Scholarly article on topic 'Students Speech Culture Development in the Sphere of Onomastics'

Students Speech Culture Development in the Sphere of Onomastics Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Speech culture acquisition" / "literary language" / "linguistic competence" / "language policy"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Assem Aksholakova

Abstract With gaining of independence and after emergency of a new country the national onomastic space of Kazakhstan began dynamically to be involved in the global community. Nowadays, we can see active involvement of onomastic units in international official documents. Thus, correct transfer of Kazakh proper names into other languages acquires exceptional value. Consequently, this is a vital problem of modern Kazakh language. Thus, actuality of our work theme specifies social significance of the problem related with development of speech culture acquisition in the same way as conducting of orthological (normative) analysis of Kazakh proper names and conditions of language adaptation in Russian language.

Academic research paper on topic "Students Speech Culture Development in the Sphere of Onomastics"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 (2013) 391 - 397

AicE-Bs2013 London Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies University of Westminster, London, UK, 4-6 September 2013 "From Research to Practice"

Students Speech Culture Development in

the Sphere of Onomastics

Assem Aksholakova

_Al-Farabi KazNU, al-Farabi avenue, 71, Almaty 050038, Kazakhstan_


With gaining of independence and after emergency of a new country the national onomastic space of Kazakhstan began dynamically to be involved in the global community. Nowadays, we can see active involvement of onomastic units in international official documents. Thus, correct transfer of Kazakh proper names into other languages acquires exceptional value. Consequently, this is a vital problem of modern Kazakh language. Thus, actuality of our work theme specifies social significance of the problem related with development of speech culture acquisition in the same way as conducting of orthological (normative) analysis of Kazakh proper names and conditions of language adaptation in Russian language.

© 2013TheAuthors. Published by ElsevierLtd.

Selection andpeer-review underresponsibilityofCentreforEnvironment-Behaviour Studies(cE-Bs),FacultyofArchitecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Speech culture acquisition; literary language; linguistic competence; language policy

1. The status of the problem

Education and intelligence, as well as business skills, are the qualities that have always been appreciated. An essential constituent in general culture of specialists in any profile which determines professional activity success extensively is to be fluent in possession of literary language, ability to use it as a tool for effective, professional and interpersonal communication. Meaningful, logical and literate speech should be a typical sign of a good worker. Unfortunately, we need to note the fact that lately, in the context of informatization of a society, the Russian literary language is undergoing a massive influence of other forms of the language. Literary norms continue to be violated, and level of word

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7-777-238-86-60. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.041

possession culture continues to get reduced significantly. All of these are leading to destruction of national ideal of speech. The disastrous state of the speech culture primarily testifies to the broadcast of meetings congresses, newspapers, works of many writers, speech of radio and television announcers, speakers of variety shows, and journalists. There are still many mistakes in newspapers, and a speech from TV screens often sounds far from an exemplary literary Russian language. It is obvious that a serious interference in speech culture of society is necessary.

In the course of the conduct of this research we appealed to the following governmental solutions, they are the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1998), the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan (July 11, 1997 № 151-1) "On languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan" (20.12.04 № 13-III), Order of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (November 4, 1996 № 3186), about the Concept of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, State program for development and functioning of languages for 2001-2010 (February 17, 2001) and other documents that regulate state-legal aspects of language relations.

1.1. Speech culture training

The study and determination of further ways of modernization and standardization of the state language in this aspect is important not only for the development of the Kazakh language, but also for further successful implementation of language planning and national policy in general. On the basis of personal development through integrated language and culture teaching method, modern language teaching methodology focuses on shifting to personally oriented education. Accordingly, the "language -culture - personality" becomes interconnected with all its components, and didactic idea presents informative and organizational unit - "linguistic culture and personality". Linguistic culture acts as a value that sets main goals of both professional and other fields of human activity, as in a single process of development of culture of speech after realizing self-development and self-education of a future specialist. Culture of speech and the quality of language are inseparable from moral characteristics of man's personality.

Matters of speech culture training have primary importance in a modern society. Most scientists (N.S. Valgina, L.K. Graudina, E.N. Shiryaev, L.P. Krysin, V.A. Itskovich and others) concern with deterioration of an overall level of speech culture and believe that it is necessary to conduct systematic work on the formation of linguistic and communicative competence of native Russian speakers. According to scientists such work should take its beginning from preschool years when the interest of child in language activates at the time of reading and writing acquisition.

Nowadays teaching of Russian language at an elementary school has clear-cut communicative orientation which has its reflection in the programs of "Speech" (L.D. Mali, etc.), "Culture of Communication" (N.A. Lemyaskina, I.A. Sternin and others), "Children's rhetoric" ("Children's rhetoric in the stories and illustrations" (T.A. Ladyzenskaja).

Teaching of culture of speech and orthology is topical for philological auditorium where theoretical foundations of modern linguistic courses acquire special importance. A.A. Chuvakin (Orthology and Rhetoric as basic disciplines in communicative training of specialists on the direction of "Philology") focuses attention of students on all aspects of standards which are linguistic, communicative and pragmatic, as well as ethical that correspond to the tasks of orthological training of philologist in the field of communication. Main content of the first one is on the basis of the data of linguistics and at the same time transcends its substantial margins in the field of communication, stylistics and rhetoric theory.

Speech culture course at each level of education aims at the solution of specific tasks:

Its main task in bachelor's degree is to acquire a competence in the field of language and culture acquisition, and in a wider sense the culture of speech communication. Moreover, to get preliminary

information from theory of orthology, as well as to develop general communicative skills of graduate and his ability to professional communication, and also to improve the level of acquisition of professional communication norms.

Culture of speech as a discipline at MA course, provides graduates to acquire a deeper level of mastery of professional communication norms, including its scientific-research and business components. Moreover, it provides to acquire applied aspects of the philologist-orthologist activity (editing, etc.), as well as to have overall information in terms of theory and history regarding development of norms and orthology, and also to shape the ideas about the basic processes and trends of language and communication development.

2. The aim of the study

Functioning of Kazakh proper names (PN) in Russian speech due to active interaction of two linguistic and speech systems attracted the attention of local linguists as an act of interlingual and intercultural communication. However, the attempts to find common criteria of codification of Kazakh proper names and their written adaptation in Russian language in domestic linguistics still remains unsolved, and issues of their orthographic codification in authoritative academic journals were considered only in fragments as single illustrations. It is explained that the vocabulary of any language is in a state of continuous development, one of the regularities of which is the lexicon completion with proper names and the need of transferring them into recipient language.

The aim of this research is to conduct orthological analysis of Kazakh proper names and study of their phonetic, orthographic, orthoepic and grammatical adaptation conditions in the Russian language. Identification of variation, distortion, analogy in respect of proper names is also studied. Under orthological analysis we mean a complete, comprehensive description of linguistic phenomena from the regulatory point of view.

"Administrative and territorial divisions" (last edition 1989) served as the main regulatory document for the creation and publication of various maps and atlases. However, in transliteration respect it leaves much to be desired. Many proper names are given in a distorted way in Russian language in these documents. In recent years many distorted names of settlements and administrative and territorial units are gradually being corrected, many of which are going to be corrected in the future.

Kazakhstan, as a sovereign state and a member of the UN since 1991, has held an independent onomastic policy. One of main directions of this policy is gradual recovery and the return of historical proper names, elimination of transliterated distortions and mistakes by unification and standardization of Kazakh proper names in Russian writing and Russian proper names of the republic in Kazakh language.

3. Methodology

In the course of study, some sociolinguistic methods such as observation, questioning, interviewing, photo fixation, records of the respondents became effective. Observation of speech behavior of informants at meetings, conferences, public transport, television and radio broadcasting was the basis for general characteristics of oral speech of Russian speakers. We used a quantitative statistical method in order to process the data obtained during the experiment. The basis for study resources were various facts from Kazakh information services functioning in Russian language. These facts require assessment in terms of their linguistic norm. In order to select resources, we have used following sources: mass media (local and Russian newspapers, television and radio), Internet texts, reference books, government instructions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, cartographic data, lexicographical sources. Moreover, we used information resource base of "Integrum" and "Factiva" owned by Dow Jones Reuters Business

Interactive LLC, electronic versions of mass media of Russia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan during the scientific-research work in Vienna (Austria).

We have conducted an experimental study aimed at the description of the functioning of the Kazakh proper names (place names and anthroponomy) in the Russian language from the view point of culture of speech.

There were 60 informants in total in the experiment from three different age groups (students, high school students from 9th and 11th grade). We agreed that 20 informants for each group will be enough, as according to foreign scientific consultant Edgar Hoffmann more than 20 answers will be repeating the previous data). The groups were gender-mixed. The main criterion in this case was the knowledge of Russian as native or basic language. The hypothesis of the present research is that there is a significant difference between different groups of informants regarding their use of proper names in the context of culture of speech.

The experiment contained various tasks. The materials for the study were recordings of people speech, interview with preliminarily prepared questions. In order to achieve the goal of the experiment we carried out a preparatory phase of the experiment:

• to identify the qualitative and quantitative composition of the experiment participants - native Russian


• to choose linguistic material of the experiment, to make questions;

• to identify technologies and procedures of implementation of the experiment;

• to evaluate the experiment on an individual basis with several native Russian speakers to clarify the

methodological points of the experiment.

After the preliminary experiment, and following the sociolinguistic test methodology of V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin (2001), we notified informants about the purpose of the interview in general. Notification of informants was important to us in terms of obtaining objective data.

Task 1: The purpose of the task is to identify morphological variation in the decline of proper names.

Language material - to open the brackets in text: I used to live in (Zerendy) village, and now I live in (Almaly) city. Let's go to (Alua's) home. I am proud of (Karaganda).

Task 2: The purpose of the task is to identify what variants of proper names the informant uses in his/her daily speech.

Language material - to answer the questions: What is the name of this city? (Expected answer among others: in Almaty/Almata city). Where is the 350 meters high TV tower in Almaty? (Expected answer is: in Koktyube/Koktube/Kaktobe).

Task 3: The purpose of the task is to follow what variants of proper names the informant uses in his/her speech.

Language material was to read aloud sentences: We are nine in a group: Maira, Abylai, Galym, Zhenis, Togzhan, Olzhas, Zhandos, Kaiyrden and Dariya. Authorities suspended introduction of the oneway traffic in Satpaev and Zhandosov streets in Almaty city.

Task 4: The purpose of the task is to choose a proper name among its phonetic variants in the questionnaire on the pronunciation.

Language material was the way of pronunciation: Saduakas or Sadvakas, Shymkent or Chymkent, T'ekeli or Tekel'i etc.

In addition to the aforementioned tasks, we asked participants of the experiment to provide additional information about themselves (name, place of birth, town where they live) to get additional language units which interest us.

There was no time limitation to do the task in the course of the implementation of the experiment.

4. Pragmatics

Kazakh and Russian language contacts intensified with the emergence of the first Russian settlement in Kazakhstan, since the time of its joining Russia in the second half of the XIX century, leaving an imprint on all spheres of lexis of these languages, in particular in the field of onomastics. Kazakhstan, where people of different ethnic and national backgrounds live, became bilingual country with two onomastic systems which are Kazakh and Russian.

The main direction of the practical use of proper names in speech is the transfer of Kazakh PN into Russian language. Variety of languages, translation issues, and specificity of writing systems put translators into a complicated problem. Depending on how much big is the difference in phonetic system and structure of phonemes of two languages is, the identification issue of them becomes much hard. That is why such unrelated languages as Kazakh and Russian, inherent the discordance of phonetic systems. In Russian language, people speak and write all foreign words including Kazakh ones in accordance with the rules of Russian language. In this regard, there are many Kazakh PN subjected to phonetic, morphologic and word-formation assimilation by the recipient language (Russian). This fact is irresistible proof of the interaction of the two different structured onomastic systems operating in the same region as borrowing is the natural way of development of any language because "there is no nation, a carrier or creator of this or that language that live entirely isolated" (Shansky, 1972, pp. 86-87).

Kazakh PN in the Russian language and the written fixation undergo certain changes. "Words of other language as signs of a certain culture carry an important social, cultural, and cognitive information, reflecting the phenomena of both material and spiritual culture of the nation, represent a variety of "worldviews" of other nation, in particular, industrial and geographical idea, peculiarities of outlook, national way of life, religion, moral values" (Oreshkina, 1994, pp.7-8). While transferring proper name into another language, most of these features can be lost. If not to know or ignore these features, then transfer of a proper name into another linguistic ground can make identification of bearer's name not only easy, but also complicated. For example, Koluton (Qalqutan) is the station name in Akmola region and Myuktakyul (Muktikol) is the village name in Kostanai region. As we see, the Kazakh place names undergo a variety of transformations during their inclusion into Russian speech. Therefore there is a heavy duty upon translator to transfer what is considered as sacred or determinative factors of source cultural identity in order to preserve as much as possible - the original variant (Zandi, Azizinezhad, 2011, p. 928) otherwise it can bring to the loss of identity as a whole.

5. Research findings and outcomes

Here, we decided to share our findings concerning a language unit Almaty (among others) in the view point of orthology. The russified form "Alma-Ata" has been in use for a long time and in 1993, there were first suggestions for recovering the correct form of the name of the southern capital "Almaty". Significant number of publications in the mass media (the newspapers "Arguments and Facts", "Caravan" etc.) and the comments in online forums, where people express their points of view on this issue, can serve as an evidence to the public interest in favor of returning former name of Almaty city.

According to Article 1 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan (01.07.1998) "About the special status of Almaty city" the form "Almaty, not"Alma-Ata' is a city of republic importance both in Russian and Kazakh languages (Parliament edition of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Kazakh and Russian languages, 1998, p. 100).

We noticed two variants in the writing of this geographical name: Almaty in Kazakh and Alma-Ata in Russian language, which is in use both within Kazakhstan and in Russia. The functioning of Almaty in two variants, in Kazakh and Russian mass media, shows the need of identifying unique form of its writing

in the language fixed in the authoritative sources. The absence of orthographic references considering the unification on spelling of place names introduced by guidance documents of one state, but ignoring by other state, creates considerable difficulties during the time of ever increasing mobility of modern society and the growth of migration in a number of post-Soviet countries.

We observed that the usage of "Alma-Ata" is more frequent in modern articles related to airline flights, flight magazines of different airlines, ticketing, flight schedules and railway timetables.

In the course of monitoring after the pronunciation of native speakers we discovered some patterns of deviation from the traditional pronunciation. People of the older generation often use the form "Alma-Ata" in Russian speech, and consequently, decline this place name according to the rules of Russian language as for nouns ending in "- a". Here is the way how it happens: Ya zhivu v Almate (I live in Almaty), Ya edu v Almatu (I leave for Almaty) etc. The main reason of it according to us, first and foremost is that people whose place of birth was "Alma-Ata" city, find this name as the most beautiful. There are Almaty residents, who have become accustomed to the name Almaty as well, and those who associate the place name "Almaty" with their new memories, and those who have already loved this name.

For this purpose, we hold simultaneous analysis on the basis of the republican newspaper "Kazakhstan Truth" in relation to the frequency of the use of forms of Almaty and Alma-Ata from 2005 to 2011. Examined material suggests that the form Almaty found 12374 times, as for Alma-Ata - 1025 times, which indicates a decrease of the number of articles using the form Alma-Ata. It should also be emphasized that the specified number of articles using the form Alma-Ata contains memories or events, when our southern capital carried the name "Alma-Ata'. The following chart presents statistical results of the search, see Fig. 1.

Number of publications upon request relative to general number of publications, %

Fig. 1. The frequency of the use of forms of Almaty and Alma-Ata

In the diagram, the can see clearly how the word Alma-Ata is gradually coming out from the active use. However, stereotypical use of this place name still causes the usual functioning of the name of the city in two variants.

International contacts of representatives in Kazakhstan have increased after gaining the independence. The country is gradually joining a global information space. The forms of the place names in the national

language suggested as the only correct ones for international sources are the recognized and standardized ones. Therefore, we shall use the name of the southern capital only in the form fixed in the official language, that is, the correct and the original form "Almaty".

6. Conclusion

Summarizing all the above, we can mention that proper names are subject to changes in the period of the general state fundamental reform. These changes show the transition to a new norm caused by external and internal factors of the dynamics of linguistic norms. Ensuring stability in writing and spelling of Kazakh proper names in Russian language will eliminate the existing variability, mistakes and misunderstanding in mass media, administrative documents of state apparatus, will ease further works on development and correction of various reference books, provide literacy in business correspondence and will warn against the possibility of appearing of new distortions.

State language development begins from the most important category of a language which is the norms. Therefore, normalization of a national language, bringing its spelling and written form to a common standard which is subject to general and unquestioning implementation is a necessary condition of successful language policy.


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