Scholarly article on topic 'Collaboration for sustainability in a networked world'

Collaboration for sustainability in a networked world Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Rebecca Petzel, Alice-Marie Archer, Rong Fei

Abstract This paper explores how the web's collaborative potential can be harnessed strategically and practically towards sustainability. Building upon research led by Peter Gloor of MIT into collaborative innovation networks (COINs), the researchers evaluated COINs’ strategic potential for sustainability as well as their practical application. The final product of this research is a set of recommendations for people considering utilizing COINs for sustainability. This paper synthesizes the findings of a masters’ level thesis of the same title submitted for the international master's program Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability.

Academic research paper on topic "Collaboration for sustainability in a networked world"

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Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 6597-6609

COINs2009: Collaborative Innovation Networks Conference

Collaboration for sustainability in a networked world

Rebecca Petzel*, Alice-Marie Archer, Rong Fei

Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-371 79 Karlskrona, Sweden Elsevier use only: Received date here; revised date here; accepted date here


This paper explores how the web's collaborative potential can be harnessed strategically and practically towards sustainability. Building upon research led by Peter Gloor of MIT into collaborative innovation networks (COINs), the researchers evaluated COINs' strategic potential for sustainability as well as their practical application. The final product of this research is a set of recommendations for people considering utilizing COINs for sustainability. This paper synthesizes the findings of a masters' level thesis of the same title submitted for the international master's program Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability.

Keywords: collaboration; innovation; sustainability; networks; COINs

1. Introduction

The sustainability challenges facing the world today are complex and global in scale. One individual, organization or country working alone cannot solve concerns such as climate change and global poverty. These challenges require mass collaboration and ingenuity on a global level (Hartman et al., 1999; DeBruijn and Tukker, 2002). At the same time, the emergence of social media and social computing tools is dramatically changing societies ability to organize and work together. These changes are evidenced in projects such as Wikipedia and Linux, where millions of volunteers successfully collaborate together despite their distribution across the globe. According to research at MIT led by Peter Gloor, these web-based successes are driven by Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs), an organizational framework describing the collaboration of networked participants innovating around a shared vision. By harnessing the power of networked collaboration, COINs are the greatest drivers of innovation ever (Gloor, 2006). Seeking to explore the potential of this powerful innovative force for sustainability, this paper addresses the question: In what ways can collaborative innovation networks (COINs) be part of a movement towards a sustainable society?

To explore this question we use Peter Gloor's definition of COINs as "a cyber-team of self-motivated people with a collective vision, enabled by the web to collaborate in achieving a common goal by sharing ideas, information, and work" (Gloor, 2006, pg. 3). The most recognizable examples of COINs are the networked group of

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-847-261-4845 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.04.070

individuals who collaborate to create each individual Wikipedia page, as each entry is created by a COIN. However COINs exist within government, inside corporate walls, and as multi-stakeholder groups across disciplines.2 They exist in both for profit and non profit capacities. In order to operate within the organizational frame of a COIN, one simply requires two or more people working towards a shared vision, operating with transparent communication and a strong ethical code. Additionally, this collaboration must be supported through the network of the web at some point. These four tenants create the boundaries of an organizational structure proven to be the greatest driver of innovation (Gloor, 2006).

To define sustainability, we build on the 1987 UN Brundtland Report. Brundtland defines sustainability as meeting the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland, 1987). In order to make this definition more tangible, this paper uses sustainability principles, based on a scientifically agreed-upon worldview, to describe the minimum conditions necessary for the system of human life on earth to operate sustainably. Karl-Henrik Robert and numerous academic collaborators initially developed these principles in the late 1980's. They have been continuously reviewed and improved upon through the process of peer-review in the academic and scientific world. The principles state that in a sustainable society, nature is not subject to systematically increasing:

• Concentrations of substances from the earth's crust

• Concentrations of substances produced by society

• Degradation by physical means

• And in that society people are not subject to conditions that systematically undermine their ability to meet their

own needs. (Holmberg and Robert, 2000)

It is also important to have a means by which to evaluate the strategic sustainability implications of an organizational structure and its actions. For this end, we use the extensive body of research in to the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. Karl-Henrik Robert, John Holmberg, and Goran Broman, in affiliation with the Natural Step and various academic associates, developed the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) to guide decision making for sustainability. It is also known as the Natural Step Framework and the five-level framework. Below we outline the five steps of moving through the FSSD. Moving through the five levels of this framework is a useful addition to our societies' ability to plan for sustainability, and an important reference point for this papers research into how COINs may or may not be strategic towards sustainability.

1. The first level underscores the importance of understanding the system: examining the system for sustainability by looking at society, within the biosphere and identifying characteristics and principles integral to the functioning of this system. These include the basic principles of thermodynamics, as well as the ecosystem tenants for sustainable systems: diversity, interdependence, and self-organization.

2. The second level involves defining what success means within that system. For sustainability, success is society operating within the constraints of the sustainability principles. More specifically, the first three principles define success as no longer contributing to the systemic degradation of the earths' resources. Success in regards to the fourth principle means eliminating any barriers that inhibit others from meeting their needs. To define human needs, we use Chilean Economist Manfred Max-Neef's nine, (tenth has been proposed) human needs: participation, subsistence, freedom, leisure, affection, understanding, identity, creativity, and protection (Max-Neef, 1991).

3. At the third level we identify guidelines to ensure any actions taken towards sustainability are strategic towards 'success.' These guidelines have been developed through years of application and academic research. Of particular importance for this paper are strategic guidelines geared specifically towards social sustainability. Benaim, Collins and Raftis (2008) developed guidelines to ensure actions do not systematically prevent the achievement of human needs, thus ensuring progress towards social sustainability. These strategic guidelines for socially sustainable processes of relating are: cooperation, transparency, openness, inclusiveness and involvement.

4. The fourth step is to evaluate all actions against strategic guidelines to ensure they will move towards success within the system.

For detailed examples of COINs reference Peter Gloor's 2006 work Swarm Creativity, or refer to pgs. 8-11 in the complete thesis

5. The final step when working with the FSSD is considering tools to help support and implement these actions. 1.1. Methodology

The primary concerns of our research design were validity and relevance. We wanted to apply rigorous practices to ensure valid research as well as contribute practical knowledge useful in the context of every-day life, specifically for individuals working to undo the un-sustainable patterns of our society. Recognizing that the best research is iterative rather than linear, and that it is important to continuously re-evaluate your contextual framework (including assumptions, methodology, research questions and goals), we followed Joseph Maxwell's qualitative research design process (Maxwell, 2005). To support this systemic approach and ensure our work retained its practical social value, we engaged in participant observation as part of a social action research project, developing theory through action, thus ensuring relevance for the problems of the field (Gustavsen, 2001).

In designing our supporting research questions, it was important to make certain our exploration into the ways in which COINs can be part of a societal shift towards sustainability remained strategic. To ensure this, we utilized backcasting from a sustainable future to structure the supporting questions, making the FSSD an integral part of our methodology. Backcasting is a planning methodology in which a future desired outcome is envisioned, and then steps are planned and taken to work towards that future. The supporting research questions are as follows:

• RQ1: How could collaborative innovation networks be used in the future as part of a sustainable society?

• RQ2: What are the sustainability implications of COINs based on their use today?

• RQ3: What barriers confront the strategic use of COINs towards a sustainable future?

• RQ4: What emerging factors affect our ability to use COINs strategically towards sustainability?

• RQ5: What recommendations can we make to help both current and future COIN participants to effectively collaborate towards sustainability?

Results to these questions were gathered from a literature review, interviews with 18 individuals with relevant expertise, a survey of 38 sustainability practitioners, and social action research. The social action research project involved a distributed, web-enabled collaboration between the paper authors and seven other individuals, working together as a COIN to build a web resource on collaborative innovation for sustainability.

2. 2 Results

The first research phase involved a literature review and exploration in to how COINs are being used today towards sustainability, juxtaposing this against the role of COINs in our vision of a sustainable society.3 This allowed us to establish a baseline as to the sustainability impact of the COIN organizational structure.

2.1. Sustainability Benefits of COINs

According to our research, the greatest potential of COINs today is their innovative capacity, as when used correctly COINs are powerful drivers of innovation. This power can be harnessed to address many of our most elusive sustainability challenges. We discovered there are sustainability practitioners successfully utilizing COINs to innovate, and our research found that most have the tools and ability to harness these networks (computers and web access).

Other sustainability benefits of COIN working comes through potential dematerializations as a consequence of distributed working, most obviously the reduction in fossil fuel emissions through less travel due to virtual working. Beyond this obvious benefit, COINs bring us together in new and interesting ways. These new patterns of organization effect our consumption and distribution in ways that show promise to reduce our ecological footprint, but are yet unexplored (Harwood 2009; Brown 2009).

Perhaps the greatest contribution of COINs towards sustainability is the democratizing social benefits of COIN working, a point that came across throughout our entire research process. In interviews and blogs COIN participants

3 For more detailed information regarding the methodology utilized and resulting vision of COINs in a sustainable society, please refer to pg. 13-20 in the complete thesis

pointed to how much more inclusive, natural and inviting this organizational structure often is. COINs appeared to exhibit greater involvement and cooperation compared with other working models, and it was clear that the openness and transparency facilitated by COIN working added tremendous value towards achieving innovative results. One key to inclusivity and involvement is how COINs support communicating asynchronously, allowing greater flexibility in how individuals participate (Klein 2009). COINs seem to work with the natural tribal nature of our society and allow greater participation and inclusiveness in the global tribe due to this flexibility. These findings highlight COINs' ability to support an organizational structure following sustainable processes of relating, important strategic guidelines in the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD).

2.2. Sustainability Concerns of COINs

The technology driving COINs is personal computers, broadband Internet connections, and energy intensive data storage. All three of these facets are un-sustainable with regards to the first three sustainability principles, and also with the fourth as computer manufacturing is very resource intensive, an inequitable use of scare resources. Our results pointed to a large concern amongst sustainability practitioners regarding the rapid spread of this currently unsustainable technology. We found that data storage alone is exceedingly unsustainable, as exemplified by the following statistic: "A single rack of storage enclosures using 6 kW generates as much carbon dioxide as six 1999 Chevy Tahoe SUVs in one year (about 40 tons)" (the Collaboration Project, 2009, pg. 11).

Our data also indicated concerns over various means by which COIN working erects barriers to participation (a human need), from the physical discomforts of today's computing technology to its low-accessibility. Perhaps the largest concern is that of the digital divide between the global north and south, the have and have-nots, and how this division erects a large barrier to sustainable COINs. COINs cannot today be inclusive while 78% of the world's population still lacks Internet access. This is particularly troubling when looking at COINs addressing sustainability challenges, as many of the 78% without access are those worst afflicted in our sustainability challenges, and consequentially can not be part of the solution when working as COINs (Wyne, 2009).

2.3. Barriers

The next research phase involved a collection of data and analysis surrounding the barriers to sustainability practitioners utilizing COINs for sustainability. To collect this data, we administered a survey focusing on technical barriers and interviewed experts in the field. We also observed our own experience in the collaboration ninjas COIN through our social action research project.

Our data revealed that many of the difficulties of web-enabled collaboration reflect struggles with collaboration in the physical world such as power struggles, miscommunications and over controlling leadership. Unique to web based working were concerns over data safety and identity in sharing over the web, difficulties communicating and building trust in text based mediums, and poor signal to noise ratios. A significant barrier to collaboration is modern Intellectual Property (IP) law. There is a tremendous amount of confusion and disagreement both on a local and international scale as to the best IP regimes to promote the safe sharing of information to support networked collaboration. There is also unease and confusion as to the best business models to support cross-organizational COINs as this is fairly unchartered territory. Our results revealed cultural barriers to the flattening of hierarchies that occurs as we adopt more collaborative, chaordic models of working driven by COINs. Deeper barriers to COINs operating strategically towards sustainability are lack of trust, open transparent communication and shared vision, without any of which a COIN is prone to failure (Gloor, 2006).

In addition to the many barriers affecting our use of COINs for sustainability, a variety of emerging factors affect the ability of COINs to reach their sustainability potential. For example- the current technology driving COINs is unsustainable, however there are ongoing advancements in cloud computing, mobile technology, energy sourcing and human centered computer design that are rapidly changing the nature of that un-sustainability. Beyond the new technologies that are changing the way we store information, communicate and share over the Internet, we observed that networked communication technologies are evolving and transforming how we organize and work. Yochai Benkler outlines this clearly in his theories surrounding networked knowledge economies and peer production in the Wealth of Networks (2006). With many hierarchical giants crumbling under the pressure from more 'open' web-

based competition, we are not able to hypothesize how they will be superseded. The implications of this complex uncertainty on the use of COINs for our societal organizations are massive.

2.4. Recommendations for using COINs

Understanding the potential of COINs in a sustainable future, their baseline operation today (including barriers and emerging factors affecting their use), we utilized the creative tension from backcasting to develop recommendations as to the best use of COINs towards sustainability. These recommendations were also informed by knowledge from experts gathered in the interview process and feedback from our social action research. These recommendations are for any sustainability practitioner interested in working as part of a COIN to make their work towards sustainability more successful and strategic.

2.4.1. How to Use COINs Strategically Use COINs to solve complex challenges

Collaborative working is time consuming and takes a tremendous amount of effort, particularly because we are not taught many of the skills necessary to work collaboratively (Rheingold, 2009). For this reason it is not strategic to set up web-enabled collaborations for small tasks where a solution is already known. COINs are better employed where 'out of the box' innovative, new ways of thinking are sought. Use COINs for increased efficiency

COIN working can be strategic towards reducing your carbon footprint and resource consumption if used thoughtfully. We recommend sustainability practitioners use COINs for distributed working to reduce their carbon footprint and make work and living more natural, but strategically utilize travel and face-to-face time to build up trust- something that is needed more intensively early on in collaborations.

To ensure maximum resource efficiency in the technologies supporting COINs, use cloud computing and software as a service applications whenever possible to host the information and data at the heart of your COIN. This is far less resource intensive than hosting your data on more traditional organization-specific servers, as cloud computing uses a load- sharing system that maximizes the efficiency of the servers online (Thorpe, 2009). However this is a new field so be sure to consider the security of the system when choosing the best way to host your information. And when choosing your hardware, remember the first three sustainability principles (fig. 1.1) and look into manufacturers that are recycling and keeping hazardous materials in a closed loop. Choose Open-Source

Many of the great opportunities for COINs come in their ability to function as part of the networked knowledge economy, promoting diversity, involvement, transparency, inclusiveness, cooperation and openness. In order to utilize COINs strategically we recommend, whenever possible, that you chose to work as part of the commons. Use open-source platforms and software and utilize servers that promote openness, involvement and transparency. However you cannot be open to the detriment of financial sustainability. You must consider return on investment of this working, but when possible chose to share, chose to be open. Our research demonstrated that this decision often pays back (Moore, 2009; Brown, 2009). Support Diversity

The greatest strategic benefit of COINs is their ability to support diversity, bringing in insights from more people thinking in different ways, all of whom have a large stake in our sustainability challenges. However our research revealed there are many barriers to working in diverse groups. In order to overcome these your COIN needs to acknowledge, discuss, and truly believe in the value of that diversity. Seek out gatekeepers (people who are comfortable in multiple cultures, working styles and academic fields, wherever your diversity lies) to help mediate those differences and aid the communication within a diverse COIN (Gloor, 2009). When selecting your technology, make it as simple and accessible as possible to allow for a diverse crowd of users (Thorpe, 2009). Use known frameworks

It is important to follow the guidelines outlined by Peter Gloor for successful COINs. This framework calls for a strong unifying vision, clear transparent communication, and a firm ethical code allowing for trust within your group of collaborative innovators (Gloor, 2006). Our personal experience through social action research and discussion with experts made it clear that these three elements are indispensable. In order to ensure that your COINs vision is strategic towards sustainability and all participants have a shared language for sustainability to communicate around, we recommend COINs for sustainability utilize the FSSD to help understand what sustainability and success means for their COIN and society.

Finally COINs will not promote openness, involvement, transparency, cooperation, or inclusiveness if they are used incorrectly. Below we continue with recommendations on how to use COINs effectively, in order to ensure they can be used strategically towards sustainability.

2.4.2. How to Use COINs Successfully?

In order to aid in practical value, these recommendations follow the timeline and logical ordering sustainability practitioners might follow (as revealed through our research) when deciding to set up a collaborative innovation network for sustainability. When to collaborate

The most important point to consider is whether or not the people you need to collaborate with are on-line. If so it seems that having a well-structured collaborative innovation network is almost always beneficial in our efforts to innovate for sustainability. However there are a few reasons to be cautious: if you have reason to doubt the Internet literacy of your audience, their ability to critically think, or their ability to act individually. Also be cautious if the problem you are innovating around requires a high degree of implicit communication, as the web does not currently offer the presence needed to deal with complex emotional challenges. That is not to say it cannot play a role, just make sure the web- enabled collaboration is supported by face-to-face time to sort through any issues necessitating more presence. How to motivate participation

The first step in motivation is to have a simple, clear, compelling and tangible vision. Multi-media can often help communicate that vision, especially if you are embarking on a collaboration that is solely web-based (Campbell, 2009; Brown, 2009). It is important to make it clear not only how you will work towards that vision, but how people will be rewarded for their work and participation. Many experts in our interviews discussed the value exchange, ie how will people realize value in exchange for their participation. Make sure that whatever value exchange you use it is clear and participants can see how they will receive value at some point, even if it is not immediate.

The complicated aspect of designing this value exchange is to know what motivates participation. Common motivations are trying to 'be a hero' or 'find your tribe' (Klein, 2009). A strong motivation is ego. Try and reward people's egos by acknowledging them as acknowledgement can go a long way towards motivating successful collaborations. Also consider games. People enjoy competition and solving problems and game type motivations can be very successful (Thorpe, 2009; Massum and Tovey, 2006). As collaborations offer a great opportunity to connect and find our tribe, often a large motivation is people seeking the enjoyment of connections. Make sure you leave room for that enjoyment.

Because the motivation for web-based collaboration is often more about vision, ego, finding your tribe or being a hero than it is about making money, it can be tricky to understand how to design financially for collaboration. In fact money can actually be de-motivating (Bollier, 2009; Gloor, 2009). At the least it is important to be clear about whether you are inviting people to an open collaboration (free to participate but privately controlled and owned), or a free project (control and ownership is part of an established commons) (Bollier, 2009). Which design is appropriate depends on your innovation goal, so it is impossible to say a project should always be established under the latter commons structure. If it is a free project (open to participate but privately owned), do not forget a general rule of thumb: "That which is created in the commons must stay in the commons, unless the commons decides that certain things are acceptable for being privately appropriated" (Bollier, 2009).

A few other recommendations for dealing with monetization include the following. Consider the tenet of 'shared risk=shared reward' when deciding how to design financial rewards (Harwood, 2009). Concentrate on creating value

for the stakeholders (i.e. all members of your COIN) rather than on making money, as research reveals this is the best way to ensure success (Gloor, 2007). And perhaps most importantly, be transparent about all motivations for designing a COIN and all potential rewards, as nothing will de-motivate participation faster than a fear of being taken advantage of. This is easily mitigated by transparency, honesty and openness.

Once a vision is established and you have motivated participation, the question becomes how should we structure the collaboration? What governance is needed, what web tools to use, and what legal structures are among the primary considerations. Governance

It is important for a successful COIN to be self-organizing, however that does not mean total chaos and anarchy. Along the spectrum of possible governance (from command and control at one end to anarchy at the other) we recommend you aim for more decentralized structures, as collaboration research reveals decentralization is an important facet in empowering participation (Gloor, 2009; Sawyer, 2009).

As opposed to traditional hierarchies, it is useful to consider wirearchies: "a dynamic two- way flow of power and authority based on information, knowledge, trust and credibility, enabled by interconnected people and technology" (Husband, 2005). In a wirearchy, our structures are our agreements. State up front what you are expecting, what roles, risks, and responsibilities everyone will take. Those agreements become your governance structure and people are accountable to those agreements.

In reality most of successful web scale collaborations have exhibited hybrid governance models with balances of anarchy, democracy, consensus, meritocracy, aristocracy and monarchy (Applegate, 2009; Harwood, 2009). These hybridizations should emerge through self-organization when and if your collaboration grows beyond the smaller driving force of a COIN. This evolution will likely come through social capital, where the leaders with more 'power' are those who have earned more standing in the collaborative community (Applegate, 2009). To support an environment with healthy social capital it is important to have accountability and integrity in the structure of your agreements, as well as space for idleness, randomness, creativity and risk to allow for true self-organization.

But how do randomness, idleness and creativity emerge over the web when we are no longer collaborating face-to-face? What is that creative space? Used correctly there are a multitude of web tools available to help hold that creative space. Twitter has been described as the water cooler of on-line collaborations, where there is space for random conversations and insights (Moore, 2009; Campbell, 2009; Applegate, 2009). Below we will explore more of what to consider when choosing web tools for collaboration. Choose the Right Web Tools for the Job

When it comes to picking the right tools for a collaboration, it is difficult to provide overarching guidance as every collaboration is unique, and the tools needed are unique to the task and participants. In general it is important to consider the technical sophistication of your co- collaborators and play to that. There is no reason to use overly complicated tools or wikis if it will turn off or scare your co-collaborators. Engage people using the technology they are already comfortable with, and from there you can add in features or move to more complicated tools as a group. It is also important to keep any web-based interface clean and clear, playing to how the brain works not the computer (Thorpe 2009). Consider accessibility for people with disabilities if you want an inclusive COIN.

Perhaps most importantly, consider the signal to noise ratio. It is critical to find a tool that helps you cut through all the noisy information and allows you to get at the signal i.e. the really important information. For some collaborations the signal is so strong that e-mail lists are sufficient. For others where there is greater noise, you need something more sophisticated to cut through the noise such as the Deliberatorium in development by Mark Klein (2009). Whatever tool (or likely tools) you decide on, do not let bugs in the machine put you off. Choosing open-source tools can help in dealing with bugs as they have a quick response to problems (Applegate, 2009), but ultimately software will always be buggy, as it is not human so cannot do exactly what you want it to (Munz, 2009). Protect everyone and the idea legally

There is no cure all answer as to the best intellectual property regime for collaboration. As a rule of thumb we encourage everyone to err towards sharing more, as the more you share the more opportunities for creativity and collaboration emerge. When thinking of legal structures, consider if the entire collaboration should exist under the same IP regime, or if it would be best for each participant to state their own level of IP. While its simplest to have

one regime, in larger collaborations allowing users the choice could motivate greater participation. A good compromise is to chose the most open Creative Commons license for the collaboration, and allow different participants to take on greater IP restrictions within that Creative Commons license if they choose. One of the simplest legal constructs available is to open up all your ideas to the commons, just require attribution. New open-source and Creative Commons licenses can give people the piece of mind to participate - so feel out your stakeholders and chose the IP regime that will best ease their fears and encourage their participation. Communication tips

Once your structure, IP and web tools are in place, it is worth considering how you maintain clear, motivating communication that helps build your community.

To start it is important to use shared language that everyone understands. For example if you have many digital immigrants in your group, it is not a good idea to use abbreviations and common web- acronyms, as this is not shared. In cross-cultural working this is even more difficult. We recommend communicating through stories, not processes, as stories represent more of a shared language (Gloor, 2009).

It is also important to be clear and transparent in your communication, especially with distributed contributors who are often left behind when communication is happening face-to-face. Record face-to-face meetings and share all communication transparently (Gloor, 2009).

Perhaps the best advice is to do whatever possible to pass along implicit communication. Use emoticons, as " ;-) " goes a long way towards communicating playfulness that would otherwise be lost (Moore, 2009; Gloor, 2009). Use video conferencing and multi-media to harness more senses then a text box, and in the name of transparent communication, encourage everyone to use their full name and be open and honest about who they are (if dealing with on-line only collaborators). This allows for trusting, productive relationships, as does meeting face to face at the beginning of collaborations to establish trust and good communication patterns. Be a leader for a collaborative community

The final piece of the puzzle is to understand good leadership to maintain a successful collaboration. Traditional ideas surrounding leaders as heroes and commanders do not fit with the networked organizational model and reality of COINs. Instead you should consider leadership more as facilitation. The best leaders bring people and resources together, facilitate the coming together of passions around a vision and simply exercise their natural influence within networks (Thorpe, 2009; Brown, 2009).

Both Mark Klein and Jon Husband articulate a new way to consider leadership for collaborative networks. Their advice is to begin as the champion: champion the vision, the cause, the platform, build excitement and make connections. Then once that critical mass is reached you step back and simply make sure resources are channeled to the right place. Champion, and channel. Evangelize, then maintain. Some stages within a collaboration will require more control from leaders, the most important thing is that when you do need to exercise more control you are transparent. The most important role as a leader is to empower participation, so empower your participants by enabling them to operate with self-determination.

Ultimately the best way to encourage good participation is to lead by example. As a participating leader, there is a responsibility to "set a tone that embraces diverse opinion...a practiced invitation to a way of being in the world" (Moore, 2009) as well as the moral standards and values of the collaboration. A few guidelines for good participation include:

• Be nice! - Don't behave online as you wouldn't in the flesh.

• Communicate clearly, with stories and shared language.

• Do not be possessive as nothing has a better chance of killing a collaboration.

• Support explorative risk-taking and let go of control.

• Be aware of information overload; filter what comes to you.

• Be altruistic to support the 'swarm' - the collective interest of the stakeholders of your COIN (Gloor, 2007).

• Be patient and understanding of different technical sophistications.

• Know-Thyself, admitting strengths and weaknesses. Only by truly understanding your own strengths, weaknesses and contributions can you support diversity and contribute effectively to a COIN.

• And remember: "Ego is like fire, it can be brilliant, illuminate, warm-up; it can also just destroy everything" (Applegate, 2009).

2.5. Strategic Opportunities of COINs for sustainability

In this section we synthesize the above results to outline the answer to the primary question: In what ways can collaborative innovation networks (COINs) be part of a movement towards a sustainable society? In particular, we discuss the results in the context of highlighting the strategic opportunities of COIN working for sustainability practitioners.

2.5.1. Reduced Resource Consumption

If COINs are used to their full potential with regards to providing a new, less wasteful, more effective and efficient way to organize around a service and vision, they can support organizations to reduce their resource consumption. The beginnings of this potential were witnessed in the U.S. Government. By simply switching to software as a service (SaaS) word-processing applications utilizing cloud computing, U.S. governmental agencies increased both worker and resource productivity (the Collaboration Project, 2009). This resource saving was achieved through a very small organizational change towards software that is more collaborative in its style, thus enhancing its portability, reducing time and resource waste in information storage and knowledge development. This is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the potential for collaborative working technologies helping us to make working environments and knowledge processes more effective. The more focused our organizations become in providing a product or service, by working towards a vision of success as a COIN, the more able they are to focus on reducing their waste and redundancy.

Another added benefit of increased web-enabled working as part of virtual communities is that COIN members do not have to travel as often, allowing for reduced resource consumption through decreased transportation. Not to say that COINs eliminate our need for face-to-face working, they simply give us greater flexibility to choose NOT to travel on a daily basis. There are also indications that the possibilities of distributed working styles enabled by the Internet could allow us to redesign entire industrial cities, making them more livable and sustainable, reducing the resource consumption within the boundaries of cities themselves (Harrison et al, 2008). However the rise in distributed models of working are so new, it is difficult to ascertain the full resource implications of this shift.

2.5.2. Self-organization, Diversity, Interdependence

One of the greatest roles of COINs towards sustainability is their ability to promote an organizational structure that is both self-organizing and diverse, important basic characteristics for any sustainable system. Our interviews, experience and literature review revealed that self-organization and diversity are essential characteristics for successful COINs. In order to achieve swarm creativity (the output of a COIN) you must have the ability to act as an interconnected, intelligent group with diverse contributions, building off each others ideas to create an emergent whole that is greater than each individual contribution. This was a critical learning for us as a group when engaging in social action research: to embrace our own diversity and recognize the importance of looking out and bringing in more diverse talents and ways of thinking to achieve our ambitious vision. That diversity could not realize its full potential without everyone stepping up and helping to co-create the organization, guiding the process in a way that works for each individual involved. The glue that holds COINs together is not command and control, but a shared commitment to a vision. That glue holds greater potential than traditional hierarchy to support self-organization and diversity, those very basic characteristics our society needs in order to achieve systemic sustainability.

2.5.3. Sustainable Processes of Relating

Successful COINs provide an opportunity to support most of the strategic guidelines for organizational processes that underlie social sustainability. This is because by their nature COINs must be cooperative, transparent, open and involving in order to succeed. While COINs do not need to be inclusive, the more inclusive they are, the more diverse the knowledge they hold, consequentially the more successful they will be in harnessing the wisdom of their network.

2.5.4. Bridging the ingenuity gap

One fact was undeniably clear throughout our research: collaborative innovation networks hold the greatest potential for disruptive innovation. Our society is in need of disruptive innovations if we are going to achieve the dramatic re-organization necessary to live sustainably within the earth's limits. Today, because of the networked world, we have greater potential to collaborate together than ever before. If we can promote greater use of collaborative innovation networks, we have a chance of achieving the break-through innovation necessary for sustainability.

Almost all of our interview respondents pointed to COIN's capacity to bring new and different people to the table to solve problems as the greatest benefit of this way of working. As Albert Einstein famously said: "we can not solve problems using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." With collaborative networks, we finally have the ability to bring new ways of thinking, diverse perspectives and people from different backgrounds outside the paradigm that created the problems to the table to innovate new solutions (Ramchand, 2009). For the first time many of the people worst afflicted by our global challenges can be involved in innovating a solution.

There is another less obvious benefit to this type of innovation: it is fun. As we network, meet and connect with different people to solve these challenges, many working using COINs have found the innovative process creative, fun and engaging (Massum and Tovey, 2009; Applegate, 2009; Campbell, 2009). COINs have brought a life to some of these challenges, helped connect people in new ways, and granted us a productive organizational opportunity to have some fun and make a difference all at the same time. Some suspect all this 'fun' is because it is easier to find our tribe, others throughout the world who connect with our own sustainability concerns and that as humans we enjoy finding places we fit in (Brown, 2009).

Beyond this enjoyment, perhaps the greatest opportunity to address our global sustainability challenges is via these networks providing for true ingenuity around decentralized solutions to centralized global problems. Globalization is a blessing to many as it allows us to see the truly complex nature of our world, however is also a beast in the way it has allowed a few people to impose their solutions on the masses. Of the many lessons of globalization, one of the most damning is the conundrum that all the great challenges we face are shared, yet our world is so diverse there is no one solution that will work in all the different corners of the globe. Sustainability, this global-scale issue, cannot be resolved by globalization. A more natural way of working is emerging, that of working as an ecosystem of COINs towards a centralization shared vision, through local, regional and national decentralized solutions: one body, with many organs.

2.6. Sustainability Risks of COINs

When considering the ways in which COINs can contribute to our societal movement towards sustainability, it is important to remember the following sustainability risks posed by COIN working that emerged through our research.

2.6.1. Resource Use

The future of the Internet is uncertain, in particular as we scale up our use of the Internet, just how many resources will it take to store data on-line? Servers storing web data are energy intensive, and every misappropriated website just sitting around is an awful waste of energy (Thorpe, 2009). If we switch to cloud computing and Software as a Service model, we have a far better chance of finding a means of storing information on-line in an affordable way, as cloud computing and utilizing global data centres effectively distributes the energy load and dramatically cuts down on waste (Thorpe, 2009; the Collaboration Project, 2009). However with no clear solutions today due to security and server concerns, the heavy resource cost of storing information has led many to doubt our ability to achieve sustainability in a networked information environment (Odum and Odum, 2001).

Additionally, there are doubts as to the feasibility of providing every person a computer due to the resource costs of these machines (Moore, 2009). Cloud computing and wireless technologies may provide a solution, particularly where whole communities can share more resource efficient hardware such as cell phones. But we still have a long way to go before information storage and the whole resource chain necessary for utilizing networked collaboration is operating within sustainable limits. Cradle to cradle design (where products are designed to be completely reusable or biodegradable), as well as a switch towards dematerialized mobile technology are both important moves.

2.6.2. COINs for un-sustainable initiatives

The wonder of COINs is their amazing innovative potential. We can achieve great things at a surprising pace when we work collaboratively. But not all disruptive innovation is in favor of sustainability. What if a group of people start innovating using COINs at a rapid pace towards an end that is fundamentally unsustainable? Collaborative Innovation at a networked scale is so effective it is dangerous.

2.6.3. The web won't save us, People will save us

This speaks to the largest reality/danger of this technology. Our use of the Internet and web-based collaborative technology is nothing more than a reflection of our society and ourselves. It is dangerous to believe the collaborative potential of the World Wide Web is going to save us (Keen, 2009). It is important to remember that the real power lies in the people using the technology. If we believe in the potential of collaborative innovation networks and want to use their potential for sustainability, we need to invest in the people using the technology. We need to educate around the critical thinking skills and values that support good communities, otherwise these systems will devolve to emulate many of the great atrocities of our off-line world (Rheingold, 2009; Applegate, 2009).

One intriguing human habit is that of balkanization: we have a tendency to talk to the same people and create reinforcing beliefs without ever bringing true diversity to the conversation. This is a dangerous habit if we expect COINs to be used for sustainability as their true value lies in a diversity of perspectives. If we chose to collaborate only with others with similar beliefs, tendencies, reactions, strengths and weaknesses, the group will lose its intelligent characteristic. The resulting collaboration runs the risk of establishing group thinking and mob mentality, rather than the advantages of we-think (Leadbeater, 2009) and smart mobs (Rheingold, 2002).

2.6.4. Poor Collaboration Skills

Which brings us to perhaps the most important point of all. Collaboration is difficult. It is not something most of us are encouraged or taught to do from a young age. This reality was verified by our own experiences as a COIN as well as the responses of almost every single interviewee. If people are bad at collaborating in real life, they will likely be bad at collaborating in on-line networks. Bring in the added complication of miss-communication and misuse of web-based technology and we realize that while collaborative innovation holds huge potential, there is still a large gap in our education as to how to operate collaboratively (Rheingold, 2009).

3. Conclusions

With all the risks and benefits of COIN working in mind, it is clear that COINs hold tremendous potential for rapidly accelerating our societies movement towards sustainability if we can appropriately deal with the risks involved. After months of study, we've determined that the largest risk in COINs not reaching their potential is our own inability to collaborate as a society. If we simply create a lot of web-sites and say, 'let's innovate' without a proper understanding of the difficulties and problems associated with collaboration in general, and web-enabled collaboration specifically, we will only waste more resources, time, and energy. Because of this, we believe the most valuable outcome of our research is a collection of tips, guidance and suggestions on how to consider collaborative innovation. When we entered into our research we expected to find suggestions, practical guidelines, clear concrete answers as to the best way to utilize COINs towards sustainability. However the reality of this topic (it's breadth, interdisciplinary nature, it's newness, the emerging factors) made that impossible in this research period. Instead we have areas to consider, topic threads, advice when working with COINs, and are looking forward to discovering more answers as we all go forward exploring this field.

Finally we'd like to re-emphasize the importance of utilizing the FSSD to help ensure COINs are used strategically. Not only can the FSSD provide directional guidance to help make resource choices in line with a sustainable future, it can also help to unify a group around a shared language. Sustainability can mean a variety of things, and it can be difficult to unite diverse individuals around a shared definition, especially when people in disparate parts of the world feel the impacts of the sustainability challenge so differently. The FSSD can provide that shared language, as its' grounding in accepted scientific principles allows for consensus amongst diverse participants. The FSSD supports vision led working, and COINs need strong, well-communicated visions in order to succeed. Combined, we believe COINs guided towards a sustainable future by the directional aid of the FSSD will play a transformational role in our society's necessary movement towards sustainability.


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