes in vascular tone in response to a hypercapnia challenge. Using a voluntary breath holding task, pulse amplitude measures were derived for 3 periods (rest, breath hold and post-hold) by time-locking the recorded AC intensity values to each R-wave of the simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, and averaged into their respective periods. The vasodilation of cerebral arterioles causes a reduction of blood pressure in the larger upstream arteries, which contributes most to the recorded pulse signal. This results in a reduction in pulse amplitude. The reverse happens during vasoconstriction, leading to an increase in pulse amplitude. We found a global increase in pulse amplitude from hold to post-hold, indicating vasoconstriction post-breath hold, and a significant quadratic trend across the 3 periods. The breath holding index (BHI), a measure of cerebrovascular reactivity, was derived by calculating the percentage change in pulse amplitude from rest to post-hold. BHI was found to correlate with age and scores on the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination, even after controlling for age effects. Thus, optical measures of cerebral pulse amplitude can be used to index changes in overall vascular tone.

NIH 1RC1 AG035927 Z-ARRA to Monica Fabiani.

Poster 3-34


Chin Hong Tan, Kathy A Low, Nils Schneider-Garces, Mark A Fletcher, Benjamin Zimmerman, Edward L Maclin, Gabriele Gratton, & Monica Fabiani University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: optical imaging, vascular, cognition

The human cerebral vasculature responds to changes in oxygen demand via cerebral functional hyperaemia. The ability to measure these changes in vascular tone (vasoconstriction and vasodilation) is at the basis for the fMRI BOLD signal. Here we provide the first evidence demonstrating that cerebral pulse amplitudes measured using optical imaging can also quantify changes in cerebrovascular tone during a Sternberg memory task. We time-locked each cerebral arterial optical pulse to the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (EKG) and averaged their AC intensity values in their respective set sizes. A decrease in pulse amplitude is associated with vasodilation. This is because the vasodilation of cerebral arterioles induces a drop of blood pressure, and a corresponding reduction in pulse amplitude in the larger upstream arteries, which accounts for most of the recorded pulse signal. Changes in regional pulse amplitude between high and low task load conditions were compared. Areas in the fronto-parietal network showed a significant reduction in pulse amplitude from set size 2 to 6, indicating vasodilation. Other areas such as the auditory cortex showed no task-related changes in vascular tone, indicating that the effects of vasodilation are localized to regions recruited during the task. A comparison with fMRI activation in the same subjects and task also showed patterns of activation consistent with the optical vasodilation map. Thus, optical measures of cerebral pulse amplitude can be used to index changes in localized hemodynamic responses to brain activity. NIH 1RC1 AG035927 Z-ARRA to Monica Fabiani.

Poster 3-35


Kathy A Low, Monica Fabiani, Daniel C Hyde, Renee Baillargeon, Cynthia Fisher, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: optical imaging, development, language

Phoneme discrimination is a fundamental process in language acquisition. Research based on event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) has demonstrated that infants can

discriminate vowel changes, but with these measures it is difficult to determine the exact brain locations involved due to constraints in source localization in developing infants. As an alternative, the event-related optical signal (EROS) has been shown in adults to provide localized maps of brain activation with temporal resolution similar to ERPs. Here, we apply this technology for the first time to infants. Eighteen healthy, full-term, 4 month old infants participated in a passive auditory (/be/ and /bo/) oddball (80/20 probability) experiment. We recorded EROS from 160 channels covering bilateral temporal and lateral frontal cortical areas. Phonemes, regardless of probability, produced activation in bilateral auditory cortex (100 to 150 ms) followed by left frontal activation. A network of brain regions responded to the difference between deviants and standards. The earliest differences (about 300 ms) were found in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (right preceding left). This was followed by activation in left planum temporale and then left supramarginal gyrus. This activation pattern is similar, but with delayed latencies, to that found in adults. Thus, EROS revealed that even at 4 months of age, a complex network of brain regions is recruited when processing phonemes and these findings suggest that EROS may be a promising new tool for understanding neurodevel-opmental changes with age. Abbott Nutrition 2012-04644

Poster 3-36


Danielle diFilipo1,2, Alison Higgins2, Kevin Constante2, Elvira Kirilko2, Amy Medina1,2, & Jill Grose-Fifer1,2

1Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 2John Jay College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: adolescents, event-related potentials, social

During adolescence, as social interactions become more significant it becomes increasingly important that adolescents are able to accurately read social cues and respond accordingly. In this study, we used ERP recording to compare the neural correlates of socially-relevant information processing in adolescents and adults. We recorded the EEG using 64 scalp electrodes from 12-17 year-olds and 25-37 year-olds while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture Series. Half of the pictures featured people (social stimuli), while the other half did not (non-social stimuli). Both adults and adolescents showed similar levels of rapid, automatic attention to both types of stimuli as evidenced by similar P1 amplitudes. However, we found age and gender differences in later ERP components. Women had larger P3s than adolescent girls, suggesting that compared to girls, women found all the photos to be more attention-grabbing. Males had larger P3s in response to social than non-social pictures, implying that social pictures were more motivationally salient than non-social ones. Adults had larger LPP amplitudes for social compared to non-social photos, but adolescents showed no LPP amplitude differences between stimuli. Although the ERP data implies that adolescents processed both picture types in a similar way, they apparently encoded social pictures more effectively. In a subsequent memory test, all participants recalled more social pictures than non-social pictures. Our results imply that social information processing is still developing during adolescence.

PSC-CUNY award

Poster 3-37


Kevin Constante1, Tina M Zottoli2, & Jill Grose-Fifer1 1John Jay College, The City University of New York, 2St. Joseph's College, NY

Descriptors: adolescents, stimulus-preceding negativity, anticipation Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking, which may be driven in part by neurobio-logical changes in reward processing centers of the brain. To investigate whether there are age and gender differences in the anticipation of rewards, we recorded EEG in 40 adolescents and 40 adults while they played a monetary gambling game. The stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), which is thought to reflect anticipation of rewards, was measured in the 200 ms preceding feedback that indicated how much the participant won or lost. In general, the SPN was largest anteriorly and over the left hemisphere. However, the topography of the SPN differed between age groups. Adults showed no difference in SPN amplitude between central and frontal regions, whereas adolescents showed larger SPNs over central electrodes compared to frontal or parietal electrodes. Additionally, there was an Age by Gender interaction; there were no significant age differences in the SPN among females, but adolescent boys showed larger SPNs than men. These data suggest that adolescents may recruit different brain areas than adults in the anticipation of rewards. Furthermore, in comparison to the other groups, adolescent boys showed a disproportionately large anticipatory response to the receipt of wins and losses. Given that adolescent boys tend to have a greater propensity for risk taking than any other group, these data are consistent with other research that suggests that larger anticipatory responses are predictive of greater risk taking.

Poster 3-38


Amy Mezulis, Sarah Crystal, & Josh Ahles Seattle Pacific University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, rumination

Rumination is a maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy related to the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Research suggests that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) are associated with emotion regulatory behavior; lower resting RSA is related to emotion dysregulation and less effective emotion regulation strategies. This study examined resting RSA as a predictor of state rumination following induced stress in an unselected sample of young adolescents (N = 50; 57.7% female; mean age 13). Participants completed measures of trait rumination and depressive symptoms. RSA and self-reported negative affect were assessed during a 4-minute resting baseline, 6-minute failure task, and 3-minute recovery. Post-recovery, participants self-reported state rumination about the failure task. Analyses were conducted using linear regression in SPSS 21.0. Trait rumination, depressive symptoms, gender, and baseline negative affect were all controlled for. Results indicated that lower baseline RSA (B = -0.18, p = .03) and self-reported negative affect in response to stress (B = 1.86, p < .001) uniquely predicted state rumination following the failure task. This study demonstrates that resting RSA uniquely predicts rumination following a stressful event above and beyond other established predictors of state rumination. Results indicate the importance of considering physiological capacity for emotion regulation in the development of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulatory strategies, particularly in early adolescence.

National Institute of Mental Health R15MH098294-01A1 (Amy Mezulis, PI).

Poster 3-39


Ida Wessing1, Georg Romer1, & Markus Junghöfer2 University Hospital Münster, 2Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis

Descriptors: anxiety disorders, children, magnetoencephalography

An altered pattern of threat-processing is assumed to be central for the development of anxiety disorders (AD). According to a hypervigilance-avoidance hypothesis, AD patients show hypervigilance to threat cues at early but avoidance at later processing stages. The processing of faces with angry and neutral expressions was investigated in children diagnosed with AD and healthy control (HC) children by whole-head magnetoencephalogra-phy. Neural sources reflecting threat-processing in an early (60-130 ms) and a late (280680 ms) time-interval were estimated based on L2-Minimum Norm inverse source modelling. AD children showed enhanced threat-processing in the left occipital cortex (OCC) in the early but not late time-interval, while HC children showed the reverse pattern. Additionally, in the late time-interval, AD but not HC children showed enhanced threat-processing in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). These results support the hypothesis of an early hypervigilance followed by a later avoidance of threat in AD. It is suggested that the late enhanced dlPFC activity inhibits sensory threat processing in order to (over-) compensate for the early sensory hyper-reactivity in AD children. SFB-TRR58-C01

Poster 3-40


Kuan-Hua Chen, Mark W Chapleau, Nazan Aksan, Grazyna Kochanska, & Steven W Anderson University of Iowa

Descriptors: startle habituation, childhood temperament, EKG

Aversive stimuli trigger defensive startle responses. Repeated exposures to the same aver-sive stimuli may further elicit adaptive emotion regulation, resulting in "startle habitua-tion". This study examined the relationship between childhood temperament and the dynamic change ofparasympathetic activity during startle habituation. Participants were 81 healthy 8-year old children. The task included 8 repetitions of loud sounds. According to previous studies, acoustic aversive stimuli trigger a diphasic cardiac change, including an early rapid heart rate (HR) acceleration driven by parasympathetic inhibition (PI), and a late prolonged HR deceleration driven by parasympathetic recovery (PR). In this study, PI and PR were used to index parasympathetic activity. The temperament characteristic of effortful control was assessed longitudinally in standardized observational paradigm during preschool and kindergarten/early-school age. Results show that: (1) across all subjects, PI and PR were observed during the first 2 heart beats and the 3rd to the 12th heart beats after sound presentation, respectively. (2) Both PI and PR were strongest in the first trial; then they decreased over time. (3) Children with higher effortful control showed a smaller decrease in PR over time. In contrast, the decrease of PI was not significantly correlated with the temperament measure. Taken together, the results suggest that rapid changes in

parasympathetic recovery during startle habituation might provide unique information regarding the basis of individual differences in childhood temperament. US NIMH & NICHD

Poster 3-41


Caron AC Clark1, Elizabeth A Skowron2, JD Smith3, & Susan S Woodhouse4 1University of Arizona, 2University of Oregon, 3Baylor University, 4Lehigh University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, parent-child interaction, attachment A young child's attachment to their caregiver forms the crucible for developing physiological and behavioral regulation. Attachment status is classified using the Strange Situation (SS), an observational assessment of children's responses to separation and reunion with their caregiver. Variations in cardiac measures of parasympathetic reactivity over the 7 SS episodes were examined in 144 3-5 year olds and their mothers, 48% of whom had perpetrated child maltreatment. 44% of children were classified as securely attached, 16% as insecure-avoidant, 11% as insecure-ambivalent, and 29% as disorganized. Linear mixed models showed an interaction between attachment status and SS episode, F(6,99) = 2.43, p = .03. Contrasts showed increasing RSA over the SS in securely attached preschoolers, RSA withdrawal in ambivalent children, a pronounced rise in RSA in avoidant children when they were left with a stranger, and flatter RSA levels through in children with disorganized attachment. Mothers showed RSA withdrawal during SS episodes when they were separated from their children, F(6,93) = 2.43, p = .03. The concordance of child and mother RSA varied by attachment group and SS episode, F(6,347) = 2.57, p = .01: securely attached dyads showed increasing positive correlations in their RSA levels over the course of the SS, whereas insecure dyads showed increasing negative correlations. Findings suggest distinct profiles of parasympathetic reactivity in children with different attachment classifications, as well as an inverted pattern of vagal attunement in dyads with insecure attachment.

NIH 5R01 MH079328. Parent-Child Processes: Negative Self-Regulatory and Behavioral Outcomes. Elizabeth Skowron (PI).

Poster 3-42


Randi A Phelps1, Rebecca J Brooker1, & Kristin A Buss2 1Montana State University, 2The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: delta-beta coupling, anxiety, electroencephalography

Delta-beta coupling is a marker of neural regulation; coupling is positively linked to anxiety symptoms (Miskovic et al., 2010). Recently, high fear in low threat contexts has been suggested as a robust marker of anxiety risk (Buss, et al., 2013). However, links between a high fear/low threat marker and neural correlates of risk are unknown. At age 2, fear was assessed in a low (Puppet Show; Lab-TAB) and high threat episode (Robot) for 34 right-handed children. At age 4.5, EEG was recorded during two 5-minute baselines. Delta (0.5-2 Hz) and beta (11-18 Hz) power were derived at parietal (P3/4), central (C3/4), and frontal electrodes (F3/4). Coupling was defined at each site as the correlation between delta and beta power. In low threat, high fear children showed coupling at frontal (r = 0.65, p < 0.05), central (r = 0.83, p < 0.01), and parietal (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) sites; low fear children largely showed an absence of coupling (frontal: r = 0.19, p > 0.05; central: r = 0.43, p > 0.05; parietal: r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Fisher's r to z transform suggested that high fear children showed greater coupling than low fear children at frontal and central electrodes (mean z = 1.62, p < 0.05). In high threat, high fear children (frontal: r = 0.41, p > 0.05), central: r = 0.62, p < 0.01, parietal: r = 0.73, p < 0.01), and low fear children (frontal: r = 0.25, p > 0.05; central: r = 0.54, p > 0.05; parietal: r = 0.78, p < 0.01) showed mixed evidence of coupling. Importantly, correlations reflecting coupling did not differ between low and high fear children in the high threat condition (mean z = 0.33, p > 0.10).

Poster 3-43


Vladimir P Rozhkov, Zhanna V Nagornova, Natalia V Shemyakina, & Svyatoslav I Soroko

I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: children and adolescents development, electroencephalography, North region Brain development in children and adolescents is characterized by maturation of cortico-cortical and cortical-subcortical interconnections. The complex effect of strong ecological and social factors in the North can govern cognitive development and influence brain morphogenesis rate. We studied maturation of intra- and interhemispheric EEG coupling in school-age northern children using coherence analysis across frequency bands and assessment of EEG spatial synchronization levels (the linear relationships of the set of EEG processes) both over the whole scalp and within the left and right hemispheres. EEG from

21 sites in the 10-20 system were recorded annually in 15 children from 8 to 17 years old living in Russian European North. Coherence analysis showed increased intrahemispheric interactions during pre-puberty, and interhemispheric interactions during puberty. A tendency to gradual rising of the spatial EEG synchronization levels in both the right and in the left hemispheres was revealed in children from 8 to 17 years old. The coefficient of determination in the linear regression of spatial EEG synchronization magnitude on the age-related parameter in northern school children was about 40%. The North seasonal factors contributed partly to residual variance of the parameter. A transient decrease in EEG intrahemispheric interactions was observed between the ages of 11 and 13. These changes were more strongly expressed in the right hemisphere, and could be related to the strain of autonomic and central regulation processes under hormonal age-related changes.

This work was supported by Russian Foundation for humanities grant! 13-06-00494a.

Poster 3-44


Marilyn Horta, Erin Trifilio, Jennifer Mascaro, & James K Rilling Emory University

Descriptors: infant crying, paternal nurturance, fMRI

Shaken baby syndrome is a form of abusive head trauma characterized by subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage, and cerebral edema. Inconsolable infant crying is a major risk factor for shaken baby syndrome and fathers are disproportionately responsible for inflicting this trauma. Our study investigates the effects of a public health intervention program called the Period of PURPLE Crying on new fathers' neural responses to infant cry stimuli. Empathy has been associated with activation of the anterior insular cortex, however, both too little and too much empathic arousal can interfere with compassionate behavior. Our hypothesis was that the PURPLE Intervention will prevent empathic over-arousal to infant cries by increasing activation in emotion regulation areas of the brain such as the dorso-lateral and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortices and by normalizing excessive activation of the anterior insular cortex. We recruited first time fathers of infants less than three months old who randomly undergo either the PURPLE Intervention or a control child care education program not focused on infant crying. Participants were scanned with fMRI before and after completing the intervention. During the scan, participants listened to their own infants' cries, unknown infants' cries, and control auditory stimuli. Results showed how the PURPLE Intervention modulates the neural response to infant crying.

Poster 3-45


Ellen M Kessel, Autumn J Kujawa, Greg Hajcak Proudfit, & Daniel N Klein Stony Brook University

Descriptors: temperament, emotion, development

Evidence suggests that early temperament may be associated with the development of emotion-processing biases, but relatively little work has examined multiple temperament dimensions across development. We examined whether early temperamental positive emotionality (PE), characterized by expressions of positive affect and interest, and negative emotionality (NE), characterized by expression of fear, sadness and anger, predicted emotion-processing biases in later childhood. At age 6, 286 children participated in an observational assessment of temperament. At age 9, children completed a task in which the late positive potential (LPP) was measured following pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. Regression analyses were conducted with child demographics, PE, and NE as predictors of LPP difference scores (pleasant-neutral and unpleasant-neutral). Lower PE at age 6 predicted smaller LPP amplitudes to pleasant versus neutral stimuli, but not unpleasant versus neutral stimuli. NE at age 6 did not predict the LPP. When the analyses were repeated replacing NE with its subtypes, specific associations with the LPP to unpleasant versus neutral stimuli emerged: greater fear predicted enhanced LPP amplitudes, whereas greater sadness predicted reduced LPP amplitudes. Results suggest that early observations of temperament predict neural reactivity to emotional stimuli across development and point to the possible utility of the LPP in identifying pathways from early temperament to emotion-related psychopathology.

Poster 3-46


Thomas E Kraynak1, Amanda Collier1, Wendy D'Andrea2, Jill M Hooley3, &

Greg J Siegle1

1University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 2New School for Social Research, 3Harvard University

Descriptors: trauma, criticism, fMRI

Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, and predicts poor treatment outcome. We consider whether CT moderates neural responses to emotional

distress, which may help to illuminate directions for targeted treatments. Participants included 26 patients with major depression, anxiety disorders, or PTSD, of whom 15 reported at least moderate CT and 11 reported minimal or no CT. Ten control participants had no Axis I and II disorders or CT. Participants listened to recordings representing personal attachment figures criticizing them during assessment with fMRI, and rated their emotional experience. We related CT to BOLD reactivity to criticism in several a priori regions of interest implicated in emotion and stress. CT was associated with increased reactivity in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate, and anterior insula compared to the other groups. Responses in these regions also correlated with CT severity and subjective reports. These data suggest that CT yields signature neural responses to interpersonal stress that may be useful to consider in targeted transdiagnostic interventions and prophylactic efforts. NIMH MH096334-01

Poster 3-47


Tiffany M McNulty1, Aimee R Zisner1, Alexis Howard1, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp2, & Theodore P Beauchaine1 1The Ohio State University, 2The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac pre-ejection period, developmental psychopathology

Internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) symptoms of psychopathology frequently co-occur in children despite largely non-overlapping criteria. Although impulsivity is more closely linked to disorders on the EXT spectrum, comorbidity with INT disorders may indicate more severe emotion dysregulation and exacerbate EXT symptoms. Participants (8-12 years old) included a subset (N = 167) from a larger study of conduct problems and depression in youth. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were collected at baseline and during a reward task at three time points spaced one year apart. We assessed baseline PEP, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity to incentive as predictors of growth in symptoms across three annual assessments. The interaction between baseline PEP and baseline RSA at Year 1 accounted for significant variance in INT and EXT symptom slopes over the three-year interval. In addition, baseline PEP accounted for worsening INT and EXT symptoms across time, whereas baseline RSA did not. Finally, RSA reactivity to incentives was associated with INT symptom slopes. Lengthened baseline PEP, in conjunction with low baseline RSA, predicts longitudinal changes in psycho-pathology among children. Furthermore, greater RSA reactivity to incentives is associated with worsening INT symptoms across time. These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that the combination of poor impulse control, marked by deficiencies in PEP, and emotion dysregulation, marked by RSA reactivity, predict especially poor outcomes among children with psychopathology.

Poster 3-48


Eric S Drollette, Christopher E Komisarz, Mark R Scudder, Lauren B Raine, & Charles H Hillman University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: acute exercise, cycling, dual task

Previous investigations have demonstrated that children can effectively maintain aspects of cognitive control during and following an acute bout of aerobic exercise. However, extension of these findings to scholastic performance and the neural underpinnings of cognitive control are not well understood. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effects of moderate cycling on academic achievement and neuroelectric outcomes during a cognitive control task in 9- to 10-year-old children. ERP analysis of 38 (13 females) children employed a modified no-go/flanker task on two separate days (i.e., exercise, rest). Task performance and ERPs were measured before, during, after, and 40 minutes following exercise or rest. Assessment of reading and math achievement (WRAT3) occurred during cycling and seated rest. Cycling resulted in no change in task performance and associated ERP components (i.e., N2 and P3) relative to seated rest across all time periods. Additionally, no change was observed for reading and math achievement. Collectively, the lack of significant differences across conditions demonstrates that children effectively maintain cognitive control both during and following exercise relative to rest. Such findings indicate the maintenance of cognitive function during a dual task environment involving thought and action. Further, no change observed for reading and math achievement provides additional support for how exercise might be inserted during the school day to compliment the educational environment and promote healthy behaviors for young children.

Poster 3-49


Therese V Cash1, Andrea Konig1, Alison M Eonta2, & Scott R Vrana1 1Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, expressive writing

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is an index of vagal control of the heart that is associated with emotional, behavioral, and physiological flexibility. Increased RSA has also been shown to occur during emotion regulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of writing on RSA and whether change in RSA predicted change in mental and physical health symptoms after accounting for the effects of two different writing conditions. Unscreened college students wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions within a two week period about a personal traumatic event (n = 113) or neutral topic (n = 133) while heart rate was recorded at sessions 1 and 3. RSA was lower while writing compared to baseline. RSA reduced more when writing about a neutral compared to a traumatic experience. Baseline RSA was lower in session 3 compared to session 1. Increased RSA during the writing period from session 1 to session 3 was significantly associated with lower symptoms of self-reported depression, posttraumatic stress, and physical illness, as well as improvement in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress at one-month follow-up. Higher RSA was also associated with higher levels of self-reported mindfulness. Contrary to expectation, the relationship between RSA increases and changes in mental health symptoms over time was not systematically related to whether participants wrote about a neutral or traumatic topic. These findings are consistent with the conceptualization of RSA as a metric of adaptive emotional responding.

Poster 3-50


Maimu A Rehbein1, Maria Carmen Pastor2, Markus Junghöfer1, Roser Poy2, Raul L Penadés2, & Javier Moltó2 1University of Münster, 2Jaume I University of Castellón

Descriptors: face identity, face expression, electroencephalography Models of face perception propose a dissociation between the representation of identity and more "changeable" aspects of human faces, such as emotional expression. Independence of identity and expression are supported by electrophysiological investigations, showing main effects of emotional expression and face familiarity, but a lack of interaction. However, other studies point towards a more complex picture, revealing, for instance, interactions between facial attractiveness and expression. Here we used MultiCS conditioning to assign an affective identity to 8 of overall 16 faces with neutral expressions. High-density ERPs revealed clear effects of affective identity, expressed by amplified Early Posterior Negativities (EPNs) and Late Positive Potentials (LPP) towards aversively paired (CS+) compared to unpaired (CS-) faces. After conditioning, the same CS+ and CS- faces were presented, but now with angry and happy, instead of neutral expressions. In addition to strong main effects of emotional expression (angry vs. happy) and affective identity (CS+ vs. CS-) in the EPN and LPP time interval, we observed strong interactions between the two factors, visible in amplified EPNs for the congruent (angry CS+, happy CS-) compared to the incongruent conditions (happy CS+, angry CS-). Our data stress the interplay of emotional expression and affective identity in perceiving others, as both contribute to behaving appropriately in social interactions.

This work was supported by the German Research Association (DFG; SFB-TRR58-C1) and the University of Castellon (Spain).

Poster 3-51


Isabelle Klinkenberg, Christian Steinberg, Maimu A Rehbein, & Markus Junghöfer Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis

Descriptors: phasic & sustained fear, magnetoencephalography, visual affective perception of faces

Fear and anxiety are supposed to be mediated differently depending on whether an imminent threat is predictable or unpredictable. Unpredictable but not predictable aversive events seem to produce inhibiting behavioral, cognitive, and somatic effects similar to those found in anxiety and mood disorders and generate typical signs of stress reactions. Here we investigated the visual affective perception of fearful and neutral faces in distinct settings of fear induction: no fear, phasic fear and sustained fear. While in both fear runs audio-visual threats were randomly presented, these threats were announced by a cue in the phasic, but appeared completely unheralded in the sustained fear run. Besides whole head magnetoencephalographic correlates, peripheral and behavioral measurements were recorded in 32 healthy subjects. They reported increasing stress and threat aversion with increasing levels of uncertainty (no fear < phasic fear < sustained fear). Inverse modeling of the event related magnetic fields, revealed linear effects of

uncertainty at early sensory processing followed by linearly increasing dorsal prefrontal cortex activity in mid-latency time intervals, which could be viewed as compensatory mechanism inhibiting an early automatic hyperreactivity. While these strongest effects occurred for both neutral and fearful faces, more ventral PFC regions also showed interactions of both factors. Our results support the idea that uncontrollable threat leads to amplified bottom-up processes. However, prefrontal top-down control appeared functional in these healthy subjects.

This work was supported by the German Research Association (DFG; SFB-TRR58-C1).

Poster 3-52


Nataliia V Ievpak, Illya P Kuznetsov, Al'ona P Sokol, & Oksana S Nesterova Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University

Descriptors: alpha, electroencephalography, perception

Simultaneous recording of eye-tracking and EEG for examining the psychophysiological activity during Necker cube perception allows the study of inner attention shifts. EEG was recorded from 24 healthy right-handed volunteers. They were divided into 2 groups: those either with expressed or non-expressed native EEG alpha-rhythm. Both groups were divided into two subgroups - those who reported and those who didn't report the transitions of Necker cube perception. Eye movements were recorded while subjects watched the Necker cube and reported perceptual reversals by pressing a remote control button. After the experiment, the video recording of eye movements, calibration tables and video recording of stimulus material were processed using the Starburst program. Subsequently, results were processed by software developed in the Matlab environment. It was shown that the distribution of visual attention during free perception of stimulus materials was characterized by the density of fixations of view before and after the alternation of two possible contour interpretation variants. We found a statistically significant difference in the resting-EEG spectral power between the study groups and subgroups, mainly in the right hemisphere in alpha, beta and theta bands and their subbands.

Poster 3-53


Antonia N Kaczkurkin1, Philip C Burton1, Shai M Chazin1, Scott Sponheim2, & Shmuel M Lissek1 1University of Minnesota, 2Minneapolis VA

Descriptors: PTSD, fear conditioning, skin conductance

The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to be related directly to abnormalities in fear conditioning processes. Furthermore, research has begun to explore the effects of the generalization of conditioned fear (the tendency to generalize learned fear to benign stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimuli) in PTSD patients. Research has shown that PTSD patients show greater generalization of conditioned fear compared to healthy controls. However, less is known about the potential differences in the generalization of conditioned fear between those with past or current PTSD diagnoses. It is not well understood whether overgeneralization represents a state-like attribute of this disorder that depends on symptom severity or whether it is a trait-like feature that remains constant regardless of fluctuations in symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to investigate differences in skin conductance responses (SCR) between patients with current or past PTSD diagnoses using rings of graded size as generalization stimuli and mild electric shocks for fear conditioning. The results of this study demonstrated that current PTSD patients showed greater SCR to the conditioned danger cue compared to past PTSD patients while both groups showed similar levels of SCR to the generalization stimuli. These results suggest that levels of conditioned fear to the danger cue represent a state-like condition that depends on symptom severity, while overgeneralization was relatively unaffected by symptom severity, possibly indicating a more trait-like attribute of PTSD.

This research was made possible through funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (Extramural Research Program of the National Institute of Mental Health, grant number K99 MH080130, to Dr. Lissek) and by the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program and the Department of Defense, Grant #PT074550, to Dr. Sponheim.

Poster 3-54


Raoul Dieterich1, Tanja Endrass2, & Norbert Kathmann1 1Humboldt University, Berlin, 2University of Magdeburg

Descriptors: uncertainty, motivated attention, expectancy and covariation bias Previous research associating future uncertainty with a negativity bias and an increased impact of aversive events suggests that it represents an anxiety-related state. Given the

motivational significance that uncertainty thus implies, it was our aim to examine uncertainty-related dynamics in the allocation of attentional resources. Healthy participants performed a picture viewing paradigm where a cue indicated whether the following picture would be neutral (safe condition), aversive (warning condition), or either of the two (uncertain condition). We obtained trial-by-trial (expectancy) and post-experiment (covariation) estimates of aversive picture frequencies in the uncertain condition. As electrophysi-ological correlates of motivated attention we examined late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in response to both cues and pictures. Participants expressed negative expectancy and covariation biases: They overestimated the frequency of aversive pictures appearing after uncertain cues on both trial-by-trial and post-experiment estimates. Cue-locked LPP amplitudes for warning and uncertainty did not differ but both were significantly increased compared to safe cues. Importantly, picture-locked LPPs were more strongly pronounced for both neutral and aversive pictures following an uncertain compared to a safe/warning cue. The results underline the concept of uncertainty as an anxiety-related state. Uncertainty seems to be associated with both a tendency to overestimate threat and increased attentional resource allocation, pointing to its prominent motivational significance.

Poster 3-55


Sandra Paul1, Daniela Simon1, Tanja Endrass1'2, & Norbert Kathmann1 1Humboldt University, Berlin, 2University of Magdeburg

Descriptors: emotion regulation, late positive potential, OCD

Pathological anxiety and maladaptive strategies to reduce anxiety are characteristic of patients with OCD. Symptom provocation studies in these patients have shown abnormal responses in brain areas implicated in emotion regulation. However, instructed emotion regulation has not yet been directly examined in OCD. Because OCD-related anxiety is strongly influenced by dysfunctional obsessive beliefs, we propose that emotion regulation in OCD is impaired when patients are instructed to cognitively engage with OC triggers during cognitive reappraisal, but not when using distraction to divert attention away from these stimuli. ERPs to disorder-relevant (OC), generally aversive (AV), and neutral pictures (NE) were recorded while participants either maintained or reduced emotional responding using cognitive distraction or cognitive reappraisal. In both groups, LPP amplitudes following AV pictures were increased compared to both NE and OC pictures. The LPP was significantly enhanced in response to OC relative to NE pictures for OCD patients only. Compared to healthy controls, OCD patients showed no LPP reduction using cognitive reappraisal whereas both groups displayed decreased LPP amplitudes for cognitive distraction. The results suggest impaired reappraisal in OCD, which is not limited to OC triggers, but extends to unpleasant stimuli in general.

Poster 3-56


Angelika M Dierolf1, Julia Fechtner2, Olga Rapoport1, Mareike J Hülsemann1, & Ewald Naumann1 ^University of Trier, 2Medical Center Möhnesee

Descriptors: stress, aggression, affective information processing

The stress hormone cortisol has been identified as an important factor promoting aggression. Taken by itself, cortisol and aggression have been shown to alter the processing of social relevant information, the latter being crucial in the development of a vicious cycle of violence. The mutual influence of cortisol and aggression on information processing has hardly been examined, however, even though this might provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of the escalation and the persistence of aggressive behavior. The present study investigated the effect of stress-induced rise in cortisol and provoked aggression on affective picture processing. Seventy-one subjects were randomly assigned to a stress or a control condition and were either highly or mildly provoked during the subsequent Taylor Aggression Paradigm. Next, 144 pictures with positive, negative or aggressive content were presented. Meanwhile the EEG was recorded and acute levels of salivary cortisol were collected. Results revealed that cortisol and provocation jointly altered especially later event-related components (P300, slow waves), albeit in opposite direction. While high provocation resulted in overall enhanced amplitudes in the control group, it led to reduced amplitudes to all affective pictures in subjects with stress-induced increase of cortisol levels, indicating a general emotional regulation. These results suggest that adaptive controlling mechanisms are activated to face the mutual impact of stress and provocation, underlining the impact of cortisol in the context of aggression.

Funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: DFG), Project GRK 1389/1.

Poster 3-57


DeWayne P Williams, Lassiter F Speller, Brandon Gillie, Nicole Feeling, Alexander J. Everhart, Julian Koenig, & Julian F Thayer The Ohio State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, false memory, individual differences Humans are often required to distinguish between true and false memories - especially those who have experienced previous traumatic events and/or who must provide an eyewitness testimony. Research suggests that successful discrimination between true and false memories involves resources of working-memory. Evidence shows that individual differences in resting heart rate variability (HRV) are related to working memory performance; however, research has yet to examine individual differences in HRV and true and false recalls. The following study examines this relationship in a sample of 94 undergraduate students. Continuous HRV data were recorded while participants completed a baseline-resting period, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, and a recovery period. During the DRM task, participants were shown 18 word lists (12 words per list), and were later responsible for identifying previous shown words. Hit (correctly identifying previously presented words) rates, false alarm (identifying lure (false) words as true) rates, and d-prime (D'; normalized distance between true and false rates) were obtained. While controlling for gender, ethnicity, and respiration, regression results revealed that HRV predicts D' such that lower HRV is associated with less discrimination between true and false memories (p = .300, p < .05). This study extends previous research on HRV and cognitive performance to a discrimination task, where high HRV individuals may be better able to discriminate between true and false memories.

Poster 3-58


Cameron Rankin, Anthony D Bernardi, Brandon Upchurch, Claudia Cash, Julian Koenig, DeWayne P Williams, & Julian F Thayer The Ohio State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, emotion regulation, individual differences Individual differences in emotion regulation have been linked to vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV). This growing body of literature suggests that individuals with higher resting HRV have greater trait levels of emotional control in comparison to those lower in HRV. However, little research has been conducted to show the relationship between individuals' perceptions of emotional control and HRV. The following study examined the relationship between resting HRV and perceptions of emotion control using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation (DERS) Scale. Continuous HRV data were collected as 198 undergraduate students completed a resting-baseline period and several self-report scales (including the DERS). Correlational results showed a significant negative relationship between resting HRV and DERS scores (r = -.182, p < .05), such that lower HRV is associated with higher difficulties in emotional control. Of the 6 DERS subscales, HRV was most strongly associated with lacking emotion clarity (r = -.163, p < .05), acceptance of emotions (r = -.169, p < .05), and strategies to regulate emotions (r = -.163, p < 05). These findings support the Neurovisceral Integration Model, suggesting that emotional control and autonomic regulation have shared neural networks within the brain. Furthermore, the present study suggests that individuals' own perceptions of emotional control are related to resting levels of HRV - especially when individuals lack emotional clarity and acceptance, as well as strategies to regulate day-to-day negative emotions.

Poster 3-59


Ravi R Bhatt1, Julian Koenig1, Friedrich-Wilhelm Wilker2, Thomas K Hillecke2, & Julian F Thayer1 1The Ohio State University, 2SRH University Heidelberg

Descriptors: skin conductance, emotion, music

Event related responses in skin conductance (SC) have been used to study emotions evoked by music. The present study draws on a previous report (Khalfa et. al 2002) using 18 previously evaluated musical segments representing Ekman's six basic emotions - happiness, anger, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear (Mohn et al. 2011). Here we sought to further evaluate the reliability of these stimuli in a sample of 33 undergraduate students. Mean rating time per musical stimulus was 8.22 sec (SD 5.03). ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean rating time between the items [F(17) = 1.809, p = .024] but not between the placement order of items [F(17) = 1.107, p = .342] or emotional categories [F(5) = 1.857, p = .100]. Time series analysis revealed significant differences [F(5) = 2.605, p = .023] on mean SC change within the 10 seconds following stimulus presentation onset between emotion categories. The present study revealed that musical excerpts could induce responses in SC that differ according to underlying dimensions of emotion. However, these results provide further evidence that event-related Skin Conductance Response (SCR) is not a measure of emotional category but is dependent on arousal.

Poster 3-60


Alicia F Heim, & J Richard Jennings University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: affect, blood pressure

The proposed association between heightened blood pressure (BP) and muted affective processing has recently been revisited. Increased BP was found to dampen ratings of visual and verbal emotional cues in younger and older African Americans (Pury et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2011) as well as in males in a racially diverse sample of young adults (McCubbin et al., 2014). We sought to support the same relationship in a sample of healthy, racially diverse, normotensive, middle aged adults (n = 197,87 males, mean age 48.2). Average resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was related to verbal/ verbal and visual/verbal tasks of the Perception of Affect Task. PAT total score (PAT-TS) was calculated by adding the proportion of correct answers from each subtask. We found a significant correlation between DBP and PAT-TS but only in women (r = -.22, p = .021). The relationship between PAT-TS and DBP (p = -.021, p = .037) in women remained after controlling for basic demographic variables (age, education, and BMI). Adding race (P = -.257, p = -.009) to the model reduced the significance of DBP(p = -.174, p = .069). Examining race separately showed the relationship between PAT-TS and DBP remained strong though not significant for African American women (p = -.264, p = .068) but not for White women (p = -.127, p = .323). Neuropsychological and personality variables also modestly modulated the finding. BP and affect perception seem linked, but clear interpretation awaits understanding of seeming differences by gender and race in the relationships that have been observed in different samples.

Poster 3-61


Lelia Samson1, & Erick Janssen2 1Nanyang Technological University, 2Indiana University

Descriptors: visual attention, method development, information processing A newly developed, software-based method to assess and manipulate visual focus is introduced. It uses circular, transparent outlines ('bubbles') that move over the content of video stimuli. To evaluate the feasibility and validity of the new method, a sample of 50 men was presented with same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli in self-directed and manipulated visual attention conditions while their psychophysiological responses were recorded. Participants were instructed to select a bubble of their choice by using a computer mouse which kept selected content visible while the rest of the screen was dimmed. Only one bubble was made available during conditions in which visual attention was manipulated. Findings revealed that participants could successfully perform the experimental task and that their spontaneous, or self-directed, visual focus was consistent with their sexual orientation, as found in previous research. Results revealed that the viewed content was actually processed, as men had stronger sexual psychophysiological responses (penile rigidity) when viewing orientation-congruent sexual content (M = 39.19, SE = 4.51) than when viewing orientation-incongruent sexual content (M = 12.38, SE = 3.12), F(1,45) = 22.25, p < .0001. Moreover, the new method successfully manipulated visual focus, which was reflected in the psychophysiological responses: directing visual attention towards sexual content resulted in stronger genital responses (M = 25.51, SE = 3.3) than when visual attention was directed towards nonsexual content (M = 15.53, SE = 2.5), F(1,45) = 24.73, p < .0001.

Poster 3-62


David S Curtis, & Thomas Fuller-Rowell Auburn University

Descriptors: stress reactivity, childhood adversity, body mass index Theories of biological sensitivity to context posit that stress-reactive children are more vulnerable to adversity, but also more positively affected by enriching environments (Ellis & Boyce, 2008). As a test of this theory, the current study investigates whether parasym-pathetic reactivity to a Trier stress task moderates the effects of early life adversity on body mass index (BMI). The sample consisted of 150 students at a large Midwestern university (42% African American; 58% white; 57% female; M = 18.81 years, SD = .96). Vagal withdrawal was indexed by a residualized change score calculated from estimates of heart rate variability (HF spectral power) during resting and stress-task periods. Regression models were used to estimate the main effects of vagal reactivity and childhood adversity and their interaction on BMI. Demographic characteristics, maternal education, current smoker, and physical activity were included as covariates. Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with higher BMI (B = 10.7, SE = 2.8, p < .001), but vagal withdrawal was not (B = .95, SE = .61, p = .12). Furthermore, vagal reactivity moderated the

childhood adversity-BMI link (B = 14.4, SE = 4.3, p = .001) such that stress-reactive participants had lower BMI scores at lower levels of adversity (consistent with a heightened sensitivity and ability to benefit from positive environments) but higher BMI when reporting more childhood adversity (consistent with the effects of risky environments being augmented for reactive individuals).

RWJF Health & Society Scholars Program.

Poster 3-63


Edgar Jamison-Koenig, & Robert F Potter Indiana University

Descriptors: music, attention, arousal

As a form of media, music is ubiquitous and rich in diversity. It can be simple, slow and unchanging, or complex, fast, and unpredictable; it can also be low or high in intensity depending on its use of tonal qualities and texture. A. Lang's (2006) model of media processing guides understanding of how listeners attend to and are aroused by music varying in complexity and intensity. Pretest data guided selection of 32 15-second clips in a 2 (Complexity) x 2 (Intensity) x 2 (Genre) x 4 (Repetition) within-subjects design. The Genre factor had two levels: classical and metal. High vs. low complexity and intensity were completely crossed. Time-locked heart rate and EDA data were collected from 45 subjects, along with self-report data following each clip. High-complexity music was rated as more arousing than low-complexity. Heart rate data showed a significant interaction between complexity and genre. Though the high-complexity classical clips elicited the predicted deeper orienting response, the low complexity metal music elicited deeper orienting responses than those of high complexity. The greatest physiological arousal was found when listening to low-complexity, high-intensity clips, followed by the two high-complexity conditions, with low levels of both showing the lowest arousal. This is at odds with the self-report data, which was highest for the high-complexity /high-intensity music, followed by high-complexity/low-intensity, low complexity/high-intensity, and low complexity/low-intensity music.

Poster 3-64


Xi Chen, Isao Takahashi, Yoshimitsu Okita, Hisashi Hirata, & Toshifumi Sugiura Shizuoka University

Descriptors: anterior alpha asymmetry, alpha fluctuation, comfort vector The Anterior Asymmetry and Emotion model (AAE model) is considered to serve as a trait-and state-dependent measure and is more likely to reflect motivational direction rather than valence. Another Comfort Vector model (CV model) proposed by Yoshida uses prefrontal alpha wave fluctuation to evaluate psychological states from two dimensions, affective valence and arousal. We have reported its validity in a previous study. In the present study, we investigated the psychological responses to sound stimuli (scary and soothing) in 12 subjects by combing the AAE and CV models. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their baseline frontal asymmetry patterns (baseline relative activation: Right (R) > Left (L) and L > R). For the scary stimulus, both groups showed a significant increase relative to right frontal activation (F(2,22) = 6.375, p < .05), which reflects greater withdrawal motivation, and a decreased positive affect (F(2,22) = 5.798, p = .01). The baseline R > L group also showed greater arousal (t(5) = 2.29, p < .05). For the soothing stimulus, the baseline L > R group showed a significant increase in the pleasant affect (t(5) = 3.71, p < .01) while the relative left activation was non-significant. An unclear change was observed in the R > L group. The scary stimulus elicited more significant responses than the soothing stimulus. The greater right baseline frontal activation might be related to a more significant response to a negative than to a positive stimulus, and the greater left frontal activation to a more flexible response to elicitors.

Poster 3-65


Toshifumi Sugiura, Naotaka Hasebe, Chen Xi, Isao Takahashi, Yoko Mizutani, & Hisashi Hirata Shizuoka University

Descriptors: gustatory stimulation, event-related potentials, P300

Selecting foods is of critical importance for a living organism. The aim of the present study was to investigate P3 components during auditory oddball tasks under three different gustatory conditions (bitter, sweet, control) and reconsider the correlations among taste quality, P3 amplitude, and its latency. Subjects were 10 healthy university male students who volunteered for nonpaid participation in the study. The aim and details of the experiment were explained to the subjects, and the experimental protocols were approved by the

ethics committees of Shizuoka University. Turmeric solution (2.9%) and glucose solution (38%) were used to represent different hedonic properties, unpleasant and pleasant, respectively. One drop of each solution (1 ml) was dropped on the center portion of a tongue by a dropper and a conventional auditory task was applied to record an event-related potential. Subjects were asked to relax with their eyes closed and to listen to either 2 kHz (target, infrequent) or 1 kHz (standard, frequent) pure tone sounds, generated randomly with an approximate ratio of 1 : 4, respectively. The peak latency of the P3 component for turmeric solution was shorter (p < 0.05) than that for the glucose solution. The unpleasant gustatory stimulus might increase alertness and speed-up information processing of sounds, which might result in shortened latency.

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan.

Poster 3-66


Richard T Amoss1, & Gwen A Frishkoff2 1Emory University, 2Georgia State University

Descriptors: laughter, event-related potentials, priming

Laughter may be uniquely important as a cue to positive, socially relevant feelings and emotions. However, few studies have examined psychophysiological responses to laughter. To address this gap, the present study examined emotional priming of visually presented words when primes were either short (500 ms) bouts of laughter or other affectively charged (pleasant or unpleasant) sounds. Participants were asked to judge the valence of the word (pleasant or unpleasant) as quickly as possible while their electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded. EEG responses were then averaged to produce event-related potentials (ERP). The study addressed three questions. (1) Does emotion priming lead to N400 effects as reported by other researchers? (2) Do positive and negative sounds elicit different neurocognitive responses? (3) Are there laughter-specific ERPs? Results showed no evidence for N400 effects in emotion priming. Instead, there was a later (400-600 ms) effect of emotional congruency between prime and target over orbitofrontal electrodes. Valence-specific effects were observed in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and in the late positive potential (LPP). Laughter-specific effects were observed over orbitofrontal sites beginning approximately 200 ms after target onset. These findings contribute to the understanding of neurocognitive stages of laughter perception and suggest a need for further research on the N400 as a marker of emotion priming. More generally, they add to the growing literature on the neurophysiology of laughter comprehension.

Poster 3-67


Victoria A Kazmerski, Dawn G Blasko, Robert Fogle, Erica Edwards, Christie Leslie, & Alicia McAllister Pennsylvania State University Erie, The Behrend College

Descriptors: language, event-related potentials

Metaphors and the people who interpret them vary in many dimensions that can influence the way that metaphors are processed. In the current study we used 120 nominal metaphors from the Cardillo (2010) database. Of these 60 had an auditory vehicle (The job was an endless groan) and 60 had a motor vehicle (The home purchase was a sky dive). The literal control sentences used the same final words. For each type of metaphor there were 20 metaphors each of high, medium, and low familiarity. ERPs were collected from 64-channels while participants read the sentences and judged its meaningfulness (not meaningful, somewhat meaningful, very meaningful) using a button press. Data from 39 participants revealed that overall the literal statements were judged more meaningful than the metaphors. Interesting patterns emerged when looking at the time it took for participants to make this semantic judgment; the auditory metaphors took longer to judge but the reverse was true for the motor metaphors. ERP were averaged by familiarity separately for the auditory and motor based items. ERPs were averaged across sites to create nine regions of interest (Left/Center/Right x Frontal/ Central/Posterior). Modality and familiarity influenced processing at the P300, but did not differ by sentence type. An interaction of sentence type, familiarity, and laterality was reliable at the late negativity (600-750 ms). An interaction of modality, sentence type, caudality, and laterality was found at the late positivity (751-1050 ms).

Poster 3-68


Ben B Rickles, Lindsay H Harris, & Charles A Perfetti University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: N170, pseudowords, lexical decision

Occurring posteriorly between 150 and 220 ms, the left-lateralized N170 event-related potential has been thought to index the higher-order assembly of visual wordforms,

originating in tissue vital to the consciousness of complete wordforms. Using a lexical decision task comprising words and pseudowords (modeled as near-neighbors of real words), the present study looked at the value of the N170 both as a predictor of task behavior and of individual difference in reading skill. Differences between the left N170 elicited by words and pseudowords (word effect) distinguished skilled readers from less skilled readers. The left N170 word effect was predictive of the error signal (Error-related negativity (ERN)), post response, as well as a range of individual differences, including online task accuracy, as well as offline measures of reading comprehension, vocabulary, phonological awareness, spelling, and reading experience. The relationship of the word effect to the ERN, trial outcomes, and to individual differences is telling of brain function during word recognition. The word effect appears a result of skill and experience with word forms, at least under the proper conditions and the constraints set by this task. Also, this effect is important, but not vital, to obtaining the ERN effect for mistakes in a word task. Causes of the word effect are likely due to processes mutually affecting ERN, and may or may not increase between ~200 ms and the time of response. Future research will aim at using the N170 to predict individual trial outcomes. NICHD R01HD058566-02

Poster 3-69


Carla Matos Silva1, Isabel Barahona Fonseca2, & Maria Armanda Costa2 xInstituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ESTeSC - Coimbra Health School, 2FPUL/CLUL

Descriptors: semantic processing, auditory processing disorders, event-related potentials

We studied the interaction between semantic and syntactic information in language auditory processing in participants with and without Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) using behavioral and electrophysiological (Event Related Potentials, ERPs) data. Sample: 21 adult Portuguese native speakers (3 with APD). Experimental conditions: (1) Semantic categorization task: listen to series of words denoting entities belonging to a lexical field (objects, fruits, animals), in series of three words of the same field, the fourth was from another semantic field; (2) Sentence interpretation task: listen to declarative congruent and incongruent sentences (incongruence arising from the violation of the semantic properties of the verb). The EEG was collected (referential; SI 10/20) and ERPs synchronous to the critical event were computed (averaging and regression to the mean 200 ms baseline) separately for each one of the conditions. Results: In subjects without APD, ERP's LPP and negative waveform's amplitudes were significantly higher for unrelated words (compared with related) in F3 (EEG). In declarative sentences no significant differences were found (low statistical power). The same LPP effects were consistently observed in APD subjects with higher amplitude. This response profile was observed in words and in declarative sentences. Conclusions: subjects with APD seem to process semantic information differently from normal subjects. The LPP higher amplitude suggests an increased attention state, higher allocation of processing resources for semantic integration in these patients.

Poster 3-70


Sebastian Schindler, & Johanna Kissler Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC), University of Bielefeld

Descriptors: event-related potentials, emotion, social feedback

In everyday life we are confronted with social feedback, addressing for example one's work performance, abilities, or personality. Words can serve to communicate social feedback. In the present study, participants' cortical responses were recorded in response to personality feedback putatively given by another human or a computer program, based on a short video recorded by the participant. Feedback highlighted negative, neutral or positive traits, and in both conditions was given randomly. Results during feedback presentation showed that the 'human sender' led to enhanced P2, EPN and LPP ERP responses. In source space, enhanced activity for the 'human sender' condition was observed in visual areas, including the bilateral fusiform gyri. Emotion condition effects between positive and negative feedback were found at the N1 and at the late EPN. Further, positive feedback led to an enhanced LPP in right-frontal regions - mainly driven by the 'human sender' condition - whereas negative feedback led to sustained negativity over occipital regions. Accordingly, an interaction between sender identity and emotion indicated that within the 'human sender' condition, positive feedback was processed more intensely than negative and neutral feedback, peaking around 430 ms over right-frontal regions. These results indicate the influence of sender identity on language processing. It shows that even a virtual human interactive partner is a more salient source of social feedback than a computer, amplifying activation in regions associated with language and emotion.

This research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG KI1283/4-1 and by the DFG, Cluster of Excellence 277 "Cognitive Interaction Technology".

Poster 3-71


Erwin R Villuendas-González1, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez2, & Andrés A González-Garrido2 Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, 2University of Guadalajara

Descriptors: performance monitoring, vicarious monitoring, empathy Performance monitoring depends on cortical structures that are also activated in vicarious monitoring and shared with empathy processing. While many experiments have shown that vicarious and on-line monitoring have a similar basis, most such experiments have focused on simple tasks. In order to assess the effect of non-contingent feedback on vicarious monitoring, 23 young volunteer adults were evaluated: in one session, they performed a rule-based category formation task, without feedback. In a second session, ERPs were obtained while subjects passively reviewed performances attributed to themselves and peers they had rated as either socially close or distant. FRN and fP300 components were analyzed with respect to the valence and agent of the feedback. For empathy analysis, subjects were split into high/low empathizers on the IRI subscales. Results show that non-contingent FRN waves are modulated by the valence of the feedback, and that P300 is modulated by the agent to whom performance feedback is attributed. We observed no differences for FRN on high-vs. low-empathizers. Subjects classified as low- or high-empathizers in the Fantasy and Empathic Concern of the IRI had distinct fP300 patterns: the latter showed similar voltages for feedback related to their own performance and to that of someone close to them, while the former showed similar voltages for peers regardless of social distance. This experiment constitutes a novel approach to the evaluation of ERP correlates of vicarious monitoring through non-contingent feedback and its relations to empathy processing.

This research project was conducted with a PhD scholarship funded by the National Research and Technology Council (Conacyt).

Poster 3-72


Anastacia Y Kudinova1, Cara Hueston1, Terrence Deak1, John E McGeary2, Valerie S Knopik3, Rohan HC Palmer3, & Brandon E Gibb1 1Binghamton University, The State University of New York, 2Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brown University, 3Rhode Island Hospital and Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University

Descriptors: genes, cytokines, depression

The up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been linked to a major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans and depression-like behavior in animals. Not all depressed patients, however, have an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and not all individuals with increased inflammation become depressed. The involvement of environmental and genetic moderators seems highly plausible. To further eliminate the associations between stress, inflammation, and depression history, we conducted a series of animal and human studies. The initial aim was to quantify the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin-1Beta (IL-1Beta) and IL-33, in rats that had been exposed to acute stress. The secondary aim was to examine the interactive effects of IL-1Beta and IL-33 haplotypes and childhood abuse on risk of recurrent depression and suicide attempts in women. In study 1, we found that rats subjected to acute stress had a significant increase in IL-1Beta and IL-33 expression in the PFC and PVN. In study 2, there was a significant interaction effect between IL-33 haplotype and women's history of childhood abuse on history of recurrent depression and suicide attempts, with the CT protective haplotype reducing risk in survivors of abuse. These findings provide preliminary support for involvement of IL-1Beta and IL-33 genes in the response to stress and suggest that variation in IL-33 may impact long to vulnerability following early life stress.

Poster 3-73


Laura Stockdale, Robert G Morrison, Robert Palumbo, Matthew Kmiecik, James Garbarino, & Rebecca L Silton Loyola University Chicago

Descriptors: mood, negative valence, emotional faces

Mood can influence the top-down and bottom-up processing of emotional information. Past researchers have failed to adequately distinguish the contributions of violence and fear, as negatively valenced moods, on the top-down and bottom-up components of emotional processing. 25 undergraduate students were shown a violent film clip and completed a stop-signal gender discrimination task with happy and fearful faces while their EEG was recorded using a 64 channel BioSemi Active system. Several weeks later participants were shown a fearful film clip and completed the same stop-signal task. Presentation of the film clip was counter balanced across participants and previous research

has shown the two clips to be equally engaging and arousing. Mean amplitudes and 50% fractional latencies were used to measure amplitude and latency differences across groups. Overall exposure to violence resulted in an increased P100 amplitudes and decreased N170 amplitudes in the posterior right electrodes, generating from the fusiform gyrus. Exposure to fear resulted in an increased P200 amplitude in the frontocentral portion of the brain relative to the violent condition and there was no significant difference in the P200 for positively or negatively valenced faces across both conditions. Exposure to violence resulted in decreased P300 amplitudes for the stop-trials. Together these findings suggest that exposure to violence and fear influence both top-down and bottom-up processing in distinct ways.

American Psychological Association.

Poster 3-74


Anna Slavina, & Robert West Iowa State University

Descriptors: risky gains

How people view decisions depends on the amount of risk involved when selecting an action. We were interested in examining stimulus evaluation during decision making in a risk based task. Participants completed the risky gains task where they were presented with values 20, 40, and 80 sequentially for a trial. Each value appeared on screen for one second before the next value was displayed. Participants could choose to stay at a value via key press. Staying at 20 guaranteed a gain of 20 points while staying at 40 or 80 could result in either a gain or loss of the respective value. The values were balanced so there would be no advantage to only staying on 20 compared to staying on 40 (75% wins) or staying on 80 (63.25% wins). We examined the fronto-central P3 (380 ms-760 ms). The first effect we found was a difference in P3 amplitude between choosing to stay at 20 and continuing. Staying on 20 resulted in a larger P3. The next effect we found was a difference in amplitudes between different magnitudes of values. The P3 was smallest for staying on 20, larger for staying on 40, and the largest for staying on 80. The final effect we found was a difference between choosing to take an immediate risk (staying on either 40 or 80) and not taking a risk (either the decision to stay on 20 or to continue). This indicates that people are not only evaluating stimuli based on whether they are making an immediate decision but that they are also considering the risk as well as the magnitude of potential reward or loss.

Poster 3-75


Jian Chen, & Shimin Fu Tsinghua University

Descriptors: figure-ground segregation, orientation, primary visual cortex Previous studies have suggested that figure-ground segregation in human primary visual cortex (V1) was influenced by several variables. Recently, increasing factors affecting figure-ground segregation were revealed. Here, we investigated the influence of orientation on figure-ground segregation when an orientation-defined figure was presented in upper visual field. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during the cyclically appearance and disappearance of figures. Comparing with homogeneous background, figures elicited more negative N1 (150-180 ms), P2&N2 (from 214 to 288 ms), which was consistent with previous findings. Most importantly, we found that figure local orientation could influence the figure-ground segregation: figures with vertical local orientation elicited a more negative C1 than its correspondingly homogeneous background (90-100 ms, p = 0.001) while the figures with horizontal local orientation did not (p = 0.63). Source analysis indicates such a difference was generated via feedback signals from the higher visual cortex. Our results show that figure-ground segregation is influenced by figure's local orientation, which extend our understanding of the neural mechanism of figure-ground segregation.

Poster 3-76


LaBarron K Hill1, Deleon L Gray2, Adrienne T Aiken-Morgan3, Christopher L Edwards1, & Keith E Whitfield3

1Duke University Medical Center, 2North Carolina State University, 3Duke University

Descriptors: John Henryism, active coping, blood pressure

African Americans have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Several factors, including heightened cardiovascular reactivity to stress and social disadvantage have been explored as potential explanatory mechanisms for this health disparity. Research has also suggested that John Henryism (JH), or the tendency to actively strive towards goals

despite adverse conditions, may have both protective and damning cardiovascular effects, depending on the availability of additional resources. We examined the interactive relationship of JH, education and blood pressure reactivity using data from the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA). CAATSA consists of 265 pairs of twins and members of non-intact twin pairs. Reactivity was determined as the change in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure to a standard physical stressor minus baseline BP. JH was assessed using the 12-item, John Henryism Active Coping Scale and education was measured as the total number of years of schooling participants had completed. In multilevel regression analysis controlling for age, gender and body mass index, there was a significant interaction between JH and educational attainment, b = —1.17, p < .05, on BP reactivity. Tests of slopes revealed that, among individuals with lower levels of educational attainment (—1 SD), greater JH was significantly associated with greater overall BP reactivity (DBPI b = .91, p < .05). These data support previous notions that at higher levels, John Henryism may indeed be adaptive, especially when paired with other coping resources.

CAATSA was funded by a grant from the National Institute onAging (1R01-AG13662-01A2) to K.E.W. Research conducted by L.K.H was supported by National Institute of Aging grant (5T32AG000029-37).

Poster 3-77


Elena P Krutenkova, Elena A Esipenko, & Marina Yu Khodanovich Tomsk State University

Descriptors: emotion, event-related potentials, cognition

The emotional impact on cognitive processes was studied with ERPs. ERPs of 33 subjects (16 male, 17 female) were recorded simultaneously with presentation of cognitive (memory or thinking tasks) and emotional (words and pictures) stimuli at the center of the screen. Emotional stimuli were presented randomly (30 positive, 30 negative, 30 neutral). Subjects had to solve the tasks independently of emotional impact and say the answer aloud after pressing a space key. The polarity of early stage wave differences (WD) between ERPs to emotional and neutral stimuli were positive for thinking tasks (P80-200 to both words and pictures) and negative for memory tasks (N200-400 to pictures, N0-100 to words). On the middle latency stage we found the following WD: N400-600 (thinking-pictures), N400-700 (memory-pictures), N150 and N300-600 (thinking-words), P100-300 (memory-words). In the late stage, a positive P400-800 WD was found independently on task and emotional stimulus. Based on different polarity, we propose that the early stage of processing is determined by task specificity. Memory tasks were easier and subjects could pay attention to the emotional stimuli, but difficult thinking tasks required more resources so people tried to suppress reactions to emotional stimuli. Late positive components reflected emotional activation and were found for all tasks and emotional stimulus combinations. Middle latency components were sensitive to combinations of cognitive task and emotional stimulus type and connected with both emotional activation and cognitive activity.

Poster 3-78


Jenny Kokinous1, Alessandro Tavano1, Sonja A Kotz2'3, & Erich Schroger1 1University of Leipzig, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3University of Manchester

Descriptors: emotion, audiovisual, electroencephalography

Recent research on emotion perception has increasingly recognized the importance of ecological validity in multisensory integration. We investigated amplitude suppression of the auditory N100 event-related potential - an indicator of audiovisual facilitation - during the processing of ecologically valid, dynamic emotion expressions (i.e., face-voice pairs). To explore whether audiovisual facilitation depends on visual signal quality, spatial frequency (SF) filtering was applied to the faces. We found that the influence of SF filtering on audiovisual integration interacts with emotion. For neutral expressions, N1 suppression was larger for the fully informative compared to the SF filtered expressions (filter-specific suppression). For angry expressions, N1 suppression was not reduced by SF filtering (generalized suppression). Thus, angry dynamic facial expressions induced "full-fledged" N1 suppression even under degraded visual stimulation, overruling the informative value of the visual signal. Therefore, multisensory integration may in general be stronger and more robust for emotional compared to non-emotional expressions. We suggest that emotion signals are salient signals that modulate audiovisual integration and emphasize the importance of biological motion in this process.

Poster 3-79


Alwina Stein, Alva Engell, Robert Wunderlich, Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Markus Junghofer, & Christo Pantev Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis

Descriptors: neural inhibition, magnetoencephalography, tinnitus

Tinnitus, the perception of a sound without an external source, is caused by reduced inhibition in the auditory cortex. We investigated the impact of inhibition-induced plasticity on a neural and behavioral level in tinnitus patients. Subjects with chronic tonal tinnitus listened to music passing through a notch-filter centered at the tinnitus frequency (tailor-made notched music, TMNM) for three hours on three consecutive days (study 1). In a second group, TMNM was manipulated by amplifying the energy in the frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octave on each side of the notch about 20 dB (study 2). Neural activity evoked by the tinnitus tone or by a control tone of 500 Hz was measured by magnetoencephalog-raphy before and after music exposure (analysis restricted to N1m time window). Tinnitus loudness was assessed via visual analog scales. In the first study (n = 9), subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness and neural activity evoked by the tinnitus tone in the temporal and parietal lobe decreased significantly after music exposure. Significant increase of frontal lobe activity evoked by the control tone was observed after music exposure as well. These results were replicated in the second study (n = 9). Additionally, group comparison between conventional and modified TMNM resulted in a reduction of neural activity evoked by the tinnitus frequency in a frontal region for the modified TMNM group. Overall, TMNM affects a temporo-parieto-frontal network involved in chronic tinnitus perception and reduces the subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness after three days of music exposure.

Poster 3-80


Alvin B Jin1, Lindsey H Steding1, & Andrea K Webb2 1University of South Florida, 2Draper Laboratory

Descriptors: depression, cardiovascular, electrodermal

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly debilitating mental health concern that affects at least 16% of the U.S. adult population at some point in their life. Individuals with MDD are characterized by depressed mood, a lack of interest in activities that used to be enjoyable, and social withdrawal. These aspects of MDD lead to negative physical, social, and occupational consequences, and an overall reduced quality of life (IsHak et al., 2011). Blunted cardiovascular and electrodermal reactivity to laboratory tasks is observed in individuals with MDD, and proposed as an indicator of behavioral and motivational withdrawal. The present study was conducted to replicate and extend previous findings linking MDD and blunted physiological reactivity. Physiological measurements including electrodermal activity, respiration, electrocardiogram, and pulse photoplethysmography were taken from 25 individuals with MDD and 25 age and gender matched controls. These data were collected from participants during a baseline rest period, presentation of audio startle stimuli with varying inter-stimulus intervals, presentation of emotionally evocative (positive, negative, and neutral valence) images and sounds, and presentation of video clips to elicit positive and negative emotions. Individuals with MDD demonstrated blunted physiological reactivity, especially in response to emotionally evocative images, and there were trends for responses to other stimuli. Results support previous findings. Implications for diagnosis and treatment of MDD are discussed.

Poster 3-81


Darya Zabelina, Daniel O'Leary, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Robin Nusslock, &

Mark Beeman Northwestern University

Descriptors: creativity, sensory gating, attention

There are at least two seemingly contradictory proposals of how attention relates to creativity. The first proposal suggests that creative people may have particularly broad or leaky attention, or a propensity to deploy attention over a wider focus or a larger range of stimuli at once. An alternative proposal of how attention relates to creativity suggests that creativity depends on the ability to focus and shift attention. We suggest that the two proposals may both operate, but on different aspects of creativity. Specifically, we provide evidence that divergent thinking, a standard laboratory measure of creative cognition, and real-world creative achievement, have reliably different associations with sensory gating, a very early form of attention, as assessed by the P50 ERP. Even when controlling for academic test scores, creative achievement is associated with reduced sensory gating, whereas divergent thinking is associated with increased sensory gating. Highlighting the fact that divergent thinking and creative achievement address different aspects ofcreativity,

the relations for the two creativity measures and the P50 sensory gating are in opposite directions, and strongly differ from each other. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement do not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200.

This research was supported by the Northwestern University Graduate Research Grant to Darya Zabelina, and John Templeton Foundation Grant to Mark Beeman.

Poster 3-82


Allan J Heritage, Woodman F Geoffrey, & Zald H David Vanderbilt University

Descriptors: reward, working memory, event-related potentials

Trait level reward sensitivity differs greatly between individuals. For example, some people excitedly anticipate the arrival of a payday or deeply enjoy a glass of wine. Others do not experience this same anticipation or pleasure, even for typically rewarding stimuli such as food or sex. The extent to which individuals are sensitive to rewards influences how they behave to obtain those rewards. Rewards also increase early sensory and attentional processing, as well as influence behavior across a variety of tasks. This suggests that reward influences the recruitment of multiple cognitive mechanisms, of which working memory may play a central role. The current study examines the influence of trait level individual differences in reward sensitivity on the recruitment of multiple cognitive mechanisms in conditions of reward. A rewarded visual search task and event-related potentials are used to index specific cognitive processes along with self-report measures of reward sensitivity. Results show that not only does reward influence the functioning of working memory and other cognitive mechanisms but that the extent of this influence is related in specific ways to trait level individual differences in reward sensitivity.

This study was funded in part by a National Research Service Award (1F31MH02888-01) to A.H.

Poster 3-83


Carlos Ventura-Bort1, Andreas Low2, Rosario Poy1, Javier Moltó1, Alfons O Hamm2, & Mathias Weymar2 1Jaume I University of Castellón, 2University of Greifswald

Descriptors: emotion, learning, memory

Previous research has reported both facilitating and impairing effects on associative binding of neutral information when emotional material is presented simultaneously. In the present study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the impact of emotional contexts on electrocortical processing of neutral objects. Participants viewed 144 neutral objects (e.g., household, tools, school supply) superimposed on emotional and neutral background scenes (IAPS; 48 unpleasant, 48 pleasant, and 48 neutral). They were instructed to imagine that each object is a part of the scene. During each trial neutral objects were shown for 3 sec in isolation followed by a 3 sec interval where the object was paired with a background scene. All object-picture pairings were repeated once (two blocks). ERP results showed that in the 2nd block neutral objects previously paired with an emotional background picture prompted an enhanced ERP positivity over (left) posterior electrodes in early (around 160 ms) and late time windows (480-750 ms), compared to neutral objects paired with a neutral background. No such an ERP difference was found in the first block, in which neutral objects were encoded for the first time. Our ERP results indicate enhanced processing of neutral stimuli previously presented in emotional contexts, a learning mechanism that may facilitate associative binding in memory. Caixa Castelló-Bancaixa Foundation E-2013-15.

Poster 3-84


Emily C Cunningham, Jamie C Klein, & Paul D Kieffaber College of William and Mary

Descriptors: error correction

Although a significant body of research has explored neural correlates of error detection and response correction, the functional significance of response-based event-related potential (ERP) components is still debated. One limitation of research in this area is that errors are often assessed via discrete responses, such as key presses, which limit differentiation of movement initiation and movement correction. To isolate neural responses associated with movement correction, we employed a mouse-tracking paradigm in which participants

responded to stimuli by moving a cursor from a starting location to a choice of responses. By recording cursor position every 5 ms, we were able to distinguish between committed errors (incorrect responses) and corrected errors (incorrect responses initiated and corrected), in addition to isolating the point of response correction. As expected, an error-related negativity (ERN) component was observed following initiation of both incorrect and corrected responses. However, no evidence was found of a correct response negativity (CRN) following initiation of correct responses, corroborating suggestions that the CRN observed in discrete-response paradigms may in fact reflect error correction. Further, analyses of recordings time-locked to the point of response correction revealed a biphasic ERP component along with increased frontal midline theta oscillations. These observed responses, similar to those associated with the ERN in prior research, are consistent with indications that error detection and correction share common neural substrates.

Poster 3-85


Andrew FH Payne1, Michael E Dawson1, & Anne M Schell2 1University of Southern California, 2Occidental College

Descriptors: skin conductance, electrodermal activity, sweat glands In the interest of refining the current recommendations for electrode placement in skin conductance (SC) recording, this study was conducted in two phases with college student participants. The first phase compared two sites on the foot, the recommended abductor hallucis site and the toes, with each other and with the "gold standard" fingertip site with respect to tonic and phasic skin conductance using both discrete stimuli and an activating task. The second phase investigated the extent to which the wrist, a site favored for use with new wireless ambulatory SC technologies, is comparable to the fingertips and the foot sites. Recent research has reported contradictory results as to whether the foot or fingers produce greater SC responses and, while the potential for ambulatory EDA recording from the wrist is appealing, few evaluations of this site exist, especially measuring phasic SC changes to discrete stimuli. Our findings indicate that: (1) the fingertips produced higher tonic SCL and produced larger responses than either site on the foot, (2) the toes produced equal or greater responses compared to the recommended abductor hallucis, and (3) the wrist produced significantly lower tonic SCL and was unreliable or simply unresponsive in showing phasic changes in SC.

Poster 3-86


Timothy J Wanger, David W Frank, & Dean Sabatinelli University of Georgia

Descriptors: emotion, late positive potential, EPN

The rated emotional intensity of natural scene stimuli is associated with reduced scalp positivity over lateral occipital areas between 150 and 300 ms (early posterior negativity or EPN), and enhanced scalp positivity over centroparietal areas between 450 and 900 ms after scene onset (late positive potential or LPP). While both of these potentials reflect emotional intensity (pleasant or unpleasant), their modulation may reflect partially unique aspects of the emotional perception process. Here we recorded scene onset event related potentials with a 64-channel array to compare EPN and LPPmodulation in a group of 18 participants as they viewed two presentations of a mixed series of 80 emotional and neutral pictures, including depictions of erotic and romantic couples, happy families, neutral people, land and cityscapes, threatening animals and people, and mutilations. Results indicate reliable modulation of the EPN and LPP by emotional, relative to neutral scenes, and modest within-subject correlations of the 2 components across scene category. The role of specific scene content and repetition block will be examined across individual participants. These data suggest that emotional modulation of the EPN and LPP reflect partially distinct aspects of natural scene viewing, consistent with their differential latency in the perceptual process.

Poster 3-87


Elisa Berdica, Andrew J White, Florian Bublatzky, Antje BM Gerdes, & Georg W Alpers University of Mannheim

Descriptors: attention, emotion, eye-tracking

Research on emotional processing has shown that threat-related stimuli capture and hold attention more than neutral stimuli. Relevant theories suggest a hypervigilance towards threatening cues and a difficulty to disengage the attention from threat, especially for anxious individuals. Still, the question how different types of pictures, e.g., angry faces compare to phobia-relevant cues, i.e. spiders remains unclear. This study employed a free viewing paradigm whereby pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented -pictures of spiders and neutral animals; neutral faces and angry faces; spiders and angry faces. 30 participants were recruited at a university science fair and an SMI RED250 system was used to record eye-movements while participants viewed pictures appearing on the screen. Before the experiment began, they were screened for spider phobia, social phobia,

and trait anxiety. Interestingly, in this context, first fixations were more likely to be placed onto the neutral than the emotional animal/face. Furthermore, more time was spent fixating on neutral than emotional pictures. In the condition where spiders were paired with angry faces, first fixations were typically placed on the spiders but subsequently more time was spent looking at the angry faces. Thus, it appears that individuals avoid looking at threatening stimuli when this is possible, although angry faces are processed in a more elaborate way. These results contribute to the literature suggesting that social stimuli are preferentially processed from our attentional system.

Poster 3-88


Luke R Enge1, David R Herring2, Amber K Lupo1, Michael A Zarate1, Hugo Sandoval3, Andrew Sands1, & Stephen F Sands1 1University of Texas - El Paso, 2University of Florida, 3Texas Tech

Descriptors: social perception/cognition, slow cortical potentials, source reconstruction Studies of race perception and emotion have typically relied on event-related potential (ERPs) techniques to explore the temporal dynamics of social-emotional perception. These studies have found distinct ERPs associated with perceiving and evaluating a racial in-versus out-group member (e.g., N170; P300). The study reported here builds on this research and integrates a novel neurophysiological correlate of emotional processing, the slow cortical potential, to investigate how emotional information simultaneously interacts with racial group membership to influence social learning. Participants first viewed a set of 10 racial in-group or out-group faces. Then, they viewed half of those previously seen faces paired with an emotionally positive or negative picture and a novel set of racial in- and out-group photos paired with emotionally positive or negative pictures. All photographs were viewed for 6 seconds. ERP analyses replicate the classic N170 finding whereby larger N170's were observed for racial in-versus out-group members. Source reconstruction (sLORETTA) estimates on our slow potentials (< 1 Hz) suggest differential influences of race and emotion on frontal cortical structures involved in evaluation and social cognition, specifically, orbitofrontal cortices, medial prefrontal cortices and inferior frontal gyri. It is concluded that source reconstruction of slow cortical potentials are a novel tool that can be used to investigate perceptual processes as they unfold over longer epochs, a departure from traditional studies of social perception with the use of only ERPs.

Poster 3-89


Brett J Grant, Alexa M Tullett, & Philip A Gable University of Alabama

Descriptors: emotion, motivation

In the current study we were interested in how observing the emotional expressions of others influenced people's emotional and motivational state. Participants viewed three videos of an individual demonstrating fear, excitement, and neutral reactions. After each video, they completed a task where they approached or avoided positive or negative pictures. Measures of affect, reaction times for task, EMG, and EEG were taken. Reaction time index scores reflected the speed with which participants approached the images, such that higher numbers indicated greater approach. Participants had higher approach indexes towards positive stimuli after the excitement video than after the fear video. In contrast, participants had higher approach indexes towards negative pictures after the fear video than after the excitement video. These results suggest that fear videos evoked approach-oriented emotions and behaviors. Whereas individuals adopted the approach motivation displayed by the excitement video, they were also approach motivated by the fear video.

Poster 3-90


Ryan L Olson, Kathryn del Prado, Lisa Qian, & Brandon L Alderman Rutgers University

Descriptors: obesity, response monitoring, error-related negativity

Obesity affects over one-third of the U.S. adult population and is associated with significant increase in disease risk. Until recently, little was known about the relation between obesity and cognitive function. Obesity has been associated with reduced grey matter volume in the orbital frontal cortex and decreased activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions critical to cognitive control. A more sensitive approach to investigating these relationships is through the combined use of behavioral and electrophysiological methods. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and response monitoring. We compared cognitive control in normal weight, overweight, and obese men and women using a modified version of the Simon Task while recording response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). Response monitoring was examined through the

error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity (Pe). Behavioral task performance was assessed through response time and accuracy. No significant between group differences were found for response time or accuracy. Although no significant group differences were found for the ERN, overweight and obese participants exhibited a significantly reduced Pe, a later-stage ERP linked to response monitoring and behavioral adjustment, relative to normal weight individuals. These results suggest that obesity in young adulthood may be associated with impaired response monitoring. These findings may add to the current understanding of obesity and cognitive control and suggest potential targets for intervention.

Poster 3-91


Thai Nhi, & Perez-Edgar Koraly The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: behavioral inhibition, event-related potentials, attention Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically based temperament marked by displays of fear in response to novelty, including heightened vigilance toward unfamiliar situations or stimuli (Fox et al., 2001), and increased anxious behaviors (Perez-Edgar et al., 2005). The current ongoing study examined differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) of attention to emotion faces among BI and non-BI children. Children ages 9 to 12 (N = 44) were screened for BI through parental reports and classified as BI (N = 18) or non-BI (N = 26). Children performed the dot-probe task with simultaneous ERP measures. In the task, children were asked to respond to a probe that replaces face stimuli (angry or neutral). ERPs time-locked to face displays revealed that BI was associated with an earlier N1 latency for both group (t = -2.11, p = .04) and continuous score (r = -.32, p = .03) analyses. Thus, BI children may have a faster attentional orientation to face stimuli. BI is also linked to an overactive amygdala response to novelty and unfamiliarity (Fox et al., 2005). Rich et al. (2010) found that children with amygdala hyperactivity rated neutral faces as more hostile and fearful. Further, anxious children interpreted a higher proportion of ambiguous or neutral scenarios as affectively negative and threatening (Carthy et al., 2010). In the current study, BI was associated with larger N2 amplitude time-locked to neutral faces for both group (t = 2.38, p = .02) and continuous score (r = .31, p = .04) analyses. Thus, BI children may be more engaged in processing ambiguous neutral faces for their emotional content.

poster session iv

_Saturday september13 2211_

Poster 4-1


Ramona Baur1, Paul Pauli1, Markus Nehfischer1, Michael Stefan Jost1, Maximilian Schorb1, Nadja Becker1, Marcel Romanos1, Klaus-Peter Lesch1, Andreas Muhlberger2, & Annette Conzelmann1 University of Wurzburg, 2University of Regensburg

Descriptors: virtual reality, emotion

In everyday life, emotional reactions are often induced by social interactions. To examine emotional reactions in an ecologically valid, but standardized way, we developed a virtual penalty kicking paradigm to induce emotions. Positive trials consisted of hits and positive feedback from a virtual trainer, negative trials of misses and negative feedback. We collected data from 26 healthy participants and measured subjective emotional valence and arousal, zygomaticus and corrugator activity as well as behavioral reactions based on a categorical observation system. Subjective ratings as well as muscular facial reactions were modulated in the expected way: positive trials went along with pleasant valence ratings and zygomaticus activation; negative trials with unpleasant valence ratings and corrugator activation. Arousal ratings were higher in both the pleasant and the unpleasant condition than in a neutral control condition. Behavioral expressions of positive emotionality were shown more often during positive trials, expressions of negative emotionality were shown more often during negative trials, compared to neutral control trials. In general, induced positive emotions were stronger than negative emotions. Our results show that it is possible to reliably assess socially induced emotions in virtual reality, which combines the advantages of relatively high ecological validity and high experimental control. Still, especially the relatively low induced negative emotions constitute a problem that must be considered before further application of our paradigm. GK Emotions, University of Wurzburg

Poster 4-2


Matthias J Wieser1, Anna-Christine Hambach1, & Mathias Weymar2 University of Wurzburg, 2University of Greifswald

Descriptors: visual search, event-related potentials, social anxiety

Visual search paradigms have provided evidence for enhanced capture of attention by threatening faces. In social anxiety, hypervigilance for threatening faces has been repeat-

edly found across paradigms. In this EEG study, we sought to determine whether the detection of threat (angry faces) is specifically enhanced in individuals with high (HSA) compared to low social anxiety (LSA). In a visual search paradigm, the N2pc component of the event-related brain potential was measured as an electrophysiological indicator of attentional selection. Twenty-one HSA and 21 LSA participants were investigated while searching for threatening or friendly targets within an array of neutral faces, or neutral targets within threatening or friendly distractors. Whereas no group differences were found in reaction times, HSA compared to LSA showed significantly higher detection rates for angry faces. HSA also showed enhanced early N2pc amplitudes (168-248 ms) in response to angry compared to happy face targets, whereas no difference emerged for LSA. Moreover, HSA showed enhanced N2pc amplitudes regardless of facial expression indicating a general attentional bias for emotional faces. Interestingly, the N2pc was also present during search of neutral target stimuli amongst angry distractors in HSA but not LSA. Overall, the results show that social anxiety may be characterized not only by spatial attentional bias for threatening faces. In addition, the results from the neutral target faces also indicate that the presence of threat may actually facilitate visual search for non-threatening stimuli.

Poster 4-3


Elena LR Flohr, Anna K Kastner, Sarah Rimkus, Paul Pauli, & Matthias J Wieser University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: olfactory context conditioning, face perception

The hedonic evaluation of olfactory stimuli is strongly related to learning history. The present study relied on context conditioning to examine the influence of aversive odors on facial cues. Anxiety-related contexts are known to increase the processing of socially relevant information. Two neutral odors were used as contextual cues. In the conditioning phase, one odor (CTX+) was paired with an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (US; i.e., a female scream) whose appearance within the context was unpredictable and one odor remained completely unrelated to the US (CTX-). In a following test phase, both odors were presented again, while participants saw faces showing neutral, angry or fearful facial expressions. Late positive potentials (LPP) and Skin Conductance Level (SCL) were assessed and ratings of valence, arousal, sympathy and fear were recorded. Olfactory context conditioning was successfully implemented. Processing of faces was influenced by facial expressions. The LPP showed increased amplitudes for emotional compared to neutral faces and, as a later and thus cognitively influenced component of the EEG, it was more pronounced in the CTX+ for all facial expressions. The SCL during the presentation of the faces was higher in the CTX+ than in the CTX-. Faces in the CTX+ were perceived as less pleasant, more arousing, and more threatening. It is argued that a threatening olfactory context enhances the processing of facial cues. The results stand in line with results concerning olfactorily driven flashbacks after trauma. DFG

Poster 4-4


Anna K Kastner, Elena LR Flohr, Sarah Rimkus, Paul Pauli, & Matthias J Wieser University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: context conditioning, olfaction

Anxiety can be modeled using a context conditioning paradigm, which leads to an increased state of anxiety due to the unpredictability of unconditioned stimuli. The present study examined whether olfactory cues can serve as such a context and assessed differentiation between threatening and safe olfactory contexts after conditioning. Two neutral odors served as contextual cues. During presentation of one odor an unpleasant loud female scream was presented unpredictably (CTX+) while the scream was never presented during the second odor (CTX-). In a subsequent test phase faces with emotional expressions were presented in both contexts. The processing of olfactory contexts during acquisition and test phase was assessed using the late positive potential (LPP), skin conductance level (SCL) as well as ratings of valence, arousal and anxiety. Results showed elevated SCL for CTX+ compared to CTX- during conditioning as well as test phase. The LPP in response to the gray background signaling the onset of the olfactory context was increased for CTX+ compared to CTX- in the test phase. These findings are further supported by increased anxiety ratings for CTX+ after conditioning and increased arousal and decreased valence ratings for CTX+ after the test phase. Results suggest that olfactory context conditioning was successfully implemented with enhanced processing of a threatening context, similarly to studies using visual contexts. This enhanced activation was still observed after decreasing US- contingency in test phase. DFG

Poster 4-5


Marta Andreatta, & Paul Pauli University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: startle reflex, appetitive reactions

In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US) like pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After few associations, the stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) is able to initiate avoidance or approach responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans. The main goal of this study was to establish an appetitive conditioning paradigm in humans using food as appetitive US. Twelve participants came in the lab between 8am and 10am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During conditioning phase, one geometrical shape (avCS+) predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock), another shape (appCS+) predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or "salzbrezel" according to participants' preference), a third shape (CS—) predicted neither US. In the test phase the three shapes were presented again, but no US was delivered. Startle responses and subjective ratings were collected as learning indices. Preliminary results indicate successful conditioning effects. Namely, after conditioning the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS— or the appCS+, and startle responses were potentiated indicating increased fear responses to the avCS+. Interestingly, the appCS+ was rated significantly more positive than the CS— and induced significant startle attenuation indicating greater appetitive responses than CS—. In summary, hungry humans show appetitive learning and also show normal aversive learning. SFB, TRR 58

Poster 4-6


Lea M Ahrens1, Andreas Muhlberger2, Paul Pauli1, & Matthias J Wieser1 University of Wurzburg, 2University of Regensburg

Descriptors: fear conditioning, social anxiety, steady-state visual evoked potentials Classical conditioning has been discussed as an important factor in the etiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) for many years. Recent findings suggest that the social relevance of the unconditioned stimulus (US) might play a major role in learning theories of SAD. Thus, this study applied a social conditioning paradigm with disorder-relevant US to examine the electrocortical correlates of affective learning. 24 high socially anxious (HSA) and 23 age-and gender-matched low socially anxious (LSA) subjects were conditioned to three different faces flickering at a frequency of 15 Hz which were paired with auditory insults, compliments or neutral comments (US). The face-evoked electrocortical response was measured via steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs), and subjective measures of valence and arousal were obtained. Results revealed a significant interaction of social anxiety level and conditioning with LSA showing highest cortical activity to faces paired with insults and lowest activity to faces paired with compliments, while HSA generalized their conditioned electrocortical response to all faces. However, no group differences were discovered in the affective ratings. The findings indicate a potentially impaired ability of HSA to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant social stimuli, which may constitute a perpetuating factor of SAD.

Poster 4-7


Annmarie MacNamara1, Daniel A Fitzgerald1,2, Stewart A Shankman1, Mohammed R Milad3, & K Luan Phan1,2 1University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Mental Health Service Line, Jesse Brown Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: fear learning, fMRI, skin conductance

Individuals differ in their propensity to acquire fear as reflected by variation in skin conductance response (SCR) during classical conditioning. This peripheral readout is thought to derive from central processes, however little is known about how brain activity relates to electrodermal activity (EDA) during fear learning across individuals. We simultaneously recorded EDA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while 33 healthy participants (18 female) completed a fear acquisition paradigm in which colored lamps were paired with shock 60% of the time (CS+) or were never paired with shock (CS—). Independent of the SCR data, the fMRI results (analyzed on shock-free trials only) revealed expected activation of insula, caudate and brain stem for CS+ compared to CS— presentation. Analysis of EDA data revealed that SCR was greater for CS+ compared to CS— trials. Using SCR as an individualized regressor in the BOLD fMRI analysis, activations were observed that were not evident during analysis of BOLD data alone, including in the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex for CS+ versus CS— trials (t-scores > 3.3; p < 0.005). Correlations between BOLD signal extracted from these areas and SCR revealed medium-large effects (rs ranged between .45 and .53). SCR data may improve the detection of BOLD activation during fear

acquisition. Moreover, individual differences in cued fear responses may be represented by the link between SCR and neural activation during fear formation.

Poster 4-8


Nathan M Petro, & Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: koniocells, conditioning

Many studies suggest that sensory cortical responses to affectively engaging arousing stimuli are amplified, compared to neutral stimuli. Past research demonstrates gradually increased electrocortical facilitation of lower-tier visual signals with acquired relevance, through classical differential Pavlovian conditioning. The neural mechanism mediating these changes is not known however. One potential avenue to addressing this problem are studies examining the sensitivity of specific visual pathways to learned motivational relevance. Here, steady-state-evoked potentials were used to test whether visuocortical neural mass activity responded differentially to conditioned motion direction cues paired or unpaired with a loud noise. Using this design, we investigated the extent to which luminance-based and koniocellular-based stimuli are differentially sensitive to visual motion kinematograms predictive or not predictive of the noxious unconditioned stimulus. Koniocells were uniquely activated using a yellowish-hue based adaptation procedure designed to isolate s-cones, while a luminance stimulus type served as a control. Both stimulus types evoked greater neural activity when paired with a US. Overall the koniocellular-biased stimulus displayed an overall higher steady-state power. These results demonstrate that neurons coding visual information respond to Pavlovian conditioning. While the koniocell pathway did not show a unique effect of motion conditioning, the overall greater steady-state power warrants further exploration.

Poster 4-9


Ottmar V Lipp1, Hayley M Thomason2, Camilla C Luck1, & Kimberley M Mallan3

1Curtin University, 2University of Queensland, 3Queensland University of Technology

Descriptors: fear conditioning, electrodermal response, other age effect Prior research has shown that fear conditioned to racial out-group faces is resistant to extinction. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is limited to out-groups defined by race. The current study was designed to clarify this issue by assessing extinction of fear conditioned to faces of an out-group defined by a different characteristic, old age. Replicating the procedure used in previous studies of fear conditioned to other-race faces, we found that relative to fear conditioned to same age faces, fear conditioned to other-age, old faces, like fear conditioned to other-race faces, is resistant to extinction. Moreover, and consistent with the literature on fear conditioned to other-race faces, this resistance to extinction was evident for male faces (Experiments 1 and 3), but not for female faces (Experiment 2). These results are not consistent with as explanation that draws on a biologically based framework of prepared learning. Rather, and in conjunction with evidence from the broader face processing literature, they suggest the presence of a generalized bias in the processing of out-group faces. To account for the differential fear learning results specifically, we argue in favor of an explanation within a socio-cultural learning framework which supposes that prejudices and/or negative stereotypes may form the basis of fear learning that is resistant to extinction.

This research was funded by the Australian Research Council (DP110100460).

Poster 4-10


Camilla C Luck, & Ottmar V Lipp Curtin University

Descriptors: fear, conditioning, instruction

Conditioned fear, as indicated by physiological responses, is significantly reduced after receiving instruction that the unconditioned stimulus (US) will no longer be presented. However, instruction does not affect verbal ratings of conditioned stimulus (CS) pleasantness collected after extinction. The current study investigated the influence of an instructed extinction manipulation on physiological responses and CS evaluations measured during extinction. Electrodermal responses (Experiment 1) and fear potentiated startle (Experiment 2) were measured as physiological indices of fear learning, and trial-by-trial CS pleasantness evaluations were measured as a verbal index. Instructed extinction resulted in the immediate decline of differential physiological responding, but did not affect CS pleasantness ratings, revealing a dissociation between physiological and verbal indices of fear learning. In Experiment 3, a separate sample of participants read the experimental scenario and was asked to predict the results. As the opposite pattern of results was predicted, demand characteristics seem an unlikely explanation for the findings. The

dissociation between physiological and verbal indices of fear learning seems to indicate that not all aspects of fear learning respond to cognitive interventions in the same manner, a finding which has both theoretical and clinical implications.

This work was supported by grant numbers DP120100750 and SR120300015 from the Australian Research Council.

Poster 4-11


Yoshimi Ohgami1, Yasunori Kotani 1, Jun-ichiro Arai2, Shigeru Kiryu3, & Yusuke Inoue4 1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Daikin Industries, 3The University of Tokyo, 4Kitasato University

Descriptors: stimulus-preceding negativity, PCA, anticipation

Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) is an event-related potential (ERP) that relates to anticipation for an upcoming stimulus. In the present study, we recorded the SPN preceding facial, verbal, and symbolic stimuli, and conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal the components of the SPN. Participants (N = 30) performed a time estimation task where they had to press a button four seconds after a cue stimulus. A feedback stimulus that was provided correctness or incorrectness about task performance was presented two seconds after the button press, and the contents of the feedback stimulus were manipulated. There were four experimental conditions: (a) Facial (smiling or frowning), (b) Verbal (Japanese word "ATARI", or "HAZURE") (c) Symbolic ("I" or "11"), and (d) No Feedback (NoFB) where the feedback stimulus was omitted. The PCA identified two components related to the SPN: "late SPN" and "early SPN". Statistical analyses on the late and early SPN revealed that anticipation for facial stimuli activated the early SPN especially at the occipital area. There was a right hemisphere preponderance of early SPN prior to a facial stimulus. On the other hand, anticipation for verbal and symbolic stimuli activated the late SPN at the right frontotemporal area. A right hemisphere preponderance was observed only in the symbolic condition. Early response, implying fast anticipatory process, to facial stimuli may be attributed to their primitive nature compared with verbal and symbolic stimuli.

Poster 4-12


Yasunori Kotani1, Yoshimi Ohgami1, Jun-ichiro Arai2, Shigeru Kiryu3, & Yusuke Inoue4 1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Daikin Industries, 3The University of Tokyo, 4Kitasato University

Descriptors: dipole, anticipation, stimulus-preceding negativity

A number of fMRI studies have revealed that the anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions in anticipation of a salient stimulus. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have also suggested that these regions would be physiological sources of the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) that reflects anticipation process. However, ERP can not directly identify activations in the anterior insula and ACC due to lower spatial resolution compared with fMRI. On the other hand, fMRI can not depict temporal activity in the two regions in millisecond order due to lower temporal resolution than ERP. In the present study, we performed two separate fMRI (N = 28) and ERP (N = 18) experiments using a time estimation task. We conducted an fMRI constrained ERP source analysis where dipole locations of anterior insula and ACC were identified by fMRI results and temporal activities of the dipoles were modeled by ERP data to depict temporal activities of the insular cortex and ACC in millisecond order. The source analysis on the ERP data constrained by the fMRI results revealed that activations in the bilateral insula and ACC were gradually increased toward the onset of the feedback stimulus. Especially, activations in the right anterior insula and ACC started before a movement while the left anterior insula started its activation after the movement. This result supports the idea that the right anterior insula and ACC are involved in the right hemisphere dominant ventral attention system and they cooperatively process anticipation of salient stimuli.

Poster 4-13


Helena JV Rutherford, Sabrina M Malak, Michael J Crowley, & Linda C Mayes Yale University

Descriptors: motherhood, anxiety, event-related potentials

Women may be vulnerable to anxiety during the postpartum period. Little is known regarding the impact of anxiety on the neural processing of infant-relevant information in mothers. Given rapid processing of infant cues may impact down-stream parenting behavior, understanding whether anxiety impacts infant cue perception is warranted. Here we investigated the relationship between maternal anxiety and the neural response elicited by infant faces. 47 mothers viewed neutral and distressed infant faces while recording EEG. We examined two ERP components: (1) the N170 as a perceptual marker of face process-

ing; (2) the LPP as an index of engagement with stimulus processing. Participants completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The N170 was unaffected by infant emotional expression. Further, N170 amplitudes were not associated with either state or trait anxiety. The LPP was modulated by emotional expression, being greater in amplitude for distressed vs. neutral infant faces. Notably, the LPP elicited by neutral infant faces was positively correlated with state anxiety, r = .40, p < .01. This relationship was weaker for neutral infant faces and trait anxiety, r = .28, p = .06. There were no associations between the LPP elicited by distressed infant faces and state and trait anxiety. Mothers with higher levels of state anxiety may be more engaged with processing neutral infant cues than distressed infant cues during the postpartum period - perhaps reflecting the ambiguity of neutral infant expressions during dyadic interactions.

Poster 4-14


Angela N Maupin1, Helena JV Rutherford1, Nicole Landi2, Marc N Potenza1, & Linda C Mayes1

*Yale University, 2University of Connecticut and Haskins Laboratories

Descriptors: parenting, infant cues, demographics

Emerging neuroimaging research (ERP, fMRI) has begun to unpack the neural correlates of parenting to provide a deeper understanding of parental responses to infant affective cues, a determinant of parent-infant interactions. However, research to date has not yet examined the variability in neural responses to infant cues with respect to normative maternal factors that may contribute to the perception and processing of infant cues. Therefore we used ERPs to investigate the influence of factors on maternal perception of infant faces and infant cries (all unfamiliar). Eighty-five mothers (M = 29 years) at three months postpar-tum, viewed photographs of infant faces (matched for gender and race; showing happy, sad and neutral expressions) and listened to infant cries (high- and low-distress cries and a neutral tone) during continuous EEG recording. We examined the N100 and P300 (cries) and N170 and P300 (faces). Neural responses to faces and cries were examined as a function of parity, maternal race, education level, age, and marital status. N100 was modulated by infant cry, with the greatest amplitude and earliest latency to high-distress cries. Cry perception was affected by maternal race. N170 was unaffected by infant emotional expression; however, N170 amplitude was also associated with maternal race and education level. Finally, infant face and cry P300 was affected by parity and maternal race. These findings suggest that parity, education level, and maternal race are important considerations in understanding neural response to infant cues.

This work was supported by NIDA funded P01 study (P01 DA02246-05) and NIMH T32 postdoctoral fellowship (MH018268).

Poster 4-15


Katie A Lehockey, Kelly D Bickel, Eric M Watson, Alexandra J Stephenson, Jonathan M Highsmith, & Daniel E Everhart East Carolina University

Descriptors: electroencephalography, individual differences, behavioral intentions Perception of health information is a complex process that is influenced by innumerable factors, including predisposing traits and underlying cortical mechanisms. Perhaps even more complex is the process by which patients interpret treatment recommendations from providers and subsequently form behavioral intentions to adhere. Although it has been established in the health behavior literature that behavioral intentions often predict adherence behaviors, much is left to discover regarding the mechanisms driving behavioral intentions. In order to investigate possible predictors of behavioral intentions, 77 young adults completed trait surveys, engaged in a brief simulation study of receiving a diagnosis and treatment recommendations from a physician, and participated in resting EEG recording. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the influence of predisposing traits, emotion, message framing, and electrophysiological biomarkers on behavioral intentions to adhere to simulated treatment recommendations. A significant negative correlation was observed between trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral intentions for adherence to disadvantage-framed recommendations (DisBI), r = -0.263, n = 77, p = 0.021. A significant positive correlation was observed between relative right baseline frontal cortical activity and DisBI, r = 0.247, n = 76, p = 0.032. Findings suggest that people who report elevated behavioral inhibition and experience relative right baseline frontal cortical activity are less likely to adhere to disadvantage-framed treatment recommendations.

Poster 4-16


Daniel E Everhart1, Eric M Watson1, James P Loveless1, Lisa Hardin2, Sharon Johnson-Cowan2, Kelly D Bickel1, Alexandra J Stephenson1, Katie A Lehockey1, & Jonathan M Highsmith1 1East Carolina University, 2Vidant Medical Center

Descriptors: behavioral inhibition, frontal asymmetry, adherence

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective intervention for obstructive sleep apnea. Yet, adherence to CPAP is in some cases as low as 23%. Our previous research utilized Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) and found that patients who report higher levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) are less likely to adhere to treatment. The present study replicated and extended this research via examination ofbehavioral activation (BAS), behavioral inhibition (BIS) and frontal baseline alpha asymmetry (scalp site F4 -scalp site F3) among 116 patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. For this study adherence was defined as > 4 hours per night for 70% of nights. In addition to replication, it was hypothesized that relative left frontal cortical activity would be associated with adherence. As predicted, BIS was negatively associated with adherence at 7 days [r(58) = .28, p = .02], 30 days [r(58) = .26, p = .02], and 60 days [r(58) = .26, p = .05]. Consistent with previous literature indicating a positive relationship between left frontal activity and BAS, BAS was associated with alpha asymmetry [r(114) = .38, p = .001]. Alpha asymmetry scores were not associated with adherence, although baseline alpha power at scalp sites F3 [r(43) = —.32, p = .02], and F4 [r(43) = —.29, p = .03], were negatively associate with adherence at 90 days. These results provide support that behavioral inhibition is associated with decisions about medical treatment, and that psychophysiologi-cal variables (i.e., alpha power) are predictors of future adherence behavior.

Poster 4-17


Eric M Watson, Kelly D Bickel, Daniel E Everhart, Katie A Lehockey, & Jonathan M Highsmith East Carolina University

Descriptors: electroencephalography, anger, reinforcement sensitivity theory Anger, Hostility, and Aggression are often thought to be major factors in negative health behaviors and conditions. Due to conceptual inconsistencies, these terms are often used interchangeably and/or erroneously. To date, research has focused on identifying various personality types in an effort to understand these emotional, cognitive, and behavioral phenomena. Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), which describes individual differences at the level of human neurophysiological mechanisms, specifically the Behavioral Inhibition (withdrawal) and Behavioral Activation Systems (approach), may help conceptualize these human experiences. The current study examined the relationships among baseline resting alpha asymmetry, self-reported anger, hostility, aggression and BIS/BAS ratings. Thirty-six undergraduate participants completed measures of personality, state and trait affect, and baseline anterior alpha asymmetry was assessed. Results revealed a significant positive correlation between self-reported anger and baseline alpha asymmetry at the F8-7 electrode site for eyes closed, r(36) = .438, p = .008, and eyes open trials, r(36) = .414, p = .012. Further, self-reported anger was significantly correlated with the BAS-Drive subscale, r(36) = .405, p = .014, among other significant correlations. Findings support the conceptualization of anger as approach-related behavior.

Poster 4-18


Maria V Ruiz-Blondet, Negin Khalifian, Corey Greenwald, Kenneth Kurtz, &

Zhanpeng Jin

Binghamton University, The State University of New York

Descriptors: biometrics, semantic memory, machine learning algorithms The cognitive neuroscience literature has long acknowledged that there are individual differences in functional brain organization. There has been relatively little investigation, however, as to the degree to which an individual's brain organization is not just different from others but unique. To explore this issue, we examined EEG activity from 173 research participants in a reading comprehension study. We used 3 techniques from machine learning to attempt to identify unique characteristics of individual EEG. These were: 1) a simple linear discriminant function based on cross-correlation between waveforms, 2) a neural network model, and 3) a naive discriminant learning model. All 3 classification methods were able to learn to label segments of the EEG as belonging to the participant that generated them (and not any of the other participants) with 90% accuracy (chance = .5%). These results suggest not only that it is possible to identify individuals on the basis of

unique features of their EEG, but also that those features are robust enough to be discoverable by many computational techniques. We conclude that the success of the models has clear applications in biometrics, where EEG-based authentication may be much more secure than retinal scans or fingerprints (which, for example, do not require the authenticating user to be alive).

Poster 4-19


Negin Khalifian, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University, The State University of New York

Descriptors: reading, event-related potentials, individual differences The behavioral and neuropsychological literatures have long acknowledged that individuals approach reading with subtly different strategies, and that these strategies can have effects on patterns of impairment in acquired or developmental reading dysfunction. In the ERP literature, in contrast, especially that pertaining to developmental dyslexia, children are often put into monolithic groups of "dyslexic" and "nondyslexic" or "good readers" and "poor readers." Here, we set out to investigate the degree to which ERPs can instead be used to elucidate individual reading strategies, with an additional goal of using ERP component scores to predict future scholastic reading performance. Using an individual multiple-regression approach, we demonstrated that the amplitudes of several reading-related ERP components (including the N170 and N400) collected in Year 1 of a longitudinal study predict Year 2 reading report card scores better than any combination of behavioral measures (e.g., tests of phonological awareness, vocabulary, or exposure to print) collected in Year 1. These results indicate that it is possible to study reading development with ERPs at an individual (as opposed to group) level. Applications for early identification of individuals who are likely to manifest specific reading impairment are discussed.

Poster 4-20


Elizabeth Sacchi, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University, The State University of New York

Descriptors: event-related potentials, dyslexia, cortical resource allocation Studies of brain organization in dyslexia suggest that white matter connectivity in left hemisphere (LH) language areas is often differentially reduced in dyslexics as compared to controls. This maladaptive characteristic often results in the recruitment of right hemisphere (RH) analogs to LH word recognition areas to support improvement gained as a result of treatments aimed at achieving reading competency. It is not clear, however, why RH analogs of LH word recognition areas are recruited instead of, for example, prefrontal resources in either hemisphere. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that RH analogs are recruited preferentially so that the RH object recognition system can support abnormally developing word recognition in the LH. To test this, we recorded ERPs while adult readers of varying proficiency observed images that were either clearly words, clearly objects, or word/object ambiguous (e.g., the word "SMILE" shaped like a smile). We predicted that in good readers, ambiguous items would evince ERPs more like those elicited by unambiguous words, while in poor readers, ambiguous items would evince ERPs more like those elicited by unambiguous objects. Results indicate that good and poor readers differ in the magnitude and distribution (especially, hemispheric asymmetry) of the ERP response to the ambiguous items, especially in the temporal epochs of the N170 and P2 components. This is consistent with the hypothesis that in poor readers, RH object recognition areas are susceptible to recruitment in service of supporting disordered visual word recognition.

Poster 4-21


Stephanie M Bhamdeo, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University, The State University of New York

Descriptors: hemispheric asymmetry, phonological ambiguity

Advanced language use requires the ability to resolve ambiguities, language forms that can be felicitously linked with multiple senses. Ambiguities can be found at all levels of language comprehension, including semantics, syntax, and phonology. Semantic and syntactic ambiguities have been relatively well studied with the Event-Related Potential (ERP) technique, but the resolution of phonological ambiguities, in contrast, is much less well characterized. Here, we collected ERPs while participants viewed word/acronym homographs, which afford distinct phonological interpretations (e.g., UPS is a one syllable word in "UPS and downs", but a three syllable acronym in "the UPS truck"). Ambiguous items were biased towards either their word or acronym sense via embedding within blocks of unambiguous items. For example in a word block, ambiguous items were presented with unambiguous words (e.g., CAR), while in an acronym block; ambiguous items were

presented with unambiguous acronyms (e.g., FBI). Participants performed a syllable counting task, which enabled us to contrast ambiguous items interpreted as words with ambiguous items interpreted as acronyms. Results indicate that the resolution of phonological ambiguity has large and long-lasting effects on the ERP, and reveal a sensitivity in the window of the N400 component to perceived phonological neighborhood size; this adds to previous results in the literature demonstrating extremely strong effects of orthographic neighborhood size.

Poster 4-22


G Taylor Brooks, & Gwen A Frishkoff Georgia State University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, syntax, semantics

We examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during comprehension of the English Causative and compared effects among native English speakers (NES) and Spanish speakers learning English as a second language (ESL). The Causative is a ditransitive construction that indicates a change of location. For example, in Jack sent his sister to the store, Jack (SubjNP) caused his sister (ObjNP) to change location (PP) by sending her (V). Only certain verbs are permitted within this construction: In English, ditransitive verbs (e.g., send) and alternating unaccusatives (e.g., walk) are allowed. Non-alternating unaccusatives (e.g., arrive) are disallowed. To comprehend these structures a language-user must reconcile word- and clause-level constraints. In the present study, we asked nine NES and eight ESL participants to view a series of sentences, one phrase at a time, while we recorded their EEG. Four verb types were presented in intransitive ('SubjNP-V'), transitive ('SubjNP-V-ObjNP'), or ditransitive ('SubjNP-V-PP') contexts. The task was to say whether each sentence was acceptable. The two groups showed similar patterns ofbehavior. As predicted, the ObjNP elicited a P600 effect for arrive-type verbs for NES participants. Interestingly, ESL participants exhibited N400 rather than P600 effects to the ObjNP. In response to the PP, both groups exhibited N400 effects to arrive-type verbs, without a subsequent P600. In summary, although their behavioral patterns did not differ, ERPs revealed group differences in verb-construction mismatches at different points in the sentence.

Poster 4-23


Jennifer Ciarochi1, Gwen A Frishkoff1, Jessica Turner1, & Katherine Revill2 1Georgia State University, 2Emory University

Descriptors: comprehension, event-related potentials, fMRI

We present a joint analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a study of sentence-level semantic processing. Participants completed a sentence comprehension task while their brain activity was measured using fMRI and ERP (separate sessions). On each trial, they were presented with a sentence stem followed by a word or pseudoword. There were three types of words: Expected (E), Unexpected (U), and Anomalous (A). The task was to indicate whether the final word made sense or not. For the fMRI session participants performed the task inside a 3-Tesla scanner. We identified 10 areas in which words elicited significantly greater percent signal change compared with pseudowords, including left angular gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, left and right inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and left and right caudate. For the ERP session participants performed the same task while we recorded activity from 256 electrodes. Subtraction of expected endings from unexpected or anomalous endings yielded the classical N400 effect. Comparison of unexpected and expected endings elicited a late effect over the right frontocentral region. To relate the ERP and fMRI findings, we applied joint independent components analysis (ICA) to decompose the two types of data. Results give evidence of late effects of meaningfulness in left temporal and right frontal regions. We discuss implications for neurobiological theories of higher-level (propositional) semantic processing.

This research was supported by a Georgia State University (GSU) seed grant (PI, Dr. Gwen Frishkoff).

Poster 4-24


Leslie Hodges1, Gwen A Frishkoff1, Tiffany Lester1, Charles A Perfetti2, & Chris Westbury3

1Georgia State University, 2University of Pittsburgh, 3University of Alberta

Descriptors: vocabulary, event-related potentials, children

Vocabulary knowledge is acquired over many exposures. Thus, at any time, a learner may have graded and incomplete knowledge of meanings for some words. To examine brain and behavioral markers of partial word knowledge we conducted an event-related potentials

(ERP) experiment using a lexical decision task and words that were classified as either well-known ("Tier 1") or partially known ("Tier II" or "frontier" words). Participants were older children and pre-adolescents (mean age, ~9 years). Prior to the experiment, participants completed standardized measures of vocabulary and comprehension skill. During the ERP experiment, they were asked to make speeded responses to Tier 1 and Tier 2 words, and to orthographically matched nonwords. We observed patterns that have previously been related to semantic memory, including a medial frontal N350(Fz), a left temporal N300(FT7), a left parietal P600(P3) and N400(Pz) effects. The N350 showed different patterns of response for subjects with high and low vocabulary skills. We compare these findings to data from adult participants and discuss implications for theories of "partial" semantic knowledge and ERP signatures of meaning acquisition.

Poster 4-25


Gwen A Frishkoff1, Benjamin Rickles1, Robert M Frank2, Christopher Bird3,

Tim Curran3, Richard Mah4, John Connolly4, Stephanie Connell5, Kerry Kilborn5, & Charles A Perfetti6 1Georgia State University, 2University of Oregon, 3University of Colorado, 4McMaster University, 5Glasgow University, 6University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: event-related potentials, episodic memory, semantic priming This study was designed to elicit ERP indices of episodic and semantic memory. Recent studies have combined semantic and episodic memory tasks in a single experiment, to compare N400 semantic effects, which are classically distributed over parietal electrodes, with fN400 familiarity effects, which are frontocentral. Some findings support the distinction between these two patterns, suggesting they could reflect distinct neurocognitive processes. Other findings suggest these effects are one and the same. In the present study, we examined episodic and semantic effects across five laboratories using the same paradigm, with some strategic cross-lab variations in stimuli and tasks. The experiment had three parts, following Bridger, et al. (2012). In Part I (encoding), participants completed a semantic task (either a concrete/abstract or a pleasant/unpleasant judgment): words were either visual or auditory and were presented continuously, with a 2000 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In Phase II (delay), they completed a distractor (auditory oddball) task, which lasted 10 minutes. In Phase III (retrieval), they made old/new memory judgments for words, half of which had appeared during encoding. Findings from individual studies showed semantic priming and old/new ERP effects that varied in size. Final datasets are being integrated and submitted to meta-analysis using the NeuroMagnetic Ontology (NEMO) toolkit and portal. Results show proof-of-concept for our meta-analysis approach and have important implications for theories of familiarity-based memory and conceptual processing.

This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant no. R01-12468.

Poster 4-26


Richard T Amoss1, James P Duffy2, & Gwen A Frishkoff2 1Emory University, 2Georgia State University

Descriptors: priming, event-related potentials, sound

Recent ERP studies have suggested that sounds can prime the representation of valence (good vs. bad) in some contexts; however, evidence has been mixed. In the present study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to compare semantic and emotion priming within-subjects and using the exact same stimuli: primes were sounds that were positively or negatively valenced, and targets were visual words that were pleasant or unpleasant. We compared ERP responses under two task conditions: a valence congruency task (Are prime and target emotionally congruent?), and a semantic relatedness task (Do prime and target have similar meanings?). Stimuli were either (1) affectively and semantically related, (2) semantically unrelated but affectively related, or (3) semantically and affectively unrelated. We hypothesized that N400 effects would only be seen in the semantic task condition. We also hypothesized that N400 effects would be greater when prime and target pairs are mismatched in meaning and valence rather than mismatched in meaning only. Contrary to hypothesis 1, we observed N400 effects to affective mismatches during the emotion judgment task. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed: Target words that were semantically and affectively incongruent elicited larger N400 effects than words with the same valence as the prime sound. These results suggest that N400 effects in emotion priming may be task-dependent. Focus on valence as a specific semantic feature may be necessary for emotionally congruent stimuli to elicit reduced N400s.

Poster 4-27


Casandra Montoro-Aguilar1, Cristina Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara1, María J Fernández-Serrano1, Stefan Duschek2, & Gustavo A Reyes del Paso1 1University of Jaén, Spain, 2UMIT, Hall, Austria

Descriptors: fibromyalgia, cerebral blood flow, time reaction

The study investigated heart rate and cerebral blood flow responses during a cued reaction time (RT) task in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Blood flow velocities in the middle (MCA) and anterior (ACA) cerebral arteries of both hemispheres were recorded in 46 patients and 32 healthy controls using transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Patients exhibited markedly longer RT. Group differences in blood flow responses were mainly observed for both ACA, with greater right hemispherical increases but lower left hemispherical increases in FMS patients versus controls. Heart rate deceleration around the imperative stimulus was more pronounced in controls. RT was inversely related to increases in blood flow in both right arteries and in the left ACA in the FMS group, but was positively associated with blood flow responses in all four arteries in the control group. Heart rate around the imperative stimuli correlated positively with RT in both groups. The study provided evidence of a deficit in the alertness component of attention in FMS at behavioral, cerebral blood flow and autonomic levels. These results may be interpreted in terms of the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (i.e. less efficient brain activation during cognitive activity in FMS), deficits in central norepinephrine levels as well as interference between pain processing and cognition.

This research was supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation co-financed by FEDER funds (Project PSI2012-33509).

Poster 4-28


Fátima Servian-Franco, Silvia Moreno-Domínguez, & Gustavo A Reyes del Paso University of Jaén, Spain

Descriptors: body dissatisfaction, mirror exposure, heart rate

Weight and shape concerns are widespread in the general population. Mirror exposure has been used to reduce body dissatisfaction but little is known about the mechanisms which underlie this therapeutic technique. The present study examined psychophysiological (heart rate and skin conductance), emotional, and cognitive responses in high and low body dissatisfied women exposed to their own body in a mirror. Forty-one university women (21 high body-dissatisfied, 20 low body-dissatisfied) were confronted with their own body during four 5-min trials in which the participants were instructed to focus their attention on different parts of their body under standardized conditions. Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded continuously. Emotion and cognition measures were taken after each exposure trial. Results showed that high body-dissatisfied women experienced stronger increases in negative emotions and cognitions to the body exposure compared to low body-dissatisfied women but, conversely, they showed a reduced physiological reaction compared to the low body-dissatisfaction group. Emotional and negative cognitions were positively associated with heart rate and/or skin conductance in low body-dissatisfied women whereas no associations were observed in high body-dissatisfied women. These results suggest the existence of a passive-behavioral inhibited coping style in high body-dissatisfied woman and deficiencies in the generation of physiological correlates of emotions in relation to body dissatisfaction.

This research was supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation co-financed by FEDER funds (Project PSI2012-33509).

Poster 4-29


Matthew A Picchietti, & David G Gilbert Southern Illinois University

Descriptors: photogrammetry, head model, source localization

EEG photogrammetry may enhance the accuracy of neural source estimation, but this effect has not been well quantified. Thus, we calculated the effect of standard versus individualized head models (HM) on sLORETA current source density (CSD) values. 128 channel head models were digitized from 23 adult participants on two days. Target stimuli from a NOGO task were analyzed using a common artifact rejection workflow in Net Station 4.5. The right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) was used as an a priori ROI. A CSD difference wave was calculated for each file between individualized minus standard head model data. The grand average CSD waveform revealed a 0.069 nA peak at 480 ms and was consistent with scalp ERP data. The mean difference over the 1300 ms trial between the individualized versus standard HM CSD waveforms was 15.01% of the standard HM amplitude. Individualized head models resulted in a substantially increased source density signal. Further analyses may extend to additional data sets and explore alternative average head models.

NIDA R01 DA017837 and DA014104 Awarded to David G. Gilbert.

Poster 4-30


Amy Medina1,2, Kevin Constante2, Danielle diFilipo1,2, Elvira Kirilko2, & Jill Grose-Fifer1,2

1The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 2John Jay College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: psychopathic traits, emotional processing, late positive potential In an effort to better understand the dimensional nature of psychopathy, research studies have increasingly utilized non-forensic samples with sub-clinical levels of psychopathic traits. Yet, relatively few of these studies have employed ERPs to investigate the time course of deficient emotional processing that is typically associated with psychopathy. The present study investigated how emotional images modulate the late positive potential (LPP) in male college students with either high or low levels of psychopathic traits. Participants were categorized based on their overall score on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). We recorded EEG while participants passively viewed unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral IAPS images. As hypothesized, LPPs for emotional stimuli were significantly larger for participants with low PPI-R scores compared to those with high PPI-R scores, but this difference was only evident in a relatively late time window (1000 to 2000 ms). Conversely, there were no LPP differences between groups in an earlier window (400 to 1000 ms). Our results suggest that although college males with relatively high levels of psychopathic traits show initial attentional capture by emotional images, they fail to engage in more extended, higher-order processing of this kind of information. Our results highlight the utility of ERPs for capturing the time course of emotional processing deficits associated with psychopathic traits.

Poster 4-31


Scott J Burwell, Stephen M Malone, & William G Iacono University of Minnesota

Descriptors: P300, development, adolescence

A P300 ERP can be observed in several cognitive tasks and variation in underlying brain generators can give rise to differences in spatial and temporal features of recorded P300s. Monitoring P3a (elicited by novel stimuli), P3b (target oddball stimuli), and NogoP3 (target no-go stimuli) repeatedly during adolescence may allow us to chart functional growth trajectories of different neurobiological systems over an important developmental period associated with brain maturation. However, because of EEG's spatial limitations, disentangling P300 neural generators and their separate contributions to P3a, P3b, and NogoP3 has been challenging. High-density EEGs were collected from 88 individuals (44 identical twin pairs) at approximate ages 15 (T1) and 16 (T2) during visual P3a, P3b, and NogoP3 tasks. Independent components analysis was used to separate spatially-mixed EEG signals into sources that are temporally distinct. Four components, source-localized to frontal, parietal, left- and right-temporal cortices had peak-latencies and amplitudes that decreased over 1 year and showed moderate to high rank-stability (respectively). Temporal lobe source amplitudes were greatest for P3a and parietal source amplitudes were largest for P3b. Frontal source amplitudes for P3b and NogoP3 did not differ, although both were larger than P3a. Among these components, the most marked developmental changes were observed for the parietal source. These findings are consistent with extant research from structural imaging and may reflect regional gray matter decline and augmented axonal myelination. AA 017314

Poster 4-32


Aisha Howard1, Edelyn Verona1, & Naomi Sadeh2 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2VA Boston Healthcare System

Descriptors: psychopathy, event-related potentials

There is substantial interest in discerning the extent to which psychopathy is characterized by deficits in defensive reactivity or attention modulation. Recent research suggests that psychopaths exhibit a general reduction in P3 to noise probes, reflecting deficits in defensive anticipation but not attention (e.g., no differences to probes during neutral pictures vs. inter-trial intervals, or ITIs). In a replication and extension, we examined psychopathic trait relations with P3 to noise probes during an IAPS-viewing paradigm where images were characterized by valence (aversive,neutral) and complexity (high,low)(N = 54). The inclusion of complexity allowed for a more direct test of attention vs. affective accounts for reduced processing of peripheral stimuli among psychopaths. In line with prior research, psychopathy total scores were associated with overall reduced probe P3, which was not modulated by valence of pictures or attentional engagement (neutral vs. ITI trials). Follow-up analyses suggest that this effect was slightly more relevant to impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy (Factor 2). In expanding on this, an image valence x complexity x psychopathy analysis suggests that probe P3 reductions associated with psychopathy were

only salient while viewing complex vs simple neutral pictures. In sum, although psychopathy was associated with an overall reduction in cortical orientation to peripheral probe stimuli, stimulus complexity moderated these effects, suggesting a closer look at early perceptual features as impacting psychopathic processing of peripheral stimuli.

Poster 4-33


Sara E Newton1, Angela Steele1, Jessica Bunting1, Justin Wills1, Brie Coleman1, Alissa K Holland1, & David W Harrison2 1University of South Carolina Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: caffeine ingestion, right hemisphere activation, dual concurrent task paradigm

Studies of the effects of caffeine show that caffeine ingestion is related to changes in anxiety (Nardi et al., 2008). Caffeine consumption may provide a measure of differential activation of the right hemisphere as it serves as a central nervous system stimulant. In the current research, a dual-task has been created whereby participants underwent right-lateralized cognitive stress and physiological stress while concurrently regulating sympathetic tone. Forty-two right-handed men and women were given either a placebo (n = 21) or 450 mg of caffeine (n = 21) 2 hours prior to completing the Ruff Figural Fluency Task (RFFT; Ruff, Light, & Parker, 1996). Heart rate measures were taken twice consecutively before and after completion of the RFFT. A main effect for Trial was found for persevera-tive errors (F(1, 41) = 11.72, p < .005), indicating an increase in perseverative errors from parts 1 and 5 of the RFFT. A Drug x Part interaction approaching significance was found (F(1, 41) = 3.70, p = .06), indicating a relative increase in perseverative errors in the last trial of the RFFT for those consuming caffeine as opposed to the placebo. A main effect for Heart Rate was found (F(1, 41) = 11.42, p < .005), indicating a relative increase in heart rate for all participants in the post cognitive stress condition. cardiovascular reactivity was greater after exposure to a right lateralized cognitive stressor. Moreover, the Drug x Part interaction provides promising preliminary evidence in support of diminished capacity right hemisphere functional cerebral systems under dual concurrent task demands.

Poster 4-34


Sylvia D Kreibig, Andrea C Samson, & James J Gross Stanford University

Descriptors: mixed emotion, autonomic nervous system, electromyography A central issue in the field of affective science is how to conceptualize mixed emotional states. We recently reported physiological differentiation of a mixed emotional state of amusement and disgust from its pure constituent emotions (Kreibig, Samson, & Gross, 2013). In the present study, we retested three theoretical accounts regarding physiological responses in mixed emotions: non-differentiation, additive, and emergence accounts. Forty-eight women watched 54 amusing, disgusting, and mixed emotional film clips while feeling self-report, facial electromyography, cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory measures were assessed. Concurrent self-reports of amusement and disgust confirmed elicitation of a mixed emotional state. Physiologically, mixed emotions differed from pure amusement and pure disgust both in intensity and pattern, suggesting a distinct physiological response of the mixed emotional state. This supports the emergence account of mixed emotions, which holds that mixed emotions combine appraisal outcomes that are typical for several different pure emotions and thus constitute a distinct emotional state.

This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (PBGEP1-125914).

Poster 4-35


Sylvia D Kreibig, Andrea C Samson, & James J Gross Stanford University

Descriptors: mixed emotion, emotion regulation, autonomic nervous system Flexible regulation of one's emotions is crucial for adapting to changing circumstances. This may require seeing both the positive in grim situations as well as the negative in pleasant situations. Emotion regulation flexibility describes the plasticity of regulating emotions according to different regulation targets (e.g., positive versus negative emotional end states). We tested whether mixed emotional states afford greater emotion regulation flexibility than pure emotions. Forty-eight women watched 54 amusing, disgusting, and mixed emotional film clips under instructions to focus on negative or positive aspects of the film clips or attend naturally while feeling self-report, facial electromyography, cardiovascular, electrodermal,

and respiratory measures were assessed. We defined a multivariate distance measure to quantify emotion regulation flexibility on each of three emotional response levels: experiential, expressive, and physiological. Results showed that regulation flexibility differed between response levels with (a) largest flexibility ofregulating mixed emotional feelings on the experiential response level, largest flexibility of regulating amusement on the expressive response level, and largest flexibility of regulating disgust on the physiological response level and (b) stronger effects on experiential and expressive response levels of a negative focus but stronger effects on the physiological response level of a positive focus. Implications for conceptualizing healthy emotion regulation flexibility are discussed.

This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (PBGEP1-125914).

Poster 4-36


Emily C Willroth, & Matthew R Hilimire College of William and Mary

Descriptors: emotion regulation, late positive potential, reappraisal Emotional stimuli elicit a sustained positive deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) known as the late positive potential (LPP). Previous research has demonstrated that cognitive reappraisal can reduce subjective emotional response to a negative emotional stimulus with a corresponding reduction in LPP amplitude. Here, we sought to explore the effectiveness of two different strategies within the reappraisal family to modulate emotional response. Participants were instructed in the use of two common types of reappraisal: self-focused (reinterpreting one's relationship to the stimulus) and situation-focused (reinterpreting the situational context of the stimulus). ERPs were recorded during passive viewing and during self- and situation-focused reappraisal of negative and neutral images taken from the International Affective Picture System. The results demonstrate that LPP amplitude was greater for negative relative to neutral images during passive viewing. Moreover, situation-focused, but not self-focused, reappraisal resulted in reduced LPP amplitude and more positive self-reported emotion ratings than passive viewing for negative images. These results demonstrate that self- and situation-focused reappraisal strategies can differentially impact emotional experience and electrophysiological response to emotional stimuli. Specifically, situation-focused reappraisal may be more effective than self-focused reappraisal at regulating negative emotion.

Poster 4-37


Anita S Hibbert, & E. David Klonsky University of British Columbia

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, anxiety, depression

Decreased respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been found in samples of depressed and anxious individuals. However, the measurement of RSA often takes place during quiet resting, or during stressor tasks. The current study sought to examine whether the relationships between depression/anxiety and RSA differ across different emotional states. Participants were 146 university students (107 female; mean age = 20.0, SD = 2.5). Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS). For each participant, RSA was assessed during four emotional states: sadness, neutral, amusement, and fear. To elicit the four target emotions, participants watched film clips taken from: The Champ (sadness), Alaska's Wild Denali (neutral), The Hangover (amusement), and The Blair Witch Project (fear). The order of film clip presentation was randomized across participants. Results indicated that anxiety was significantly negatively correlated with RSA during both the neutral (r = -.26, p < .01), and fear (r = -.19, p = .03) films, but not during the sadness or amusement films (ps > .05). Contrary to previous findings showing a relationship between depression and decreased levels of RSA, levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly correlated with RSA during any of the films (ps > .05). The current findings fail to support a relationship between depression and decreased RSA. However, the results indicate that the association between anxiety and decreased RSA may be more robust.

Poster 4-38


Juliana Acosta, Kevin Douglass, Nikita Doshi, Jaime Tartar, & Mercedes Fernandez Nova Southeastern University

Descriptors: neural inhibition, bilingualism

To investigate the link between bilingualism and a neurophysiological marker of cognitive inhibition we compared English monolinguals (N = 18) to Spanish/English bilinguals (N = 18) on the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) during non-

linguistic, auditory and visual Go/NoGo tasks. We specifically measured the N2 ERP component because it has been linked to non-motor, cognitive inhibition in monolinguals (Falkenstein, Hoormann & Hohnsbein, 1999; Swainson et al. 2003; Thomas, Gonsalvez & Johnstone, 2009). The two groups were matched on years of education, household income, parental education, non-verbal intellectual abilities, and on English language proficiency scores. Participants responded with a button press on trials in which auditory or visual targets (Go trials) were presented and withheld their responses on non-target trials (NoGo trials). Results revealed significantly greater inhibition (i.e., greater mean N2 amplitude) in bilinguals compared to monolinguals during auditory NoGo trials even though both groups performed the task equally well (i.e., withheld a motor response). However, the N2 during visual NoGo trials did not distinguish the groups. Similarly, on Go trials where participants pressed a response button, neither ERPs nor reaction times distinguished the groups in either modality. These findings link bilingualism to a neural correlate of inhibition and support previous works suggesting that neural inhibition may be modality specific (Falkenstein et al 1999, 2002).

This study was funded by the Farquhar College of Arts and Sciences Dean's Mini Grant.

Poster 4-39


Abraham Goldstein1, Maor Zeev-Wolf1, & Jacob N Ablin2 *Bar-Ilan University, 2Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center

Descriptors: fibromyalgia, magnetoencephalography

Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of widespread pain and tenderness, which is now believed to be, at least in part, a disorder of central pain processing producing hyperalgesia and allodynia. These phenomena might be caused by defective top-down sensorimotor regulation. In order to test this notion, we activated the pain matrix in a top-down manner by presenting pictures of painful situations while recording brain activity using MEG. We hypothesized that FMS patients will show different responses to pain pictures and will not show normal alpha desynchronization. We tested 19 FMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls (age 30-50). In healthy controls exposure to pictures depicting painful situations induced a decrease in alpha activity (10-12 Hz) which was significantly more pronounced than the one induced by non-painful content. However, FMS patients did not show decreased alpha for pain relative to no-pain pictures, indicating abnormal regulation of sensorimotor cortex. Analysis of the event-related activity showed that, in controls, pain pictures elicited lower activity relative to non-pain pictures in precentral and postcentral gyri, precuneus and superior parietal lobule. FMS patients showed the opposite effect, eliciting greater activity for pain-depicting pictures in the same areas. In addition, FMS patients showed overall greater activity in medial frontal and supplementary motor areas evident at early processing stages. Our findings suggest that defective top-down regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of FMS.

Poster 4-40


Alissa K Holland1, Angela Steele1, Jessica Bunting1, Sara E Newton1, Justin Wills1, Brie Coleman1, Michael Doster1, & David W Harrison2 1University of South Carolina Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: trait anxiety, right hemisphere activation, parasympathetic tone High levels of anxiety have been demonstrated to differentially affect right hemisphere functional cerebral systems (Smeets et al., 1996). Changes in right hemisphere activation have resulted in increases in blood pressure upon exposure to stress in hostile individuals (Carmona et al., 2008) and may be extended to include changes in right hemisphere functional cerebral systems with anxiety classification. Two hundred and twenty-nine undergraduates completed the Trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to identify 43 individuals as having high or low levels of trait anxiety. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measures were collected from 24 high trait anxious individuals (M = 45.21, SD = 7.34) and 19 low trait anxious individuals (M = 29.95, SD = 3.54) before and after completing the Ruff Figural Fluency Test 2 hours after consuming 450 mg of caffeine or a placebo. A Trait x Trial interaction was found for DBP (F(1, 41) = 3.77, p = .05), indicating a decrease in DBP for individuals classified as having high levels of trait anxiety. Refined analyses examining high and low trait anxious individuals consuming caffeine revealed a main effect for Perseverative Errors (F(1, 16) = 12.13, p < .005), indicating an increase in perseverative errors made on part 5 of the RFFT. This was not found for high and low trait anxious participants who were given a placebo. The Trait x Trial interaction may be the result of initial elevated levels of DBP in high trait anxious individuals. The current results provide evidence that right hemisphere cerebral systems differ with trait anxiety classification.

Poster 4-41


Ana Calzada-Reyes1, Alfredo Alvarez2, Mitchell Valdés2, & Lidice Galán2 1Institute of Legal Medicine, Cuba, 2Cuban Center of Neuroscience

Descriptors: qEEG, LORETA, PCL-R

Previous EEG studies attempted to examine violent behavior as a homogeneous construct. To date, there is no research using the Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) technique in psychopath offenders. Objective: To find electrophysiological differences specifically related to psychopathy and independent of the violent behavior. The current investigation compares QEEG and current source density measures of violent psychopath offenders to a non-psychopath violent group. Resting EEG activity and LORETA for the EEG spectral fast bands were evaluated in 58 violent offenders, 31 with and 27 without psychopathy according to the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. All subjects were assessed using DSM IV-R criteria. Visual inspection of EEG characteristics and frequency domain quantitative analyses (Narrow band spectral parameters) are described. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excessive beta activity on the left parieto-temporal regions and bilateral occipital areas and a decrease of alpha activity on the left centro-temporal and parieto-central derivations in the psychopath group. LORETA signified an increase of beta activity (17.18 Hz) in psychopath group relative to a nonpsychopath group within fronto-temporo-limbic regions. These findings indicate that QEEG analysis and source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with psychopathy, which was not obvious to visual inspection. These results suggest that abnormalities in a fronto-temporo-limbic network play a role in the neurobiological basis of psychopathy.

Poster 4-42


Andrew H Kemp1, Andre R Brunoni1, Itamar Santos1, Maria A Nunes2, Eduardo Dantas3, Jose G Mill4, Alexandre C Pereira1, Julian F Thayer5, Isabela M Bensenor1, & Paulo A Lotufo1

1University of Sao Paulo, 2Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 3Federal University of Vale do Sao Francisco, 4Federal University of Espirito Santo, 5The Ohio State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability

Vagal nerve dysregulation is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, yet contradictory findings have been reported for the effects of the mood and anxiety disorders, and antidepressants. Here we apply a relatively novel method - propensity score (PS) weighting -to control for a host of potential confounds in a large cohort from Brazil. A total of 15,105 participants were recruited in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) between 2008 and 2010. Mood and anxiety disorders were determined using the Portuguese version of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Heart rate (HR) and its variability were extracted from 10-minute resting-state, electrocardiogram recordings as measures of vagal function. The most striking effects were associated with antidepressant medications. Use of these medications was associated with a decrease on measures of vagal function. Effects were most pronounced for the tricyclics (TCAs; Cohen's d's 0.72-0.81), followed by serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; Cohen's d's 0.42-0.95) and other antidepressants (Cohen's d's 0.37-0.40), relative to those not on any antidepressants. Only participants with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) showed robust, though small, decreases in vagal function after propensity score weighting. Future studies are now needed to examine whether, how and when such effects contribute to morbidity and mortality.

Poster 4-43


Jennifer M DeCicco1, Laura J O'Toole2, & Tracy A Dennis2 1Lafayette College, 2Hunter College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: late positive potential, emotion, aging

Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that with age we become increasingly motivated to focus on positive versus negative stimuli. The late positive potential (LPP) is well suited to capture motivationally significant changes in emotional processing; however, there is mixed evidence on whether older adults show larger LPPs (greater processing) to pleasant versus unpleasant stimuli. Previous research has utilized categorization tasks, which adds a decision-making component. This study used a passive viewing task to reduce such top-down factors that could influence emotional processing. We evaluated whether younger (n = 36) and older adults (n = 25) differed in LPPs (a) to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli and (b) within specific categories of pleasant (affiliative) and unpleasant (mortality) stimuli. Participants passively viewed pleasant (125), unpleasant (125), and neutral stimuli (50), while EEG was continuously recorded. LPPs were larger for pleasant and unpleasant versus neutral stimuli F(1.70,100.36) = 14.43, p < .001; but this effect was sustained up to 1350

milliseconds during stimulus presentation in older adults, F(2,188) = 2.78, p = .06. No age differences emerged in the LPP within specific categories. While older adults reported higher positive well-being, t(75) = 2.05, p < .01, smaller LPPs to mutilation stimuli were associated with higher positive well-being across the sample as whole, r(60) = -.25, p < .05. Results suggest that younger and older adults may differ in the degree to which they sustain emotional processing.

Poster 4-44


Laura E Quinones-Camacho, Emily W Shih, Gina Valiente, & Elizabeth L Davis University of California, Riverside

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, emotion regulation, childhood Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) is a cardiac measure of parasympathetic function that can be used to study emotion regulation (ER). Higher RSA during a resting baseline is associated with more sophisticated regulatory skill, whereas RSA reactivity during an emotional event is thought to reflect active regulation. It is still unclear what pattern of RSA reactivity (e.g., suppression vs. augmentation) may indicate more effective ER during affective challenges. The goal of this study was to examine whether individual differences in children's RSA reactivity (suppression vs. augmentation) when coping with a disappointment related to their use of cognitive ER strategies. Eighty-three 4- to 11-year-olds (42 girls) participated in a lab study of emotion development. RSA was derived from ECG measured during a resting baseline and a disappointment task (reactivity = task - baseline). Parents completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) and reported on children's use of specific ER strategies. As the number of cognitive strategies children could use to regulate sadness increased, children who showed RSA suppression (n = 19) were reported as better regulated (r = .62, p = .005), whereas children who showed RSA augmentation (n = 64) were reported as being less emotionally labile (r = -.27, p = .03). Results suggest that RSA reactivity during a disappointment has important implications for understanding children's emotional development. Subsequent analyses will focus on developmental change in these patterns and examine other discrete emotions.

Poster 4-45


Emily W Shih, Laura E Quinones-Camacho, Gina Valiente, & Elizabeth L Davis University of California, Riverside

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, emotion regulation, social context Emotion regulation (ER) abilities develop within the context of relationships, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological marker of ER. This study (1) examined children's RSA reactivity during changing social contexts of a disappointing gift task, and (2) tested the relation between parents' own ER abilities and children's RSA patterns. Data are drawn from a study of emotion development in childhood. 83 4- to 11-year-olds (M = 7.2 years; 40 boys) and their parents participated in a biobehavioral laboratory assessment. Parents reported on their own ER abilities on the Difficulty with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). RSA was derived from ECG acquired during a resting baseline, and while children received a disappointing gift (reactivity = task - baseline). The episode had three phases - children were with an experimenter, alone, then with a parent. Children's RSA reactivity changed across the social contexts of the gift task [F(2,81) = 4.0, p < .05, partial eta2 = .05], with RSA showing stronger augmentation when children were alone. Parents' own ER abilities related to children's RSAreactivity in the final phase of the gift task (when children were with parents), such that parents with less awareness of their own emotions (r = .23, p < .05), or who were more impulsive (r = .22, p < .05) had children with stronger RSA augmentation (a non-typical pattern potentially suggesting physiological dysregulation). Discussion and additional analyses will focus on parenting as a moderator of children's RSA reactivity and developmental differences therein.

Poster 4-46


Laura J O'Toole1, Samantha Berthod2, Sarah Babkirk2, Akeesha Simmons1, Victor Rios1, Jean Quintero1, & Tracy A Dennis1 1Hunter College, The City University of New York, 2The Graduate Center, The City University of New York

Descriptors: attention bias modification, gamification, event-related potentials Attention bias modification training (ABMT) effectively reduces the attentional bias towards threat and anxiety. The present study assessed the effects of gamifying ABMT as an iOS mobile application and whether event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting relatively automatic (P1, N170, P2) and controlled (N2) attentional processes could predict treatment response. To examine these questions, 33 highly trait anxious adults were randomly assigned

into an ABMT or placebo training (PT) condition of the app. ERPs were generated during a standard computerized dot probe task before and after playing the app. Participants in the ABMT group (M = -4.50, SD = 3.21) showed reduced difficulty disengaging compared to the PT group (M = 5.12, SD = 3.11), F(1, 30) = 4.52, p = .04, partial n2 = .13. Additionally, state anxiety was reduced following ABMT versus PT, but only for participants who showed larger P1 amplitudes to threat at baseline, suggesting increased attention capture [t = 1.69, p = .10; model: F(4, 28) = 14.89, p < .001, R2 = .68; interaction: F(1, 28) = 4.53, p = .04, R2 = .05]. Results suggest that a gamified version of traditional ABMT procedures is effective at changing attentional threat biases and anxiety and that ERPs may be a useful tool for predicting for whom the mobile application is most effective. Findings the stage for future biobehavioral studies on use of evidence-based mobile applications in treatment delivery.

Poster 4-47


Sarah Babkirk1, Amanda Rincon2, Olga Gulyayeva2, Patricia Pehme2, Peter Luehring-Jones3, & Tracy A Dennis1'2

1The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 2Hunter College, The City University of New York, 3City College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: emotion, event-related potentials, social media

Social media and computer-mediated communication (CMC) have transformed social-emotional interactions, but few studies have examined their impact on how individuals respond to emotions. To address this, this study examined associations between CMC preferences and the late positive potential (LPP), a scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) reflecting facilitated emotional processing. EEG was recorded while 22 participants completed an emotion regulation task with instructions to increase, decrease or maintain their emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant images. Participants reported preferences for CMC versus face-to-face interactions for positive social communication, expressing distress, and casual communication. A CMC preference (relative to face-to-face) for casual communication predicted greater LPP amplitudes to unpleasant stimuli when participants maintained emotional responses, suggesting greater reactivity. Yet, a CMC preference for casual communication and expressing distress both predicted decreased LPPs when participants increased responses to unpleasant stimuli, suggesting dampened regulatory flexibility. A CMC preference for positive communication also predicted decreased LPPs when participants increased responses, but in this case to pleasant stimuli. Taken together, findings suggest that preferences to communicate emotions via CMC rather than face-to-face are associated with greater emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli and dampened ability to flexibly increase emotional responses to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli.

Poster 4-48


Johannes Rodrigues, & Johannes Hewig University of Würzburg

Descriptors: frontal asymmetry, desktop virtual reality, electroencephalography Frontal asymmetry has been investigated for over 40 years in terms of trait asymmetry, a stable disposition of frontal activation, as well as state asymmetry, representing variable reactions of frontal brain regions to situations. In the state-based approach, stimuli such as emotional films, imagery scripts or facial expressions are used to induce frontal asymmetry. One problem in state based research is the lack of opportunity to document actual behaviour. In this study, as a new paradigm, desktop virtual reality was used to induce frontal asymmetry, giving participants an opportunity to react to stimuli while also measuring frontal asymmetry. Participants explored a virtual T-maze filled with different events, consisting of positive, negative and neutral outcomes. Each event was indicated via a colour cue on the walls. Frontal asymmetry was assessed during cueing of the outcome events. In a preliminary test sample of 22 participants, there was a non-significant difference between frontal asymmetry in the different conditions, with more relative right frontal activation in trials with negative events than in positive trials. Exploratory analysis on differences in behaviour to negative events (i.e., fleeing from a negative event vs. reaching safety) revealed a significant difference in frontal asymmetry for positive events vs. fleeing from negative events on electrodes C3/4, and a marginal effect for FC3/4.

This research was funded by Universitätsbund Würzburg.

Poster 4-49


LaBarron K Hill1, Brenda Jamerson2,3, Adrienne T Aiken-Morgan2, Christopher L Edwards1, & Keith E Whitfield2 1Duke University Medical Center, 2Duke University, 3Durham VA Medical Center

Descriptors: pulse pressure, vascular, APOE

African Americans (AA) experience exceptionally high rates of hypertension and diabetes, which are risk factors for poor vascular functioning and mortality. Possessing at least

one e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is also associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk, and evidence suggests that APOE4 and diabetes are synergisti-cally associated with cerebrovascular changes. Psychosocial stress is an additional cardiovascular risk factor; however, the extent to which stress may further contribute to complex pathophysiological vascular changes remains largely unexplored in AA's. We investigated associations among stress, hypertension and diabetes co-morbidity, and APOE4 status with pulse pressure (PP), a measure of vascular functioning, in a composite sample (N = 664) of middle-aged and older AA adults from the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA I n = 285) and the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA In = 379). Models adjusted for age, sex, and education showed significant main effects for co-morbidity and APOE4 status (p's < .05). Specifically, PP was higher among individuals with at least one APOE4 allele and either hypertension, diabetes, or both. Individuals with co-morbid disease and higher stress levels exhibited significantly higher PP compared to non-diabetic, hypertensive participants (p < .05). For individuals with at least one APOE4 allele and those without, PP was highest among individuals with co-morbid disease and higher stress. These results support the view that stress is an additive factor in vascular disease risk.

CAATSA was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (1R01-AG13662-01A2) and BSBA was supported by NIH grants(R01 AG24108 and AG024108-02S1)to K.E.W. Research conducted by L.K.H was supported by National Institute of Aging grant (5T32AG000029-37).

Poster 4-50


Marina Yu Khodanovich, Elena P Krutenkova, & Elena A Esipenko Tomsk State University

Descriptors: mismatch negativity, visual stimuli, time perception

The existence of mismatch negativity (MMN) in the visual modality still remains unproven. To investigate this we performed an ERP study, recording MMN elicited by duration deviations of visual stimuli. ERPs of 10 practically healthy volunteers (10 female, aged 18-24 years) were recorded during presentation of visual stimuli (white square in the centre of the screen) of 100 and 200 ms duration in an odd-ball paradigm. The active attention condition involved counting the stimuli (CS), the attention to duration (AD) condition involved responses to stimuli of short duration, and the inattention (IA) condition involved no active visual task. The visual stimuli in all series was combined with words presented in headphones which the subject had to remember and report later. Every condition included the situation when the 100 ms stimulus was deviant and the 200 ms stimulus was standard, and the opposite situation. Also, the subject was presented with control series of visual stimuli of 100 and 200 ms duration without deviations but words in headphones were presented. The results suggest significant differences (p < 0.01) between IA (35.2 ± 1.9% of words reproduced) and both CS (21.9 ± 1.3%) and AD conditions (24.9 ± 2.2%) that indicates a complete switching of attention to remembering of words. Significant negative ERP differences relative to control stimuli (130180 ms from stimulus onset) were revealed in CS, AD (wide distribution), and even in IA conditions (only T6 site). We concluded that negativity in the IA condition is a veritable visual MMN.

Poster 4-51


Diana Henz1, Wolfgang I Schollhorn1, & Reinhard Oldenburg2 University of Mainz, 2University of Frankfurt

Descriptors: mathematics, postural control, electroencephalography Ongoing research demonstrates a close interrelation between the cognitive and postural control system. In the current study, we tested whether manipulation of postural control affordances has an effect on mathematical reasoning performance. Subjects performed mathematical tasks (algebra, arithmetics, geometry) at three complexity levels (low, intermediate, high) under two different sitting conditions (static, dynamic) in a randomized within-subjects design. EEG was recorded continuously during resting baseline and each experimental block. Behavioral data show improved performance over all task domains under dynamic postural control. EEG data reveal increased alpha activity in posterior regions during algebraic and geometric tasks at high complexity level in the dynamic postural control condition. Gamma activity was increased over all regions during numerical reasoning at high complexity level under dynamic postural control. Results show positive effects of dynamic postural control on mathematical reasoning performance accompanied by modulation of psychophysiological state. Task-dependent EEG activation patterns indicate that mathematical reasoning is affected differently by manipulation of postural control affordances. We suppose that stimulation of the postural control system activates an internally directed visual attentional mode during solution of algebraic and geometric tasks, whereas attentional information processing is enhanced in numerical reasoning tasks.

Poster 4-52


Pooja Patnaik, John C Kircher, Anne E Cook, Doug J Hacker, & Dan J Woltz University of Utah

Descriptors: deception detection, eye tracking

We conducted a mock crime study using a new approach to detecting deception called the ocular-motor deception test (ODT). Our goal was to compare the accuracy of the ODT when directly asking participants if they committed illicit acts versus indirectly asking if they provided false answers on a questionnaire about those illicit acts. Guilt, statement type, and relevant issue were manipulated to assess their effects on ocular-motor and behavioral measures of deception. Forty-eight university students and staff were guilty of stealing $20 from a secretary's wallet, and 48 were innocent. All participants were told they were suspected of stealing either $20 from a secretary or an exam from a professor's office. During the ODT, participants read and responded to True/False statements about the $20, statements about the exam, and neutral statements while pupil size and gaze position were recorded by an eye tracker. Results showed that guilty participants had stronger pupillary responses and different reading behaviors when reading items about the crime they committed compared to statements about the irrelevant crime or neutral issues. Discriminant functions of ocular-motor measures correctly classified 89% of participants asked directly about their involvement in the crimes and 68.5% of participants asked indirectly about their involvement in the crimes. Behavioral inhibition measured prior to treatment assignment was positively correlated with detectability.

Poster 4-53


Katherine R Thorson1, Gabriele Oettingen1,2, & Peter M Gollwitzer1,3 1New York University, 2University of Hamburg, 3University of Konstanz

Descriptors: self-regulation, cardiac vagal tone, individual differences The self-regulatory thought inductions of mental contrasting and indulging in thoughts of a desired future have been demonstrated to have immediate and lasting effects on individuals' commitment to reach a desired future. The effects of these thought inductions on goal commitment may be moderated by cardiac vagal tone, a measure of resting parasympa-thetic nervous system activity associated with self-regulatory processes. To explore this question, in two studies, we measured participants' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a measure of cardiac vagal tone before participants engaged in one of two self-regulatory thought inductions: mental contrasting or indulging in thoughts of a desired future. Following the manipulations, participants reported commitment for reaching their desired futures. In both studies, there were significant interaction effects between cardiac vagal tone and self-regulatory thought condition on commitment (ps < .05). For participants high in vagal tone (one standard deviation above the mean), those in the mental contrasting condition reported significantly greater commitment than those in the indulging condition. However, for participants low in vagal tone (one standard deviation below the mean), there was no significant difference in commitment as a function of self-regulatory thought induction. These results provide support for the hypothesis that cardiac vagal tone moderates the effects of self-regulatory thought inductions on commitment and highlight the need to consider individual differences when researching self-regulation strategies.

Poster 4-54


Yuri G Pavlov1, & Kirill V Zlokazov2 1Ural Federal University, 2Ural law institute Ministry of Internal Affairs

Descriptors: personality, desctructiveness, electroencephalography

The present study explored features of the neuronal organization of people with destructive behavior. We investigated the relationship between the EEG power from 19 electrode sites (10-20) and the scales rates of experimental questionnaire, assessing different aspects of personality's destructiveness. 53 healthy volunteers (35 women) participated in this study. The research demonstrated that increases in the mean power of lower alpha-activity (8-10.5 Hz) at frontal electrode sites was negatively correlated with volitional control of behavior, ability to maintain ego, destructive motivation and a summary measure of constructive behavior. We found a reliable positive correlation between the mean level of EEG power in beta1- (14-20 Hz) and beta2-bands (20-30 Hz) at parietal, occipital and central electrode sites and the measures of sensitiveness and impulsiveness. A correlation between the beta power and the summary measure of destructive behavior was also found. We suppose that increases of the mean power of lower alpha-activity may underlie the decreasing of rest activity in frontal brain, that can reduce such measures of personality traits as volitional control of behavior, constructive behavior and increased conformity. High levels of EEG power in the beta bands probably determines the increased rest activity of the perceptual brain areas, which can increase the speed and the accuracy of interaction between person and environment and can influence destructive behavior.

Poster 4-55


James F Cavanagh1, Sean E Masters2, Kevin Bath2, & Michael J Frank2 1University of New Mexico, 2Brown University

Descriptors: electroencephalography, genetics, pharmacology

Increasing evidence suggests that effort diminishes the value of reinforcements, likely due to a cost/benefit computation in cortico-striatal circuits. Here we asked whether response conflict also acted as a cost during implicit learned valuation. In each of two studies, participants learned the reinforcement probabilities of four different cues that were presented in a Simon task to elicit response conflict. Critically, two cues had the same overall reinforcement probabilities, but they differed in the experience of reward vs. punishment following conflict. A subsequent test phase revealed any learned biases in the tendency to favor either cue. In study 1 (N = 83), individual differences in genetic polymorphisms for separate cortico-striatal pathways predicted unique variance in the tendency for conflict to diminish reward learning (D1: DARPP-32) or boost punishment avoidance (D2: GPR6). A similar relationship between feedback-locked EEG theta band signals and cue preference was observed: conflict diminished the relationship between reward-related theta power and stimulus preference and it enhanced the relationship between punishment-related theta power and stimulus avoidance. In study 2 (N = 27), double blind administration of the D2 agonist cabergoline diminished reward learning and boosted punishment learning, causing a strong bias away from the stimulus associated with conflict during punishments. Collectively, these findings demonstrate how separable cortical (frontal theta) and striatal (D1 and D2) systems calculate the implicit cost of conflict.

Poster 4-56


Karen Carvajalino, Ejike R Uzoije, & Tim Martin Kennesaw State University

Descriptors: accuracy, reaction time, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) In a motion direction discrimination task accuracy and reaction time can be predicted by using specific event-related potentials (ERPs). We measured motion onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 36 observers while they discriminated direction of motion of moving dots. By analyzing various motion onset VEP components with behavioral variables, we were able to find relationships between them with which we built regression models to predict these variables. Reaction time for example was predicted using a regression model that includes N2 onset latency and N2 onset-to-peak duration. This replicates an earlier study by Martin, Huxlin and Kavcic (2010). However, adding the stimulus-locked later-alized readiness potential (S-LRP) and response-locked LRP (R-LRP) to the model rendered the N2 derived durations insignificant. Even though the regression model was significant when including all these variables, our results showed that S-LRP and R-LRP alone accounted for unique variance in the model. This suggests that the S-LRP may give a more representative estimate of the duration of sensory processing than the more directly sensory-related N2 component. In relation to accuracy, P2 amplitude was the only variable in the regression model to predict the percent correct of this motion discrimination task.

Poster 4-57


Bradley D Hatfield1, Rodolphe J Gentili1, Kyle J Jaquess1, Li-Chuan Lo1, Hyuk Oh1,

Jeremy C Rietschel1,2, & Ying Ying Tan1 University of Maryland, College Park, 2Veteran's Health Administration, Baltimore

Descriptors: cognitive workload, attention reserve, electroencephalography The purpose of this experiment was to further develop a novel measure of cognitive workload under conditions of varying challenge in an ecologically valid setting. This measure employed two indicators derived from electroencephalography (EEG): the novelty P3 event-related potential (ERP) and power spectral density (PSD), as well as heart rate variability gathered via electrocardiogram (ECG). Thirty-nine participants with flight experience completed three scenarios in a flight simulator spanning three difficulty levels (easy, medium, and hard) while EEG and ECG data were recorded. ERP data support previous findings in that novelty P3 amplitude was reduced as difficulty increased indicating a decrease in cognitive resources. Results from spectral analysis also resulted in significant differences between difficulty levels indicating higher levels of neural activity for increased task difficulty. Contrary to predictions, heart rate variability did not yield significant differences between difficulty levels. Work is currently underway to combine the data into a composite measure of cognitive workload. Ultimately, our goal is to employ the measure in real-time in order to supply user information to computer systems

for a myriad of potential uses including state classification, augmented learning, and selection assessments.

This research was funded by Lockheed Martin Corporation, USA(project # 13051318).

Poster 4-58


Natalia V Shemyakina, & Zhanna V Nagornova I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: creativity, frequency, electroencephalography

The aim of the study was to reveal task-related changes in EEG frequency before and after a verbal flexibility-training task. Seven right-handed subjects (30.2 ± 3.4 yrs., two men) performed a task involving a verbal associative search. At least three minutes of EEGs were used for data analysis [opened eyes, F7, F3, F4, F8, P3, P4, O1, O2 derivations (10-20%)] before, after and during task performance. Percentages of EEG frequencies from 7-20 Hz (from theta to beta1) in 1 Hz steps were estimated through the intervals between points crossing the EEG curve izoline. Statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in frequency percentages between REST states before and after the verbal task performance. The averaged mean frequency percentages in the REST state after task performance were marginally higher than in the REST state with before the task. In addition, ANOVA revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) for the STATE factor (rest before task, verbal state flexibility training task). Averaged means for each zone were higher in separate 8-9 Hz, 10-11 Hz, 13-14 Hz, 17-18 Hz, 19-20 Hz frequencies during verbal task performance compared to REST before the task. Effective associative search could be bound with high speed data processing and increase of several frequency percentages in EEG patterns. Obtained results could be specific for creative flexibility training task performance and should be verified with a larger sample.

This study was supported by Russian Humanitarian Foundation, grant 11-36-00324a2.

Poster 4-59


Robert West1, Stephen Anderson1, Anna Slavina1, & Paul D Kieffaber2 1Iowa State University, 2College of William and Mary

Descriptors: feedback processing, feedback negativity, event-related potentials The results of three recent studies from our laboratory demonstrate that the amplitude of the feedback negativity (FN) is greater for losses that result from the action of the individual (i.e., busts) than for losses that result from the joint action of the individual and an external agent (i.e., losses) in a naturalistic Blackjack gambling game. In the current study we examined two variables that may account for this effect (i.e., agency of the outcome and expectancy of the outcome) in a simplified gambling task. The effect of agency was examined by comparing the ERPs elicited by busts and losses, and the effect of expectancy was examined by comparing feedback processing related to low and high risk decisions. The amplitude of the FN was greater for busts than for losses for all but the riskiest choices. For these choices the amplitude of the FN was greater for losses than busts. Additionally, the interaction between losses and busts and risk appeared to be related to a negativity over the central parietal region of the scalp. These findings indicate that both agency and expectancy can modulate feedback processing within the anterior cingulate cortex and that these effects may involve input from more posterior midline structures.

Poster 4-60


Roman Osinsky, Patrick Mussel, Julian Schwan, Natalie Silex, & Johannes Hewig University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: feedback-related negativity, P300, decision outcome evaluation The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 have frequently been investigated in studies on decision outcome evaluation. However, it has not been fully clarified yet whether the underlying evaluative systems differentially assess a certain outcome, depending on the grade of activity versus passivity leading to this outcome. To answer this open question we developed a new gambling task in which participants (N = 50) made risk-choices between active behavior (i.e., pressing a button) or passively staying with the status quo. Behavioral results point to a general activity-bias in both risk-seeking and risk-avoidance behavior. For the FRN we observed less negative amplitudes for obtained monetary wins achieved by activity compared to passivity. This effect may reflect a positive reward-prediction error which is more pronounced when resulting from active behavior. In contrast, the P300 differentiated between activity versus passivity for obtained losses, being especially high when a loss resulted from passivity. This P300 effect probably indicates that negative events have an especially high motivational salience when resulting from passively staying with the status quo. In combination these two mechanisms may explain the general activity bias

observed in risk-seeking (i.e., actively go for a potential gain) and risk-avoidance behavior (i.e., actively avoid possible negative consequences of passivity).

Poster 4-61


Soraya L Sa, Ana Garcia, Maria Clotilde H Tavares, & Carlos Tomaz University of Brasilia

Descriptors: electroencephalography, inhibitory control, reaction time task Inhibitory control is responsible for restraining inappropriate responses and it is related to prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. Several reports have suggested females have better inhibitory performance for social tasks and behavioral domains, which could derive from higher selective pressures imposed on women during evolution. In the present study, gender differences on inhibitory mechanisms were evaluated by the analysis of electroencephalo-graphic (EEG) data recorded during the performance of a Reaction Time task. 51 healthy college students (N = 25 males, age: 22.04 ± 2.49; 26 females, 21.08 ± 3.27) performed the task, which consisted of the exhibition of a clue fixation point on a computer screen followed, after a variable interval, by the presentation of a stimulus on one of six possible positions. Subjects were asked to respond to the stimuli as quickly as possible by key press. EEG data showed higher female cortical activities on theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) frequencies at frontal, mid-central and left posterior regions (p < 0.05). Extended activity from frontal to posterior regions indicate a frontal-parietal network sustaining executive function, contrasting a PFC-dependent activity. Differences observed in the posterior left regions can be explained for the visual processing component of the task. Left lateralization is also associated with spatial attention processes. Central regions activation can be related to anticipation and planning of actions. Our results show enhanced female inhibitory abilities on the behavioral domain, in accordance to previous studies.

CAPES, MEC, Brasil (Coordenagao de Aperfeigoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior).

Poster 4-62


Tim Martin, Johanna Leskinen, & Shaun Wong Kennesaw State University

Descriptors: motor processes

This study attempted to characterize the relationship between stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (SLRP) amplitudes and latencies and response latency using a regression analysis. Stimulus-locked SLRPs can be used to estimate the duration of processing between a stimulus and the onset of a motor response, and are known to predict response latency. The frequencies of neuronal oscillations that contribute to the peak SLRP, though, are unknown. We characterized SLRPs using a wavelet analysis, and investigated the relationship between these wavelets and SLRP amplitude and latency, and also the ability of wavelets to predict response latency. EEGs were used to collect data in conjunction with a task containing a visual stimulus and a corresponding motor movement (mouse 'click'). It was found that several component frequencies were significantly related to reaction time (p = 0.011). The 2.25 HZ, 1.5 Hz, and 2.75 Hz were all independent predictors of response latency, but did not fit as well as SLRP peak latency. Therefore, it was found that wavelets could be useful in determining reaction time, but not as useful as the SLRP peak latencies.

Poster 4-63


Zhanna V Nagornova, & Natalia V Shemyakina I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: EEG frequency, verbal thinking, figurative thinking

EEG spectral power differences are a common observation in cognitive task performance. Our previous studies have shown different effects of verbal and visual thinking processes on the EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band. As the next step, the effect of verbal and visual thinking on EEG frequency was explored. EEG was recorded in three conditions: performance of a verbal task, performance of a figurative (spatial) task and resting state with opened eyes. Percentages of EEG frequencies in 1 Hz steps were estimated by the measurements of intervals between points where EEG curve crossed isoline. EEG frequencies between 2-15 Hz were considered in eight derivations: F3,4; C3,4; P3,4; O1,2 (10-20 system). Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis in each frequency separately for interaction: state (three conditions) and zones (eight conditions). Significant differences were obtained in percentages for 3-6 Hz and 8-10 Hz frequencies. Percentage of slow waves from 3 to 4 Hz was significantly higher in parietal and occipital areas during both verbal and figurative task performance in comparison with rest condition. Percentage of 4-6 Hz frequencies was higher in the rest condition within all cortex areas. Percentage of slow alpha (8-10 Hz) was higher in both tasks versus the rest condition;

additionally, slow 8-9 Hz activity was more prominent during verbal task performance in comparison with the figurative task. These results demonstrated changes of rhythmical pattern of EEG during cognitive task performance. RFH - 12-36-01253a2

Poster 4-64


Kelly M Tu1, Stephen A Erath1, Ben Hinnant2, & Mona El-Sheikh1 1Auburn University, 2Catholic University

Descriptors: parenting, SNS, maladjustment

The investigation of youths' responses to stress, as indexed by sympathetic nervous system activity, may shed light on the variability in behavioral and peer adjustment in the context of family risk. We examined cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEP-R) as a moderator of relations between harsh parenting (HP) and adolescent externalizing problems (aggressive behavior) and deviant peer affiliations (friends who use alcohol/drugs). Participants were 252 adolescents at age 15 and their parents and teachers. Adolescents reported on HP; parents and teachers reported on behavioral and peer maladjustment. Using MindWare Technologies hardware and software, PEP was derived from cardiac data (modified lead-II electrode configuration) and thoracic impedance data (four-spot impedance configuration). Data were collected in the laboratory during a 3-min baseline and 3-min cognitive frustration task (mirror star-tracing). PEP-R was computed as a difference score (task minus baseline); negative scores indicate shortened PEP (increases in sympathetic activity). Regression analyses revealed interactions between HP and PEP-R in the prediction of behavior problems and deviant peer affiliations. Among adolescents with shorter PEP-R (higher sympathetic activity), a positive association between HP and indices of maladjustment emerged. Further, at high levels of HP, adolescents with shorter PEP-R, compared to longer PEP-R, had higher levels of maladjustment. These results suggest that physiological responses to stress may attenuate or exacerbate maladjustment in the context of family risk.

This research was supported by Grant R01-HD046795 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded to Mona El-Sheikh.

Poster 4-65


David W Frank, & Dean Sabatinelli University of Georgia

Descriptors: emotion, fMRI, thalamus

Emotional scene perception is associated with enhanced activity in ventral occipitotempo-ral cortex and amygdala. While a growing body of research supports the perspective that emotional perception is organized via amygdala feedback to rostral ventral visual cortex, the contributions of high-order thalamic structures strongly associated with visual attention, specifically the mediodorsal nucleus and pulvinar, have not been well investigated. Here we sample the activity of amygdala, MDN, pulvinar, and extrastriate ventral visual regions with fMRI as participants view a mixed series of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant natural scenes, balanced for basic perceptual characteristics. The results demonstrate that all regions showed enhanced activity during emotionally arousing, relative to neutral scene perception. Directional connectivity analyses of the whole brain time series reflect robust causal flow within ventral visual cortex. While temporally coarse, the latency of emotional discrimination across subcortical and visual cortical regions from this dataset suggests a role for the amygdala in the early evaluation of scene emotion. Additionally, we assess thalamic contributions to emotional scene perception across multiple fMRI studies. In sum, these data indicate that higher order visual thalamic structures are sensitive to the emotional value of complex scene stimuli, and may serve in concert with amygdala and fusiform gyrus to modulate visual attention toward motivationally relevant cues.

Poster 4-66


David R Herring, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Robert R Henderson, Kristina Andrion, Marie-Claude Laplante, Cyd C Strauss, Evelyn R Sullivan, & Peter J Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: anxiety disorders, startle reflex, emotional imagery

Previous research has shown that during unpleasant imagery, probe startle potentiation varies with anxiety diagnosis - tending to be greater for fear disorders (e.g., specific phobia, performance fears) and paradoxically, reduced for more severe, highly comorbid disorders (e.g., panic/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety). Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent "blunting" of the startle reflex in patients reflects a history of more persistent stress/trauma and a greater breadth/severity of pathology (i.e., "anxious misery"). This research addresses a new sample of 54 anxiety patients, assessed successively at a community clinic. All patients imagined scenes they judged personally unpleasant and scenes that were affectively neutral, during which probe startle reflexes were recorded. For analysis, participants were divided into

two groups - patients showing significant startle potentiation (unpleasant greater than neutral scenes) and patients who did not. The no-potentiation group (n = 26) tended to report more pathology on questionnaires, greater clinician-rated severity, and poorer prognosis scores than the group showing startle potentiation (n = 28). Notably, the no-potentiation group reported significantly greater frequency of lifetime trauma than patients showing content-appropriate startle potentiation (p = .02). These findings support the hypothesis that startle "blunting" in anxious patients is associated with an exacerbated stress/trauma history, perhaps reflecting compromised neural circuits that mediate defensive reflexes.

National Institute of Mental Health (5R01MH098078-02 & 5R01MH09438602).

Poster 4-67


David K Parkhurst, Cayla J Duncan, Kaylee Rosenbusch, Dhannia Torres, Lori Hermosillo, Mallory Barker, Mary H Burleson, & Nicole A Roberts Arizona State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, trauma, parasympathetic nervous system Emotional avoidance can be problematic for relationships and health, as suggested for example by links between dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder. We collected physiological (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and self-report emotion indicators from 48 participants with prior trauma exposure while they relived autobiographical memories evoking happiness, anger, and shame. We examined the role of dissociative tendencies, emotion regulation difficulties, and baseline RSA in predicting emotional intensity and sense of connection to emotions while reliving these events. Regression analyses revealed that greater RSA during the baselines prior to the anger and shame (but not happy) memories predicted lower intensity of anger and shame, above and beyond emotion experienced at the time of the event, dissociative tendencies, and emotion regulation difficulties (the former two also significantly predicted anger). Baseline RSA also predicted a lesser sense of connection to one's emotions during the happy (but not anger or shame) memory, controlling for dissociative tendencies, emotion regulation difficulties, and difficulty reliving the emotion (the latter was also a significant predictor for all three emotions). Findings are consistent with previous research suggesting that, paradoxically, dissociation may be associated with greater negative emotional experience, but that parasympathetic activation, indexed by higher RSA, may mitigate the experience of negative emotions -albeit perhaps leading to a lesser sense of connection to positive emotions as well.

Poster 4-68


Emily M Hale-Rude, Brittany C Speed, Felicia L Jackson, Brady D Nelson, & Greg Hajcak Proudfit Stony Brook University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, error-related negativity

The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked ERP, characterized as a negative deflection maximal within 100 ms after commission of an error. The ERN is generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that integrates information about negative affect and cognitive control. Consistent with this view, errors can put an individual in harm's way (e.g., missing a nail and hitting your thumb with a hammer), and variability in the ERN may reflect the threat value of errors. Research has indicated that people prefer predictable over unpredictable threat primarily because the former allows for better preparation and action. Moreover, unpredictability itself can bias attention to threat. In the current study, we examined the impact of predictable vs. unpredictable environmental contexts on the ERN. To this end, we measured ERPs in 75 participants (aged 10-22) using a speeded-response flanker task while predictable and unpredictable tones sequences played in the background. Upon completion of the task, participants were asked to rate which tone sequence they disliked more. The ERN and CRN were defined as the average amplitude from 0-100 ms at FCz after the commission of an erroneous and correct response, respectively. The ERN was larger during unpredictable compared to predictable tones and results were specific to error trials. These findings suggest that enhanced neural responses to errors may reflect a bias to potential threat (e.g. errors) in unpredictable contexts. Additional analyses will focus on developmental changes in sensitivity to unpredictable contexts.

Poster 4-69


Hedwig Eisenbarth, Luke J Chang, & Tor D Wager University of Colorado at Boulder

Descriptors: machine learning, ANS brain correlation, stress

Threatening situations evoke stress reactions and subsequent physiological changes are thought to be mediated by ACC, brain stem nuclei and limbic structures. Previous research has traditionally used correlational approaches to relate autonomic responses to brain activity. Here, we developed a multivariate pattern of brain activity predictive of autonomic activity. Eighteen healthy, right-handed participants completed a speech preparation task, in

which they prepared two separate speeches while undergoing fMRI. We used penalized principle components regression (LASSO-PCR) with a multilevel approach for cross-validation to train brain models predictive of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (GSR) time-series. We combined HV-Block cross validation on the first level time series data with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation at the second level to train a brain model that was able to predict a new subject's autonomic changes in response to social evaluative threat. Predicted HR was correlated with r = .413 with the true HR, with an RMSE of 4.371; the predicted GSR was correlated with r = .309 with the true GSR, with an RMSE of 0.040. Importantly, the predictive maps were spatially uncorrelated (r = .064) with the DMPFC, ACC and Cerebellum predictive of GSR, while the VMPFC and pons were more predictive of HR. These results demonstrate for the first time distributed brain patterns that differentially predict different autonomic measures.

First author was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG)

Poster 4-70


Inga Steppacher, Diana Schlösser, & Johanna Kissler University of Bielefeld

Descriptors: migraine, event-related potentials, emotion

Migraine is a disorder of periodic disabling headache. One reported trigger of such attacks is stress, elicited by a busy surrounding. Neuroimaging studies have already shown a facilitated cortical excitability. Although the underlying mechanisms of migraine attack onsets is not fully understood, this altered cortical excitability is discussed as a possible explanation. Here, we investigate if this enhanced cortical excitability is reflected in altered event related potentials in response to emotional or neutral pictures. 16 migraine patients and 20 healthy volunteers participated in this study. Each patient had a diagnosed migraine and was headache- and medication free for the study. Participants had to watch positive, negative and neutral pictures from the international affective picture system (IAPS). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was continuously recorded during picture presentation. Afterwards, participants were asked to rate the pictures for valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant) and arousal (calm vs. exciting). Migraine patients showed significant larger early ERP components from 100 ms onward to all picture categories in right occipital and left frontal regions. This effect was further accentuated for emotional material. Patients with migraine seem to react more intensely to all kinds of pictorial stimuli and even more so to emotional ones. This facilitated processing may be related to the high cortical excitability shown in neu-roimaging studies and might contribute to the reoccurring intense headache attacks.

Poster 4-71


Isabel Fonseca, Margarida Cipriano, Ana Marques, Miguel Rodrigues, Nathalie Acurcio, & Daniela Marques University of Lisbon

Descriptors: emotion, subliminal stimulation, personality

The study of different levels of stimulus processing, such as non-conscious and conscious, has shown the influence of emotional qualities of subliminal stimulation on conscious evaluation of unrelated visual images. In previous studies we have shown that subliminal stimulus valence influenced preferences for visual abstract masks, and that "liked" stimulus masks were associated with higher amplitude LPP ERP waveforms. In the present study, the effects of emotion qualities are further explored by controlling the valence and arousal of subliminal stimuli in conditions of backward and forward masking. Behavioural data on subjective preferences and visibility (asked at the end of the session to ensure subliminal stimulation concerning stimuli identification) were registered while EEG and ERPs were collected for each stimulus valence (positive and negative) and arousal level (high and low) separately. In a later experimental session, the effects of the same stimuli (distorted but preserving low frequency contour and colour) were analyzed in a projective setting where participants were asked to produce a story and rate their preferences. Personality features were assessed using MCMI-II, BSI, CORE-OM. ERP waveform amplitudes, after averaging and regression to the mean 200 ms baseline, were significantly different for each of the four subliminal emotional stimulation conditions in Fz and Pz derivations in what concerns arousal level. Behavioural preferences also go in that direction (preference for low arousal stimuli). These data will be related to projective and personality data.

Poster 4-72


Enrique Bello, & Matthew R Hilimire College of William and Mary

Descriptors: neuromarketing, event-related potentials, affective priming

EEG measures were used in this study to examine how emotion influences a purchase

decision when brand and price are varied. Participants were instructed to simulate a trip

to the grocery store in need of certain products. Participants were presented with Yes/No purchase decision trials for 14 different grocery products - seven national brand and seven private label products - while EEG activity was recorded. Price was increased or decreased relative to a base reference price. Prior to product onset, an emotional prime was flashed. The prime was a positive, negative, or neutral image from IAPS. Behavioral results showed that fewer products were bought following a negative prime relative to positive or neutral prime. Also, at lower prices more national brands were bought relative to private label products. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the product onset showed that, overall, positively and negatively primed products elicited more positive amplitude in three time windows (100-150, 150-200, 200-250 ms) relative to neutrally primed products. Purchase decisions elicited more negative amplitude in the 100-150 ms time window relative to no purchase decisions. Private label products elicited more negative amplitude in the 150-200 ms time window relative to national brands. These results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that emotional priming influences the neural processing of a product and subsequent purchase decisions. Importantly, results from this study show that buying decisions are malleable and depend on various psychological factors.

Poster 4-73


Szymon Fedor, & Rosalind Picard MIT Media Lab

Descriptors: electrodermal activity, long-term measurement

The growing need for ambulatory measurement of sympathetic nervous system arousal makes it important to find an unobtrusive alternative to the palmar site for long-term measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA), where sensors may need to be worn for a month or longer. Two prior studies have shown that EDA measured on the palmar and forearm sites is highly correlated; consequently, in this work we examine EDA measured simultaneously from the left and right forearm and left and right calf locations on the bodies of healthy adult volunteers (n = 32), sites that support long-term wear. Time-synchronized measurements are made while each participant experiences three types of stressors: physical, cognitive, and emotional, preceded and followed by four rest periods. We also examine the lag of EDA response times in the physical task. All multi-site cross-correlations for all tasks and rest periods had median correlation coefficients above 0.5. The bilateral EDA measurements between both calves have the highest correlation coefficients (mean = 0.91, median = 0.96) calculated over the entire experiment, followed by the correlation coefficients between the forearms (mean = 0.78, median = 0.91). Participants who reported regularly playing sport showed faster EDA responses to the physical task than those who were less active. All participants reported the four locations to be comfortable, while 40% of participants reported the calf to be slightly more comfortable than the forearm. This study suggests that the back of the lower calf is a viable site for long term measurement of EDA.

Poster 4-74


Sara Invitto1, Arianna Mignozzi1, Marzia Quarta1, Silvia Sammarco2, Giuseppe Nicolardi1, & Marina De Tommaso3 University of Salento, 2Istituto Santa Chiara, 3University of Bari

Descriptors: intimate partner violence, face recognition, event-related potentials Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is often associated with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and is characterized by disturbances in attention and hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to investigate the arousal related to recognition of emotional faces in IPV women. This study examined the event-related potential (ERP) N170 component to target detection, during the presentation of Nim Stim Face Stimulus Set, with Emo No Go paradigm. The task consisted of pressing a button when the subject saw a neutral face expression. Participants were 10 women with IPV, recruited in a Center Against Family Violence, compared to aged matched controls. To assess both groups we administered the Beck Depression Inventory II, BeckAnxiety Inventory and a PTSD measure. GLM analysis was computed for N200 amplitude and latency and showed a significant effect by group (Group p = .018; Target p = .406). Post hoc analysis of amplitude showed a higher amplitude in IPV group; post hoc analysis of latency showed faster latency in IPV group. Lateralization analysis showed higher amplitude in right hemisphere in IPV group (Right p = .041). The behavioral result confirms a significant difference (Group = .00; Target = .00; Target*Group = .00) in direction with a faster RT in IPV group. IPV group exhibits a lower sensitivity threshold on emotional face recognition in behavioral and ERP results, and it could be a sensibilization in elicitation of emotional arousal, but this activation is independent from modality of expression.

Poster 4-75


Sergii Tukaiev, Igor Zyma, Youri Havrylets, Sergii Sobishchanskyi, Mukola Makarchuk,

& Rizun Rizun National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

Descriptors: TV-news frame, P300, burnout

It is well known that TV focuses mainly on the negative aspects of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of emotions by examining P300 modulation during the processing of emotional images from TV news programs. 44 healthy volunteers participated in this study; the data were obtained from the O1 registered site. The participants were shown 75 negative and 75 neutral images, taken from different TV news programs. Afterward, the participants assessed the images along "unpleasant-pleasant" and "relaxing-activating" dimensions. Neutral images were rated as more pleasant and relaxing and negative images were rated as more unpleasant and activating. In order to identify the stages of burnout as the variability among these participants in their reaction to everyday stress, we used the "Syndrome of emotional burnout" test. The Resistance stage was detected in 24 respondents. In this group we found that the amplitude of P300 was similar after both negative and neutral images. The results from 20 participants who did not develop burnout demonstrated that the amplitude of P300 was larger after negative images compared to neutral ones. The neutral pictures had the same effect in both groups. Our data indicate that the reaction to the emotional images depends on the intensity of burnout. Thus, the severity of burnout affected the perceptual ability of the negative information presented by mass media.

Poster 4-76


Ursula Hess, & Christophe Blaison Humboldt-University, Berlin

Descriptors: decoding accuracy, facial mimicry, motivation

The notion that motivation affects empathic accuracy has been inferred from aspects of the task, the situation (for example, presence of threat) or aspects of the relationship between interactions partners or between groups. The present research assessed whether cognitive and affective empathy are affected by monetary reward. For this, 38 participants saw briefly (33 ms) presented expressions of sadness and anger and had to decide which emotions they saw, while facial EMG at the Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major sites was measured. For half the participants, correctly decoded expressions on male faces were rewarded, for the other half correctly decoded expressions on female faces were rewarded. Facial mimicry of sadness as indexed by activity of the Corrugator Supercilii and Zygo-maticus Major was present for rewarded but not for non-rewarded trials. Participants were also significantly more accurate for rewarded than for non-rewarded trials. As such, the results showed that rewards increase empathic accuracy for both emotions equally and affective empathy as indexed through facial mimicry for sadness. Thus, simple monetary rewards affect both cognitive and affective empathy.

Poster 4-77


Francesco Versace, Danika D Dirba, Troy R Gilchrist, Kristin M Cortese, Jennifer Ng,

Aurelija Slapin, Kimberly N Claiborne, Karen Basen-Engquist, & Susan M Schembre The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Descriptors: event-related potentials, emotion, obesity

Pre-clinical models indicate that individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to food-related stimuli influence vulnerability to maladaptive behaviors such as overeating. We hypothesized that, mirroring animal models, humans also exhibit individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to food-related stimuli and that these differences are related to different eating behaviors. Data from 73 overweight (BMI>28) and 53 lean (BMI < 25) individuals (29 men) between 20 and 54 years of age were analyzed. Participants viewed food-related, pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images while EEG was recorded. The amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) between 400 and 700 ms post image onset was used to measure incentive salience. K-means cluster analysis of the individuals' 4 LPPs was used to identify two, distinct groups. Individuals in Group 1 had larger (p < .001) responses to food-related images but lower (p < .005) responses to other pleasant stimuli than those in Group 2. Overweight and lean individuals in the two groups had comparable brain response patterns. However, overweight individuals in Group 1 reported significantly (p < .001) higher levels of emotional eating and eating in response to hedonic cues. These findings suggest that food-related cues represent powerful incentive stimuli for only a subset of individuals; lean and overweight. Identifying the brain mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and understanding how lean individuals evade excessive weight gain will inform interventions for maladaptive eating behaviors.

This study was funded in part by The UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Basic Science Institutional Research Grant Program.

Poster 4-78


M Todd Allen1, Jacqueline L Holloway2, Catherine E Myers2, & Richard J Servatius2 University of Northern Colorado, 2Rutgers University

Descriptors: anxiety, eyeblink conditioning, uncertainty

Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition have been found to enhance associative learning in classical eyeblink conditioning and may be a diathesis for anxiety disorders. We recently reported enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks in individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition was more evident in an omission and yoked protocol than in standard CS-US paired training (Holloway et al., 2014). We recently tested the effects of partial reinforcement in which half of the trials were CS-US paired trials and half of the trials were either CS tone alone or US air puff alone trials. Participants completed personality inventories and received 3 US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Eyeblink responses were measured via silver chloride EMG electrodes. Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibited facilitated acquisition as compared to non-vulnerable individuals. CS alone partial reinforcement produced a partial reinforcement extinction effect (i.e., PREE) but only in the anxiety vulnerable individuals. To test for possible trial spacing effects in the partial reinforcement schedule, we inter-mixed blank trials with no stimuli between the CS-US paired trials instead of the CS or US alone trials. High AMBI individuals exhibited facilitated learning to the spaced trials with a variable inter-trial interval ranging from 25 to 123 s. Overall, enhanced sensitivity to forming stimulus associations in anxiety vulnerable individuals is most evident when the predictive relationship between the CS and US is uncertain.

This work funded by the University of Northern Colorado and the Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute.

Poster 4-79


Karen J Mathewson1, Riikka Pyhala2, Petteri Hovi3, Katri Raikkonen2, Louis A Schmidt1, Ryan J Van Lieshout1, Michael H Boyle1, Saroj Saigal1, & Eero Kajantie3 1McMaster University, 2University of Finland, 3Helsinki University Central Hospital

Descriptors: cardiovascular responses, stress, extremely low birth weight A biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat motivation (Blascovich, 2008) posits that cardiovascular responses to personally relevant situations index psychological states. When personal resources are perceived to be high and situational demands relatively low, a scenario is considered challenging, but when resources are low and demands are high, it is considered threatening. Cardiovascular markers predict both states (challenge vs. threat motivation) and may also predict behaviour in subsequent contexts. We applied this model to understanding motivational tendencies in young adults (M = 24 yrs) born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; n = 13) or normal birth weight (NBW; n = 36) from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. To elicit cardiovascular responses, we administered the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Group differences were tested by comparing cardiovascular reactivity (changes in total peripheral resistance (TPR) and cardiac output (CO)). NBW adults showed a greater decline in TPR (p < .05) and larger increase in CO (p < .01) to TSST performance than did ELBW adults, suggesting that they approached the TSST as a challenge, whereas ELBW adults approached it as threatening. Regression analyses revealed that among ELBW adults alone, limited CO reactivity to the TSST was associated with greater behavioral activation in everyday contexts (increased BAS scores, p < .02), perhaps suggesting lower levels of internal control. Premature birth may sensitize the role that cardiovascular markers play in predicting motivated behavior, for better and for worse.

Funding sources include the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and the Academy of Finland, the University of Helsinki, the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, Finska Lakaresallskapet, the Finnish Foundation for Pediatric Research, the Finnish Special Governmental Subsidiary for Health Sciences, the Jalmari and Rauha Ahokas Foundation, the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Paivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Signe andAne Gyllenberg Foundation, the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation, the Orion-Pharma Foundation, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and the Pedi-atric Graduate School of the University of Helsinki.

Poster 4-80


Laure Spieser, Laurence Casini, Thierry Hasbroucq, & Boris Burle Aix-Marseille University, CNRS

Descriptors: motor control, conflict task, transcranial magnetic stimulation

Control of externally-triggered response activation is essential for appropriate behavior.

While those control processes are typically studied in conflict tasks, the Posner cueing task,

by separating irrelevant and relevant stimuli dimensions, allows the dissociation of early response facilitation ipsilateral to a non-relevant cue stimulus from its subsequent disfa-cilitation. Here, we investigated motor control processes triggered by this non-relevant cue. First, distribution analysis of reaction times (RT) in a Posner task revealed signs of inhibition already for the longest RTs of short cue-target intervals, suggesting that time elapsed after cue onset is the critical factor for ipsilateral response suppression. This was also supported by electromyographic (EMG) data showing that 'partial errors' (i.e., sub-treshold muscular activity revealing incorrect covert response activations) are more likely on the ipsilateral hand early after cue onset, but turn to be more probable on the contralateral hand for longer delays. In a second experiment, we directly assessed motor cortex excitability modulation induced by the cue by applying TMS over M1 during the cue-target interval. Preliminary results suggest that, after an initial increase, the corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand decreases compared to the contralateral hand. Those results confirm that non-relevant stimuli can trigger response activation that spreads until the primary motor cortex. The subsequent disfacilitation of the response is associated with a decrease of motor cortex excitability.

This work was supported by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013 Grant Agreement n. 241077) grant.

Poster 4-81


Bethany C Wangelin, & Peter W Tuerk Ralph H. Johnson VAMC

Descriptors: PTSD, anxiety, emotion

Heightened physiological reactivity during recall of trauma memories is a well-documented finding in controlled laboratory research on posttraumatic stress disorder. Repeated, prolonged recall of trauma memories (i.e., imaginal exposure) is a core component of gold-standard PTSD treatment; however, few studies have examined physiological indices of treatment outcome, especially in conventional clinic settings. In this pilot study, 20 patients with PTSD receiving prolonged exposure (PE) therapy completed a brief imagery task - listening to a standard neutral script, and a personalized trauma script while heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded - at pre-treatment, after one session of imaginal exposure, and at treatment completion. Methodology was simplified for ease of incorporation into standard PE therapy. Consistent with previous laboratory findings, patients showed reliably heightened HR and SC reactivity during trauma imagery, prior to PE treatment. For PE completers, trauma-specific reactivity was significantly reduced after 1 session of imaginal exposure, and at post-treatment. Patients who dropped out of therapy showed no significant change in reactivity after 1 session of imaginal exposure. Exploratory analyses also suggest that improvement in self-reported PTSD symptoms may be associated with pre-treatment physiological activation. Results support the utility of assessing physiological activation via a brief imagery task, as an objective index of treatment response that can potentially inform clinical care as well as ongoing intervention research.

Research was supported by a Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Clinical Sciences Research & Development (CSR&D) Award, CDA-2 (PI: Tuerk).

Poster 4-82


Brandon L Alderman, Ryan L Olson, Edward A Selby, Marsha E Bates, Jennifer F Buckman, & Tracey J Shors Rutgers University

Descriptors: depression, event-related potentials, rumination

Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and inhibitory control. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) have not been described. We examined the relationships between rumination and individual differences in 1) response conflict and inhibitory control during a modified flanker task, and 2) the temporal dynamics of attention during an attentional blink (AB) task in 26 individuals with MDD and 33 healthy controls. Behavioral task performance measures did not differ between groups. The amplitude of early (N2) and later (N450) ERP correlates of inhibitory cognitive control, however, was significantly reduced in subjects with MDD and both components were correlated with self-reported rumination levels. In contrast, task performance and P3 amplitude during the AB were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that rumination in MDD is associated with select deficits in ERP correlates of response conflict and inhibitory control.

This study was funded by the Charles and Johanna Busch Memorial Fund at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

Poster 4-83


Jan Richter, & Alfons O Hamm University of Greifswald

Descriptors: panic disorder and agoraphobia, behavioral avoidance test, exposure therapy Despite a good overall efficacy of exposure-based therapy in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia some of the patients still did not benefit at all or developed anxiety symptoms after a previously successful treatment. In order to optimize the treatment, specific knowledge of the mechanisms of change of exposure based therapy is needed. As part of a German wide research network 369 affected patients were invited to participate repeatedly in a standardized behavioral avoidance test (BAT; being locked in a dark and small test chamber). Including subjective-verbal, behavioral and physiological indicators (startle reflex modulation, heart rate and electrodermal activity) it was possible to map changes of patients' defensive reactivity due to therapeutic experiences. It was found that during repeated confrontation to the test chamber the fear response already reduced significantly in those patients randomized to a wait-list-control group without psychothera-peutic interventions (N = 60). Nevertheless, reduction was more pronounced in those patients who completed a manualized treatment (N = 215) suggesting a successful generalization of the therapeutic experiences during exposure exercises. The results show that the BAT is sensitive to psychotherapy induced changes in defensive reactivity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Therefore, it will be possible now to test specific assumptions of theoretical models trying to explain mechanisms of change during exposure-based treatment and, thus, to formulate implications for optimizing cognitive behavioral therapy.

Funding provided by German federal government, Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (DM3-FNEU02).

Poster 4-84


Jessica Klusek, & Jane E Roberts University of South Carolina

Descriptors: cortisol, anxiety, FMR1 premutation

The FMR1 premutation is a single gene disorder that occurs in 1 in 151 women, with high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. This psychological vulnerability may be related to function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the stress hormone cortisol. For example, variation on CRHR1 (a gene involved in cortisol secretion) predicts anxiety in the FMR1 premutation. The present study extends this work by addressing the following questions: 1) Do cortisol levels predict anxiety and depression in the FMR1 premutation? 2) Does FMR1-related genetic variation relate to cortisol levels? Participants included 34 women with the FMR1 premutation (mean age = 33 years). The Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory indexed continuous depression and anxiety symptoms. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline and after behavioral assessment (reactivity); change scores were computed. FMR1 molecular variation (CGG repeat length and activation ratio) was derived from blood samples. Data were examined for normalcy and transformations applied as indicated. Greater cortisol change predicted state anxiety symptoms [F(1,34) = 4.23, p = .047; R2 = .11, Beta = .33], and marginally predicted depressive symptoms [F(1,34) = 2.88), p = .099, R2 = .08, Beta = .28]. Lower CGG repeat length predicted greater cortisol change [F(1,32) = 6.02), p = .020, R2 = .19, Beta = —.40]. Cortisol regulation is directly associated with FMR1-related variation and may serve as a biomarker for anxiety vulnerability in women with the FMR1 premutation.

F32DC013934 (PI Klusek), R01MH090194 (PI Roberts), P30HD003110 (PI Bailey), and H324C990042 (PI Hatton).

Poster 4-85


Lindsey B Stone, Neil P Jones, Jennifer S Silk, & Greg J Siegle University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: pupillary response, rumination, depression

The tendency to ruminate in response to negative events and moods develops in late childhood and predicts depression onset in adolescence and poorer treatment response. Thus it is critical to identify how depressed ruminators differ in order to develop ruminative-specific treatment strategies. We tested if rumination predicted differences in adolescents' emotion processing of salient events: peer acceptance and peer rejection. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm (Chatroom Interact Task) where they received peer rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a quantitative, temporally sensitive index of initial reactivity and sustained processing. Analyses revealed that overall, depressed youth exhibit greater initial and sustained pupil dilation to peer rejection compared to acceptance. Higher rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and

acceptance, and diminished late pupil dilation during acceptance trials specifically. Both effects were maintained after controlling for depression severity. Results suggest that among depressed adolescents, ruminators exhibit greater sensitivity to both positive and negative peer events, and display a blunted sustained processing specific to peer acceptance, potentially indicative of an over-regulation response to positive events. In summary, rumination appears to exert unique effects on depressed adolescents' emotion reactivity and regulation. Clinical implications for depression interventions are discussed.

Poster 4-86


Jennifer L Robinson1, Matthew W Miller1, Ron Beyers1, Kirk Grand1, Lauren AJ Kirby1, Alan Macy2, & Ken Graap2 1Auburn University, 2BIOPAC Systems, Inc

Descriptors: 7T, fMRI, psychophysiology

Psychological processes engage a dynamic interaction between the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, our understanding of this interaction has been severely limited because of the lack of concomitant collection of peripheral physiological measures during functional neuroimaging. Studies that have collected these data typically include one physiological measurement, and are almost exclusively carried out on 3T MRI scanners. Here, we present initial attempts at multichannel psychophysiological data collection during submillimeter 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. Data were acquired using BIOPAC MRI-compatible modules, leads, and electrodes. FMRI scanning was carried out on a whole body 7T Siemens Magnetom scanner, outfitted with a 32-channel head coil. Electrocardiograph (ECG), electromyograph (EMG), and electroder-mal activity (EDA) were collected during simultaneous high-resolution functional neuro-imaging. EMG, EDA, and basic cardiovascular measures were derived after signal processing to remove scanning artifacts. EMG and EDA signals were reliably extracted and minimally affected by the simultaneous acquisition. ECG signals were more vulnerable to scanning parameters, and thus more difficult to extract. We successfully collected submillimeter fMRI and multichannel psychophysiological data in an ultra-high field MR environment. Such data collection may allow for investigations that better characterize the neural and physiological processes underlying psychological constructs.

Poster 4-87


Ivana Starcevic1, Tim Martin1, & Voyko Kavcic2 1Kennesaw State University, 2Wayne State University

Descriptors: motion offset and onset

Previous research has focused significantly on the onset-evoked response potential and insufficiently on the offset-evoked potential. Some reports find that offset potentials have a polarity opposite to their corresponding onset potential, while other reports find that the polarities are the same. Also, many reports of offset potentials were done prior to the widespread use of whole-head arrays and current source estimation methods, so it is not known whether offset potentials have unique generators or reflect cortical dynamics within the same sources that process stimulus onsets. Here, luminance onset, motion onset, luminance offset, and motion offset were separated, in order to investigate the characteristics of these potentials with random dot stimuli, and compare motion and luminance offset to onset. Nine participants discriminated the direction of motion of moving dots. The EEG was recorded with an ActiCap active 64 electrode array and BrainVision amplifier sampling at 500 Hz, and the ERP analysis was done with EEGLAB. The onset to offset comparison for luminance and motion was conducted through a paired samples t test in sLORETA. Offset responses had similar latencies but opposite polarities to their corresponding onset evoked potentials. There were no detectable differences in source location as identified by sLORETA, likely due to poor spatial resolution and low statistical power. Nevertheless, results are consistent with a model in which offsets evoke spreading inhibition in a deep layer of cortex.

Poster 4-88


Eric J Vanman1, Kyah Johnstone1, & Lenny R Vartanian2 University of Queensland, 2University of New South Wales

Descriptors: electromyography, weight, empathy

Stereotypes influence the attributions we make about the misfortunes of others (e.g., "she deserves it!" or "bad luck!"). When it comes to someone's weight, such attributions may be related to differences in empathy we feel towards obese and normal weight people. In this study, 69 participants viewed multiple images of "obese" and "normal weight" targets. A scenario describing a misfortune was presented with the target's image, which was either health-related (e.g., "she missed work last year due to illness") or not (e.g., "his dog died

last week). Facial electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the levator (nose/ upper cheek), corrugator (brow), and zygomaticus (cheek) regions, and participants completed ratings after each scenario. Analyses revealed that participants made fewer attributions of responsibility and expressed more sympathy for normal weight people's misfortunes compared to those of obese people. In addition, facial EMG activity indicated increased expressions of moral outrage towards normal weight people's misfortunes, especially when those misfortunes were stigma relevant. We conclude that facial EMG can be a useful tool to investigate differences in compassion or empathy. Implications of our findings for research on intergroup empathy are also discussed.

Supported by a grant from the Australian Research Council: DP130100759.

Poster 4-89


Jason R Themanson, Kaitlin R Dunn, & Roberto J Romay Illinois Wesleyan University

Descriptors: P3b, social exclusion, attentional control

Social exclusion is theorized to influence social self-regulatory processing by reallocating attention toward information that may increase inclusion. This information may be self- or other-related, suggesting that even witnessing social exclusion may enhance attention to subsequent relevant social information. Accordingly, this enhanced attention to goalrelevant social events should be exhibited in neural indices of attention allocation following witnessed exclusion. To examine this hypothesis, we utilized the Cyberball paradigm to assess participants' event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to both inclusionary and exclusionary events occurring within a social interaction. Prior to participating in their own social interaction, half of the participants watched an exclusionary Cyberball interaction while the other half watched an inclusive interaction. Results showed participants who had witnessed social exclusion exhibited larger P3b amplitudes to inclusionary events within their own interactions compared to participants who had witnessed social inclusion. These findings suggest that witnessing social exclusion elicits additional attentional processing, indexed by the P3b, toward subsequent social information compared to witnessing inclu-sionary social interactions. More generally, these results provide support for theories indicating that exclusionary social information engages adaptive social self-regulatory processes, which sensitize individuals to relevant social information in order to avoid social exclusion and increase their belongingness and social inclusion.

This research was funded by grants from the NSF to Jason Themanson (BCS #1147743) and Illinois Wesleyan University (MRI #0722526; PI: Joseph Williams) and a grant from Illinois Wesleyan University to Jason Themanson.

extent acute and chronic exclusion interact. That is, what happens when victims of long-term social rejection encounter an instance of exclusion later in life? The goal of the present study was to test whether prior experience being bullied would alter cardiovascular responses to an acute experience of social exclusion. Participants took part in a short online chat, during which they were either included or excluded from the conversation. Consistent with hypotheses, all participants showed an increase in sympathetic activity in the exclusion condition, but this response was significantly blunted among those with more chronic history of bullying victimization. No differences were observed for parasympathetic activity. This pattern suggests that a history of chronic victimization magnifies the cardiovascular "blunting" shown previously among victims of ostracism. This line of work suggests that bullying victims may develop regulatory mechanisms in response to social threats, and this may ultimately provide valuable information for helping victims become more resilient.

Poster 4-91


Elena Labkovsky & J. Peter Rosenfeld Northwestern University

A trial in any Complex Trial Protocol (CTP; a new P300-based CIT) has two parts. Part 1 has one Probe stimulus, P1, a relevant item (e.g., the murder weapon, "gun"), or 1 of 8 "Irrelevant" (Iall1) other weapons ("knife, club"). In Part 2 there are string targets ("11111") and non-targets ("22222-55555") requiring differing button presses on a right mouse. Only Part 1 probes for information that's crime-relevant. Subject presses 1 button on a left mouse for P1 or Iall1. We modified this CTP so the second part (3-stimulus protocol, 3SP) presents either a different probe, P2,(victim name), 1 of 8 irrelevant (other name)items (Iall2), or a target (T) item. P2 and Iall2 are non-targets requiring a left button press. T is a designated irrelevant item but requires a right button press. This new Dual Probe CTP detects, using P300, 2 crime details/block. In SPR 2013 and here we used Mock Crime details for P1, P2. The subjects do a mock crime, steal an object. P1 and P2 was a picture of the stolen item, or the name on the mailbox that held this item. Probes were learned only during the crime. Stimuli were pictures of items and verbal names.3 groups run: Simply Guilty (SG), Innocent (IN) and "Counter-Measure" (CM). Here, ANOVA in SG and CM combined gave p < .001 for probes vs. Irrels., within IN gave P > .97. In 2013, Part 1 was CTP, Part 2 3SP, and Hit rates: were SG 100%, CM 93%, IN 8%, based on either P1 or P2 detected. With the reverse Part order (3SP first) here in 2014, accuracies were 92% SG, 100% IN, but only 75% in CM group (vs. 92% in 2013), supporting 2013 part order.

Poster 4-90


Matt Newman Arizona State University

Descriptors: chronic stress, cardiovascular, social exclusion

Previous research suggests that social exclusion - both acute and chronic - may be associated with a pattern of blunted cardiovascular responding. But it is unknown to what