Scholarly article on topic 'Analysing attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms of various factors'

Analysing attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms of various factors Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

Share paper
OECD Field of science
{Attitude / "information technologies" / "candidate teachers"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — A. Seda Saracaloğlu, Oğuz Serin, Nerguz Bulut Serin, Uğur Serin

Abstract The aim of this research is to analyze attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms of various variables. Therefore the research was conducted on 419 candidate teachers, selected with random sampling method, from Buca Education Faculty. Data was collected through two data gathering instruments. These were “Survey of Faculty Attitudes toward Information Technology” developed by Gilmore (1998), adapted to Turkish by Bulut and peers (2005) and personal information form that consists of 3 questions. ANOVA, t-test and Scheffe tests were applied to data and correlation coefficients were calculated. Significance level was taken as 0,05. As a result, it is revealed that attitude of students toward computer is “very positive”.

Academic research paper on topic "Analysing attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms of various factors"

Available online at


Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 3494-3499


Analysing attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms

of various factors

A. Seda Saracaloglua *, Oguz Serinb, Nerguz Bulut Serinb, Ugur Serinc

aFaculty of Education, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin,, Turkey bFaculty of Education, Cyprus International University, Nicosia,, TRNC cPrimary School Teacher Izmir, Turkey

Received October 28, 2009; revised December 4, 2009; accepted January 14, 2010


The aim of this research is to analyze attitudes of candidate teachers towards computer in terms of various variables. Therefore the research was conducted on 419 candidate teachers, selected with random sampling method, from Buca Education Faculty. Data was collected through two data gathering instruments. These were "Survey of Faculty Attitudes toward Information Technology" developed by Gilmore (1998), adapted to Turkish by Bulut and peers (2005) and personal information form that consists of 3 questions. ANOVA, t-test and Scheffe tests were applied to data and correlation coefficients were calculated. Significance level was taken as 0,05. As a result, it is revealed that attitude of students toward computer is "very positive". © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Attitude; information technologies; candidate teachers.

1. Introduction

Information technologies have been affecting education systems directly, and it requires training individuals who can adapt themselves to 21st century. This situation requires continuous modernization and development of teaching programs and teaching materials as well as improving education programs according to new request and demands (Saracaloglu, 2000).

In education; new information technologies such as interactive videos, artificial intelligence, teleconference, electronic communication are also used as well as computer assisted education (Akkoyunlu, 1995; Keser, 1991). However, using information technologies in teaching- learning processes is directly proportional with the proficiency of the teacher. Especially; entry behaviours, skills, and attitudes of teachers and students, who works the system, are the factors that affects the success of the system directly (Alkan, 1986; Saracaloglu, 2000). In this sense, teachers should be trained in using computers. When training of the teacher is ignored, experiences show that computer assisted learning process become more expensive than traditional methods (Thompson, 1991). As a matter of fact, it is put forward that most of the teachers do not use computer as it is needed and they do not benefit from it efficiently (Charsky et al., 2002; Ferguson-Pabst, Persichitte & Carfeela, 2003; Aral, et al, 2007). In addition to this,

* A. Seda Saracaloglu. Tel.: +90 256 214 20 23 / 1555 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.541

few teachers can benefit from limited amount of computers in the classroom because of the lack of equipment (NCES, 2001) and they feel themselves incapable of using computer (Schrum, 1999). In this sense, putting effective computer training into the programs of the organizations that train teachers appears as a requirement.

Besides, "Computer" is a compulsory course in institutions that train teachers such as Education Faculties in Turkey. Thus, it is seen very important to know, especially, attitudes of the candidate teachers toward computers in order to use computer assisted education effectively. But the course of computers is focused on computer literacy skills not on computer use instructions.

Attitude is also defined as a characteristic that is an indicator of individual's understanding and emotions toward a subject and motivates him to show either positive or negative behavior (Kagitgiba§i, 1988).

Attitudes affect success and failure of the education process directly. While positive attitudes provide success of the students during education period, negative attitudes make them unsuccessful (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992). As a matter of the fact that various researches show that there is a meaningful relation between attitudes and success (Bloom, 1979; Berberoglu, 1990; Saracaloglu, Serin & Bozkurt, 2001; Serin, 2001). In addition, making conscious and suitable decisions in curriculum developing studies toward computer studies are possible with knowing attitudes of students (Reece & Gable, 1982).

In other way, taking precautions by analyzing attitudes of students toward computer enables planning and applying computer in education in a more effective way. Otherwise, putting computer into the system without determining attitudes of students can reduce the expected chance of success in education and investments can be wasted. Therefore, it is seen necessary that determining attitudes that are pre-condition of success of students and teachers who use computer system.

Kinds of researches that are conducted in order to determine attitudes of students and teachers toward computer can contribute to put computer into education system in more logical and functional way, and to form policies that are related with computer. In this context, necessity of analyzing attitudes of students and teachers toward computer appears. It is expected that this research that derived from this necessity will contribute organizations which train teachers, curriculum developers, computer programmers, students of Computer and Teaching Technologies Department, computer teachers, instructors and academicians who conduct researches on this subject. Research problem is explained as it is below.

The aim of this research is to determine attitudes of the students of Buca Education Faculty of Dokuz Eylül University concerning with computer. With this aim, the responses of the questions below were examined:

1. Is there a significant difference between attitude scores of the candidate teachers toward computer and their gender?

2. Is there a significant difference between attitude scores of the candidate teachers toward computer and their state of using computer before?

1. Method

1.1. Universe and sample

The method of the study is descriptive and the research is aimed for determining attitudes of the students toward computer. The sample consisted of total 419 candidate teachers who are selected in a random way from Computer & Instructional Technology Teacher Education, Primary Education, Turkish Education, Secondary Teaching Science and Mathematics Education, Secondary Teaching Social Areas Education, Fine Arts Education, Foreign Languages Education departments of Buca Education Faculty.

1.2. Data collection tools

In the research "Survey of Faculty Attitudes toward Information Technology" developed by Gilmore (1998), adapted to Turkish by Bulut and peers (2005) was used as a data collecting tool. The Survey of Faculty Attitudes toward Information Technology has 52 multiple-choice items with item options ranging from 1 to 5. Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the Scale is found as 0,95. 32 of the items have positive statement and 20 of them have negative statement. Positive statements are graded from 5 to 1 and negative statements are graded from 1 to 5. At least 52 and at most 260 points can be acquired from the scale. High scores express positive attitude toward computer. In

addition to that participants' personal informations are questioned by Personal Information Form including 2 questions about their gender, departments, state of using computers.

1.3. Analysis of data and interpretation

ANOVA, t-test, Scheffe and LSD tests are used to analyze the data according to aims of the research. The findings of the study are coded to SPSS statistical package program and significance level was taken as 0,05.

2. Results (Findings)

When the attitudes of the students' score means about attitudes toward computer are analysed with t-test analysis according to their gender, it is found that female students have more positive attitude scores but this change does not lead statistically meaningful difference among groups.

Table 1: T-test results for attitude scores of candidate teachers towards computer according to their gender

Gender n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error t value p value

Female 258 192,015 27,263 1,697 0,847

Male 161 192,627 34,058 2,684

Attendants' attitudes toward computer are analyzed with t-test analysis according to their state of using computer before and these findings are given in Table 2. It is observed that there is a significant difference between candidate teacher's attitude scores and their state of using computers before (at the statistical level of 0.001).

Table2: T- test results for attitude scores scores of candidate teachers towards computer according to their state of using computer before

State of using computer n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error t value p value

Who do not use 47 178,638 19,284 2,812 0,000*

Who use 419 193,970 30,703 1,591

3. Discussion

It is shown in various researches that male students have more positive attitude than female students (Deniz, 1994; Chu, 1991; Gattiker and Hlavka, 1992; Ya§ar, 1992; Shaashani, 1994; Bannert & Arbinger, 1996; Makrakis & Sawada, 1996; Comber et al, 1997; Linn, 1999; Kadijevich, 2000); women have more positive attitude than men (Yin, 1990; Rugayah, Hashim & Wan, 2004). This study and findings of the studies above are in contradiction. Moreover in the research of Kay (1992) who examined 98 researches computer attitude is found that 48 of the researches are in favor of male, 14 are in favor of female and in 36 researches there is no difference found. This situation can derive from inevitability of computer usage of today. However findings of research in hand and researches in which attitudes toward computer are highly positive and do not change according to gender (Temple & Lips, 1988; Khasawneh, 1989; Munger & Loyd, 1989; Tarticioglu, 1990; McCoy & Baker, 1997; Woodrow, 1994; Deniz, 1994; 1995; Akkoyunlu, 1996; Shashaani, 1997; Clarke & Finnie, 1998; Lau & Ang, 1998; Levine & Donitsa-Schmidt, 1998; Ray, Sormunen & Haris, 1999; Harmandar & Samanci, 2002; Saracaloglu & Ka§li, 2001; Saracaloglu, Serin & Serin, 2001; Serin, 2001; Shashaani & Khalili, 2000; Asan, 2000, Zayim et al., 2002; Qelik & Bindak, 2005; Popovich et al., 2007; Teo, 2007) are similar. In this sense, these researches support each other.

As it is seen in Table 3, the situation is in favor of students who have used computer before. In other words; it can be said that students who have computer usage experience have more positive computer attitudes. In this context, study in hand and various researches (Qalikoglu, 1990; Lips and Temple, 1990; Yin, 1990; Hakkinen, 1994; Busch, 1995; Akkoyunlu, 1996; Reznich, 1996; Knezek, Christersen and Rice, 1997; Nash and Moroz, 1997; Volman, 1997; Lau and Ang, 1998; Levine and Donitsa-Schmidt, 1998; Brown-Chidsey, Boscardin and Sireci, 2001; Saracaloglu, Serin and Serin, 2001; Erkan, 2004; Qelik and Bindak, 2005) support each other.

4. Conclusion and recommendation

In this research that aims to determine attitudes of candidate teachers toward computer according to various factors, it can be said that computer attitudes of attendants change according to departments and use computer in advance. Computer attitudes of students do not change according to gender. As a result; it is found that students' attitudes toward computer are at "highly positive" level. In this situation, it can be said that since the students' attitudes are positive, it can affect computer assisted activities in a positive way and it reflects on the students' success positively.

Suggestions that are developed under the light of the research are below:

• Since Physics, Classroom and Art teaching students in the USA have an average attitude toward computer, studies should be held in these fields in order to make them to develop positive attitude. For example, giving much more computer assisted education, giving some subjects that are in the physics with computer simulations; providing to use computer laboratories much more can be beneficial.

• When it is taken into consideration that computer experience affects attitudes, students should be given a chance of developing computer skills such as using computer laboratories out of the lesson, etc.

• Since the students attending computer course and having an experience of using computer have positive computer attitudes, it can be said that using and knowing how to use computer is very important. In this sense, computer assisted education can be suggested for all level of educational institutions.

• In order to determine interests, needs, and attitudes of students toward preparing and developing computer assisted programs, sometimes consulting their own and related instructors' ideas and suggestions can be suggested

• Similar researches can be done in various institutions, at various education levels, and with various age groups.


Akkoyunlu, B. (1995). Bilgi teknolojilerinin okullarda kullanimi ve ögretmenlerin rolü. H. Ü. Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 11, 105-109.

Akkoyunlu, B. (1996) Ögrencilerin bilgisayara kar§i tutumlari. Egitim ve Bilim. 20 (100), 15-29.

Alkan, C. (1986). Bilgisayarlarin egitimde kullanimi. Egitim ve Bilim. 11(62), 9-15.

Aral, N., Ayhan, A. B., Ünlü, Ö., Erdogan, N. and Ünal, N. (2007). Anaokulu ve anasinifi ögretmenlerinin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlarinin incelenmesi. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 6 (19) , 1-8.

Asan, A. (2000). Fen ve sosyal alanlarda ögrenim gören ögretmen adaylarinin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlari. Egitim Araytirmalari Dergisi 7

Bannert, M. & P. R. Arbinger. (1996). Gender-related differences in exposure to and use of computers: results of a survey of secondary school students. European Journal of Psychology of Education. 11, 3:269-182, Sep.

Berberoglu, G. (1990). Kimyaya ili^kin tutumlarin öljülmesi. Egitim ve Bilim. 14, 76:16-27, Nisan.

Bloom, B. S. (1979). Insan nitelikleri ve okulda ögrenme. Qev: D. A. Özjelik. Ankara: Milli Egitim Basimevi.

Brown-Chidsey, R., Boscardin, M. L., & Sireci, S. G. (2001). Computer attitudes and opinions of students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 24 (2), 183-204

Bulut, N., Saracaloglu, A. S., Serin, O. & Serin, U. (2005). An adaptation of an attitude scale towards information technology. Unpublished Research Project. University of Dokuz Eylül, Izmir.

Busch. T. (1995). Gender differences in self-efficacy and attitude towards computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 12(2), 147158.

Qalikoglu (1990). The Relationship between computer attitude, mathematics attitude and knowledge about computer of prospective mathematics teachers at metu by grade level and sex. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Ankara: ODTÜ Institute of Social Sciences.

Qelik, C. & Bindak., R. (2005). Ilkögretim okullarinda görev yapan ögretmenlerin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlarinin je^itli degi^kenlere göre incelenmesi. inönü Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 6 (10), 27-38.

Charsky, D., Ferguson-Pabst, D., Javeri, M., Liu, P. L. Sanzone, C., & Carfella, E. (2002). Stepping stones to integration: university northern colorado's preparing teachers to use technology team's design and development of preservice teachers. Paper presented at the meeting of Associate for Educational Communication & Technology, Dallas, TX.

Chu, L-L. (1991). Computer Attitudes, Experiences, and notions of chinese students in a large midwestern university. Dissertation Abstracts International. 51(10), 3391.

Clarke, M. C. & Finnie, G. R. (1998). Changes in entry-level university students' attitudes to computers for 1985-1997. South African Computer Journal. 21, 26-32.

Comber, C. et al. (1997). The Effect of Age, Gender and computer expierence upon computer attitudes. Educational Research. 39, 2: 123-133, Summer.

Deniz, L. (1994). Bilgisayar Tutum Öljegi'nin Gejerlik, Güvenirlik ve Norm Qali^masi ve Örnek Bir Uygulama. Yayinlanmami§ Doktora Tezi, Istanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimleri Enstitüsü

Deniz, L. (1995). Ögretmen adaylarinin bilgisayar tutumlari. M. Ü. AtatürkEgitim Fakültesi Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi. 7, 51-60.

Erkan, S. (2004). Ögretmenlerin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlari üzerine bir inceleme. Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 12.

Ferguson-Pabst, D., Persichitte, K. & Carfeela, E. (2003, June). A journey toward systemic shange: Technology integration in a preservice teacher education program. Paper presented at the world conference of the Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecomminications, Honolulu, HA.

Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design. 4th edition. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publisher.

Gattiker, U. E. & Hlavka, A. (1992). Computer attitudes and learning performance: issues for management education and training. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 13 (1), 89-101.

Gilmore, E. (1998) Impact of training on the information technology attitudes of university faculty. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.

Hakkinen, (1994). Changes in computer anxiety in a required computer course. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 27, 2: 140-153.

Harmandar, M. & Samanci, O. (2002). Egitim fakültesi kimya egitimi bölümü ögrencilerinin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlari. IV. Fen Bilimleri Egitimi Kongresi. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi, 6-8 Eylül.

Hasselbring, T. (1986). Research on the effectiveness of computer based instruction: a review. International Review of Education. 32, 3.

Kadijevich, D. (2000). Gender differences in computer attitude among ninth-grade students. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 22, 2: 145-154.

Kagitjiba§i, Q. (1988), Insan ve Insanlar, Evrim Basim Yayin Dagitim, Istanbul.

Kay, R. H. 1992). Understanding gender differences in computer attitudes. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 25, 2: 159-171.

Keser, H. (1991). Egitimde nitelik geliytirmede bilgisayar destekli egitim ve ders yazilimlarimn rolü. Egitimde Nitelik Geli^tirme. Egitimde Arayi^lar 1. Sempozyumu Bildiri Metinleri. Istanbul: 13-14 Nisan 1991; Kültür Koleji Yayinlari, No: 1, 178-183.

Knezek, G. A., Christersen, R. & Rice, D. (1997). Changes in teacher attitudes during information technology training. In Willis, J., Price, J. D., Robin, B., McNeil, S. & Willis, D. A. (eds). Technology and Teacher Education Annual 1997. Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education: 767-771.

Kwasawneh, A. A. (1989). Assessment of the current status of computer education in jordan's secondary schools. Dissertation Abstracts International. 50(6), 1545.

Lau, S. K. & Ang, A. Y. (1998). Attitudes of university students to computing: an australian perspective. Ed-Media 98, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunication, 946-951. June 22-26, Freiburg, Germany.

Levine, T. & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes and knowledge: a causal analysis. Computers in Human Behavior. 14 (1), 125-146.

Linn, E. (1999). A gender equity perspective on computers. Equity Coalition. 5:14-17, Fall.

Lips, H. M. & L. Temple. (1990). Majoring in computer science: causal models for women and men. Research in Higher Education. 31, 1: 99113.

Makrakis, V. & T. Sawada. (1996). Gender, Computers and other school subjects among japanese and swedish students. Computers and Education. 26, 4. 225-231, May.

McCoy, P. L., & Baker, H. T. (1997). Gender differences in preservice teachers' computer and internet attitudes. Eighth International Conference of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, 835-836, April 1-5, Orlando, Florida.

Munger, G. F. & B. H. Loyd. (1989). Gender and attitudes toward computers and calculators: their relationship to math performance. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 5, 2: 167-177.

Nash, J. B. & Moroz, P. (1997). Computer attitudes among professional educators: the role of gender and experience. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, Austin, TX, January, 23-25.

NCES. (National, Centre for Educational Statistics). (2001). The digest of educational statistics. Washington, DC. U. S. Department of Education.

Popovich, P. M., Gullekson, N., Morris, S. & Morse, B. (2007). Comparing attitudes towards computer usage by undergraduates from 1986 to 2005. Computers in Human Behavior. (in press). <www. elsevier. com/locate/comphumbeh>

Ray, C. M., Sormunen, C. & Haris, I. M. (1999). Men's and women's atitudes toward computer technology: a comparison. Office Systems Research Journal, 17(1).

Reece, M. J. & R. K. Gable (1982). The development and validation of a measure of general attitudes toward computers. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 42: 913-916.

Reznich, C. B. (1996). Applying minimalist design particles to the problem of computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior. 12 (2), 256261.

Rugayah, H., Hashim, H. & Wan, N. M. (2004). Attitudes toward learning about and working with computers of students at uitm. TOJET. 3 (2).

Saracaloglu, A. S. & A. Ka§li. (2001). Ögretmen adaylarinin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlari ile ba^arilari arasindaki ili§ki. Ege Egitim Dergisi. 1(1): 112-127.

Saracaloglu, A. S. (2000). Fen ve edebiyat fakülteleri ögrencilerinin ögretmenlik meslegine iliykin görü^leri. Izmir: E. Ü. Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayinlari, No: 100.

Saracaloglu, A. S. (2006). 21. Yüzyilda ögretmen adaylarinin nitelikleri. Atatürk ve Cumhuriyete Armagan. Cilt 1: 253-290.

Saracaloglu, A. S., Serin, O. & Serin, U. (2001). Ilkögretim okullarindaki ögrencilerin bilgisayara yönelik tutumlarini etkileyen faktörler. X. Ulusal Egitim Bilimleri Kongresi. Bolu: 7-9 Haziran 2001.

Schrum, L. (1999). Technology professional development for teachers. Educational Technology Research and Development. 47(4), 83-90.

Serin, O. (2001). Lisans ve lisansüstü düzeydeki fen grubu ögrencilerinin problem jözme becerileri, fen ve bilgisayara yönelik tutumlari ile ba§arilari arasindaki ili§ki. Yayinlanmami§ Doktora Tezi. Izmir: D. E. Ü. Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Shashaani, L. (1994). Gender-differences in computer experience and its influence on computer attitudes. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 11, 4: 347-367.

Shashaani, L. (1997). Gender-differences in computer attitudes and use among college students. Journal of Educational Computing Research . 16. (1), 37-51.

Shashaani, L. & Khalili, A. (2000). Gender and computers: similarities and differences in iranian college students' attitudes toward computers.

Computers and Education. 37 (3-4), 363-375. Tarticioglu, S. (1990). Assesment of a junior high school basic programming course with respect to achievement, attitudes and the opinions of

people involved in various degrees at ari lycee. Unpub. MA Thesis. Ankara: METU. Temple, L. & H. M. Lips (1988). Gender differences in attitudes toward computers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Canadian

Pychological Associatio. , Montreal. Teo, T. (2007). Perceived importance, enjoyment, and anxiety as correlates of computer attitudes. Psychology Report. 100 (1):127-135. Thompson, N. (1991). Computers, curriculum and the learning environment. Computer Education. 16(1), 1-5.

Volman, M. (1997). Gender-related effects of computer and information literacy education. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 29 (3), 315-328. Woodrow, J. (1994). The development of computer-related attitudes of secondary students. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 11, 4: 307-338.

Ya§ar, §. (1992). Ögrencilerin bilgisayara iliçkin genel tutumlari. Eskiçehir: Anadolu Ün. Yayinlari, No: 638, Egitim Fakültesi Yayinlari, No: 17. Yin, M-C. (1990). A survey of use and attitudes toward computers in taiwan. Dissertation Abstracts International. 50 (10), 147. Zayim. N., Içleyen, F., Gülkesen, K. H. & Saka, O. (2002). Tip fakültesine balayan ögrencilerin bilgisayara karçi tutumlari ve bilgisayar becerileri. Türkiye'de internet Konferansi. Yayin No: 132, Istanbul. Inet-tr'02, 19-21 Aralik.