Scholarly article on topic 'New Type of Sturm-Liouville Problems in Associated Hilbert Spaces'

New Type of Sturm-Liouville Problems in Associated Hilbert Spaces Academic research paper on "Mathematics"

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Academic research paper on topic "New Type of Sturm-Liouville Problems in Associated Hilbert Spaces"

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Function Spaces Volume 2014, Article ID 606815, 7 pages

Research Article

New Type of Sturm-Liouville Problems in Associated Hilbert Spaces

O. Sh. Mukhtarov1,2 and K. Aydemir1

1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Gaziosmanpafa University, 60250 Tokat, Turkey

2 Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan

Correspondence should be addressed to K. Aydemir; Received 6 November 2013; Accepted 2 January 2014; Published 16 April 2014 Academic Editor: Qingying Bu

Copyright © 2014 O. Sh. Mukhtarov and K. Aydemir. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We introduce a new type of discontinuous Sturm-Liouville problems, involving an abstract linear operator in equation. By suggesting own approaches we define some new Hilbert spaces to establish such properties as isomorphism, coerciveness, and maximal decreasing of resolvent operator with respect to spectral parameter. Then we find sufficient conditions for discreteness of the spectrum and examine asymptotic behaviour of eigenvalues. Obtained results are new even for continuous case, that is, without transmission conditions.

1. Introduction

Various modifications of classical Sturm-Liouville problems have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past because of the appearance of new important applications in mathematics, mechanics, physics, electronics, geophysics, meteorology, and other branches of natural sciences (see [1-9] and references cited therein). For example, they describe the vibrational modes of various systems, such as the vibrations of a string or the energy eigenfunctions of a quantum mechanical oscillator, in which case the eigenvalues correspond to the resonant frequencies of vibration or energy levels. It was, in part, the idea that the discrete energy levels observed in atomic systems could be obtained as the eigenvalues of a differential operator which led Schrodinger to propose his wave equation. The simplest example of a Sturm-Liouville operator is the constant-coefficient second-derivative operator, whose eigenfunctions are trigonometric functions. Many other important special functions, such as Airy functions and Bessel functions, are associated with variable-coefficient Sturm-Liouville operators. One feature that occurs for Sturm-Liouville operators, which does not occur for matrices, is the possibility of an absolutely continuous spectrum. Instead of eigenfunction expansions, we then get integral transforms, of which the Fourier transform

is an example. Other, more complicated spectral phenomena can also occur. For example, eigenvalues embedded in a continuous spectrum, singular continuous spectrum, and pure point spectrum consisting of eigenvalues that are dense in an interval (see [2]).

In this paper we will examine a new type of Sturm-Liouville equation involving an abstract linear operator T, namely, the equation

Lm := -m" + q (%) u + Tw| = Am (1)

on [-1,0) U (0,1], together with eigen-dependent boundary conditions:

fcjM := ajM (-1) + a2w' (-1) = 0, (2)

fc2M := (ftw(1)-^2w' (1)) + A(#W(1)-$(1)) = 0

and transmission conditions at one interior point x = 0:

:= (0-) - (0+) = 0,

, , (4)

i2M := y2M (0-) - 52W (0+) = 0,

where a;, and y (« = 1,2) are real numbers, ^(x) is a

real-valued function and continuous in each [-1,0) and (0,1]

which have finite limits q(±0) = limx^±0q(x), X is a complex spectral parameter, and T is an abstract linear operator (unbounded and non-self-adjoint in general) in Hilbert space H = L2(-1, 0)©L2(0,1). Naturally, everywhere we will assume that + \a2\=0, + \p2\ + \p[\ + \$2\ = 0, \Si\ + \yi\ = 0, and D(T) c w2;(-1,0) © W2;(0,1). By standard arguments (see [10]) we will also assume that p := Pi Pi - P2P1 > 0. Note that the "Sturm-Liouville" problem studied here is new and nonstandard, since it contains a nondifferential term, namely, an abstract linear operator T in the equation. Moreover, spectral parameter X appears not only in the equation, but also in the boundary conditions and two supplementary transmission conditions are given at one interior point.

Some special cases of this problem arise after an application of the method of separation of variables to the varied assortment of physical problems. For example, some boundary value problems with transmission conditions arise in heat and mass transfer problems [7], in vibrating string problems when the string is loaded additionally with point masses [8], and in diffraction problems [9]. Different challenges emerged with the development of the Sturm theory and a corresponding awareness of the importance of distinguishing the absolutely continuous component from other parts of the essential spectrum, in connection with existence and completeness of the wave operators [3,11,12].

2. Operator Treatment in Associated Hilbert Spaces

For operator-theoretic interpretation we will introduce some modified Hilbert spaces according to boundary-transmission conditions. For this throughout in the below we will assume that S1S2 > 0, y1y2 > 0 and define modified Hilbert spaces L2 and H1 as follows. Firstly, we will replace the standard inner product in direct sum space L2(-1,0)©L2(0,1), which is given by

(u, v)L^ := J u(x) V (x)dx + J u(x) V (x)dx

for u, v e L2(-1, 0) ® L2(0,1), by modified inner product

v)l := y1y2 \ u(x) v (x)dx + S1S2 \ u(x) v (x)dx.

2 J-i Jo

Then we will replace the standard inner product in the direct sum space H0 = (L2(-1, 0) © L2(0,1)) © C, which is given by

(U,V)Ho := (u(-), v (.))L +Ui~i

for U = (u(■),u1), V = (v(-), v1 ) e H0, by the modified inner product accordance with boundary-transmission conditions

(U,V)h := (u, v)~L2 + ^Ml vi

and apply operator theory in the Hilbert space

H, :=(L 2 (-1,0) ©L 2 (0,1))© C, (;-)Hi). (9)

Remark 1. It is readily seen that the modified inner product (8) is equivalent to the standard of inner product (L 2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1)) ® C, so Hi is also Hilbert space and can be seen as different realization of the Hilbert space H0. But such realization of direct sum space H0 allows us to interpret the conditions (2)-(4) as self-adjoint boundary-transmission conditions.

Denoting e(u) := ^u(1) - ß2u'(1) and ß'(u) := ß[u(1) -ß.2u'(1), define a linear operator £ in direct sum space Hj by action low:

£ (u, ux) := (Lw, -1 (u))

on the domain of definition D(£) consisting of all U = (u(-), ux) e Hi which satisfy the following conditions:

(i) u(x) and u'(x) are absolutely continuous on both [-1, -S) and (S, 1] for arbitrary S > 0 and have finite limits u(+0) and u(+0),

(ii) Lu e L2(-1,0)©L2(0,1),

(iii) bx(u) = tx(u) = t2(u) = 0,

(iv) «! = l'(u).

Consequently we can reformulate the boundary value-transmission problem (BVTP) (1)-(4) in the operator-equation form as

£U = XU (11)

in the Hilbert space ^.

Lemma 2. The linear operator £ is densely defined in ^.

Proof. It is enough to prove that, if G0 = (g0(-),g\) e ^ is orthogonal to all F = (f(-),l'(f)) e D(£), then G0 = (0, 0). Suppose that

{F,Go)Hi =0 VFeD(£).

Denote by C£°[-1, 0) ©C™ (0,1] the set of infinitely differentiate functions in [-1, 0) U (0,1], each of which vanishes on some neighborhoods of the points x = -1, x = 0, and x = 1. Since (f(-), 0) e D(£) for each f e C™[-1,0) © C^(0,1],we have from (12) that

nV2 i f(x)9o (x)dx + S1S2 \ f(x)g0 (x)dx = 0 (13)

J- 1 Jo

for all f e C™[-1,0) © C™(0,1] which in turn implies that

f (x) go (x)dx = \ f(x) go (x)dx = 0

for all f e C™[-1,0) © C™(0,1]. Taking into account that C™[-1,0) and C™'(0,1] are dense in L2(-1,0) and L2(0,1), respectively, we have that the function g0(x) vanishes on [-1, 0) U (0,1]. Furthermore, by choosing an element F0 = (fo(-), l'(fo)) e D(£) such that l(f0) = 1 and putting in (12) we have g1 = 0. Hence G0 = (0, 0). The proof is complete. □

Now let £0 be linear differential operator in Hilbert space H1 with domain D(£0) = D(£) and action low:

£0 (f (*), l' (f)) = (-f + 1 (*) f, -I (f)) . (15)

Lemma 3. The operator £0 is symmetric in H1.

Proof. Let u(u(x),u1), v = (v(x), v1) e D(£) be any two elements. Integrating twice by parts, we have

(£oU,V)Hi = (U, £oV)Hi +Yly2W(u, v;-0)

- Y1Y2 W(u, v;-1) + S1S2W (u, v; 1) -S1S2W(u, v; +0)

+ -1-2 (l (u)e(v)-e(u)e' (v)),

where W(u, v;x) := u(x)v'(x) - u'(x)v(x). From the fact, that u and v satisfied the first boundary condition (2) we have W(u, v;-1) = 0 in turn; since u and V satisfies both transmission conditions (4) it follows that

S1S2W(u, v; +0) = y1y2W(u, v; -0).

Further, the direct calculations give

l' (u) e(V)-e (u) l' (V) = - pW (u, V; 1). (18) Now, putting these equalities in (16) we have needed equality

(£aU,V)Hi = (U, £aV)

Corollary 4. The eigenvalues of£0 are real.

Theorem 5. £0 is self-adjoint linear operator in the Hilbert space H1.

Proof. For shortening denote ти := -и" + q(x)u. Since £0 are symmetric and densely defined in H1 it is enough to show that if (£0U,V)Hi = {U,W)Hi for all U = (u,i\u)) e D(£0) then V e D(£0) and £0V = W where V = (v(x),h) and W = (w(x),k); that is, (i) v, v e ACloc((-1,0)), v, v e ACloc((0,1)), and rv e HV; (ii) h = l'(v) = v(1) - fcV(1); (iii) b1v = t1v = t2v = 0; (iv) w(x) = rv; and (v) к = -l(v) = -p1v(1)+p2v'(1). For all U e (C~[-1,0) ©С£°(0,1]) ©0 с D(£0), we find that (ти, v)Li = (u, w)Li. Hence, by standard Sturm-Liouville theory, (i) and (iv) hold. By (iv), the equation (£0U,V)H = (U,W)H for all U e D(£0) becomes

(tu, v)ï2 = (и, Tv)t2 + -1-21' (и) к +-1-21 (u) h. (20)

On the other hand, by two partial integrations we get f0

{tu, v)i2 = y1y2 J (-u" + q (x) u) Vdx

+ J (-u" + q(x)u) vdx

= {u,tv)i +y1y2W(u, V;-0) - y1 Y2W (u, V;-1) + 5152W (u, V; 1) -S1S2 W(u, V;+0).


Mi e' (U)k+8-^ e(u)h p p

= Yi-YiW(u,V;-0) - y1y2W(u, v;-1) + S1S2W (u, V;1) - S1S2W (u, V; +0).

By Naimark's patching lemma [13]thereis U1 = (u1,l'(u1)) e D(£0) such that u1(-1) = u[(-1) = u1(0-) = u[(0-) = u1(0+) = u[(0+) = 0, u1(1) = p2 and u[ (1) = p' .Putting U = U1 in (22) we conclude that h = p'v(1) - pv'(1). Thus, (ii) holds. Similarly, we can prove (v). It remains to show that (iii) holds. Choose U2 e D(£0) so that u2(1) = u'2(1) = u2(0-) = u'2(0-) = 0, u2(1) = a2 and u'2(1) = -a1. Then l'(u2) = l(u2) = 0. Putting in (22), we obtain a1v(-1) + a2v'(-1) = 0. Let U3 e D(£0) satisfy u3(1) = u'3(1) = u3(0+) = u3(0-) = 0, u3(0-) = y1IS1 and u'3(0+) = S1S2Iy1y2. Then, l(u3) = l'(u3) = 0. By (22) we get v(0+) = (y1/S1 )v(0-). Lastly, choose U4 e D(£0) so that u4(1) = u'4(1) = u4(-1) = u'4(-1) = u'4(0+) = u'4(0-) = 0, u4(0-) = y2/S2 and u4(0+) = S1S2Iy1y2. In this case l(u4) = e'(u4) = 0. Putting in (22) we get v'(0+) = (y2/S2)v'(0-). Thus V e D(£0). The proof is complete. □

3. Maximal Decreasing of the

Resolvent Operator and Discreteness of the Spectrum

To establish the topological isomorphism and coerciveness we need to introduce a new inner product space H2 as linear space:

= (u(-),u1) :u(-)e W22 (-1,0)®W22 (0, 1),

bx (u) = t1 (u) = t2 (u) = 0,u1 = ß' (u)},

equipped with the inner product

((u(-), ui), (v(-), Vi))H2 = (u(-), y(-))W2. (24)

It can be verified easily that all axioms of inner product are satisfied.

Lemma 6. H2 is a Hilbert space.

Proof. Let Un = (u„(-),£'(u„)), n = 1,2,..., be any Cauchy sequence in H2. Then by (24) the sequence (un(■)), which consists of the first components of (Un), will be a Cauchy sequence in the Hilbert space

therefore is convergent in this space. Let w = w(^) e W^(-1,0) ® w22(0,1) be limit of this sequence. By virtue of the fact that the embeddings W22(-1,0) c C[-1,0] and W22(0,1) c C[0,1] are continuous, the sequences bl(un), t1(un), and t2(un) are converges to b1(w), t1(w), and t2(w), accordingly. Hence b1(w) = t1(w) = t2(w) = 0 since b1(un) = t1(un) = t2(un) = 0 for all n by (23). Now, defining UQ = (u(), l'(w)) we see that UQ e H2 and the sequence (Un) converges to UQ in H2; so, the arbitrary Cauchy sequence in H2 is convergent. The proof is complete. □

holds for all complex X as in the formulation of the last Theorem.

Definition 10 (see [12]). Let XQ be eigenvalue of A. The linear manifold

N^ = {ueE.ueD (An), (A - XQl)"u = 0} (28)

is called a root lineal corresponding to eigenvalue AQ. The dimension of the lineal Nx is called an algebraic multiplicity of the eigenvalue AQ. The spectrum o(A) of the operator A is called discrete if o(A) consist of isolated eigenvalues with finite algebraic multiplicities and infinity is the only possible limit point of o(A).

Theorem 11. If the operator T acts compactly from W2 (-1,0)® Theorem 7. If the operator T is compact from W22(-1,0) ® W?2 (0,1) into L2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1), then the spectrum of the

W2(0,1) into L2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1) then, for any e > 0, there exists Re > 0 such that for all complex numbers X satisfying £ < arg X < 2n - e, |A| > Re, the operator £ -XI is an isomorphism from H2 onto H1 and for these X the coercive estimate

\\U(X,F)\\„ + |A| \\U(X,F)\\Hi < C (e) ||F||_f

problem (1)-(4) is discrete.

Proof. At first show that the embedding H2 c H1 is compact. For this, let Un = (un(), i'(un)), n= 1,2,.. .,be any bounded sequence in H2. Then the sequence (un(■)) consisting of the first components of (Un) will be bounded in the direct (25) sum space W^(-1,0) ® W^(0,1). Since the embeddings

holds for the solution U = U(X, F) of the equation (XI - £)U = F, F e H1, where C(e) is a constant, which depends only on e.

Proof. It is obvious that the linear operator XI - £ acts from H2 into H1 continuously for all X e C. Furthermore, proceeding in a similar manner as in [14], we obtain that for any e > 0 there exists Re > 0 such that for all complex numbers X satisfying e < arg X < 2n - e, |A| > Re, the operator L(X) . u ^ (Xu - L(X)u,X€'(u) + l(u)) from w2;(-1,0) ® W2;(0,1) onto (L2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1)) ® C is an isomorphism and for these X the coercive estimate

\M\w| + IM(\\u\\L2 + Y (u)\) < C (e)

l/il) (26)

holds for a solution u(x) of the problem Lu- Xu = f, b1 (u) = 0, b2(u) = f1, and t1(u) = t2(u) = 0, where F = (/(■), f1) e H1. Consequently, the operator £ -XI is an isomorphism from H2 onto H1. The estimate (25) follows from (26). □

Definition 8 (see [9]). Let A be densely defined closed operator in complex Hilbert space E. The point X of the complex plane is called a regular point of an operator A in E, if the operator A - XI is invertible (i.e., has a bounded inverse operator R(X, A) = (A - XI)- which is defined on whole E). In this case the operator R(X, A) = (A - XI)-1 is called the resolvent of the operator A. The complement of the set of regular points p(A) to the entire complex plane is called the spectrum o(A) of the operator (obviously, all eigenvalues belong to the spectrum).

Corollary 9. From the coercive estimate (25), in particular, it follows that the maximal decreasing of the resolvent operator R(X, £) = (£ - XI)- , namely, the estimate

W2(-1, 0) c L2[-1, 0] and W2;(0,1) c L2[0,1] are compact, the sequence (un(-)) has a convergent subsequence (un^(■)) in the space L2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1). Let uQ(■) e L2(-1,0) ® L2(0,1) be limit of this subsequence. Further, since the embedding W2;(0,1) c C[0,1] is compact, the sequence

(un (■)) has a convergent subsequence (un (■)) in space

C[0,1]. Consequently the numerical sequence (l'(un )) is convergent. Let ux e C be limit of this numerical sequence. Now defining UQ = (uQ(-),ux), we see that UQ e ^ and the sequence (Un ) converges to UQ in the Hilbert space H1, so the embedding H2 c H1 is compact. Further, from the coercive estimate (25) in particular, it follows that the resolvent operator R(X, £) acts boundedly from H1 into H2. Consequently, the resolvent operator R(X, £) acts compactly from H1 into itself. Then by virtue of well-known theorem of functional analysis (see, e.g., ([11], Chapter III, Section 6)) the spectrum of £ is discrete. □

4. Distribution of the Eigenvalues in the Complex Plane

Define a linear operator T in the Hilbert space H1 with domain D(T) = D(£) and action low:

T (F) = (Tf 0)

for F = (f(x),f1) e D(T). Then, the considered problem (1)-(4) can be written in the operator-equation form as

(£0 + T)U = XU, U eD(£).

\\R(X, £)\\Hi <C(e)|A|-1,

Remark 12. The eigenvalues of the problems (1)-(4) and (30) coincide, and the corresponding eigenfunctions of (1)-(4) coincide with the first components of the corresponding eigenelements of £ = £Q + T.

Let A be densely defined closed operator in complex Hilbert space H and let G be any subset of complex plane C and r > 0 any real number. By N(r, G, A) we will denote the number of eigenvalues of A belonging to G, which are smaller than r and are counted according to their algebraic multiplicity.

Definition 13 (see [15]). Let A1 be any closed linear operator having at least one regular point. A linear (in general, unbounded) operator A2 is said to be A1 -compact if D(A2) 2 D(A 1) and if for some regular point X0 e p(A 1) the operator A2R(X0,A 1) = A2(A 1 - X0I)-1 is compact.

The following theorem can be deduced from Theorem 3.2 in [15].

Theorem 14. Let S be self-adjoint operator in Hilbert space the spectrum a(C) of which is discrete, T be S-compact operator, and A = S + T. Then if S has precisely denumerable many positive eigenvalues and

N(r(1 + e),R+,S) ~N(r,R+,S), r m, £

then for any a (0 < a < n/2)

N(r, Ga,A) ~N(r,R+,S), r-^rn,

where R+ = (0,m), Ga := [X e C | a < arg X <

2n - a}, and f(X) ~ g(X) as r for limr ^mf(r)/g(r) = 1.

m is the abbreviation

Lemma 15. The operator £0 has precisely denumerable many eigenvalues n = 0,1,2, with the asymptotic representation

2 2 n n

+ 0(n).

Proof. Let p e c andlet (p(x,^) = {besolution

of the equation -u" + q(x)u = pu for which <Pi(-1, fi) = a2, <p[ (-1, (4.) = -a1, <p2(+0, y) = y15(1^1(-0, fi), and <p'2 (+0, p) = Y2S((1 <p[ (-0,(4.). Obviously, this solution satisfies the first boundary condition (2) and both transmission conditions (4). Consequently, eigenvalues of £0 coincide with the zeros of the entire function

= p(p[Cp2 (1,v)-p'292 (1,^)) (34)

Consider the case <x2f>2 = 0. By proceeding with the same procedure as in [16] we have

ff (x, p) = a2 [y^1 cos V^cos

-Y2§2 sin V^(sin Vï4k)] (35)


| Im p\(x+1)

Putting in previous equality we get

W'^^Vtf sin 2VH + 0(\VH.\2e2IIm «).

Now by applying the well-known Rouche's theorem (see, e.g., [13]) we can prove that the function A(^) has precisely denumerable many zeros n = 0,1,2,..., with the asymptotic representation

22 n n

+ O(n), n —> m.

The proof is complete.

(37) □

Lemma 16. Let the operator T be compact with respect to £0 in the Hilbert space H1. Then

(i) the spectrum of £ = £0 + T is discrete and consists of precisely denumerable many eigenvalues;

(ii) for any arbitrary small a > 0, all eigenvalues of£ with the possible exception of a finite number lie in the sector fa = [X e C : | arg X\ < a] of angular 2a;

(iii) for the sequence of eigenvalues (Xna), n> 0 belongs to the sector fa, which, when listed according to nonde-creasing modulus and repeated according to algebraic multiplicity, the asymptotic formula

\xnA =

22 n n


Proof. From asymptotic formula (33) it follows that

22 n n

+ c1n < <

22 n n

for some real numbers c1 and c2. In turn, from this we can easily derive that

N, (r,R+, £0) = 2VL+O


N(r(1 + e),R+, £0) lim -;-T- = 1.

™ N(r,R+, £o)

Taking into account the above, we have that, for any small a > 0,

N (r, Ga, £) = N (r, R+, £o) + o (N (r, R+, £,))

+ o ( V) as r —> m,

where, as usual, the expression f(r) = o(g(r)), r ^ >x>, is theabbreviationfor lim,.^mf(r)/g(r) = 0. Puttingr = \Xna\ in the last equality we have

22 n n

\Ka\= +o(\K,a\) as n-^m. (43)

From that it immediately follows that

5. Examples

2 2 n ri

+ o ( ri

(»2 ),

The proof is complete.

(44) □

Theorem 17. Under conditions of previous lemma the spectrum <r(£) of the operator £ is discrete and consists of denumerable many eigenvalues Xn, n = 0,1,2..., which, when arranged in nondecreasing modulus and counted to their algebraic multiplicity, the asymptotic formulas

Re A„ (£) =

22 n n


Im An (£) = o(ri2), n—> œ,

Proof. Taking in view that for all small a > 0 there are at most finite number eigenvalues of £ outside the angle Ga, from Lemma 16 it follows that

11 I ^ ri t 2\

= — +°(" ),

Again, by Theorem 7 for all a > 0, small enough, there are such that for all n > the inequalities Re Xn > | AJ cos a and | Im A„| < |AJ sin a hold. Letting a ^ rn we have that

Re\ \ h I Im\ |=o(I \ I ), «

Combining with (46) yields the needed formulas

Re A„ (£) = —+ o(ri2), |lm A„|=o(ri2);

(48) □

The main result of this section is the following theorem.

Theorem 18. Let the operator T be acted compactly from W22(-1,0) © W22(0,1) into L2(-1,0) © L2(0,1). Then, the spectrum ofBVTP (1)-(4) is discrete and consists of precisely denumerable many eigenvalues Xn, n = 1,2,..., which, when listed according to decreasing real part and repeated according to algebraic multiplicity, has the following asymptotic representation:

^ n n A„ = — + o( ri

Proof. By virtue of Theorem 11 the resolvent .R(A, £) acted boundedly from to H2. On the other hand, the operator T, defined by (29), acted compactly from H2 to by assumption on T and definition of H2. Consequently the operator T.R(A,£) is compact in the Hilbert space that is, T is £-compact. Consequently it is enough to apply the previous theorem to complete the proof. □

Let us give some examples of abstract linear operator T as follows:

(1) tm = £ (fl; (%) u (c;) + fc (x) u (di)), (50) ;=i

where the functions fl;(x) and satisfy the same conditions as ^(x); c;, 6 (-1, 0) U (0, 1) are interior points; f°

(2) Tm = J G10 (x, s) u (s) ds

+ J G11 (x, s) u (s) ds

+ I G20 (x, s) m (s) ds + I G21 (x, s) m' (s) ds,

0 20 0 21

where the Kernels G1;(x, s) and G2i(x, s)(i = 1,2) are defined and continuous in [-1,1] x [-1,0] and [-1,1] x [0,1], respectively.

Consequently, the results of this study can be applied to the wide variety class of boundary value problems.

6. Concluding Remarks

All results in this study are derived under condition 5152 > 0 and y1y2 > 0. Let us show that this simple condition cannot be omitted. For this, consider the following simple special case of the problem (1)-(4) for which the condition 5152 > 0 does not hold:

-w = Am, x e [-1,0) u (0,1], m(-1) = 0, am(1) = m' (1), m(-0) = m(+0), u (-0) = -m' (+0).

We can show that this problem has only the trivial solution m = 0 for any A 6 C. Thus, if < 0 then the spectrum of the problem (52) may be empty. Moreover, it is well known that for the standard Sturm-Liouville problems the eigenvalues are real and the first asymptotic term has the form O(n). But for our problem, the eigenvalues may be also nonreal complex numbers and the asymptotic term appears in the "weak" form as o(n2) because of the abstract linear operator T in the equation.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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