Scholarly article on topic 'Education and Social Issues in the Poems of Kazakh Poet Magjan Jumabayev'

Education and Social Issues in the Poems of Kazakh Poet Magjan Jumabayev Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Yerlan Zhiyenbayev

Abstract Literary texts are important tools which enable reaching the aims of Kazakh Language Teaching. Children's emotional and intellectual world is addressed to via literary works. Poems -within the literary works- have a vital role in childrens intellectual, emotional and linguistic development. In our study, the definition of national identity in poems of Magjan Jumabayev and the reflections of the social pedagogical thinking will be discussed with examples. Excluding introduction and conclusion, our study consists of four main sections. In the first chapter statement of the problem has been given and the research method has been put forth in the second chapter; the information about Jumabayev's educational works has been stated in the third chapter; in the fourth chapter the Magjan Jumabayev's poems were evaluated in terms of “content”.

Academic research paper on topic "Education and Social Issues in the Poems of Kazakh Poet Magjan Jumabayev"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 143 (2014) 122 - 128

CY-ICER 2014

Education and social issues in the poems of kazakh poet magjan jumabayev

Yerlan Zhiyenbayeva*

aResearch Fellow, International Turkish-Kazakh University named of Ahmet Yasawi, Faculty of Philology, Turkestan, Kazakhstan.

Abstract

Literary texts are important tools which enable reaching the aims of Kazakh Language Teaching. Children's emotional and intellectual world is addressed to via literary works. Poems -within the literary works- have a vital role in childrens intellectual, emotional and linguistic development. In our study, the definition of national identity in poems of Magjan Jumabayev and the reflections of the social pedagogical thinking will be discussed with examples. Excluding introduction and conclusion, our study consists of four main sections. In the first chapter statement of the problem has been given and the research method has been put forth in the second chapter; the information about Jumabayev's educational works has been stated in the third chapter; in the fourth chapter the Magjan Jumabayev's poems were evaluated in terms of "content".

© 2014 Publishedby ElsevierLtd. This isanopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of CY-ICER 2014.

Keywords: Children's education, Kazakh Literature, Magjan Jumabayev, National Identity, Social Pedagogy.

1. Introduction

Poetry brings the real face and aspects of the history, people and geographic domains and social events in front of us colorfully and with a strong imagination and remembrance (Sidekli et. Al. 2007:173). Poems are possible to be used in the educational field due to these characteristics. In this context, information about the life of the Kazakh poet Magjan Jumabayev, who constitutes the theme of our subject of study will be given in order to narrate the creations of Magjan Jumabayev which he wrote out about education and the importance of his poems.

Magjan Jumabayev was born in Bulayev town of Northern Kazakhstan on June 25, 1893. He finished

* Corresponding author. Yerlan Zhiyenbayev, Tel.: +90-554-888-9599 E-mail address: erlan@yesevi.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of CY-ICER 2014. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.372

madrasah in Kyzyljar city in 1910. The poet, who went to Ufa to continue his education became the student of Galymjan Ibrahimov, the Tatar author and litterateur here. The first poetry book of the poet, Sholpan (Venus) (1912) was published with his appreciation and encouragement.

He attended and finished Russian Teachers' Institute in Omby with flying colors between1913-1917. His country was under Russian invasion in those days. The 1st Bolshevik Revolution occurred in his childhood years and the Communist Revolution in 1917 took place in his youth. We can see that Magjan met many leading intellectuals of Turkistan in this period and exchanged ideas. It was him who was a poet, an intellectual who improved himself in this environment and who knew several languages and he was, above all, a Kazakh nationalist.

He participated in some journals and newspapers published in Tashkent between 1922 and 1924. He worked in Kunshygys Printery in Moscow and taught in schools in Kyzyljar after 1924. During the intellectual elimination of Stalin in 1929, he was arrested and condemned to ten years in prison on the grounds that he was nationalist, Pan-turanist and he was against the Soviet Regimen. Although he was released before his punishment ended with the help of the well known Russian author Maxim Gorky in 1935 and went back to Kazakhstan, he was arrested for the second time during the second intellectual elimination of Stalin and executed by firing squad in March 1938 (Tamir, 1998, 439-440).

He felt himself responsible for the people as an intellectual throughout his short life of 44 years and he aimed at raising awareness in Kazakh people both with his creations and various activities (Kinaci, 2011, 1678). Magjan grew mature in this period both as a poet and an individual. He became acquainted with the Works of Russian and Western European poets-authors and read them with pleasure. Various artists such as Goethe and Heine, Tolstoy, Verlaine and Merejkovsky, Belmont and Bryusov, Blok and Sologub were then living with Magjan in his heart.

He translated philosophers like Spengler of Germany and Solovev of Russia (Kaharmanuli, 1993: 179). First, we need to keep the following statement made by J.Aimauytov in 1923 in mind while evaluating the poetry skills of Magjan: "Innovations in Kazakh literature by Magjan are not few: he translated Russian symbolism in Kazakh, he transformed the poet into composition (music), he created pictures out of sound, he gave life to words, he introduced new meters. He enhanced Romanticism and improved language" (Jumabayev, 1989: 428). Main subject of Magjan Works is about the national independence struggle of Kazakh people. The poet cautioned that the past days of his people wouldn't come back and he wanted to move forward to the future by the true path. He portrayed the phenomena of his era in his poetry. In our study, we aimed at putting forward how he discussed education and the importance of education in his poetry and which educational elements he involved in his poetry.

1. PROBLEM STATUS

Magjan Jumabayev, one of the founders of the Kazakh literature was a master of prosaism as well as poetry. He had books named "Pedagogika" (Pedagogics), "Bastauysh mektepte ana tili" (Native Language in Elementary School), "Sauatty bol" (Get Educated) in the educational field as well as his stories, essays, articles and translation Works transferred from western languages. In our study, Jumabayev's works in the educational field are introduced before mentioning the social and educational elements in his poetry.

Jumabayev's poems, which are studied in this study are in the book named "Magjan Jumabayev Shygarmalary" (Magjan Jumabayev Works) published in 1989. Almost all poems written by the poet until 1937 are collected in this book.

In our study, Magjan Jumabayev's Works are evaluated in terms of teaching affectively based types and Jumabayev's poems written about education and social life are examined in terms of their contents.

2. METHOD

There are different methods studying poems and many different views on this subject. General main objective of all of these is to define the work. Model of the study we discuss is a qualitative work. The study has the characteristics of survey research and document review technique is used. Paradigm of the study is constituted by the "Pedagogika (Pedagogics)" work prepared after Jumabayev's death by Ulykpan Abildauly by translating from Arabic alphabet into Cyrillic alphabet in 1992 and Jumabayev's views and poems regarding

education in the book "Magjan Jumabayev Works" published in Kazakh language in Jazushy Printery (Almaty/Kazakhstan) in 1989. Poems are reviewed by content analysis method. Data regarding the place and function of Magjan Jumabayev poems in child education as well as society are collected using the document review technique.

3. JUMABAYEV'S WORKS REGARDING EDUCATION

At the beginning of the XX. century, Kazakh intellectuals led by A. Bokeihanov understood that saving their people from invasion could only be managed by education and they sacrificed their lives in order to enhance the education level of Kazakh people. While one of them was busy writing books, the other was busy with school Works or raising teachers. Jumabayev's part was (after he graduated from Omby Teachers' Institute) preparing school books and organizing teaching courses. As a result, methodological essays and books such as "Teaching Materials to Write and Our School", "Get Educated", "Kazakh Language in Elementary School" and "Pedagogics" were published from his vast accumulation of knowledge. Especially, his book "Pedagogics" published in 1922 was an essential education material for its period (Senkibayev, 2007, 32).

In this work comprising of 15 sections, Jumabayev put forward the relation of national pedagogics with psychology for the first time and discussed the education methods, ways of child education and mutual behaviors with them from scientific point of view. Besides, he placed scientific terminology of pedagogics in Kazakh language for the first time. He constituted the basis for humanist pedagogics. He wanted Kazakh people to have their own pedagogics and national school without emulating any other country. He brought language issue into forefront in his work and advocated that it would be correct to educate children only in Kazakh language until fourth grade. He wanted to carry the status of Kazakh pedagogics to the level of the developed countries by reinforcing national pedagogics with the word pedagogics. Hence, he advocated views that the young generation must be educated in accordance with the day.

He regarded education by improving the imagination of children, affecting their thinking and sharing the latest news of science world with children considering the national characteristics of Kazakh people as essential principles in school education. He went into detail even for proper listening and eating of children. He also had a sharp criticism as "If there are two women giving random meals to children, one of them is Kazakh woman". Besides, he mentioned that pedagogical skills were essential even the child was swaddled and put to sleep.

He wrote in the "Swaddle and Cradle" section of the book that "The Kazakh woman nails her child to the cradle on both sides. This is harmful for the child. While lulling the child, the mother swings the cradle randomly in exasperation. So, the child feels dizzy. The dizzy child falls asleep helplessly. The child doesn't sleep. The child faints" (Jumabayev, 1992, 19-20). Jumabayev wrote that, leading the child to art since young age and educating the child for singing and poem reading was correct. He said: "Russian teachers or Kazakh teachers educated by them say the Kazakh children are not so successful in literature and history sciences, they are more successful in mathematics. I assume this view is wrong. Because the Kazakh children are prone to the human sciences such as literature, history and geography rather than mathematics. The temperament of the Kazakh child desires this. If it is true that the child resembles its ancestor, the Kazakh child, the heir of the magic moorland is supposed to be imaginative. The child must be prone to sciences requiring emotion more like literature and history. Do Kazakh children being educated in Russian schools have any option other than inclining to mathematics unless they have enough command of Russian language to choose sciences like literature and history?" (Jumabayev, 1992, 57) and emphasized that languahe must be taught very carefully. He stated that giving education in Kazakh language is important by saying "A nation without language gets lost, it has no future" (Jumabayev, 1992, 72).

Magjan Jumabayev engaged in educational activities for all his life. He both taught in schools in many places of Kazakhstan and carried out Works as an Education Commission member in mukhtar Alash Orda (Alash Orda: Name of a pro-independence party founded in 1920's .) Government active in Kazakhstan. When considered within the context of personality and Works relationship, the importance he gave to education was reflected in his poems, naturally. Education has an important role in the Kazakh identity in Magjan's poems. In the Kazakh identity built by Magjan, being literate and intellectual is desired and only the educated Kazakh generations can save the Kazakh people from the predicament they are in (Kinaci, 2011, 1669). Jumabayev walked in the road led by his conscience because he always bore the responsibility of being an artist who shouted the problems of the people out. That's why his activities weren't limited to publishing methodological Works.

He didn't hesitate to speak out the troubles of the people, their discomfort with the cruelty, injustice and malpractices of the oppressive forces in his poems.

4. MAGJAN JUMABAYEV'S POEMS REGARDING EDUCATION AND SOCIAL LIFE

The view put forward by Nazir Torekulov, speaking in the meeting of "Countryman" community of Kazakh youngsters in Eastern Communists University at the end of November in 1924 "In Magjan's poems, reverse view about the life, future and policy of Kazakh people is dominant" had a meaning.

In those years, Kazakh intellectuals who had desire to gain independence under the cover of administrative internal conflict and revolution in Russia were disappointed. Because the attempts to found Alash Sovereign between 1917-1918 was repressed by the Soviet Government (Kanarbayeva, 1998, 111). Not a long time after the October Revolution, slogans such as "Do you accept the revolution or are you against it?" were shouted and a clear answer was demanded fort his question (Kof et. al., 2007, 454). Hence, two different political views emerged among Kazakh intellectuals. The first group was constituted by poets and authors who sided with the Soviet Government and the other group was constituted by the men of letters who doubted the Soviet world and who are worried about the future of the Kazakh people such as Magjan Jumabayev, Ahmet Baytursynov, Mirjakyp Dulatov etc. Kazakh poetry, when we consider it entirely, performed the functions of awakening the public, mentioning equality and inviting to education successfully. In this period, discussing the life with one aspect and discussing the apparent side of the life were common.

Starvation of Kazakh people, forced labor of the villagers, exiles and deaths of the people in 1920's were not mentioned in the literary Works. Attempts to spoil the harmony of the traditional poetry in order to include the innovations of the period did not produce results as expected.

Magjan Jumabayev filled this deficiency of the Soviet sympathizer poets. Magjan didn't accept the new literary understanding and continued his Works with democratic literature tradition. His Works became the voice of the struggle of Kazakh people against colonialism and cruelty at the beginning of the century. He saved the people from darkness and invited them to education and learning. He wrote pro-Ala§orda poems in revolution years he didn't approve the new life. He said the new order ruined the old traditions of the people (Kof et.al., 2007, 455).

In his poems, Magjan Jumabayev emphasized that the Kazakh people must be modernized, he remarked that Kazakh women must have better living conditions; again in these poems, he mentioned nature and love issues and national issues (Kinaci, 2011, 1666). When examined entirely, Magjan Jumabayev's poems are various and rich in subject and theme. The poet, who cared almost all aspects of life greatly demonstrated great ability in reflecting these in his poems and he tried to tell the period he lived in the best way using all available possibilities of the language.

When Magjan Jumabayev's poems about child education are considered in terms of the social issues discussed, it can be seen in the poems examined that he particularly included lyric poems. He also included epic, didactic and pastoral poems too; yet they are very few compared to the lyric poems. Of the 192 poems examined, 20 mentioned education based emotions directly and he included the theme about social life indirectly in some poems.

He invited the people to education, learning and art in his poems "Jatir (Buried)" (p.15), "Lazzat qaida (Where is the taste?)" (p.20), "Jazgy tan (Summer Morning)" (p.21), "Altyn Hakim Abayga (Golden Judge to Abay)" (p.22), "Sorly Qazaq (Sorrowful Kazakh)" (p.22), "Oner-bilim qaitse tabylar (How to Find Skill-Science?)" (p.23), "Balalyq shaq (Childhood Age)" (p.27), "Qazaqym (My Kazakh)" (p.28), "Qaragym (My Child)" (p.32), "Kuz (Fall)" (p.33), "Osy kungi kui (Present Situation)" (p.34), "Men sorly (I am sorrowful)" (p.35), "Aida atyndy Sarsembai (Ride Your Horse Sarsembay)" (p.71), "Tobet (Big Dog)" (p.90), "Jay an^eiin oiyn goi (It was such a game)" (p.162), "Uidin eri (Head of Household)" (p.182), "Qonyr jyr (Brown Epos)" (p.182), "Oqudagy karyndas (Sister in School)" (p.199), "Ata bata (Ancestor and Prayer)" (p.201), "Syldyrmaq (Bell)" (p.203) in the book named Magjan Jumabayev Works prepared by M. Avesov Literature and Art Institute in 1989 after his death. These poems which became notorious in the period they were written and many of which were composited reflects his power of poetry and the richness of his lyric world. In the poems examined, he wanted to gain emotions to the students like love, missing, respect, worry, sadness, happiness and values such as patriotism, love of nation, tolerance, modesty, love of nature, unity and solidarity, being hardworking, importance of fine arts and science. He mentioned social issues of his country.

In 1920's, Kazakh poetry fulfilled the functions of awakening the people, mentioning the principles of equality and inviting people to education and learning successfully. Yet, the attitudes of some authors and poets who sided with the new management handled this period ex parte and discussed only the apparent part of the life distracted the literature from color and variety. Magjan tries to save Kazakh literature from this deficiency. It is impossible to present general appearance of Kazakh literature in 1920's without considering Magjan's poems. He is the poet of the struggle the Kazakh people made against the cruelty and colonialism. He stood up to the new order, new life and he came to the forefront in that period with his pro- Alashorda poems (Rayman, 2011, 211). Besides, he sang gently the difficulties he and the people were exposed to with specific tone.

He addressed the children in his poem "Qaraqim (My Child)" as;_

Qaraqim oqu oqi, bosqa jurme! My child get educated, don't noodle around!

Oyinga, qur qalarsyn, konil bolme. Don't allow too much time for play, you will lie fallow.

Oqymay oiyn qugan balalarga Don't get close, do not listen to invitations of _Jolama, saqyrsa da qasyna erme! (Jumabayev, 1989, 32)__Children fallen to play without education!)_

Main subject of Magjan Works is about the national independence struggle of Kazakh people. The poet cautioned that the past days of his people wouldn't come back and he wanted to move forward to the future by the true path. He portrayed the phenomena of his era in his poetry. He advised heading for education as he told in his poem "Qazaqim (My Kazakh)";_

Kel, qazaq, qoldagidan qur qalmaiyk, Come, Kazakh, let's protect what we have Otyraiyq jiylyp, ondalaiyq. Let's come together, unite and enhance Myn jylgy otken qumai ata zandy, Without binding to thousand year old constitution _Onerden kes qalmaiyk, oilanaiyk. (Jumabayev, 1989, 28)__Let's not be late for art, let's think_

These poems prove that Magjan was a complete social poet. Jumabayev compared his own nation to the developed countries. He wanted the young to raise awareness by getting education, to reach the same level with other countries in terms of culture by caring for the changes occurring in the environment.

The poet didn't excuse the Kazakh people because of their laziness and because they lived more in the traditional style instead of living in the nature of the modern age. However; because he was one of the Kazakh people, he loved his own nation after all. He mentioned this in his poem "Suyemin" (Ilove) (Tamir, 1993: 183-185).

Jumabayev mentioned the malfunctions in the social status of the society in his poems "Carali can (Wounded One)", "Sir ala^ina (To Seyhun People)", "Edildin sagasinda (idil's Stream)". The poet, who couldn't salve his people felt sorry for his incapability and reflected his despair in the introduction part of the poem "Batir Bayan (Bayan Hero)" as;__

Juregim, men zarlymyn jaralyga, My heart, I am sorry for the wounded Sum omir abaqty goi sanalyga, Mortal world is a cage for the conscious Qyzyl til, qolym emes kisendeuli, Red tongue, not my hand handcuffed _Sondyqtan canym kuyip canamyn da. (Jumabayev, 1989, 232)__So, my heart is on fire_

Even in such despair, the poet didn't give up hope that his people would reach independency one day. He believed the future generation would carry the freedom flag even if his own generation didn't. Jumabayev's poem "Men castarga senemin (I believe in the youth)" is the proof of this view of ours. In his poem "Tilegim (My Wish)", he told that aestethic Works would affect the awakening of the people._

Jalyn bolsyn manaiym, Let fire surround me

Kuieiin azap çegeiin. Let me burn, suffer a lot

Jyrymmen janym jubatam, Let me console myself with poem

Jirimmen jurtymdy oyatam, Let me awake my people with poem

Nesine jas togeiin?! (Jumabayev, 1989, 70) Why would I cry?!

Magjan Jumabayev included this 10 educational elements in 20 poems for 80 times. The educational elements in the examined poems and how many times they are mentioned are shown in the table below.

Oqu (Education) - 26 times, Oner (Art) - 17 times, Bilim (Science) - 16 time, Galym (Scientist, bookman) -8 times, Nadandyq (Ignorance) - 4 times, Izdenis (Research) - 3 times, Mektep (School) - 3 times, Kitap (Book) -1 time, Boqsha (School bag) - 1 time, Alippe (Alphabet book) - 1 time;

The number of educational elements used in the poems of Magjan Jumabayev:

(Education) (Science) (Scientist, (Ignorance) (Research) (School) (Book) (School (Alphabet

bookman) bag) book)

Compositions of the poems we discuss present a specific integrity and an indivisible plot. His poems are easy to read and attractive. Jumabayev was a poet who could unearth his competence in poem and his aesthetic pleasure and who could use realism, romanticism and symbolism one within the other in his poems. What made this possible were the specific structure scheme of the events and his tone of using the words. Magjan Jumabayev made innovations in the word, sentence and verse in parallel with the new perception and excitement. In addition to creating classic and traditional folk poetry Works with a plain language and warm feelings, he wrote poems by way of trying new patterns.

Jumabayev wasn't in the opinion of remove the images and propositions in the classic poetry language. On the contrary, he re-portrayed the subjects in the classic period poetry Works with the colors of both classic poetry and folk poetry believing that the relationship with the past would be re-established. Magjan Jumabayevi aiming at benefiting from the most elegant, the most beautiful sides of any word, reacted to all difficulties of the life, fluctuations in the society, storms, fatigue and complexities.

Jumabayev, in whose poets we haven't encountered any views regarding the rhyme, mentioned his views of rhyme in one of his poems. He proposed that writing a poem was not as easy as it was perceived, rhymes and rimes required competence and those who couldn't manage this should leave the poetry and take up sheepherding. He didn't hesitate to say "I would follow the same path if I had troubles in writing poems" (Rayman, 2011, 205). Jumabayev brought consonance in his poems using rimes, rhymes and alliterations too much. His poems are successful in terms of both meaning and consonance. Literature has great impact on emotions. Especially the poems, in which emotions are included intensively have an important place in child education. Many positive emotions such as beauty, loving the nature and friends, good manners, cultural values of the society the child belongs to, patriotism, national and moral values can be gained to children by poems. Poem addresses to both feelings and thoughts of children. It is seen that the language used in Magjan Jumabayev's poems are generally clear, plain and understandable. Figures of speech such as simile, impersonation, drawing, exaggeration to help children recognize the poetry language and enable them to notice the effect of figures of speech on expression are benefited from. Inverted sentences and metaphors are included in the poems. Figures of speech that are wanted to be taught to the students in poems about both education and social topics are common and teaching the same figures are supported in the activities. Jumabayev's poems about education, which we discuss in our study, have the effect of enlightening the thoughts, improving the imaginations, gaining new dimensions about life on children.

CONCLUSIONS and SUGGESTIONS

Jumabayev, who regarded the poem as a weapon in his hand, considered a lot about his duties and responsibilities for his people. According to him, the poet is the person responsible for all events in the places human beings live. In this connection, he served to the aim of becoming the scream of the people and the period he lived in.

Magjan Jumabayev's poems can be benefited from in the development of language skills, teaching of emotions and in the transfer of values. The use of harmony elements such as meters, rimes and rhymes in his poems skillfully besides the educational elements in his poems arouse the interest of children in poems and awaken the desire to read and memorize poems in children. His poems make contributions to language development and constituting language consciousness in children as they are plain, clear, understandable poems

reflecting the beauties of native language. In the light of such information, we put forward our suggestions as:

- Magjan Jumabayev has many poems that can be used in ceremonies and remembrance days organized in schools in elementary and secondary education.

- Using Magjan Jumabayev's informative poems as education tool in the lessons of primary and secondary education will provide convenience for teachers to teach lessons. Besides, using poems while teaching lessons may arouse interest of students in the lesson and subject and this may affect the permanence in learning the topics positively.

- Some of the informative poems of Magjan Jumabayev may be used in elementary and secondary school course books. Poems about education of the other representatives of Kazakh literature which were banned from instruction in Soviet period should be used in course books. Hence, students may be allowed to recognize the truths of the Soviet period and the XX century Kazakh literature poems.

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