Scholarly article on topic 'Local Sustainability with Emphasis on CPTED Approach, The Case of Ab-kooh Neighborhood in Mash-had'

Local Sustainability with Emphasis on CPTED Approach, The Case of Ab-kooh Neighborhood in Mash-had Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

Share paper
{"CPTED approach" / sustainability / safety / "infill development"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Laleh Tavanaei Marvi, Mostafa Behzadfar

Abstract Unsustainability of urban neighborhoods is problems due to regarding factors such as insecurity and lack of safety. CPTED tries to analyze, evaluate and improve safety and security, which enhances urban sustainability This study attempts to promote social sustainability for infill development in Ab-Kooh neighborhood, Mashhad, which is a brownfield. Ab-Kooh is selected as the most insecure district through the fuzzy TOPSIS model, based on CPTED principles that provide guidelines to solve insecurity. Moreover, it is assumed that the improvement of social justice could create an appropriate context for proper sustainability, including economic prosperity and ecological integrity in a brownfield setting.

Academic research paper on topic "Local Sustainability with Emphasis on CPTED Approach, The Case of Ab-kooh Neighborhood in Mash-had"

Available online at


Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 201 (2015) 409 - 417

Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, AcE-Bs2015, 20-22 February 2015,

Tehran, Iran

Local Sustainability with Emphasis on CPTED Approach, The case of Ab-kooh Neighborhood in Mash-had

Laleh Tavanaei Marvia*, Mostafa Behzadfarb

Professor of urban design at Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, 16846-13114, Iran Master student of urban design at Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, 16846-13114, Iran


Unsustainability of urban neighborhoods is problems due to regarding factors such as insecurity and lack of safety. CPTED tries to analyze, evaluate and improve safety and security, which enhances urban sustainability This study attempts to promote social sustainability for infill development in Ab-Kooh neighborhood, Mashhad, which is a brownfield. Ab-Kooh is selected as the most insecure district through the fuzzy TOPSIS model, based on CPTED principles that provide guidelines to solve insecurity. Moreover, it is assumed that the improvement of social justice could create an appropriate context for proper sustainability, including economic prosperity and ecological integrity in a brownfield setting.

©2015TheAuthors.Publishedby ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunder responsibility ofAMER (AssociationofMalaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) andcE-Bs(Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: CPTED approach; sustainability; safety; infill development

1. Introduction

Sustainable development is a common and a contemporary goal of many urban development policies in various countries (Berke & Conroy, 2002; Chan & Lee, 2006). The rapid urbanization during the 20 and 21 centuries has caused uncontrolled and sprawl, urban growth. This issue lead to neglect of internal development in neighborhoods, especially brownfield areas where the sustainability of neighborhoods is decreasing. Infill development as one of the basic principles of sustainable development are emphasized in agenda 21(Krizek & power, 1996). Although today

Corresponding author. Tel.: +989362128087. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.194

sustainable development seems new approach, sustainability has been regarded as an essential component of Iranian traditional neighborhood in the past. But these neighborhoods are passing through their transition period from the traditional situation to modern and postmodern modes, in which they have confronted with problems such as insecurity and lack of safety. In this way, places that were once the heart of urban life, unfortunately, changed to crime-prone areas.

Safety and security have been significant issues throughout history, from early prehistoric cave-dwelling societies in medieval and modern cities (Cozens, 2008). Nowadays, crime as a part of public life has caused a lot of considerable difficulties for cities. The increase of crime and delinquency and social damage will cause many problems in man-made environments. Considering these issues in the physical environment of urban areas is necessary specific urban planning and design approach relating to security and safety. One of these approaches in urban environments is CPTED which can be defined as an idea for crime prevention through environmental design. The main idea of CPTED is that the physical environment plays an important role in the crime. Hence, the theory is based on a hypothesis that the proper design and use of the built environment and the surroundings can improve quality of life through the prevention of crime and reduction the fear of crime, hence provide security in communities and tries to realize social sustainability through environmental design by enhancing the safety and security.

Although the concept of sustainability has at least three environmental, economic, and social aspects, but the social aspects are more significant importance in infill development of old urban districts. This study tries to promote social sustainability for infill development cases using CPTED approach.

Ab-Kooh neighborhood in Mashhad, which is a brownfield area with an old appearance and socio-physical deterioration is selected for the case study. Investigation of the deterioration causes and developing guidelines for the improvement of safety and security are the main objectives of this research. The field survey tries to make use of mixed method approaches and mixed techniques conducted to achieve assumed objectives. It is expected that a comprehensive understanding of the neighborhood's environmental potentials and its related problems can relatively decrease the insecurity and lack of safety that improve the capability of social justice in existing situations.

2. Literature review

2.1. Sustainable development and local concepts

Sustainable development has been defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987, 43). The concept of sustainability presents the urgent need for radical change in man's thinking and behavior, so much so that it is termed the 'global revolution'. The 1992 Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro began a series of international talks and negotiations in connection with the three conversations: climate change, unequal distribution of wealth and social injustice, and biodiversity (Abu Bukr & cheen, 2013).

Sustainability is a common and a contemporary goal of many urban development policies in various countries (Berke & Conroy, 2002; Chan & Lee, 2006). Sustainable development includes extensive discussions on the various levels and activities, including an international scale, regional, provincial, city, neighborhood and building scale. The local scale, especially in neighborhood level, has not studied seriously in Iran. According existing researches neighborhoods are the main places where people feel the lack of safety and insecurity in these areas (e.g. Abdi, 2012).

2.2. Sustainable urban design

Traditionally, urban design considers the relationship between urban structural elements, socioeconomic activities, and environmental quality. Evidently, the emergence of the concept of sustainable development has boosted the incorporation of social, economic and environmental dimensions in the urban design process. The principles of sustainable development require a balanced consideration of social, economic and environmental implications of development activities. Urban designers seek to incorporate the principles of sustainability into urban design through sustainable urban design. The spatial organization of cities in terms of structure and forms is

rapidly being influenced by economic forces at the detriment of social and environmental factors. For this reason, cities are characterized by physical and environmental problems in terms of inadequate infrastructure, deteriorating environmental quality and congestion (Jenks & Burgess, 2000).

2.3. Sustainable urban renewal

Urban renewal has been regarded as a sound approach to promotion gland values and improving environmental quality (Adams &Hastings, 2001). Urban renewal has become a major element of urban policy in many countries and regions. Couch (1990) gave two reasons for its growing importance. Firstly, people increasingly moving to and living in urban areas, in particular old urban areas, give rise to the need for renewal of the urban fabric. Secondly, urban renewal responds to the concern of urban sprawl and large quantities of abandoned urban areas. Nowadays, it is closely involved with sustainable development (Wei Zheng, Qiping Shen& Wang, 2014). Urban renewal and sustainable development are two popular issues in both policy agenda and academia. There has been a marked shift in Public policy and practice, towards an interdisciplinary approach to complex social, political, and environmental problems. The hallmark of sustainable communities is smart growth, typified by infill development. Infill development is critical to accommodating growth and redesigning cities to be environmentally and socially sustainable." It provides a significant co-benefit in a wide array of key community development issues.

2.4. Infill development

Defining and measuring infill is difficult, because there is no single accepted definition of what constitutes infill versus other development. The broadest and most common definition for infill is a development that occurs in underutilized parcels in already developed, urbanized areas (Municipal Research Services Center 1997; MDP 2001; and Northeast-Midwest Institute, 2001).

Two terms standout in this definition. First, "underutilized" means that the property was at least in part undeveloped. The parcel could initially be entirely vacant or partially undeveloped. Second, the term urbanized means the receiving area is a previously developed neighborhood. The infill then "fills in" an unused part of a community. The following some important definitions are referred.

The development of new housing or other uses on scattered vacant sites in a built-up area." (Moskowitz & Lindbloom, 2004).

Infill is the "development of vacant or remnant lands passed over by previous development in urban areas." Redevelopment is the act or process of redeveloping, renovation of a blighted area.

Replacement, remodeling, or reuse of existing structures to accommodate new development (Otak, Inc.1999).

The development of vacant land that was bypassed by earlier waves of development and is now largely

surrounded by developed land (Clark County Board of County Commissioners 2005).

Generally, most substantial viewpoints about infill development arrange in three main categories including smart growth, urban Renaissance, and new urbanism.

Infill development has a various function in all urban design features such as function, form, time, space and specific application in social structure that is one of the import topics in this article.

2.5. Social sustainability

The efforts of sustainability practices embrace the rigorous use of the scarce natural resources through a good implementation of an economy, but without neglecting the environment and social factors. The philosophy of sustainability emphasizes the achievement of sustainability that integrates the economic, environmental, and social into performance (Soo Cheen & Abu Bakar, 2013). This article focuses on Social qualities that ensure social sustainability through infill development and CPTED approach.

Perceptions of safety, as well as its actual reality in public places, influence the capability and uses of spaces with emphasize on Socio-Patell aspects. The design of public places can reduce crime and anti-social behavior, making them safer, which in turn can enhance the physical, mental and social well-being of the community. Urban planning and design policies and practices that include Safer Design or Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

(CPTED) in both regional and local level will provide appropriate design guidelines for individual buildings and community structure.

2.6. CPTED concepts and principles

Crime has been defined in the Oxford English Dictionary (1989) as an act punishable by law, as being forbidden by statute or injurious to the public welfare; an evil or injurious act; an offense, a sin, especially of a grave character (Abdul Mohit & Elsawahli Hannan, 2010). Crime is a complex phenomenon and has various cumulative effects on the aspects of finance and psychology such as the loss of property, insurance, justice, victimization and security (Andresen & Jenion, 2008). Crime and fear of crime emerge for complicated social, cultural, and economic reasons. Criminological research reinforces an obvious equation: crime cannot happen without the intersection of an offender, a victim, and a place. It is helpful to realize that removing or modifying one of these elements will reduce the opportunity for crime. These CPTED design guidelines address the 'place' element of that equation primarily, but also the other elements as well These guidelines comprise an important element for creating a safer city. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) has been around for four decades.

Table 1. A brief point out development of viewpoints about the CPTED.

Time Theorists Concepts

1960s and 1970s Jacobs,Jeffery, Newman The basic ideas concerning significant relationship between planning and design of communities and crime.

1980s Clark, Mayhew, Urban-design considerations on a much larger scale - land use, urban features

Jeffry, Newman, Felson, Kohen and places that might generate crime opportunities. How crime is displaced, creating positive activities in certain places.

1990s and 2000 Sorensen, Kelling, Colles, Saville, CPTED expanded the emphasis from physical places and crime opportunity

Clevelland, Pascoe, opping, Armitage, into the neighborhood social conditions that create some of the motives to

Brown,Crow, Cozen engage in crime in the first place.

After 2000 In line with new Urbanism Theoretical developments on safety as a key point towards Sustainability with emphasize on the social aspect.

CPTED has emerged and been given considerable academic and administrative attention recently as a new paradigm and an important dimension in crime prevention. CPTED is a theory of crime prevention and community activation composed of five design principles: natural surveillance, access control, territoriality reinforcement, actively support, and maintenance. CPTED is applied in the area of architectural and urban planning to eliminate of criminal opportunities through a comprehensive analysis of three main elements that lead to crime: motivated criminals, vulnerable victims, and environmental opportunities (Kang, 2013).

3. The field survey

3.1. Case study area

Ab-Kooh neighborhood with a population around 9886 located in East 59°35' 27'' and north 36°18' 5'' The extent of this area is almost 26 acres located in the in the West central texture of mashed. Before 1971 Ab-Kooh was a rural castle Outside the city boundary. Because of the Mashhad high rate physical development during 1950 and 1970, Ab-Kooh was entered into the city (Naghsh Azin Shargh, 2006). It has still kept its historical and organic texture. Population growth and limited residential capacity and Lack of Resident's ownership have caused high density, social problems, and inadequate construction quality.In addition, the main part of Ab-Kooh lands are in possession of Astane Ghodse Razavi and Oghaf organization so Exhaustion in all aspects of the city is evident. Introspection neighborhood characteristics cause Rise of crime and social insecurity and land use conflicts.

Fig. 1. (a) Aerial photo of Ab-Kooh castle 1956; (b) Location of Ab-Kooh neighborhood in Mashhad city.

3.2. Methodology

This article tries to find the unsecure place in the Ab-Kooh neighborhood with a fuzzy TOPSIS model through CPTED criteria and technique. The result of these criteria and techniques in selected area offers inclusive guidelines to enhance the security and safety. Three major steps are:

• Dividing Ab-Kooh neighborhood into three areas based on the safety level, through Interviews with residents

• Using the fuzzy TOPSIS model to select the unsecure area in this neighborhood

• Using Personal observation, questionnaire and other supplementary tools to survey CPTED criteria

• Offering the inclusive guidelines for enhancing security and safety in Ab-Kooh neighbourhood

3.3. Fuzzy TOPSIS

The TOPSIS approach is a widely accepted method used for ranking problems in real time situations. The major limitation of the TOPSIS method lies in the inability to capture the vagueness or ambiguity inherent in the decisionmaking process (Yu, 2002). In order to overcome this limitation, the fuzzy set theory can be used with the traditional TOPSIS approach to allow decision-makers to incorporate unquantifiable information, incomplete information, non-obtainable information, and partially ignorant facts into the decision model (Deviren, Yavuz, & Kilinc, 2009; Kulak, Durmusoglu, & Kahraman, 2005). Hence, the fuzzy TOPSIS approach should be more appropriate and effective than conventional TOPSIS (Gumus, 2009), and fuzzy TOPSIS can be successfully used in the various application areas of MCDM problems.

3.4. Survey description

The Ab-Kooh neighborhood is chosen as a case of insecure community that has many social problems and involves residents in the different kinds of crimes. In other hand, this neighborhood has exigent need for an infill approach to change the track of development. Based on the documental studies and observation, it seems that some crimes take place in some areas more than other areas. The conceptual framework for this model shows in the following diagram.

Field studies Identifying the areas of crime and classification Case study into 3 area

Interviews with relate crimes priority

Measuring Crime and its importance in each area

Fuzzy TOPSIS Select the most insecure area

Presenting design and guidelines and implications

Furthermore, with using techniques of observation and interviews the main criteria and alternatives are specified.

Table 2. Table of criteria and alternatives.

Criteria Determination of unsecure place Goal

Strengthen natural territories Cl

Natural supervision C2

Support social activities C3

Alternative Areal D1

Area2 D2

Area3 D3

Fig. 2. Division of Ab-Kooh district into 3 areas.

Table 3. Evaluation of alternatives.

Preference Alternative Coefficient close 1 Areal 0.4582

Final choice 3

Area2 Area3

0.4271 0.3073

Table 4 Study of social problems.

Social challenges

Physical pollution, solid unused materials

Existence of garbage everywhere

Unsuitable garbage bins, both qualitative and quantitative Aggregation of garbage bins in ruin places Flowing waste water in street curbs

| Due to the necessity of short writing for this article, the principles algorithms and field data have been eliminated from article

Visual pollution

Visually polluted facades Frequency of Unfinished buildings Buildings with broken windows

Dilapidated spaces

Abnormal writing on walls (vandalism)

Lack of harmony in facades and constructional elements

High levels of crime

Tangible crimes such as Retail drug, Drug abuse, robbery and Domestic violence

Unsuitable lighting system of main spaces at night

Existence of dark corners of sidewalks

Absolute darkness in vulnerable places such as unfinished buildings, dilapidated areas, and unused lands

Raising the number of broken bulbs on the lighting system of the space

4. Design guidelines and implication as research findings

CPTED guidelines through infill development Preserve and enhance Ab-Kooh territories

Ensuring dynamism and vitality throughout the day and night by creating activities

•Emphasis on ruining places and define this area in the minds of people As the potential for vital urban spaces

• Create public spaces in barren lands to attract people and encourage social activities

• Define clear separation of public, semi-public and private Spaces

• Increase overnight activities to improve security feeling among residents

• Defining a special function to attract people and encourage social activities

• Design implication that encourages people to gather in public spaces and to feel some responsibility for its use and condition

• Creating a sense of belonging to the area through making vibrant and dynamic social spaces

• Increasing police attendance by establishing police stations in insecure areas

• Access control and legibility

• Defining clear entrance to the buildings

• Adequate and proper lighting on the gates and access system type

• Encourage designers including architectures and landscape designer and urban designer to create legible urban environments.

• Design to allow landmarks to be seen

• Having a coherent and continuous surveillance in entrances to Support social activities

• Plan social activities in the areas of crime rise

• Strengthening the role of local councils

• Strengthening the religious potential of participation

• Create opportunities for 24-hours users

• Strengthen social interactions, management of integrity through identic sense of place, including place attachments and belonging

Management and maintenance

• Ordain Strict rules To avoid from leaving building and household waste in the street

• Covering the rigid walls with plants to avoid Writing on the wall (vandalism)

• Use of urban resistant furniture against physical damage

Fig.3. Sample of guideline application in Ab-Kooh neighbourhood.

5. Conclusion

It can be concluded that trough synthesis CPTED method and infill development approach a new paradigm can be achieved: infill development trough safe environment design.

Applying this paradigm for improvement of social justice can create an appropriate context of proper sustainability, including economic prosperity and ecological integrity in an unsecure neighborhood. The safety and security of Ab-Kooh neighborhood examined based on this conceptual finding.

According to the case study research of Ab-Kooh castle area, a road map has been prepared which can support the sustainability of this neighborhood. Design guidelines for case study area are a final remark of this paper, which is assumed as a general basis for further studies in other Iranian cities, or other neighborhoods of Mashhad.


Abdi, F . (2012). Promotion of environmental security and reduction of urban crimes with emphasis on CPTED Approach in DEHKADE

FARAHZAD TEHRAN. Master dissertation. Iran University of Science and Technology School of Architecture and Environmental Design. Abdul Mohit, M. & Elsawahli Hannan, M. H. (2012). A study of crime potentials in Taman Melati Terrace Housing in Kuala Lumpur: Issues and

challenges. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42 , 271 - 283. Abu Bakar, A. H , & Soo Cheen, S.K. (2013). A framework for assessing the sustainable urban development. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 484 - 492.

Adams, D., & Hastings, E. M. (2001). Urban renewal in Hong Kong: Transition from development corporation to renewal authority. Land Use Policy, 18(3), 245-258.

Andresen, M. A., & Jenion, G. W. (2008). Crime prevention and the science of where people are. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 19(2), 164-180. Azmi, D. I. & Karim, H. A. (2011). Implications of walkability towards promoting sustainable urban neighbourhood. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 204 - 213.

Banister, D.; Watson, S. & Wood, C. (1997). Sustainable cities: Transport, energy, and urban form. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 24, 125-143.

Berke, P. R. & Conroy, M. M., (2000). Are we planning for sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66(1), 2133.

Chan, E.H.W. & Lee, G.K.L.(2008). A sustainability evaluation of government-led urban renewal projects. Journal of Facilities, 26(13), 526 -541.

Clark County Board of County Commissioners. (2005). Clark county community growth task force report. April. Report prepared by the Community Growth Task Force, for the County Board of County Commissioners, Clark County, Nevada.

Cozens, P. M. (2008). Crime prevention through environmental design. In Environmental criminology and crime analysis, Richard Wortley and Lorraine Mazerolle. (ed.). Devon, UK: Willan.

Deakin, M.; Curwell, S.; & Lombardi, P. (2002). Sustainable urban development: The framework and directory of assessment methods. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, 4(2),.171-197.

Deviren, M., Yavuz, S., & Kilinc, N. (2009). Weapon selection using the AHP and TOPSIS methods under fuzzy environment. Expert Systems with Applications, 36, 8143-8151.

Gumus, A. T. (2009). Evaluation of hazardous waste transportation firms by using a two step fuzzy-AHP and TOPSIS methodology. Expert Systems with Applications. Retrieved from on January 17, 2013.

Jenksz M. & Burgess, R. , (2000). Sustainable urban forms for developing countries. 1st ed. london: Spon Press.

Kang, S. J. (2013). Crime prevention in ethnic areas focusing on crime prevention through environmental design. Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 1(1), 15-23.

Krizek, K. J & Power, J. (1996). A planners guide to sustainable development. Chicago: American Planning Association, Planning Advisory Service.

Kulak, O., Durmusoglu, B., & Kahraman, C. (2005). Fuzzy multi-attribute equipment selection based on information axiom. Journal of Materials Processing Technology,169, 337-345.

Moskowitz, Harvey S., and Carl G. Lindbloom.(2004). The latest illustrated book of development definitions: New expanded edition. Center for Urban Policy Research. New Brunswick: Rutgers University.

Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington (MRSC). (1991). Infill development strategies for shaping livable neighborhoods. Report no. 38. (accessed December 23, 2014).

Naghsh Azin Shargh. Architectural Consulting Engineers. (2006) . Strategic plan for empowerment of Ab-Kooh neighborhood, Mashhad, Mashhad Municipality.

Otak, Inc. (1999). The infill and redevelopment code handbook. Prepared for the OregonTransportation and Growth Management Program, a

joint program of the Oregon Department of Transportation and the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development. Salem, OR: Transportation and Growth Management Program.

Wei Zheng, H., Qiping Shen, G., & Wang, H. (2014). A review of recent studies on sustainable urban renewal. Habitat International, 41, 272279.

World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press..

Yu, C. S. (2002). A GP-AHP method for solving group decision-making fuzzy AHP problems. Computers and Operations Research, 29, 19692001.

Zen, I. & Ali Moohammad, N. A. (2014). Adaptation of defensible space theory for the enhancement of kindergarten landscape. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 23 - 35.