Scholarly article on topic 'Sustainable Technologies and Innovation for Green Corridors: Survey and Application'

Sustainable Technologies and Innovation for Green Corridors: Survey and Application Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Sara Fozza, Valerio Recagno

Abstract A set of transport corridors within the European Area has been selected on the basis of the TEN-T priority projects, the Pan European Transport Network and project partner's proposals. This set of corridors is a workable sample of the European network sufficiently representative to validate the project methodology. Attention was then focused on the definition of a set of performance indicators (KPI) to be used for the evaluation of services on these corridors. A survey to identify sustainable technology candidates for the greening of the corridors has been performed, and the most suitable ones for the possible applications have been selected. Such technologies have been characterized by a set of specific parameters and their applicability to the corridors has been represented by means of a “Technology vs Application” Matrix. The technologies have been also characterized by their impact on the “green” aspect of the corridors in terms of variation of the aforementioned KPI. This evaluation has been performed using a qualitative approach. A tool for the definition and comparison of different scenarios of technologies applied on corridors has also been developed. Presently the technology application phase and the consequent development of the scenarios are on going and preliminary results on the Brenner Corridor selected as the Pilot Scenario are available. The aforementioned activities are part of the project “Supporting EU's Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan on Green Corridors Issues” (in short SuperGreen), which is co-funded by the European Commission within the scope of the 7th Framework Programme.

Academic research paper on topic "Sustainable Technologies and Innovation for Green Corridors: Survey and Application"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 48 (2012) 1753 - 1763

Transport Research Arena - Europe 2012

Sustainable technologies and innovation for green corridors:

Survey and application

Sara Fozzaa'*? Valerio Recagnoa

aD'Appolonia S.p.A, Via S. Nazaro 19, 16145 Genova, Italy

Abstract

A set of transport corridors within the European Area has been selected on the basis of the TEN-T priority projects, the Pan European Transport Network and project partner's proposals. This set of corridors is a workable sample of the European network sufficiently representative to validate the project methodology. Attention was then focused on the definition of a set of performance indicators (KPI) to be used for the evaluation of services on these corridors. A survey to identify sustainable technology candidates for the greening of the corridors has been performed, and the most suitable ones for the possible applications have been selected. Such technologies have been characterized by a set of specific parameters and their applicability to the corridors has been represented by means of a "Technology vs Application" Matrix.

The technologies have been also characterized by their impact on the "green" aspect of the corridors in terms of variation of the aforementioned KPI. This evaluation has been performed using a qualitative approach. A tool for the definition and comparison of different scenarios of technologies applied on corridors has also been developed. Presently the technology application phase and the consequent development of the scenarios are on going and preliminary results on the Brenner Corridor selected as the Pilot Scenario are available.

The aforementioned activities are part of the project "Supporting EU's Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan on Green Corridors Issues" (in short SuperGreen), which is co-funded by the European Commission within the scope of the 7th Framework Programme.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the ProgrammeCommittee of the Transport Research Arena 2012

Keywords: Green Corridors; Sustainable Technologies; ICT; KPI

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 010 3628148; fax: +39 010 362 1078. E-mail address', sara.fozza@dappolonia.it

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Programme Committee of the Transport Research Arena 2012

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.1150

1. Introduction

"Supporting EU's Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan on Green Corridors Issues", in short SuperGreen, is a Coordination and Support Action co-financed by the European Commission within the scope of the 7th Framework Programme, with the purpose of promoting the development of sustainable logistics corridors in Europe. The purpose of SuperGreen is to promote the development of a sustainable transport network by fulfilling requirements covering environmental, technical, economic, social and spatial planning aspects. Additional information on the SuperGreen Project are available on the official web site www.supergreenproject.eu.

The project methodology consists of the following steps:

• selection of areas of possible application of new technologies, defined as Green Corridors;

• identification and selection of Sustainable (or green) Technologies suitable to be applied on the corridors to improve the efficiency of the transport and to solve present bottlenecks on the networks;

• application of the technologies to the Corridors to improve transport efficiency and solve bottlenecks.

Within the project, a web-based repository has been developed to store and retrieve information to assess the applicability of technologies on corridors to improve their sustainability performance. The assessment of the Sustainable Technologies is based on a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPI), also defined within the scope of the project.

In the next chapters, the description of methodology is reported. It is based on the selection of corridors (Chapter 2) and technologies (Chapters 3 and 4), the identification of the indicators for the assessment (Chapter 5) and the analysis of the applicability and assessment of the of sustainable technologies on corridor segments and nodes (Chapter 6). A case study concludes the paper (Chapter H^áX^a! To ap/sio rcpoéXsvffn? T^? ava^opá^ óev Ppé0^K£.).

2. The Selection of the Corridors

The first step of the methodology has been the analysis and the listing of a large number of potential corridors selected on the basis of the TEN-T priority projects, the Pan European Transport Network and project partner's proposals. On the basis of this set of corridors a specific survey has been carried out to gather information regarding the selected corridors.

The preliminary definition, description and grouping of the most relevant corridors have been conducted according to the following criteria: transport volumes, average length of transport chains (share of long distance transports), existing transport infrastructure, types of transported goods, multimodality, effects on environment, land-use, geographical pre-conditions (cases covering different pre-conditions), used transport and information technology, supply chain management strategies and procedures of main transport clients.

The final selection of nine SuperGreen Green Corridors has been conducted on the basis of a more detailed analysis and the input of relevant stakeholders, and reported in the following 'metro' style network map.

Fig. 1. Metro style SuperGreen network map

3. The Technology Survey

The second step of methodology concerned data collection for a large set of Sustainable Technologies. The consortium performed a survey that provided a sound coverage of the most promising technologies, techniques and procedures to be applied in Green Corridors both over the different transport legs and at transhipment points.

Sustainable technologies have been surveyed and analyzed on the basis of literature review, expert judgment of the Project Partners and on past and current research projects, at national and at European level.

Documentary sources have been used both for identifying potential collected technologies, and to complete the information concerning indicators for technologies derived from other sources.

The project Partners also analyzed the activities performed and the results achieved in the scope of several projects co-funded by the European Commission within the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes:

• Railenergy - Innovative Integrated Energy Efficiency Solutions for Railway Rolling Stock, Rail Infrastructure and Train Operation;

• GHG TransporD - Reducing greenhouse gases emissions in transport;

• Cleanest Ship;

• CREATING;

• PLATINA - Platform for the implementation of NAIADES and

• PROMIT - Promoting Innovative Intermodal Freight Transport.

The final result was the selection of 190 innovative technologies belonging to the following categories:

• Engines and propulsion systems: innovative technologies concerning engines and propulsion systems in general, which can be applied to any kind of transport modes on Green Corridors;

• Fuels and energy sources: technologies related to energy production, including for instance solar panels, wind turbines and other renewable energy sources; furthermore innovative fuels will also be considered;

• Cargo handling and transfer technologies: technologies related to loading or unloading or cargo, transfer of loading units between different transport modes, internal handling of transport units;

• Heating and cooling technologies: this category includes innovative heating or cooling technologies embedded into transport vehicles, implemented into warehouses or used during handling and transfer operations;

• Innovative loading units and their treatment (cleaning, etc): this category includes new loading units able to reduce and optimize the time taken for loading/unloading and transfer operations, as well as energy consumption and pollution emissions in case they embed heating/cooling devices. It also considers any ancillary technology needed for pre or post transport treatment of the loading unit;

• Vehicles: new vehicle concepts with the purpose of improving transport time and reducing pollution emissions shall be reported in this category;

• Navigation technologies: this category is referred to technologies facilitating vehicles navigation during transport, including tracking/tracing, and automatic vehicles identification

• Best practices of technologies integration: this category is dedicated to the identification of best practices derived from real use cases, related to the integration of innovative technologies on transport systems, with particular reference to their impact on energy and carbon footprint reduction, and their potential for exportability on different frameworks.

In the following picture the preliminary results of the survey are reported. The technologies are subdivided in the different considered categories.

(AVI);

Best Practices

Navigation technologies

Vehicl

Innova

and treatment Heatlng and Pooling

Engines and ^Propulsion Systems

Cargo Handling and Transfer

Fuels and sources of energy

Fig. 2. Distribution of the 190 selected technologies in categories

All the technologies have then been associated with the following transport modes:

• waterborne (i.e., inland waterway and maritime);

• railway transport;

• road transport;

• multimodal transport.

The final result of the aforementioned association increases the total number of applications form 190 to 250 because some technologies are applicable to more than one mode of transport.

The following figure provides a synthesis of all the technologies collected. The technologies are subdivided in each defined category considering the transport mode.

Engines and Fuels and Propulsion Souces of Systems energy

Cargo Heating and Innovative handling and Cooling units and Transfer Treatment

Navigation Best practices technologies

■ Inland Waterways

■ Maritime Railway

□ Road

■ Multimodal

Fig. 3. Distribution of the 190 selected technologies with reference to the category and to the transport mode

The Sustainable Technologies collected have been characterized by means of indicators; this allow the analysis of their relevant characteristics, representing the baseline for the process which will lead to the identification of the most promising technologies to be further used in the scope of SuperGreen.

The following common information to all the considered categories has been selected to provide a general description of each technology:

• the technology name;

• a short description to provide a few lines information concerning the most relevant characteristics, including its field of application and the foreseen potential for improvement;

• the transport mode;

• the name of the provider or manufacturer (company(ies) owning the patent);

• the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to assess the maturity of evolving technology;

• the time to market representing the time (generally expressed in years) necessary for completing the development of the technology and make it available on the market;

• the potential need of realization of additional measures (e.g. modification of existing infrastructures, introduction of new working procedures, implementation of other technologies, etc);

• the pollutant emissions (e.g. Carbon footprint (C02 emissions); Sulphur emissions (S02);

Nitrogen emissions (NOx); Dust and particles (PM10));

• Life Cycle Cost.

Moreover, specific indicators for each single category have been identified to complete the technology description, e.g., power supply, the technology energy efficiency orthe geographical coverage.

4. The Technology Selection

Starting from the list of collected technologies, a preliminary analysis has been conducted on their characteristics in order to identify the most promising ones, according to the SuperGreen scope and objectives.

The technologies have been grouped into six different categories from the "very important" (mature technologies believed to have a large impact on the greening potential of cargo transportation in a transport corridor) to the "not relevant" ones for the project objectives.

At the end of the analysis, 53 technologies, representing the 30% of the total analyzed, have been considered as the most promising ones.

In the following figure the results of the selection analysis are reported. The technologies are subdivided in the different categories considered within the project.

Best Practices

Engines and ™ pulsion 'stems

Navigatio technolog:

Cargo Handling and Transfer

Fuels and sources of energy

and treatment

Cooling

Fig. 4. Distribution of the most promising technologies in categories

The following figure provides a synthesis of final set of technologies with reference to the category and to the transport mode.

Engines and Fuels and Cargo Handling Propulsion sources of energy and Transfer Systems

Best Practices

□ Inland Waterways

■ Maritime Railway Road

■ Multimodal

Fig. 5. Distribution of the most promising technologies with reference to the category and to the transport mode

In principle, technologies identified for the maritime sector belong to the Engines and Propulsion Systems category. For sake of example, the directly driven propeller, mechanically connected propeller and diesel-mechanic propulsion with high speed engine have been identified as promising technologies in this field. However, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) is also considered a very useful navigation technology in the maritime sector to avoid collisions and to have the ship tracking and tracing.

In the road sector the most important technologies are those necessary to reduce C02 emissions and environmental pollutants. Therefore the identified technologies belong to the categories Engine and Propulsion Systems, Fuels and Energy Sources, and Vehicles.

In the railway sector the most important technologies belong to the Fuels and Energy Sources and Vehicles categories. The composition of the primary sources for the energy (Energy Mix) used in the railway sector has an important influence on the evaluation of the environmental KPI. The use of energy from renewable sources, in fact, may anneal C02 emissions in the atmosphere.

In the filed of software applications the online optimization of rail traffic flow is considered a best practice to reduce delays and minimizing the energy consumption.

5. The Selection of Key Performance Indicators

The first list of performance indicators has been identified on the base of a review of past studies and research projects assessing transport corridors or operations and past experiences of list of KPIs in other sectors of the society. Emphasis has been placed on the work of international organizations addressing the current environmental challenges.

KPI were grouped and a small number of representative indicators from each group have been selected verifying that the environmental, technical, economical, social and spatial planning aspects of intermodal freight transport are covered.

For each selected KPI, the input values needed for its calculation and the exact formula to be used have been identified and qualitative indicators have been reduced to a minimum.

KPI have been then filtered following discussion and agreement done during regional workshops with project partners and stakeholders and the selected KPI have been tested on one of the SuperGreen corridors identified in the scope of the project to identify obstacles in the KPI estimation.

A KPI re-engineering process is then followed to come to the following distilled set of KPI's:

• C02 emission expressed in g/ton-km;

• SOx emissions expressed in g/1000 ton-km;

• Relative transport cost expressed in €/ton-km;

• Transport time, expressed in h;

• Frequency, services per year expressed as a number;

• Reliability, on time deliveries expressed as a %.

6. The Technology Application

The final task of this research covered a comprehensive analysis of the possible applications of the identified Sustainable Technologies on selected Corridors to determine their greening potential..

A template for the Technology vs Application Matrix has been defined to identify the application areas (segments and nodes of selected Green Corridors) of sustainable technologies and then to assess their applicability for improving the greening potential of the corridors.

A specific matrix per corridor has been prepared and the population is on going. Each matrix has been delivered to Partners pre filled in with the list of selected technologies, a brief description and the transport mode. Partners complete the information giving indication of the segments and/or nodes where the technology could be applied and an indication of the influence of the technology on the set of KPIs.

In fact, a qualitative evaluation is performed considering that specific data on Sustainable Technologies are not available in order to allow a quantitative approach. This is mainly due to the fact that many technologies are under design and/or development and reliable data related to onsite application are not available. The classes of influence are assigned with reference to a ranking between -2 to +2:

• -2 means a very bad influence of the technology on a KPI

• -1 means a bad influence of the technology on a KPI

• 0 means the technology is not relevant for a KPI

• 1 means a good influence of the technology on a KPI

• 2 means a very good influence of the technology on a KPI

The population of the matrix is based on documentation and information provided by SuperGreen Project Partners, on information collected during the Second Plenary Workshop hold in Genoa and further interviews with stakeholders working along the corridors.

The matrix constitutes a knowledge tank, which will be made accessible to the users and the stakeholders by means of the SuperGreen Knowledge Base. This tool is an easy-to-use and web-based knowledge repository available to all interested stakeholders.

The interface of the tool has been realized using a wizard to help the user in browsing the content and accessing to the whole knowledge stored there.

The main functionalities of the tool are the following:

• Registering users and log-in to the member area;

• Viewing and consultation of the map of corridors: the selected corridors are represented by transport links (one link per each transport mode) and nodes. Each link and node are characterized by their principal information (such as length, transport volume per each transport mode, applicable technologies);

• Representation of the technologies: a section containing the most promising technologies is included in the tool. The reported technologies are characterized by the most significant data and information and by the class of influence on the set of KPIs identified;

• Representation of the Technologies vs Applications Matrix: this section contains the applicability of each technology on links/nodes of the corridors with reference to the transport mode;

• Creation of a pdf report per corridor showing the list of technologies applicable on the corridor and the assessment of their greening potential with reference to KPIs.

Fig. 6. SuperGreen Knowledge Base screenshots

7. Conclusions

The purpose of SuperGreen is to contribute to the improvement of sustainability in the European Logistics system. The paper has introduced and described a survey of sustainable technologies suitable for applications in European Logistics corridors to increase their greening potential.

Presently the technology application phase is still on going but preliminary results on the Brenner Corridor selected as the Pilot Scenario are available and are summarized below.

The Brenner Corridor, as defined in the scope of project, is relevant to goods transport from Sweden through Germany to Italy (Palermo) and Greece (Athens) through the Italian peninsula. The corridor is mainly rail and road-based completed by short sea shipping, such as Naples - Palermo and Patras -Igoumenitsa to Brindisi - Bari - Ancona.

The critical segment of the Brenner Corridor is represented by the Brenner Pass (link between Munich and Verona). The total volume at the Brennero Pass has been 48.2 million of tons in 2007, with a modal split of 73% and 27% for road and rail, respectively.

The analysis of the application scenario pointed out, at first analysis, Sustainable Technologies that can contribute to the improving of the carbon footprint and environmental aspects.

For sake of example, the adoption of vessels equipped with new generation of thrusters or directly driven propellers is expected to reduce fuel consumption (due to their higher efficiency) and therefore the emissions of C02 and SOx. Of course, a thorough sustainability analysis would determine to which extent the investments for the application of those technologies for Short-Sea-Shipping links would be financially viable.

On the multimodal transport the application of different fuels as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) on all internal combustion terminal equipment could reduce the carbon footprint of transshipment operation in medium and small sized terminals, whilst the use of Biogas to fuel the roads segments is supposed to be another interesting case, according to the judgment of the experts involved in the assessment process. The application of the new generation Euro VI trucks on the road segments, and the adoption of Hybrid Locomotive in spite of full diesel locos (where used and allowed by local regulation) is welcome, whilst the adoption of the Braking Energy Recovery has good potential on the Brenner Pass (i.e. recuperation of energy during lowering of speed in descending segments). The KPI assessment of the influence of each technology to the sustainability of corridors is still under evaluation. .

A web-based knowledge repository has been realised to store the impacts of the application of sustainable technologies assessed vis-à-vis Key Performance Indicators; these results will be publicly accessible to the extent of the corridors selected by the project for benchmarking.

Other tasks of SuperGreen are investigating the greening potential of ICT technologies, which description is left to a paper dedicated to the subject.

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