Scholarly article on topic 'Development of Downhole Motor Drilling Test Platform'

Development of Downhole Motor Drilling Test Platform Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Huang Mingxin, Wang Yu, Liu Baolin, Gao Mingshuai, Wang Liguang

Abstract The Downhole motor is a kind of important rotary or percussive power drilling tool driven by high pressure mud. Drilling using downhole motor can reduce the energy consumption caused by the friction between long drill string and borehole, and reduce drill pipe wear. In this paper, some important drilling simulation experimental devices around the world have been studied, especially, two kind of drilling simulation experimental devices, the conventional bottom hole experimental device and high temperature and high pressure experimental devices have been analyzed respectively. At home and abroad, the typical drilling simulation devices include ZM-35, LST-10, LMT-I, M150, and Terra Tek, etc.. The characters, structures, principles and experimental methods of these typical simulation devices had been introduced in detail, which provides a reference for developing downhole motor testing and drilling process testing.

Academic research paper on topic "Development of Downhole Motor Drilling Test Platform"

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Procedía Engineering 73 (2014) 71-77

Procedía Engineering

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Geological Engineering Drilling Technology Conference (IGEDTC), New International Convention Exposition Center Chengdu Century City on 23rd-25th May 2014

Development of Downhole Motor Drilling Test Platform

Huang Mingxina,b* Wang Yua,b Liu Baolina,b Gao Mingshuaia,b Wang Liguanga,b

aSchool of Engineering and Technology, China University of geosciences, BeiJing 100083, China. bKey laboratory on Deep Geo-Drilling Technology of the Ministry of Land and Resources, BeiJing 100083.

Abstract

The Downhole motor is a kind of important rotary or percussive power drilling tool driven by high pressure mud. Drilling using downhole motor can reduce the energy consumption caused by the friction between long drill string and borehole, and reduce drill pipe wear. In this paper, some important drilling simulation experimental devices around the world have been studied, especially, two kind of drilling simulation experimental devices, the conventional bottom hole experimental device and high temperature and high pressure experimental devices have been analyzed respectively. At home and abroad, the typical drilling simulation devices include ZM-35, LST-10, LMT-I, M150, and Terra Tek, etc.. The characters, structures, principles and experimental methods of these typical simulation devices had been introduced in detail, which provides a reference for developing downhole motor testing and drilling process testing.

© 2014 Published byElsevierLtd.This isan open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Geological Engineering Drilling Technology Keywords: Downhole Motor; Test Platform; Drilling; Simulation;

1. Introduction

Since the 1980s, downhole motors, especially the turbodrill and screw drill had been widely and rapidly applied. It has become an essential drilling tool for directional wells, cluster wells, horizontal wells and special process operations. Downhole motor, because of its superiority on the structure and the performance, it has played a significant role in not only promoting the mechanical drilling rate reducing the cost, but also ensuring the drilling quality and safety.

* Huang Mingxin. Tel.: +86-10-82328581; fax: +86-10-82328581. E-mail address: 714624875@qq.com

1877-7058 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Geological Engineering Drilling Technology doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.172

As it develops, different degrees of limitations have appeared such as there are no efficient ways to identify the new purchased tools whether they are up to standard, and because of this, some substandard tools are often bought causing huge economic loss. In the aspects of operation and maintenance, it is difficult to test to determine the parameters of the drilling tools, make the corresponding curve. The repaired tools cannot be tested before using. For those aged drilling tools, there is no better way to have it scraped accurately and economically. In addition, in order to develop more advanced and more special performance required downhole motors, there must be a set of scientific experimental test devices to do the technical support. And because of all the above, mass researching work on downhole motors have been widely and rapidly carried out[1-11].

2. Background and Significance of Research

The scientific research on drilling process had experienced from experience to science, and the research methods, generally, there are three main types: intuitive method, analysis method and simulation method. For drilling engineering, many geological conditions and drilling parameters are variable. Therefore, researching simulation method is significantly important.

Since the 80s, represented by downhole motors, new petroleum drilling technologies began to flourish, especially turbodrill and screw drill tools. They have shown the superiority on improving the drilling efficiency, reducing drilling cost, ensuring the drilling quality and safety. However, all kinds of necessary testing results have shown that its means and technology level cannot meet the requirements[12-16]. For example, on inspecting the quality of drilling tools, some substandard but brand new products are often brought which consequently causes great economic loss. There are no effective re-examination tools and means on the drilling tools after maintenance, as a result, it often happens that tools are still unable to be functional when it works in the well, and it needs to be pulled out to get repaired again. It is a kind of loss on the human, material and financial resources, and it also delayed the drilling scheme at the same time. And, during the drilling process, in order to optimize the parameters according to the different formation, it requires a certain technical level of the testing equipments to log the parameters, and generate the corresponding characteristic curve. Also, because of the complexity of the work while drilling, parameters of the bottom hole formation can't be directly measured and controlled1-17-23-1. So the field test isn't an effective experimental method. Problems presented all the above require drilling simulation experimental equipment researches and development. The drilling technology development history tells that to make the development of drilling engineering from qualitative to quantitative, experimental researches on drilling simulation devices is an important way.

Also because of this, various simulation experiments have been researched. It greatly promoted the drilling technologies including the downhole motor drilling test platform technology. Now, many research requirements are available, and the platform functions perform better which promotes industrial technologies of worldwide drilling.

3. Research on Conventional Downhole Motors Drilling Test Platform

3.1. Overall Structure

The overall structure of the first conventional downhole motors drilling test platform in china is so-called 3-beam-4-column vertical frame structure. Vertical steel frame structure, divided into several layers, each layer has corresponding equipment installation, such as driving, centralizer and circulation structure.

Along with the development of downhole motors drilling test platform technology, researches of the screw drill and turbo drill tools are getting to be the mainstream. Considering the particularity of structure performance of the downhole drill motors, horizontal structure design for downhole motors drilling test platform has been adopted by vast majority of research units: more convenience and less space. As a result, the original vertical structure design is replaced by a lying horizontal one. The representatives of these downhole motors drilling test platforms studied here, such as 5000 N.M downhole drill experiment platform developed by Jiang Han Petroleum Institute Downhole Tools Laboratory and the high torque screw drill test platform developed by Yangtze University, North China Petroleum Administration Bureau, Da Gang Oilfield Group, etc..

l.Electric Dynamometer 2.The Torque Speed Sensor 3.Water Drive Assembly 7.Clamp Holder 5.Drill Push-Pull Device 6.Screw Drill Tool 8.High Pressure Hose 9.The Temperature Sensor 10. The Inlet Pressure Sensor ll.Turbine Flow Sensor 12.Electric Control Valve 13■, 15.The Valve 14.Multistage Centrifugal Pump 16.Turbine Flow Sensor 17.Outlet Pressure Sensor 18.The Water Tank 19.Bearing Block 20.0verall

Support 21.Universal Joint

Fig. 1 Typical Lying Horizontal Structure Screw Drill Tool Test Platform 3.2. Circulation Flow Control

The main principle of circulation flow control system of the downhole motors drilling test platform can be divided into two types: one is regulating the bypass valve to control the flow and the other is the frequency conversion to control the flow.

The principle of the first method can be: flow sensor installed on the main line, electric control valve installed on the sideline. Computers send a signal to the electric control valve controller, the signal corresponds to a set flow. When the flow sensor works, it can measure the real time flow Q, and gets it compared with the set flow Q0, if Q > Q0, then the electric control valve opens more to keep the flow down, if the opposite situation, then the electric control valve opens less to keep the flow up, and finally this will keep Q and Q0 the same. Using frequency conversion system to control the flow is a typical cycle flow closed loop control scheme. Considering that during the process of the experiment, along with the increase of the pump' s inlet pressure, the pump's motor speed drops which will change the pump's discharged volume, so the closed-loop signal control scheme is adopted.

3.3. Forms of Torque Loading

In order to simulate the load that on the downhole motors during the real drilling at the bottom of the bore, the downhole motors drilling test platform needs a load simulation system for drilling tools. For the time being, experimental apparatus developed by the research units and institutions whose loading devices commonly and mainly will be: the electromagnetic eddy current brake, magnetic powder brake, hydraulic dynamometer and electric dynamometer, etc.

For the electromagnetic eddy current brake, when the exciting current is a constant, the faster the rotational speed, the lager the braking torque will be. This characteristic in some low speed and high torque downhole motors such as screw drill tools will often have the shortage of braking torque. This kind of phenomenon needs a speed-pumping device to solve it. Magnetic powder brake is another kind of loading device that often used. Its braking torque is only related to the exciting current, and has nothing to do with speed. The stronger the current, the larger the braking torque will be. As a result, if you control the current, you will control the braking torque. Therefore, magnetic powder brake matches the screw drill tool well, and the structure of magnetic powder brake is simple, it is easy to control. Besides, hydraulic dynamometer is a loading device optional for all kinds of downhole motors drilling test platform. It is cheap, its technology is relatively mature and it is of high reliability. But it takes a lot of water and its cooling system is relatively large, therefore, it is generally not suitable for indoor construction. Electric dynamometer controls the motor speed with its frequency conversion mechanism to control the external output torque. Due to its simple principle, easy realization, high reliability, simple structure, and its cheap price, a variety of dynamic mechanical testing equipments have taken this option.

4. High Temperature and High Pressure Downhole Motor Drilling Test Platform

4.1. Structure Scheme

The overall structure of the high temperature and high pressure drilling device simulation can be divided into two categories: steel frame structure and the high temperature and high pressure cylinder.

Considering with steel frame structure, Da Qing comprehensive drilling simulation device for full size can be considered as a typical one in China. Its structure is shown in Fig. 2. The upper structure can supply the rotation energy to the drill string by the power plant unit platform. It can keep loading on the drill string by the cylinder and load simulation beam. At the same time, it will complete the derrick's running up and down on the concerted action under the effect of three devices: the loading beam unit, the clamping device on the platform and the cylinder. It was uniquely designed with its own inherent frequency so that it will effectively avoid the vibration interference ensuring the measured parameters accurate and reliable.

In addition, experimental devices developed by many scientific research institutions such as the United States Energy Department and Terra Tek laboratory adopted this kind of steel frame structure while the equipment selection and installation are slightly different in details.

1.Mast Column 2.Loading Platform 3.The Simulator 4.The Faucet 5.The Servo Cylinder 6.Rotary Table 7.The Motor 8.The Unit Platform 9.Specimen 10.Centering Device 11.The Centralizer Platform 12.The Test Joints 13.The Telescopic Cylinder 14.Rock Sample 15.Well Cylinder

Fig.2 Main Structure of Da Qing Drilling Simulation Experimental Platform

High temperature and high pressure simulation well cylinder is the key component of high temperature and high pressure drilling simulation device, its purpose is to provide the bit, pipe and the rock sample with pressure and temperature so that it could simulate a condition of deep well drilling.

Russia developed a set of high temperature and high pressure simulation well cylinder, its overall structure is shown in Fig. 3.The motor, pump, bottomhole assembly and downhole motor are all encapsulated together within the cylinder. The temperature and pressure applied on the rock sample are generated by the temperature and pressure generator.

In comparison, the characteristics of the well cylinder of Da Qing drilling simulation experimental platform is that the bottom hole assembly and downhole motor are not in the well cylinder but on the rack. It takes a fluid circulation to experiment with the upper frame.

l.Autoclave 2.Motor 3.Pump 4.Downhole Motor 5.Rock Sample 6.Rock Dust Collector 7.Piston 8.Centre Frame 9.Formation Pressure Piston

lO.Electric Heating Component

Fig.3 High Temperature and High Pressure Autoclave Developed by Russia

4.2. The Realization of High Temperature and High Pressure

High temperature and high pressure are essential to deep well and ultra deep well drilling simulation test platform. In all kinds of high temperature and high pressure drilling simulation experiments around the world, the simulation of high temperature and high pressure that in the deep well are driven by the heating devices and the pressure devices on the earth's surface.

Device developed by Russian Drilling Institute Laboratory (Fig.3), its high temperature is obtained by the heating coil orbited around the outside of the rock tube. The heating coil could heat the rock cylinder to a variety of different temperatures. The piston located under the rock sample will provide axial pressure on rock sample. Heating coil at the same time will also provide the axial and lateral pressure.

A deep well drilling simulation cylinder developed by Sheng Li Petroleum Administration Bureau is shown as Fig. 4. It is capsule type structure. Two capsules located symmetrically in a quarter of the circular arc surface of the rock sample. Capsules is a bravery body, it can be injected by high pressure fluid. During the experiment, high pressure fluid is injected into the capsule bravery, the pressure driven by the capsule's inflation will finally force on the rock sample. The temperature is provided by a heating jacket around the rock sample.

l.Cylinder 2.Capsule 3.Servo Board 4.Rock Sample 5.Heating Jacket 6.Supporting Frame Fig.4 Capsule Loading Structure

Da Qing

6000 meters depth high temperature and high pressure experimental device (Fig. 5)

could provide

rockoverburden pressure, confining pressure and pore pressure simulation at the same time. Also it can provide the simulation of required high temperature. But the pressure and the temperature simulation mode of the experimental device is a similar way to the experimental device developed by Russian drilling research institute.

1.Gland 2.Mud Entrance 3.Seal Cartridge(below) 4.Y Type Seal 5.The Aluminum Seal 6.Mud Export 7.Support Sleeve 8.Seal Cartridge(up) 9.Well Cylinder 10.O Loop 11.Pipe 12.Thick Wall Cylinder of High Pressure 13.Confining Pressure Simulating Oil 14.Holder 15.Confining Pressure Simulating Device 16.Rock Sample 17.Simulating Device of The Pore Pressure and Formation Temperature 18.Covered Pressure

Simulating Hydraulic Cylinder

5. Conclusions

Downhole motors drilling test platform is one of the scientific research means in modern drilling industry which occupies an important position. It has two types: conventional downhole motors drilling test platform and HTHP downhole motors drilling test platform. This article separately analyzed and briefly introduced some typical and outstanding research achievements of these two types.

Conventional downhole motors drilling test platform does not refer to the temperature and pressure simulation, so the structure can be kind of concise. Experiments mainly focus on the characteristic parameters and optimization scheme of the downhole motors under the condition of shallow. To a certain extent, it improved the drilling efficiency, reduced the drilling cost, and shortened the drilling cycle. HTHP downhole motors drilling test platform is the product of further improved drilling technology. A modern drilling depth reaches 10 thousand of meters or more, leading to some technical difficulties related to high temperature and pressure. In order to solve these difficulties, scientific research institutions developed many kinds of high temperature and high pressure simulation experimental devices. They can simulate the conditions of high temperature and high pressure in the deep well. And with those devices, it is possible to figure out the mechanisms so that the decisions and the plans of deep well drilling can be made correctly.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the International Scientific and Technological Cooperation projects (Grant No. 2010DFR70920, 2011DFR71170) , the Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project (Grant No. YETP0645), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51004086) and the open Funds of Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources (Grant No. NLSD201310). Meanwhile, great thanks also go to former researchers for their excellent works, which give great help for our academic study.

Fig.5 Da Qing HTHP Experimental Simulation Well Cylinder

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