Scholarly article on topic 'Create the EQ Modelling Instrument Based on Goleman and Bar-On Models and Psychological Defense Mechanisms'

Create the EQ Modelling Instrument Based on Goleman and Bar-On Models and Psychological Defense Mechanisms Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Rezki Mishar, Yuni R. Bangun

Abstract Emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive, access and generate emotions, and also to assist our thoughts, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. By improving our EI, we will know ourself better and then we will understand about the other more. Beside it, we can improve our behave in certain situation. By understanding our capability in improving EI, we can try our best in reducing negative defence mechanism which can give bad impact to ourself and condition around us. When we understanding our emotions, we will act and reaction base on our knowledge and reflect the outcome will influence how to behave and that include defence mechanism. The intelligence one of amplifies emotions by providing more extensive and intensive unconscious and conscious activating appraisal. physiological signs of some emotion. This research proposed to determine the assess that combine Golemans and Bar-On Theories to Create modeling instrument emotional intelligence and observe the relationship between Emotional intelligence and psychological defense mechanisms. So by using this literature review, we can find how important the EQ is and how it can gives good impact to ourself and others.

Academic research paper on topic "Create the EQ Modelling Instrument Based on Goleman and Bar-On Models and Psychological Defense Mechanisms"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 115 (2014) 394 - 406

The 5th Indonesia International Conference on Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Small Business (IICIES 2013)

Create the EQ Modelling Instrument Based on Goleman and Bar-On Models and Psychological Defense Mechanisms

Rezki Mishar1, Yuni R. Bangun2

1,2School of Business and Management (SBM), Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia

Abstract

Emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive, access and generate emotions, and also to assist our thoughts, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. By improving our EI, we will know ourself better and then we will understand about the other more. Beside it, we can improve our behave in certain situation. By understanding our capability in improving EI, we can try our best in reducing negative defence mechanism which can give bad impact to ourself and condition around us. When we understanding our emotions, we will act and reaction base on our knowledge and reflect the outcome will influence how to behave and that include defence mechanism. The intelligence one of amplifies emotions by providing more extensive and intensive unconscious and conscious activating appraisal. physiological signs of some emotion. This research proposed to determine the assess that combine Golemans and Bar-On Theories to Create modeling instrument emotional intelligence and observe the relationship between Emotional intelligence and psychological defense mechanisms. So by using this literature review, we can find how important the EQ is and how it can gives good impact to ourself and others.

© 2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityofThe 5thIndonesia InternationalConferenceonInnovation, Entrepreneurship,and SmallBusiness.

Keywords : EI BarOn 's Goleman Defense mechanisms Performance

1. Introduction

Emotional Intellegence (EQ) Is a relatively recent behavioural model that rising to prominance with Daniel Goleman's 1995 Book called 'Emotional Intelligence, why it

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The 5th Indonesia International Conference on Innovation, Entrepreneurship,

and Small Business.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.446

can matter more than IQ'. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John 'Jack' Mayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people's behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more.

The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements. There are many different models of intellegence that conduct to assess the "ability to think abstarctly or use verbal, numerical, or abstract symbols. Subjects which must substitute symbols for actions and manipilate ideas that represent no only current happening but also events remote in time and spas" (Drummond,2004,p. 124).

Salovey-Mayer model, whose definition of emotional intelegence as the ability to percieve, understand, manage and use emotions to facilitate thinking, measured by an ability-based measure" (Bar-On, 2005,p.2). The Goleman model, whose said that emotional intellegence is a wide array of competencies and skill that drive managerial performance, measure by multi-rater assessment" (Bar-On, 2005,p.2). The Bar-On model, he said that emotional intellegence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skill and facilitators that impact on intelligent behavior, measure by self-report.

The common theme of this model is to understand and measure the abilities and tratit that related to recognising and regulating emotions in ourselves and others (Emmerling and Goleman, 2003,p.12). when doing assessment of emotional intellegence test, important that we check the test manual to understand the test developers definition of intellegence (Drummond, 2004) and this caution would also apply to tests for emotional intellence (weinberger, 2003).

There are currently three major test for emotional intellegence that most popular such as Golemans Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), Bar-On's emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), and the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT). The EQ-i and the ECI are eaxmple of self report or other-report, and the responses are subjective (Cherniss,2000). MSCEIT is an obejctive, performance-based test and is applicable for use in clinical, educational, And workplace settings. All validity and reliability result of this test to predict the emotional intellegence. Beside it, several model have different factors and measurement to do this test. All of this tests have many criticism about their validity and reliability to apply this emotional intellegence.

Intellegencie influence indivdual when become knowledge base on experience on which the intelligence can draw (cytowic, 1993;Mayer & Mitchel, 1998). This knowledge of the link between emotions and thingking can be used to direct one's planning (Izard,2001). When we understanding our emotions, we will act and reaction base on our knowledge, it will make us reflects the capacity to analyze our emotions, identifie their probable trends over time, and understanding their outcomes (Frijda, 1998; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, walker&Zeitlin, 1990;roseman, 1984). The outcome of this emotion

will influence how to behave and that include defence mechanisim. This emotion also providng more extensive and intensive uncoscious and conscious activating appraisal. The Intelligence facilitates repetitive thinking about circumstances contributing to the emotional responses our experience, and perpetuating feeling states in a temporal dimension. By amplifying fear or anxiety and sadness, intelligence plays a role in the initiation of anxiety disorders and depression. In this case, defenses also are associated with self-reported interpersonal style.

The research proposed to determine the assess that combine Golemans and BarOn Theories to Create modeling instrument emotional intelligence and observe the relationship between Emotional intelligence and psychological defense mechanisms .The objectives of this research are describe and examine the Bar-On model and Goleman model of Emotional Intellegence and Identify the relationship emotional intellegence and defence mechanism.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Emotional Intellegencies

Since the publication of a bestseller Goleman (1995), Emotional intelligence has become a major topic of interest in scientific circles as well as in the lay public. The concept its self goes back to early studies in the 1920s (for a review, see Bar-On and Parker, 2000). In the early 1980s, several scholars began to systematically conceptualize the idea of emotional intelligence. Others EQ concept develop by Gardner's (1983) conceptualization of intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence and Steiner (1984) work on emotional literacy were the building blocks of what Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990) first termed as emotional intelligence. Based on Bar-On's previous work, Bar-On view emotional intelligence as a noncognitive intelligence which is understand as an array of emotional, personal, and social abilities and skills that influence an individual's ability to cope effectively with environmental demands and pressures. This study focuses on the conceptualization suggested by Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990) and then formulated it in 1997.

Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990, p. 189) explain the concept of emotional intelligence as "the part of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions". Emotional intelligence define also as "the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thoughts, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth" (Mayer and Salovey, 1997, p. 5). The importance of this construct in their definition that we need to explain is "emotions". According to Van Maanen and Kunda (1989, p. 53), emotions define as ineffable feelings of the self-referential sort, and are comprehensively also defined as "self-referential feelings an actor (employee) experiences or, at least, claims to experience in regard to the performances he or she brings off in the social world". States of feeling goes to basic emotions (e.g. joy, love, anger) and social emotions (e.g. shame, guilt, jealousy, envy), as

well as to related constructs as affect,sentiments and moods (Ashforth and Humphrey, 1995).

The literature reveals various attempts to combine the emotional and social components such as Howard Gardner (1983) explains that his conceptualization of personal intelligences is based on intrapersonal (emotional) intelligence and interpersonal (social) intelligence. Carolyn Saarni (1990) describes emotional competence as including eight interrelated emotional and social skills. Moreover, the emotional-social intelligence is composed of a number of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies, skills and facilitators that combine to determine effective human behavior (1988, 1997b, 2000). Through statistical analyses the relationship between elements of the models has been builted. Based on the descriptions of the measures of emotional intelligence, there is evidence that different measures of emotional intelligence are related and may be measuring similar components. Brackett and Mayer (2002) found significant similarities between the regulation of emotion subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the interpersonal EQ scale of the Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory.A more recent, and more widelyaccepted trait model is the "Big Five" Personality Factor Model. The Big Five Personality Factor Model, often called the "Big Five" or the "Five Factor Model", is an empirically derived model of personality based on the early work on traits by Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell, and Hans and Sybil Eysenck. It proposes that personality can be factored into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Further, it proposes that each individual falls between the two extremes of each dimension. There are a new term and concept that has emerged referred to as emotionalintelligence (EI or EQ), and which seems to play a more important factor than IQ oracademics in determining successful employees (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002). Matthews et al. (2002) said that emotional intelligence as the capacity individuals have for recognizing one's own feelings and the feelings of others. A measure of one's emotional intelligence is an indication of their ability to use bothemotions and cognitive skills to interact and function in life (Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi,2000; Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Studies also have shown that a person's emotional experiences and their abilityto manage the emotions its correlate with their personality type (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998;Diener & Lucas, 1999; Lucas & Fujita, 2000; Tellegen, 1985). There is a correlation between personality traits and theprediction of one's ability to control emotions and repair emotions later in life (Kokkonen and Pulkkinen,2001). Mayer(2007) also stated that the successful individuals have more than just thought, emotion alone and termed mental energy, which in conjunction with adaptive thinking leads to effective behaviors. Several models of emotional intelligence are closely tied with personality theory, specifically the mixed models of Bar-On and Goleman. Both models list components and sub-components of their theory of emotional intelligence which are similar to areas which have been previously studied under personality theory.

2.2 Bar On Model

Darwin's early studied on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation (1872/1965) has influenced the ongoing development of the Bar-On model, which both emphasize the importance of emotional expression and views the outcome of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior in Darwinian terms of effective adaptation.

Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential for performance and success, rather than performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented (Bar-On, 2002). It focuses on an array of emotional and social abilities, including the ability to be aware of, understand, and express oneself, the ability to be aware of, understand, and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions, and the ability to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature (Bar-On, 1997). In his model, Bar-On outlines 5 components of emotional intelligence such as intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Hypothesizes of Bar-On that saw those individuals with higher than average E.Q.'s are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. He also record that a deficiency in emotional intelligence can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. Problems in coping with one's environment is thought-Bar-On-to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence, which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life (Bar-On, 2002).

Tablel. Bar-on's Model of Emotional Intelligence

Components Sub-Components

Intrapersonal Self regard Emotional Self-Awareness Assertiveness Independence Self-Actualization

Interpersonal Empathy Social responsibility Interpersonal relationship

Adaptability Reality Felxibilty Problem solving

Stress management Stress tolerance

General mood Components Optimism Happiness

Measures of Bar-On's Model

Reuven Bar-On's measure of emotional intelligence, the Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is a self-report measure of emotional intelligence for individuals sixteen years of age and over. Developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behaviour that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence, the Emotion Quotient Inventory is not meant to measure of personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather to measure one's ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures (Dawda & Hart, 2000; Bar-On, 2002). One hundred and thirty three items are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotion Quotient) and to produce five composite scales corresponding to the 5 main components of the BarOn model: Intrapersonal EQ, Interpersonal EQ, Adaptability EQ, Stress Management EQ, and General Mood EQ. Items are measured on a 5 point scale ranging from 1 (very

seldom/not true for me) to 5 (very often/often true of me). Total raw scores are converted into standard scores with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, similar to that of IQ scores (Bar-On, 2002).

Bar-On has developed several versions of the Emotion Quotient Inventory to be used with various populations and in varying situations. Among these are the EQ-interview (to be completed after the self-report), the EQ-i Short Version (a 52 item version of the original), the EQ-i:125 (a 125 item version of the original which excludes the negative impression scale), the EQ-i Youth Version (for children and adolescents 715 years of age), and the EQ-360 Assessment (a multi-rater instrument used in conjunction with the regular self-report EQ-i to give a more complete assessment).

The Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) was normed on approximately 4000 respondents from the United States and Canada. Earlier versions of the Emotion Quotient Inventory (which relied on 12 sub-scales rather than the current 15) were normed internationally. The Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory is a complete test in that it can classify each respondent within the range of EQ scores and can be used in a multitude of settings and situations, including corporate, educational, clinical, medical, research, and preventative settings. Content validity is reported by the authors as being adequate in that items for each sub- component were generated and selected in a systematic approach. Additionally, item analyses were conducted in an effort to extract items unrelated to the definitions, and feedback was provided by subjects who were interviewed in the early stages of test development. Structural validity was established through factor analysis to test the hierarchical structure of Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence.

Measures of criterion validity found that emotional intelligence as measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory could accurately differentiate between those who were successful and those who were unsuccessful in business and industry settings.

2.3 Goleman Model

Daniel Goleman began to conduct his own research in the area and eventually wrote Emotional Intelligence (1995), the landmark book which familiarized both the public and private sectors with the idea of emotional intelligence. Goleman's model outlines four main emotional intelligence constructs. The first, self-awareness, is the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. Self-management, the second construct, involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. The third construct, social awareness, includes the ability to sense, understand, and react to other's emotions while comprehending social networks. Finally, relationship management, the fourth construct, entails the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict (Goleman, 1998).

Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of emotional intelligence. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. The organization of the competencies under the various constructs is not random; they appear in synergistic clusters or groupings that support and facilitate each other (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999). Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as Knowing your emotions, Managing

your own emotions, Motivating yourself, Recognising and understanding other people's emotions, and Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.

Table 2. Goleman's (2001) Emotional intelligence Competencies

SELF (Personal Competence) OTHER (Social Competence)

Recognition Self-Awareness Emotional Self-Awareness Accurate self-Assessment Self-confidence Social Awareness Empathy Service Orientation Organizational Awareness

Regulation Self management Self-control Trustworthiness Conscientiousness Adaptability Achievement drive Initiative Realtionship management Developing others Influence Communication Conflict management Leadership Change catalyst Building bonds Teamwork and collaboration

Measures of Goleman's Model

Several measurement tools have been developed based on Goleman's model of emotional intelligence and it's corresponding competencies. Included among these are the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI; Boyatzis, 1994), the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (EIA; Bradberry, Greaves, Emmerling, et al., 2003), and the Work Profile Questionnaire - Emotional Intelligence Version (WPQei; Performance Assessment Network, 2000). Emotional Competency Inventory: Daniel Goleman developed the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) as a measure of emotional intelligence based on his emotional intelligence competencies as well as an earlier measure of competencies for managers, executives, and leaders (the Self-Assessment Questionnaire) by Richard Boyatzis (1994). The Emotional Competency Inventory is a multi-rater (360 degree) instrument that provides self, manager, direct report, and peer ratings on a series of behavioural indicators of emotional intelligence. It measures 20 competencies, organized into the four constructs outlined by Goleman's model: self awareness, social awareness, self management, and social skills. Each respondent is asked to describe themselves or the other person on a scale from 1 (the behaviour is only slightly characteristic of the individual) to 7 (the behaviour is very characteristic of the individual) for each item, and in turn these items are composed into ratings for each of the competencies. The respondent is left with two ratings for each competency: a self rating and a total other rating (made up of an average of all other ratings; Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999).

Based on Daniel Goleman's model of emotional intelligence, the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal uses 28 items to measure the four main components of the model (self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management) and takes an average of 7 minutes to complete. Items target using a six point frequency scale

where 1 reflects "never" exhibiting a behaviour and 6 reflects "always" exhibiting a behaviour. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal results in five final scores, an overall EQ score as well as a score for each of the four emotional intelligence components. It also is available in three different formats: a Me Edition (self-report), a MR Edition (in 360 degree format) and the Team Edition (the EQ of an intact group; Bradberry, Greaves, Emmerling, et al., 2003). The Work Profile Questionnaire (WPQei) was designed as a self-report measure of seven competencies in the Goleman model of emotional intelligence. Intended as a measure of competencies essential for effective work performance, the 84 item Work Profile Questionnaire - Emotional Intelligence Version gives participants a score (out of 10) for total emotional intelligence and a score (out of 10) for each of the seven competencies of interest innovation, self-awareness, intuition, emotions, motivation, empathy, and social skills (Performance Assessment Network, 2000).

Structural validity (as tested through factor analysis) to determine if Goleman's emotional competencies clustered around the proposed four-branch model of emotional intelligence has not been promising due to high intercorrelations and theoretical interrelations among competencies (Sala, 2002).

The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal is complete in that it can classify each respondent with a total EQ score as well as a score on each of the four components of emotional intelligence. Content validity was established through expert development of items related to each of the subscales. After face validity of the items was verified, subject matter experts eliminated unnecessary or repetitive items. Structural validity (as tested through factor analysis) to determine if the 28 items clustered around Goleman's emotional competencies suggested the best fit for the measure was a one-factor overall EQ score, with some support for a two-factor model made up of personal and social competencies (Bradberry et al., 2003). Construct validity was established through convergent validity studies with an alternative measure of emotional intelligence (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test).

2.4 Applicability to Everyday Living

Several studies have found that emotional intelligence can have a significant impact on various elements of everyday living. Palmer, Donaldson, and Stough (2002) found that higher emotional intelligence was a predictor of life satisfaction. Additionally, Pellitteri (2002) reported that people higher in emotional intelligence were also more likely to use an adaptive defense style and thus exhibited healthier psychological adaptation. Performance measures of emotional intelligence have illustrated that higher levels of E.I. are associated with an increased likelihood of attending to health and appearance, positive interactions with friends and family, and owning objects that are reminders of their loved ones (Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, in press). Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999) found that higher emotional intelligence correlated Significantly with higher parental warmth and attachment style, while others found that those scoring high in E.I. also reported increased positive interpersonal relationships among children, adolescents, and adults (Rice, 1999; Rubin, 1999).

Negative relationships have likewise been identified between emotional intelligence and problem behaviour. Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000) found that lower emotional intelligence was associated with lower self-reports of violent and trouble-prone

behaviour among college students, a correlation which remained significant even when the effects of intelligence and empathy were partialed out. Lower emotional intelligence (as measured by the MSCEIT) has been significantly associated with owning more self-help books (Brackett et al., in press), higher use of illegal drugs and alcohol, as well as increased participation in deviant behaviour (i.e. involvement in physical fights and vandalism).

2.5 Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace

As previously discussed, advanced emotional intelligence can be beneficial in many areas of life. However, the application of its usefulness has been most frequently documented in the professional workplace. Cherniss (2000) outlines explainedthat Emotional intelligence competencies are critical for success in most jobs, Many adults enter the workforce without the competencies necessary to succeed or excel at their job, Employers already have the established means and motivation for providing emotional intelligence training, and Most adults spend the majority of their waking hours at work. A strong interest in the professional applications of emotional intelligence is apparent in the way organizations have embraced E.I. ideas.

Goleman (2001) theorizes that I.Q. is a strong predictor of what jobs individuals can enter as well as a strong predictor of success among the general population as a whole. When the individuals are being compared to a narrow pool of people in a particular job in a certain organization, specifically in the higher levels, the predictive power of I.Q. for outstanding performance among them weakens greatly and, E.Q. would be the stronger predictor of individuals who outperform others.

2.6 Measurement Issues and Emotional Intelligence

Measures of emotional intelligence, like theories of emotional intelligence, fall within either the ability or mixed models and can take several forms self-report, other-report, or performance measures. Self-report measures ask people to indicate to what extent a certain statement describes them. Relying on a person's self-understanding and self-concept, self-report measures are accurate if the person's self-concept is accurate. Other-report measures have been criticized as a measure of a person's reputation and not their true self, and have been found to be much less accurate when judging internal cognitive styles and capacities (Funder and Dobroth, 1987).

Performance or ability measures assess intelligence by having the individual engage in a number of cognitive tasks. Performance measures have traditionally been regarded as the "gold standard" for traditional intelligence testing due to the fact that intelligence corresponds directly to the actual capacity for one to perform well at mental tasks. In terms of the models of emotional intelligence, self and other report measures are used within the mixed models, while performance measures are utilized within an ability model of emotional intelligence. Other researchers have found that while self-report measures of emotional intelligence did have some predictive capability over and above that of standard personality measures, self-report measures were not the "best choice" after personality to explain additional variance (Saklofke, Austin, & Minski, 2003).

Davies, Stankov, and Roberts (1998) conducted a large-scale psychometric investigation of emotional intelligence, reported that most measures suffered from low

reliability and validity, but that self-report measures in particular were strongly correlated with well-established personality factors. A more recent study by Brackett and Mayer (2003) compared self-report and performance measures to ascertain their validity. Results showed that the performance based measure of emotional intelligence correlated only modestly with personality and well-being, while the self-report measures were found to correlate strongly with personality measures. In addition, the performance and self-report measures showed no convergent validity, in other words, the measures were not related to each other. The performance measure showed high discriminant validity when compared to personality measures but the self-report measures did not.

2.7 Psychological defense mechanisms

Freud introduced Defense mechanisms by as unconscious processes which modified or distorted reality to protect individuals from an awareness of their own unacceptable thoughts, impulses, or wishes. Freud first elaborated on the idea of defense mechanismsin 1926 (Freud, 1926/1959a), and Anna further refined and organized the concept (A. Freud, 1946). Eventhough the defense mechanisms are normal and universally used, when carried to an extreme they lead to compulsive, repetitive, and neurotic behavior. The use of defence mechanisms is helpful if moderately used. By defining defense mechanisms as cognitive operations that happen outside of awareness, defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes. Despite the general, although recent acceptance in academic psychology that unconscious mental processes do exist, it has been argued that defenses need not be unconscious (e.g., Erdelyi, 2001; Newman, 2001). Based on its corollary, if the function of a defense mechanism is available to conscious thought - i.e., is in awareness - the defense will be less effective and so will be given up. the use of mature defenses is found to be associated with positive personality characteristics, such as empathy, higher self-esteem, an internal locus of control, competence, self-confidence, outgoingness and a secure attachment style. In contrast, the use of immature defenses is associated with indications of difficulty, such as irresponsibility, self-centeredness, unclear "fuzzy" thinking, and anxiety (e.g., Cramer, 2002; Cramer & Tracy, 2005; Davidson, MacGregor, et al., 2004; Hibbard et al., 2000; Romans et al., 1999; Whitty, 2003). The use of mature defenses by young adults has predicted multiple indications of later positive adjustment, whereas immature defense use was related to later problems (Vaillant, 1993).

Defense mechanisms have been demonstrated in Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism , and Agreeableness. The principal defense mechanisms identified by Freud include repression, reaction formation, displacement, fixation, regression, projection, introjection, and sublimation.

The most basic defense mechanism, because it is involved in each of the others, is repression. Whenever the ego is threatened by undesirable id impulses, it protects itself by repressing those impulses, it forces threatening feelings into the unconscious (Freud, 1926/1959a). In many cases the repression is then perpetuated for a lifetime. Repressed drives may be disguised as physical symptoms and also find an outlet in dreams, slips of the tongue, or one of the other defense mechanisms.

Reaction formation is One of the ways in which a repressed impulse may become conscious is through adopting a disguise that is directly opposite its original form.

Reactive behavior can be identified by its exaggerated character and by its obsessive and compulsive form (Freud, 1926/1959a).

Regression (Freud, 1917/1963), Once the libido has passed a developmental stage, it may, during times of stress and anxiety, revert back to that earlier stage. Regressions are frequent in older children and in adults. A common way for adults to react to anxiety-producing situations is to heal to earlier, safer, more secure patterns of behavior and to invest their libido onto more primitive and familiar objects. Regressive behavior is similar to fixated behavior in that it is rigid and infantile. Regressions however, are usually temporary, whereas fixations demand a more or less permanent expenditure of psychic energy.

Projection defined as seeing in others unacceptable feelings or tendencies that actually reside in one's own unconscious (Freud, 1915/1957b). An extreme type of projection is paranoia, a mental disorder characterized by powerful delusions of jealousy and persecution. Paranoia is not an inevitable outcome of projection but simply a severe variety of it. According to Freud (1922/1955), a crucial distinction between projection and paranoia is that paranoia is always characterized by repressed homosexual feelings toward the persecutor. Freud believed that the persecutor is inevitably a former friend of the same sex, although sometimes people may transfer their delusions onto a person of the opposite sex.

introjection is a defense mechanism whereby people incorporate positive qualities of another person into their own ego that projection involves placing an unwanted impulse onto an external object. When children introject what they perceive to be their parents' values, they are relieved from the work of evaluating and choosing their own beliefs and standards of conduct. people of any age can reduce the anxiety associated with feelings of inadequacy by adopting or introjecting the values, beliefs, and mannerisms of other people.

Sublimation is the repression of the genital aim of Eros by substituting a cultural or social aim. The sublimated aim is expressed most clearly in creative cultural accomplishments such as art, music, and literature, but more added, it is part of all human relationships and all social pursuits. all defense mechanisms protect the ego against anxiety. They are universal in that everyone engages in defensive behavior to some degree. Each defense mechanism combines with repression, and each can be carried the point of psychopathology.Normally,defense mechanisms are beneficial to the individual and harmless to society. The sublimation usually benefits both the individual and society.

Figure 1. Framework EQ modeling

3. Conclusion

Combine these theories can be apply in anyplace, BarOn that focus on Social intellegence and Goleman in intellegence Competence and skill will help individual to know better how to manage our self and built sosial intellegence as a person and all at once hence increase performance understanding our emotions, we will act and reaction base on our knowledge, reflects the capacity to analyze emotions, appreciate their probable trends over time, and understanding their outcomes (Frijda, 1998; LaneQuinlan,Schwartz, walker&Zeitlin, 1990;roseman, 1984) and it will influence interpretations and defence menchanism in individual as personal traits.

By improving our EI, we will know ourself better and theen we will understand about the other more. Beside it, we can improve our behave in certain situation. By understanding our capability in improving EI, we can try our best in reducing negative defence mechanism which can give bad impact to ourself and condition around us. So by using this literature review, we can find how important the EQ is and how it can gives good impact to ourself and others.

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