Scholarly article on topic 'Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Tanzania'

Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Tanzania Academic research paper on "Health sciences"

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Academic research paper on topic "Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Tanzania"

cell-to-cell transmission and fusion of infected cells. The gB glycoprotein is an important target for both humoral and cellular immune responses and included in the HCMV vaccine development. HCMV gB gene is classified into four genotypes; namely genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4. All gB genotypes were implicated in the disease severity of transplant recipients and HIV infected patients.

Aim: To analyse the gene profile and construct the phyloge-netic tree of HCMV gB gene sequences obtained from HIV infected patients who were experiencing HCMV viraemia to document the circulating HCMV gB genotypes in South Africa.

Methods & Materials: Nested PCR method targeting variable region of gB gene was developed and gB gene sequences were amplified from twenty archived plasma samples of HCMV viraemic HIV infected patients. Analysis of nucleotide sequences were performed by using Chromas-Pro software programme and phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with standard sequences from Genbank, NCBI.

Results: The gB2 genotype was detected in 35% (7/20) of patients and only 15% (3/20) represents gB1. The gB3 and gB4 genotypes were identified among 20% (4/20) and 30% (6/20) of patients respectively. All gB gene sequences obtained from study participants displayed 98%-100% similarity with laboratory strains AD 169 and Towne as well as other reference sequences obtained from clinical cases. All participants were severely immunosuppressed and their mean CD4+ T-cell counts was 32 cells/^l.

Conclusion: All four gB genotypes circulate in the study population and gB 2 genotype is a dominant genotype. High sequence similarity between study samples and vaccine strain indicates that our population will have positive response should the HCMV gB vaccine becomes available in South Africa.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1350 Type: Poster Presentation

emergency department. In physical examination she had altered consciousness, aphasia and neck stiffness. It was learnt that her neighbour had a zona infection recently but she did not remember exact time. Her WBC level was 9800 K/uL, CRP was 2,38 mg/dL (0-0,8), procalcitonin was 0,18ng/mL (0,5-2,0). CSF pressure was mildly elevated; there was 400 leukocyte/mm3 with lymphocyte predominance. CSF glucose level was 47 mg/dL and protein level was 151 mg/dL (15-45), at the same time her blood glucose level was 114 mg/dL. Intravenous ceftriaxone2 x 2 gr and acyclovir 3 x 10 mg/kg/day were started. She became conscious on the first day of the treatment. On the third day she had visual hallucinations and disarthria, she underwent second spinal tap. The CSF pressure was mildly elevated, glucose was 89 mg/dl (blood glucose level was 114 mg/dL) and protein was 271 mg/dL. There were 520 leukocyte/mm3. The patient had anxiety and was disoriented; on the follow up she became better. VZV PCR was reported as positive in the CSF sample that was sent to an outside laboratory to investigate viral pathogens. Acyclovir was stopped on the 14th day. She had a complaint of fast speaking and emotional lability in the follow-up controls for 3 months.

Conclusion: Less common causes of viral encephalitis include VZV, with an incidence of 1 in 2000 infected persons. Acyclovir was recommended for but duration of therapy was not standart in the literature.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1351 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.022

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HIV) II

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

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Final Abstract Number: 64.021

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HIV) II

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Varicella zoster virus encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman

G.R. Yilmaz1, T. Guven2, A. Demirturk2, G. Korukluoglu3, Z. KocakTufan2, R. Guner2, M. Tasyaran2-*

1 Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

2 Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

3 Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara, Turkey

Background: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) may cause many central nervous system diseases such as cerebellar ataxia, myelitis, meningitis or encephalitis. The information regarding clinical features of VZV encephalitis is limited.

Methods & Materials: A 52 year old female patient present with fever and altered consciousness.

Results: She had high fever and nausea for 4 days and had been admitted to a hospital with these complaints before, second generation cephalosporin had been administered for upper respiratory tract infection. Third days of this therapy, aphasia, inability to communication and lethagy developed. She was admitted to our

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Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Tanzania

D.P. Mdetele *, C. Kassanga

Sokoine University of agriculture, Morogorp, Tanzania, United Republic of

Background: Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) in Tanzania is a major obstacle to the development of the national livestock industry because of its adverse effect in livestock production and trade of animal and animal products into lucrative export market.

The study aimed at documenting the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the two different ecosystem (Wildlife-livestock interface areas and non interface areas) where pastoral and Agropastoral mode of livestock rearing is predominant in Tanzania.

Methods & Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted on Serengeti ecosystem (Wildlife-livestock Interface) and Central part ofTanzania (Non interface) to determine the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Serengeti, Bunda, Kongwa and Iramba districts.

Seroprevalence investigation was performed using 3 ABC-ELISA technique.

Results: The results showed that the overall prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was 66.25% (265/400). Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in wildlifelivestock-interface area 71.5% (143/200) compared to non interface area 61% (122/200) (x2 = 4.9308, P = 0.0264). However district wise higher prevalence was recorded in Kongwa district 89% (89/100), Serengeti 78% (78/100), Bunda 65% (65/100) and Iramba 33% (33/100) respec-

tivelly. As well specie wise indicated higher prevalence in bovine 69.81% (252/361), Ovine 52.38% (11/21), and caprine 11.11% (2/11) with significance difference of X2 =28.3236, P = 0.0001.

Conclusion: The results indicated that foot and mout disease (FMD) is highly prevalent in wildlife-livestock interface areas than non interface areas. However uncontrolled livestock movement resulted into much higher foot and mouth disease (FMD) prevalence in Kongwa district even than districts found in the Wildlife-livestock interface areas. Higher prevalence of FMD in other specie than cattle tells that foot and mouth disease control planning should consider other species too.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1352 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.023

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HlV) ll

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Prevalence of noroviruses (NoV) in healthy children and HIV infected adults in Cameroon

T.F. Ndum1-*, J.A.Ay2

1 Camyaids Institute of laboratory Medicine and clinical Research, Douala, Cameroon

2 Redeem Biomedical system, Douala, Cameroon

Background: Enteric viruses, notably noroviruses are a common cause of diarrhoea worldwide and may be detected in both symptomatic and assymptomatic persons

This study carried out on fecal samples in Cameroon describes the shedding of NoVs in healthy children and adults infected with HIV but without symptoms of diarrhoea.

Methods & Materials: The study was conducted in Limbe, between October and December 2009, South West region of Cameroon. Study participants included 54 healthy children, aged 5-15 and 93 HIV infected adults,aged 16-75 without any symptoms of diarrhoea.

Fecal samples were collected in sterile leak-proof plastic labelled containers.10% fecal suspensions were made in phosphate buffered saline-pH 7.2 and centrifuged at 8000 x g for 5 minutes.Nucleic acid(NA) was extracted after initial storage at -80 °c by MagNA pure Lc total NA isolation kit, Roche Diagnosis, GmbH, Manheim, Germany.

Reactions were performed in an ABI 7300 real time PCR system, Applied Biosystems, Foster city, CA, USA). Each sample was amplified in 4 parallel reaction wells for identification of 8 HEV, namely NoV GI, NoV GII, sapovirus (saV), rotavirus (RoV), astrovirus(AstV), adenovirus(AdV), hepatitis A virus(HAV) and enterovirus(EV).

Results: Human Enteric viruses were common with a prevalence of 53.7% in children and 35.5% in adult participants. Mixed infections (2-5 agents) were detected in fecal samples from 65% of the children and co-infection with NoV was demonstrated in almost all cases of mixed infections.

Conclusion: This study demonstrating a high prevalence of NoV and other Diarrhoea-related HEV in healthy children in Cameroon is likely an indication of an ongoing trend of of global circulation of these HEVs.

Furthermore, the high prevalence of NoV genotypes, usually associated with non-bacterial diarrhoea outbreaks in developing Countries and detected in feacl samples of healthy children in

Cameroon suggest that healthy children maybe an important reservoir for the the virus.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1353 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.024

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HlV) ll

Date: Saturday, April 5, 2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Circulating plasmablasts with a bone marrow phenotype secrete non-specific IgM in acute hepatitis A

H.W.Lee1-*, S. Hong2, E.-C. Shin2

1 Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

2 Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of

Background: The antigen-specificity and phenotypes of Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) have not been studied during a primary acute viral infection. We investigated the nature of ASCs here by direct ex vivo assays in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) which is caused by the primary infection of hepatitis A virus (HAV).

Methods & Materials: The study included 39 patients diagnosed with AHA infection who were hospitalized at Chung-Ang University Hospital. All patients were seropositive for anti-HAV IgM, and all had clinical features of acute hepatitis. Peripheral blood samples at the acute stage were collected on the day of admission from all of the 39 patients. Follow-up sampling was performed at the subacute stage (5-14 days) or at the convalescent stage (35-150 days). Serum levels of the total IgM, IgG and the subisotype of IgG were measured by a CBA assay. ELlSpot filter plates were coated overnight with anti-human Ig to detect the total IgM or IgG-secreting ASCs.

Results: A robust plasmablast response was detected in peripheral blood during the acute stage and was dominated by lgM secretion. It was demonstrated that a substantial portion of the response was non-virus-specific in the study of the plasmablasts and the secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific plasmablasts by staining with fluorochrome-tagged VP1 protein and compared them with non-HAV-specific plasmablasts. Non-HAV-specific plasmablasts have the phenotype of Ki-67low/CD138high/CD31high/CD38high as compared with HAV-specific plasmablasts, demonstrating that non-HAV-specific plasmablasts have a bone marrow (BM) plasma cell-like phenotype while HAV-specific plasmablasts have a typical phenotype of circulating plasmablasts.

Conclusion: These data suggest that non-HAV-specific plas-mablasts are mobilized ASCs from the BM niches of plasma cells, whereas HAV-specific plasmablasts are newly generated ASCs. ln this study, we demonstrated that pre-existing BM plasma cells are released to circulation during AHA and contribute to the non-virus-specific ASC response and lgM secretion.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1354