Scholarly article on topic 'Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world׳s drylands'

Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world׳s drylands Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{Drought / "Drought mitigation" / "Drought preparedness strategy" / "Drylands agriculture"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Mahmoud Solh, Maarten van Ginkel

Abstract Drought is one of the major constraints affecting food security and livelihoods of more than two billion people that reside on dry areas which constitute 41% of the world׳s land surface. Drought is defined as deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time resulting in water scarcity. Our best minds should be concentrated where the greatest challenges lie today – on discoveries and new solutions to cope with the challenges facing dry areas particularly drought and water scarcity. In addition to facing severe natural resource constraints caused by the lack of water in many of the developing world׳s drylands, we also have to cope with rapid growth of the younger segment of the growing population, and high levels of poverty. Coping with drought and water scarcity are critical to address major development challenges in dry areas namely poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and social conflict. Drought is a climatic event that cannot be prevented, but interventions and preparedness to drought can help to: (i) be better prepared to cope with drought; (ii) develop more resilient ecosystems (iii) improve resilience to recover from drought; and (iv) mitigate the impacts of droughts. Preparedness strategies to drought include: (a) geographical shifts of agricultural systems; (b) climate-proofing rainfall-based systems; (c) making irrigated systems more efficient; (d) expanding the intermediate rainfed–irrigated systems. The paper presents successful research results and case studies applying some innovative techniques where clear impact is demonstrated to cope with drought and contribute to food security in dry areas. The CGIAR Consortium Research Program (CRP) on “Integrated and Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Dry Areas” (in short, “Dryland Systems”), led by ICARDA, was launched in May 2013 with many partners and stakeholders from 40 countries. It addresses farming systems in dry areas, at a global level, involving 80 partner institutions. The Dryland Systems Program aims at coping with drought and water scarcity to enhance food security and reduce poverty in dry areas through an integrated agro-ecosystem approach. It will also deliver science-based solutions that can be adopted in regions that are not yet experiencing extreme shocks, but will be affected in the medium to long-term. The approach entails shifting the thinking away from the traditional focus on a small number of research components to take an integrated approach aiming to address agro-ecosystems challenges. Such an approach involves crops, livestock, rangeland, trees, soils, water and policies. It is one of the first global research for development efforts that brings “systems thinking” to farming innovations leading to improved livelihoods in the developing world. The new technique uses modern innovation platforms to involve all stakeholders, adopting the value chain concept along a research-to-impact pathway for enhanced food security and improved livelihoods in dry areas.

Academic research paper on topic "Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world׳s drylands"

Weather and Climate Extremes I (I

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Weather and Climate Extremes

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/wace

Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world's drylands

Mahmoud Solh * Maarten van Ginkel

International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Beirut, Lebanon

ARTICLE INFO

Article history: Received 28 August 2013 Accepted 18 March 2014

Keywords: Drought

Drought mitigation Drought preparedness strategy Drylands agriculture

ABSTRACT

Drought is one of the major constraints affecting food security and livelihoods of more than two billion people that reside on dry areas which constitute 41% of the world's land surface. Drought is defined as deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time resulting in water scarcity. Our best minds should be concentrated where the greatest challenges lie today - on discoveries and new solutions to cope with the challenges facing dry areas particularly drought and water scarcity. In addition to facing severe natural resource constraints caused by the lack of water in many of the developing world's drylands, we also have to cope with rapid growth of the younger segment of the growing population, and high levels of poverty. Coping with drought and water scarcity are critical to address major development challenges in dry areas namely poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and social conflict.

Drought is a climatic event that cannot be prevented, but interventions and preparedness to drought can help to: (i) be better prepared to cope with drought; (ii) develop more resilient ecosystems (iii) improve resilience to recover from drought; and (iv) mitigate the impacts of droughts. Preparedness strategies to drought include: (a) geographical shifts of agricultural systems; (b) climate-proofing rainfall-based systems; (c) making irrigated systems more efficient; (d) expanding the intermediate rainfed-irrigated systems. The paper presents successful research results and case studies applying some innovative techniques where clear impact is demonstrated to cope with drought and contribute to food security in dry areas. The CGIAR Consortium Research Program (CRP) on "Integrated and Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Dry Areas" (in short, "Dryland Systems"), led by ICARDA, was launched in May 2013 with many partners and stakeholders from 40 countries. It addresses farming systems in dry areas, at a global level, involving 80 partner institutions. The Dryland Systems Program aims at coping with drought and water scarcity to enhance food security and reduce poverty in dry areas through an integrated agro-ecosystem approach. It will also deliver science-based solutions that can be adopted in regions that are not yet experiencing extreme shocks, but will be affected in the medium to long-term. The approach entails shifting the thinking away from the traditional focus on a small number of research components to take an integrated approach aiming to address agro-ecosystems challenges. Such an approach involves crops, livestock, rangeland, trees, soils, water and policies. It is one of the first global research for development efforts that brings "systems thinking" to farming innovations leading to improved livelihoods in the developing world. The new technique uses modern innovation platforms to involve all stakeholders, adopting the value chain concept along a research-to-impact pathway for enhanced food security and improved livelihoods in dry areas.

© 2014 author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

1. Introduction

All climate change predictions show that major parts of our planet will become hotter and drier. Already drylands cover one fifth of the planet's global land area, and they are expected to be among the first to experience even less water availability. If we study these areas with our best science, research findings can

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 961 1 813301. E-mail address: icarda@cgiar.org (M. Solh).

improve the situation in these areas and help others in the future that are yet to experience excessive droughts. Drought is defined as deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time. Our best minds should be concentrated where the greatest challenges lie today - on discoveries and new solutions to cope with the challenges facing dry areas particularly drought and water scarcity. In addition to facing severe natural resource constraints caused by the lack of water in many of the developing world's drylands, we also have to cope with rapid growth of the younger segment of their population, and high levels of poverty. If we can focus this youthful energy and flexible thinking, applying these minds to

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.03.003

2212-0947/© 2014 author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

agricultural science, the entire planet will benefit. If we ignore this opportunity, the drylands risk spiraling into an abyss of poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and societal conflict.

While biophysical technologies are likely to be the most immediate interventions needed to solve these problems, they will only be effective if supported by policy and institutional reform - that will ensure the adoption of new approaches to increase and stabilize food production under drought. Despite these challenges, dryland agriculture holds the key to food security in many developing countries, and must therefore be a priority for researchers, policy makers and development investors.

The CGIAR Consortium Research Program (CRP) on "Integrated and Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Dry Areas" (in short, - Dryland Systems), led by ICARDA, was initiated in 2012 (CGIAR, 2013). It addresses farming systems in dry areas, globally, and involves 80 partners. The program is unique. It is shifting thinking away from the traditional focus on a small number of research components to take an integrated approach to study agro-ecosystems. This approach involves crops, livestock, rangeland, trees, soils, water and policies. It is believed that such broad and more inclusive view will increase the overall impact of outputs and improve people's livelihoods in a more sustainable manner, helping them to better reach their full personal potential.

ICARDA findings have identified a number of interventions and practices that have a high potential for adoption and out-scaling to contribute to enhance food security under the harsh environments of dry areas (Solh et al., 2013). Research shows that there are several strategies and applications of science and technologies to cope with drought in these areas. There are many success stories that are outcomes of collaborative research of ICARDA with many countries and development partners to achieve research impact.

2. Systems approach

The Dryland Systems program aims to put into action an integrated agro-ecosystem approach for achieving food security. This is the first global research for development effort that brings "systems thinking" to agricultural innovation to improve livelihoods in the developing world. It uses modern innovation platforms to involve all stakeholders along the research-to-impact pathway. Dryland Systems has a sharp focus on specific outcomes - following this impact pathway backwards - starting with the needs and constraints in agricultural communities as the starting point in shaping the research agenda.

The program targets two specific types of dryland systems:

(a) Dry areas that have so little water availability that the emphasis must be on increasing the resilience of production systems to deal with drought and heat extremes, and reducing their vulnerability.

(b) Dry areas, where a low but sufficient amount of moisture is available to allow sustainable intensification of those production systems to improve livelihoods.

The program's focus is on adapting agriculture to drought and heat will lead the way for agriculturalists in dry areas. It will also deliver science-based solutions that can be adapted and adopted in regions that are not yet experiencing extreme shocks, but will be affected in the medium to long-term.

3. Preparedness strategies to drought

Drought is a climatic event that cannot be prevented, but interventions can be made to: (a) be better prepared to cope with

drought; (b) develop more resilient ecosystems to recover from

drought; and (c) mitigate the impacts of droughts.

3.1. Preparedness strategies to drought

(a) Geographical shifts of agricultural systems: With the expected increase of aridity in certain zones (e.g. Mediterranean Region), shifts are likely in the geographical location of the agricultural systems. Those zones that currently occur within a particular aridity class will tend to occupy the agro-ecological niche of those systems currently in a relatively more humid zone, and will themselves be substituted by systems currently in a more arid climate.

(b) Climate-proofing rainfall-based systems: These systems are the ones most likely to come under pressure by climate change. In order to retain their productivity, these systems will need to draw inspiration from the established principles for successful dryland crop management including: retaining the soil moisture profile by reducing evaporation; using drought and heat-tolerant crops and varieties that fit the rainfall pattern (drought evasion) and conservation agriculture.

(c) Making irrigated systems more efficient: Irrigated systems in many parts of the world including the Mediterranean Zone are already under considerable pressure to become more efficient considering their low water use efficiency (WUE). Irrigation will need to produce more with less water. There are several technical possibilities for making irrigation systems more efficient:

- Reducing distribution losses through the modernization of existing schemes;

- Conversion of gravity or surface irrigation schemes to pressured irrigation systems such as drip or sprinkler systems;

- Improving the efficiency of surface irrigation systems;

- Shifting emphasis from more water-demanding systems based on relatively low-water demanding crops e.g. sugar beet vs. sugar cane;

- Changing crop calendars to avoid extreme heat; and

- Increasing the use of marginal waters. Both treated sewage and brackish as an important source of irrigation water, particularly for forage crops and agro-forestry.

(d) Expanding the role of intermediate rainfed-irrigated systems: These systems have proven their significant success in many areas where expanding the conjunctive or alternating use of rainfall and irrigation water is possible through water harvesting, both micro- and macro-catchments; supplementary irrigation; and deficit irrigation.

3.2. Examples of successful case studies to cope with drought and enhance food security

The following presents successful research and cases applying these strategies with clear impact to cope with drought and contribute to food security in dry areas.

3.2.1. Dryland crops and the potential role of their wild relatives

The Fertile Crescent in West Asia is considered as the birthplace of sedentary agriculture and the origin of crops such as wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, faba bean, well as small ruminants (sheep and goats) where these species were domesticated from their wild relatives some 6000-10,000 years ago. Throughout history, the global impact of these crops has been unrivalled. They are now among the 30 major food crops consumed in the world.

However, increasing human population pressure on the fragile natural resources in dry areas - along with growing herds of animals that depend on them - are decreasing genetic diversity among the remaining wild relatives of modern plant species. If these wild relatives become extinct, this valuable plant genetic material will no longer be available to plant breeding programs to ensure the introgression of genes of interest into crops that were missed out in the first round of domestication. These can be crucial genes to ensure future crops' ability to adapt to drought- and heat-stresses that climate change is exacerbating. But perhaps climate change will automatically select for heat and drought tolerant wild relatives. This may be true in theory, but - for example - if these similar extremely stress-tolerant relatives are susceptible to a newly emerging disease of insect pest, they may be killed before they are collected. In genetic resource research wild relatives are important not necessarily as entire plant packages, but as potential containers of special genes of interest. It is this genetic heritage that we seek to rescue, before the plants carrying them pass away.

ICARDA's genebank has been very proactive in this regard. With a host of partners it has already assembled 134,000 genetic resource accessions, including those specially collected during more than 100 missions. The missions take an urgent gap approach, targeting locations that are known to have experienced severe stresses for centuries, even millennia, but where wild relatives have not yet been collected. Targeted regions include: the oases of Morocco, where extreme heat is a fact of life; and small areas of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Syria. One of wheat's three major wild relatives, Aegilops tauschii, has been collected from populations that scientists think did not contribute to the original hexaploid wheat which were then domesticated.

These collection missions have been very fruitful and the new traits or genes identified are being bred into modern germplasm. On the science side, successfully identifying the desired stress tolerance traits in wild relatives from among some 7 million accessions held in the world's 1700 major agricultural genebanks, is not a trivial exercise. A wealth of accessions, have been collected. But today's plant breeders now have to find the needle in the haystack. For example, to identify accessions that are truly drought tolerant we would need to do replicated multilocation field experiments of tens of thousands accessions under artificial drought conditions.

Doing this takes a huge effort, time and cost to run highly-precise field experiments. Faced with thus dilemma, ICARDA and an international group of partners have developed the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS).

This is a unique and highly innovative approach to the mining of agricultural gene banks that uses a sophisticated machine learning algorithm. It assumes that the most stress tolerant wild relatives (or landraces) will be found in those areas where stress has been most severe - the phenomenon of co-evolution (El Bouhssini et al., 2011). If the collection site of an accession during a mission is properly geo-referenced, geographical information system tools allow us to give an agro-ecological description to the climate in that location throughout history.

Once a certain stress is established (such as drought, heat, or salinity) to be detrimental and prevalent for a long time, a study is conducted only for those genebank accessions in the ICARDA collection that originates from such regions. Then only the highest potential accessions are confirmed in field experiments. The FIGS tool has successfully identified novel sources of resistance in wheat to drought, heat, salinity and to several diseases and insect pests.

3.2.2. Legumes increase health above and below ground

Food legumes, such as chickpea, lentil and faba bean, play a crucial role in enhancing food security in dryland agriculture. They

provide cheap protein for people's diets, income when seed is sold (prices have quadrupled in the past five years), and feed for small ruminants. In addition to contributing to the healthy diets of those of us living above ground, legumes also contribute to soil health. In symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria growing on their roots, atmospheric nitrogen in the soil is fixed and becomes available for the legume crop, and its successor crop, which is usually a cereal. In Asia and Africa, demand for legumes is growing, which impacts global trade. In the past two decades they have evolved from subsistence crops to cash crops, with special adaptation to low availability of water. Lentil and chickpea can be grown at low rainfall levels as low as 250-300 mm. Faba bean requires more water and does well from 450 mm upwards.

Unfortunately drought predisposes legume crops to specific diseases that are less prevalent in higher levels of moisture, such as Fusarium wilt, dry root rot, nematodes and parasitic weeds. An even more fateful development is that as conservation agriculture (zero tillage) spreads because of its many advantages, the straw left on the surface may contain inoculum of certain diseases that allow subsequent crops to be infected early on in their growth cycle - such as Stemphylium blight and collar root rot. The practice of well-timed supplementary irrigation has been shown to raise yields by more than one-third in drought conditions.

From a breeding standpoint two approaches are used to address this problem. First, reducing the overall growing cycle so the crop matures before serious drought and heat commences, and secondly, to breed lines that are inherently more drought- and heat-tolerant. The first approach has resulted in the lentil varieties Idlib 3, Bakaria, BARI M4, BARI M5 and BARI M6, and the chickpea variety Gok^e, which escape late season abiotic stress. Amazingly, the second approach identifies new gene combinations that allow legumes to develop well under drought with accompanying heat, even up to extreme temperatures of 35 °C. Examples are the drought tolerant lentils ILL1878, 6002, 759 and 6465 and the heat tolerant lentils ILL 3597, and Sel 33108, 33109, 33110 and 33113.

3.2.3. Water management - more productivity with less water

Droughts have become more frequent in the past 30 years. In Syria, one quarter of the country's small ruminants was butchered for meat due to lack of feed, in 1983-1984. In Morocco, two severe droughts occurred which required the doubling wheat imports from 1980 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1995. In Jordan, one third of the sheep were slaughtered due to severe drought in 1997. In the 1999 drought, Syria lost almost half of its wheat and barley harvest, while Jordan lost it all. In the mixed crop/livestock agro-ecosystems described here, drought affects both sectors, but its damage is visible in livestock for many years after, as entire improved flocks are decimated. Then, as small ruminant populations are again allowed to explode, rangelands are degraded due to overgrazing or mismanagement, and alternative feed is needed. In Tunisia and Jordan, the input of rangeland biomass into feed livestock fell from 65-70% to 10-30%, in the past few decades.

The human population in North Africa and West Asia more than doubled in the past 30 years. Many of its inhabitants now have less than 1000 m3 of developed water resources per capita per year. Some have less than half of this amount.

In rainfed agriculture production systems in this region, rainfall is projected to be reduced by 30-50% of its present level. Also, warmer climate patterns will result in faster evaporation of the little rain water that does fall. Where irrigation options exist, these are likely to be abused to the fullest, resulting in the misuse of saline water, with serious long-term effects on sustainable agriculture. In rangelands, erratic but severe storms will lead to increased soil erosion and water runoff, limiting rangeland's biomass production. At the same time the growing human

population's demand for animal products will lead to larger herds and greater grazing pressure on degrading natural resources.

Several options exist that will address and maybe even reverse the above described trends. Farmers tend to over-irrigate their crops when irrigation water is available in dry areas, thinking that more must be better. But emerging research evidence shows that crop production following over-irrigation may in fact reduce yields. To get the most out of the rainfed crop by topping up its water needs, precise targeting at the critical stages in the crop development cycle is essential such as flowering and grain filling. If carefully monitored and judiciously applied, supplemental irrigation will improve water productivity (biomass harvested per unit of water applied) up to five times the water productivity under rainfed conditions. In Morocco, applying limited supplemental irrigation at the beginning of the season and at flowering and grain-filling has doubled biomass production and water productivity compared to conventional approaches.

As with the sensible use of blue (irrigation) water through supplemental irrigation, the effectiveness of use of green (rain) water can also be dramatically improved. Water is channeled to runoff from small artificial catchment areas into small cropping areas at a slightly lower elevation, where it is concentrated and a crop, shrub or tree is planted. Using this approach requires half the amount of water that would otherwise have been lost for biomass production. These small additional amounts of water make the difference between crop survival and death. This water harvesting practice also reduces water and soil erosion. In Jordan, Syria and parts of North Africa, ICARDA and its partners have shown that this kind of water-harvesting through micro-catchment management can raise biomass dry weight, from 0.3 to 1.4 kg ha_1.

3.2.4. Land suitability as water resources decline

Each crop has its definable adaptation domain. This is driven by soil type, topography, temperature and rainfall. Some crops have highly specialized adaptation domains, while others can develop and produce good yields in relatively diverse conditions. In addition, disease and pest dynamics further determine the fate of the crop.

With climate change and increasing water scarcity, crops' agro-climatic zones will shift. What is a high-yielding wheat area today may become barley country in 25 years, and 25 years on, turn to rangelands. How are farmers to adapt? Land suitability studies and implementation need to be supported with transition arrangements as farmers shift from one production agro-ecosystem to another.

In the Karkheh River basin in western region of I.R. of Iran, the third largest in the country, future land suitability for winter wheat was modeled for climate, soil and site. Topography in the basin varies from a few meters above mean sea level (AMSL) at its lowest drainage end to more than 3600 m AMSL in the highland watershed.

In the modeling process the mean temperature increase in 2050, compared to the 2012, was set at 1.5 °C. The study showed that less precipitation was the most prominent factor in reducing land suitability for winter wheat. Rather, it is increased water scarcity and droughts, and not higher temperatures that were shown to be the major threats to agriculture.

3.2.5. Low-cost alternative sheep feed sources increase derived product quality

Market demand for derived dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese are rapidly growing in many parts of the developing world, as those in lowest poverty categories strive for middle income status and diversity of their diets. The present situation in the Middle East shows that some emerging animal markets are growing and that the increasing flock sizes led to degraded rangelands that traditionally provided the bulk of the feed for the local Awassi

sheep. Alternative feed sources are needed, but at a cost within reach of the generally poor agro-pastoralist communities.

One alternative feed combination is to mix potential fodder sources from relatively cheap materials, such as agro-industrial waste combinations. These may include cotton seed cake, sugar beet pulp, molasses, and wheat and barley straw. In other regions, by-products from olive-oil pressing, fruit-juice production, and similar activities etc. can be tested. While these may provide some of the calories and other essential nutrients at an acceptable cost, the question is how products derived from the harvested milk -such as yogurt and cheese - are affected.

Several of the alternative diets not only proved cheaper but produced higher milk yields and increased cheese and yoghurt quality (defined by appearance, taste, aroma, hardness, firmness, chewiness, and texture). It seemed that a real win-win approach has been identified.

3.2.6. Disappearing glaciers and the need for local adaptation

Central Asia may not be the first region to spring to mind in terms of drought adaptation and mitigation, but its unique climate presents challenges that are not common in most other regions, for example parts of Africa or South Asia.

Because the region is so mountainous, global circulation models (GCMs) reflecting last-area evaluations do not capture the smaller-scale diversity and heterogeneity, especially the topography of two of the world's highest mountain ranges - the Tien Shan and Pamir, both rising 7000 m AMSL. In these areas snow melt is one of the major provisions of water for agriculture, and its supply is predicted to change dramatically due to large water releases that are expected to occur earlier in the season. This phenomenon further complicates downscaling climate change models. Working with a number of partners in the region, ICARDA's work illustrates how downscaling was possible to a resolution of one km2. The analysis made heavy use of automated number-crunching, to obtain results quickly and efficiently. The results showed that temperatures will rise across the region. Rainfall, on the other hand, shows an increasing trend moving from the south-west to the north and east.

Water availability from glacier melt is predicted to decrease to less than one third. This requires farmers to find alternative livelihoods as the transition from irrigated to rainfed agriculture progresses. In these agro-ecosystems, new approaches and strategies will be needed. Water reservoirs and associated technologies are needed to capture melting moisture from glaciers as this happens earlier in the season and in smaller absolute amounts. Remittances from mostly male migration to find work elsewhere have positive (e.g. increased national GDP), but also negative influences - especially if these additional funds are invested in further growing herds with associated increased rangeland degradation. As women make distinct choices about their livelihoods, it seems possible that as they will effectively be heading more households, they will emphasize local value addition activities. These could include commercialization of fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs, medicinal plants and honey, which they traditionally managed either by growing them near the home or collecting them from the wild. They will need support for this transition, including tools and capacity development. There is potential for export opportunities for products such as almonds, artichoke, berries, cabbage, dates, fig, gooseberry, kiwifruit, pistachio, persimmon, safflower, and sour cherry.

4. Conclusions

The assumptions and conventional thinking on the situation of agro-ecosystems and their economic and social context that held

true over the past three decades is becoming very different today and will continue to evolve, as well. New thinking and approaches are needed if agricultural research needs to continue to deliver increased yields, mitigation against changing climate patterns, and opportunities for rural communities in order to have increased income and better livelihoods.

The synthesis of the research experiences described in this paper is that the approaches and strategies that promote a single technology, or selection of a number of technologies, in isolation from the livelihoods setting of the target communities, have run their course. A new approach is needed. A good illustration of this new approach can be seen in the new ICARDA-led CGIAR Research Program on "Integrated and Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Dry Areas", known as Dryland Systems.

This global program takes an agro-ecosystem approach to research. It starts with specifically defined outcomes that follow the impact pathway backwards. The first step is to develop a joint

understanding with all partners and stakeholders on the kind of agricultural impact that is needed to improve livelihoods and allow people to realize their full potential. Only when this desired goal is shared - working back through desired outcomes and needed outputs - can we set a credible research agenda. One that becomes demand-driven, and much more likely to deliver its goals.

References

CGIAR, 2013. Integrated Agricultural Production Systems for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Dry Areas. CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems. Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), Washington DC, USA p. 10.

El Bouhssini, M., Street, K., Amri, A., Mackay, M., Ogbonnaya, F.C., Omran, A., Abdalla, O., Baum, M., Dabbous, A., Rihawi, F., 2011. Plant Breeding 130, 96-97.

Solh, M., van Ginkel, M., Ortiz, R., 2013. Innovative agriculture for food security: an integrated agro-ecosystems approach. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Beirut, Lebanon p. 13.