Scholarly article on topic 'Hamiltonian formalisms and symmetries of the Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator'

Hamiltonian formalisms and symmetries of the Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator Academic research paper on "Physical sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Physical sciences, author of scientific article — Krzysztof Andrzejewski

Abstract The study of the symmetry of Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator initiated in Andrzejewski et al. (2014) [24] is continued with special emphasis put on the Hamiltonian formalism. The symmetry generators within the original Pais and Uhlenbeck Hamiltonian approach as well as the canonical transformation to the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian framework are derived. The resulting algebra of generators appears to be the central extension of the one obtained on the Lagrangian level; in particular, in the case of odd frequencies one obtains the centrally extended l-conformal Newton–Hooke algebra. In this important case the canonical transformation to an alternative Hamiltonian formalism (related to the free higher derivatives theory) is constructed. It is shown that all generators can be expressed in terms of the ones for the free theory and the result agrees with that obtained by the orbit method.

Academic research paper on topic "Hamiltonian formalisms and symmetries of the Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator"

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Nuclear Physics B 889 (2014) 333-350

www.elsevier.com/locate/nuclphysb

Hamiltonian formalisms and symmetries of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator

Krzysztof Andrzejewski1

Department of Computer Science, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz, Poland Received 9 October 2014; accepted 21 October 2014 Available online 28 October 2014 Editor: Stephan Stieberger

Abstract

The study of the symmetry of Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator initiated in Andrzejewski et al. (2014) [24] is continued with special emphasis put on the Hamiltonian formalism. The symmetry generators within the original Pais and Uhlenbeck Hamiltonian approach as well as the canonical transformation to the Ostro-gradski Hamiltonian framework are derived. The resulting algebra of generators appears to be the central extension of the one obtained on the Lagrangian level; in particular, in the case of odd frequencies one obtains the centrally extended /-conformal Newton-Hooke algebra. In this important case the canonical transformation to an alternative Hamiltonian formalism (related to the free higher derivatives theory) is constructed. It is shown that all generators can be expressed in terms of the ones for the free theory and the result agrees with that obtained by the orbit method.

© 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.

1. Introduction

The theories we are usually dealing with are Newtonian in the sense that the Lagrangian function depends on the first time derivatives only. There is, however, an important exception. It can happen that we are interested only in some selected degrees of freedom. By eliminating the remaining degrees one obtains what is called an effective theory. The elimination of a degree of

E-mail address: k-andrzejewski@uni.lodz.pl.

1 This article is registered under preprint number arXiv:1410.0479.

http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2014.10.024

0550-3213/© 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by/3.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.

freedom results in increasing the order of dynamical equations for remaining variables. Therefore, effective theories are described by Lagrangians containing higher order time derivatives [1]. Originally, these theories were proposed as a method for dealing with ultraviolet divergences [2]; this idea appeared to be quite successful in the case of gravity: the Einstein action supplied by the terms containing higher powers of curvature leads to a renormalizable theory [3]. Other examples of higher derivatives theories include the theory of the radiation reaction [4,5], the field theory on noncommutative spacetime [6,7], anyons [8,9] or string theories with the extrinsic curvature [10].

Of course, the appearance of terms with higher time derivatives leads to some problems. One of them is that the energy does not need to be bounded from below. To achieve a deeper insight into these problems and, possibly, to find a solution it is instructive to consider a quite simple, however nontrivial, higher derivatives theory. For example, it was shown in Ref. [11] (see also

[12]) that the problem of the energy can be avoided (on the quantum level) in the case of the celebrated Pais-Uhlenbeck (PU) oscillator [13]. This model has been attracting considerable interest throughout the years (for the last few years, see, e.g., [11,12,14-24]). Recently, it has been shown (see [24]) that the properties of the PU oscillator, rather surprisingly, for some special values of frequencies change drastically and are related to nonrelativistic conformal symmetries. Namely, if the frequencies of oscillations are odd multiplicities of a basic one, i.e., they form an arithmetic sequences mk = (2k — 1)m, m = 0, for k = 1, ..., n, then the maximal group of Noether symmetries of the PU Lagrangian is the /-conformal Newton-Hooke group with / =

(for more informations about these groups see, e.g., [25-28] and the references therein). Otherwise, the symmetry group is simpler (there are no counterparts of dilatation and conformal generators (see the algebra (2.5)).

Much attention has been also paid to Hamiltonian formulations of the PU oscillator. There exists a few approaches to Hamiltonian formalism of the PU model: decomposition into the set of the independent harmonic oscillators proposed by Pais and Uhlenbeck in their original paper

[13], Ostrogradski approach based on the Ostrogradski method [29] of constructing Hamiltonian formalism for theories with higher time derivatives and the last one, applicable in the case of odd frequencies (mentioned above), which exhibits the /-conformal Newton-Hooke group structure of the model. Consequently, there arises a natural question about the relations between them as well as the realization of the symmetry on the Hamiltonian level? The aim of this work is to give the answer to this question.

The paper is organized as follows. After recalling, in Section 2, some informations concerning symmetry of the PU model on the Lagrangian level, we start with the harmonic decoupled approach. We find, on the Hamiltonian level, the form of generators (for both generic and odd frequencies) and we show that they, indeed, form the algebra which is central extension the one appearing on the Lagrangian level. Section 4 is devoted to the study of the relation between the above approach and the Ostrogradski one. Namely, we construct the canonical transformation which relates the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian to the one describing the decouple harmonic oscillator. This transformation enables us to find the remaining symmetry generators in terms of Ostrogradski variables. The next section is devoted to the case of odd frequencies where the additional natural approach can be constructed. In this framework the Hamiltonian is the sum of the one for the free higher derivatives theory and the conformal generator. We derive a canonical transformation which relates this new Hamiltonian to the one for the PU oscillator with odd frequencies. Moreover, we apply the method (see [30]) of constructing integrals of motion for the systems with symmetry to find all symmetry generators. Next, by direct calculations we show that they are related by the, above mentioned, canonical transformation to the ones of the PU

model described in terms decoupled oscillators. We also express symmetry generators in terms of their counterparts in the free theory.

In concluding Section 6, we summarize our results and discuss possible further developments. Finally, Appendix A constitutes technical support for the mains results. We derive there some relations and identities which are crucial for our work.

2. PU oscillator and its symmetry

Let us consider the three-dimensional PU oscillator, i.e., the system which is described by the following Lagrangian [13]

^ " ( d2 2V

^ = + «22>, (2.1) k=1 x 7

where 0 < «i < «2 < ... <«n and n = 1, 2,____Lagrangian (2.1) implies the following equation of motion

nfd^+a=0, (2.2)

k=1 V 7

which possesses the general solution of the form

x(t) = ^2(ak cos Mkt + Pk sin Mkt), (2.3)

where a's and fi's are some arbitrary constants.

As it has been mentioned in the Introduction the structure of the maximal symmetry group of Lagrangian (2.1) depends on the values of «'s. If the frequencies of oscillation are odd, i.e., they form an arithmetic sequence «k = (2k — 1)«, « = 0, k = 1,..., n, then the maximal group of Noether symmetries of the system (2.1) is the /-conformal Newton-Hooke group, with / = 2n—1. It is the group which Lie algebra is spanned by H, D, K, JaP and Ca, a, P = 1,2, 3, p = 0, 1, ..., 2n — 1, satisfying the following commutation rules

[H,D] = H— 2«2K, [H,K] = 2D, [D,K] = K,

( 2n — 1V [D, Cp] = ( p--— \Cp, [K, Cp] = (p — 2n + 1)Cp+l,

[H, Cp] = pCp—x + (p — 2n + 1)«2Cp+x, [jap,jys] = SaSJyP + Say Jps + SPy JSa + 8paJay,

[jap,Cyp ] = SayCP — SPyCap. (2.4)

Although this algebra is isomorphic to the / -conformal Galilei one (the latter can be obtained by a linear change of the basis H ^ H — «2K, see [25,26,28] and [31-36] for more recent developments of this algebra) the use of the basis (2.4) implies the change of the Hamiltonian which alters the dynamics.

In the case of generic frequencies the maximal symmetry group is simpler. Its Lie algebra consists of H, JaP and C±, k = 1,..., n. The action of JaP remains unchanged and only com-

mutations rules between H and C's must be modified [H,C+} = -«kC-,

[H,C-]= «kC+. (2.5)

Both symmetry algebras posses central extension:

[Cap,C? ] = (-1)pp!q\8ap82n-lp+q, (2.6)

in the odd case and

[C+aC- ] = (2.7)

; Pk J

in the generic case; which will turn out to be necessarily (see the next section) to construct the symmetry algebra on the Hamiltonian level.

3. Decoupled oscillators approach

An approach to the Hamiltonian formalism of the PU model was proposed in Ref. [13] where it was demonstrated that the Hamiltonian of the PU oscillator (in dimension one) turns into the sum of the harmonic Hamiltonians with alternating sign. To show this we follow the reasoning of Ref. [13] and introduce new variables

Xk = nkx, k = 1,...,n; (3.1)

where nk is the projective operator:

nk = VW\ n(|2 + a?), (3.2)

i = 1 '

pk = k =12'...'n. (33) lli=1 (ai - ak) i=k

Note that pk are alternating in sign. Then one finds

x = J2 (-1')k-1V\pk\xk, (3.4)

as well as

1 n / d 2 \ 1 n

l = -2J2 (-1)k-1Xk (+«2) Xk = (-1)k-1X - «2x2)+t.d. (3.5) b—1 ^ ' b— 1

^ k-U j. ,2t2

k=1 7 ~ k=1 The corresponding Hamiltonian reads

H = 222 (-1)k-1 p + «m, (3.6)

while the canonical equations of motion are of the form

X k = (-1)k-1pk, Pk = (-1)ka4Xk. (3.7)

Taking into account the form of the general solution (2.3) we see that the dynamics of the new canonical variables is given by

(_1)k_i

xk = —=r (oik cos(rnkt) + /¡¡k sin(t»kt)), V\Pk |

pk = 0k cos(a>kt) _ Oik sin(Mkt)). (3.8)

Therefore, we have a correspondence between the set of solutions of the Lagrange equation (2.2) and the set of solutions of the canonical equations (3.7). Consequently, we can translate the action of the group symmetry from the Lagrangian level to the Hamiltonian one and find all the symmetry generators in terms of oscillator canonical variables. We will show that the generators, obtained in this way, form the algebra which is the central extension of the symmetry algebra on the Lagrangian level.

In the generic case it is very easy to find the form of the remaining (the Hamiltonian is given by (3.6)) symmetry generators on the Hamiltonian level. First, let us note that the infinitesimal action of fkC+ and vkC_, k = 1, ..., n, on the Lagrangian level, takes the form

X' (t) =X(t) + (fk cos Mkt + Vk sin Mkt). (3.9)

Acting with nk and applying Eq. (3.7) we find the infinitesimal action of C± on the phase space; by virtue of

S(-) = e[-, Generator}, (3.10)

we obtain the following generators:

(_1)k-1 ak

C+ = —=r cos(wkt)pk + r.—r sin(ajkt)xk, k V\Pt\ V\Pk\

(_1)k-1 ak

C_ =—==r- sin(akt)pk--cos(akt)xk, (3.11)

which commute to the central charge - according to (2.7). Similarly, the angular momentum generators read

Ja/ = E(xakPi _ Pakx/). (3.12)

Consequently, we obtain the centrally extended algebra (2.5). 3.1. Odd frequencies

In the odd case the symmetry group is reacher and, therefore, this case is much more interesting. We assume now that the frequencies form the arithmetic sequence, i.e., ak = (2k _ 1)a, k = 1,..., n. In this case the main point is that the numbers pk can be explicitly computed; the final result reads

(_1)k_1 (2k _ 1)

Pk =-^-^-, k = 1,...,n. (3.13)

f k (4a2)n_1(n _ k)!(n + k _ 1)!

Consequently, one has useful relations

\ Pk \ (2k - 1)(n + k) 1 1

-=-, k = 1,...,n- 1. (3.14)

\ Pk+1 \ (2k + 1)(n - k) '' ' ;

Next, let us note that the following Fourier expansion holds (see Appendix A)

„ , i y~f-, v+n cos(2k - \)at, p-even;

sinP«cos2n-1-P«t = ^k=Ykp ( ) ' P (3.15)

I Efc=1 Ykp sin(2k - 1)at, p-odd;

where y± can be expressed in terms of sum of products of binomial coefficients; however, their explicit form is not very useful; for our purposes some properties of Y±p (see (A.2)-(A.6)) will turn out to be more fruitful. Now, using Eq. (3.15) we can rewrite the infinitesimal action (3.9), in the case of odd frequencies, in the equivalent form

x'(t) =X(t) + — ep sinp at cos2n-1-p«t, (3.16)

which gives suitable family of the generators Cp, p = 0, 1, 2, ..., 2n - 1, on the Lagrangian level, i.e., satisfying commutation rules of the l-conformal Newton-Hooke algebra (cf. [24]).

In order to find the action of Cp in the Hamiltonian formalism, we use Eq. (3.15) together with (3.1) and (3.7), which yields

(-1)k-1ep ( Y+p cos(2k - 1)«t, p-even;

Xk =Xk +--4 _ (3.17)

«W \ Pk \ [Ykp sin (2k - 1)at, p-odd;

„ (2k - Y)axp \ -Y+p sin(2k - 1)«t, p-even;

Pk = pk +--, 1 _ (3.18)

«W \Pk \ [Ykp cos(2k - 1)at, p-odd.

Using Eq. (3.10) we derive the explicit expression for the generators Cp in terms of the canonical variables

Cp = V-k-p^((-1)k-1 cos((2k - 1)rnt)pk + (2k - 1)« sin((2k - 1)rnt)X.k), (3.19)

k=1 \ Pk \

for p even, and

Cp = pkk^((-1)k-1 sin((2k - 1)«t)pk - (2k - 1)«cos((2k - 1)«t)X;k), (3.20) for p odd. Eqs. (3.19) and (3.20) can be inverted to yield Xk and pk in terms of the generators Cp

pk = (-1)k-X4\fk\ cos((2k - 1)«t) P+k«pCp

2n-1 I

+ (-1)k-1 sin((2k - 1)«t)J2 P-k«pCp, (3.21)

-1 2n_1

xk = (2k _kL sin( (2k _ Vat)^'/+kaPCP

_ (2k_1)a, °os((2k _ 1)at) E'/~vapCp^ (M

where /+, / _ are the inverse matrices to y+, Y _ while one and two primes ', " denote the sum over odd and even indices, respectively.2

Next, we find the action of the dilatation generator. To this end let us recall (cf. [24]) that the infinitesimal action of dilatation on coordinates is of the form

x!(t) =x(t) _ — ((2n _ 1)acos(2at)xi(t) _ sin (2at)x(t)). (3.23)

Substituting (3.4) and acting with the projectors nk we obtain, due to (3.1) and (3.7), the infinitesimal dilatation transformation on the phase space

x'k=xk + -J co^(2at){sf\pk~i\(n _ k + 1)xk_1 +y/\Pk+T\(n + k)^k+1) , e(_1)^ „ V\pk+T\, , ,,v

+ --sin (2at) —-—(n _ k + 1)pk_k _ „, , , (n + k) )pk+k,

\2k — 3 2k +1

xj = x\ —

--\V\P2\(n + 1) cos(2«i)x2 + sm(2Mt)^\p2\ (n~-p2

2VPÏÏV 3m

— n cos(2wt)y/\pï\x1 + — s\n(2mt)^/\pï\p1\, (3.24)

^ „ e(2k — 1) is/\Pk—i\,1i,,* , V\Pk+i\, , \

pk = pk — IQW cos(2œt\^T—T(n — k +1)pk—1 + H+T(n + k)pk+1 )

em(—1)k(2k — 1) ,,--„ ,--„ ,

+--2yjp7-sin(2«t){y/ \pk—1\(n — k + 1 )xk— 1 — V \Pk+1\(n + k)xk+1 )

Pi = P1

2V\p1\

cos(2«t)^—n^\p1\p1 + (n + 1)p2j

+ \ sm(2at)(nJ\P1\Xk + J\p2\(n + 1)^^), (3.25)

where k > 1 and, by definition, we put xn+1 = = 0. One can check, using Eq. (3.14), that (3.24) and (3.25) define the infinitesimal canonical transformation generated (according to (3.10)) by

D = — (aA cos(2at) + B sin(2at)), (3.26)

2 We will use this convention throughout the article.

b = -j2 (-D k=l

1 / 2 -"2 + -n{" Xi - pi

n - k + 1 2k - 3

(PkPk-i - (2k - 1)(2k - 3)m XkXk-i)

(3.27)

and, by definition, X0 = p0 = 0. The meaning of the components A and B will become more clear in Section 5 (see (5.5)).

Similar calculations can be done for the conformal generator K. Namely, the infinitesimal conformal transformation, on the Lagrangian level, reads

X'(t) =X(t) - ^—2((2n - 1)msin(2mt)X(t) + (cos(2«i) - 1)X(t)).

(3.28)

Substituting X and acting with the projector nk we obtain the infinitesimal conformal transformation on the phase space and consequently (due to (3.10)) the explicit form of the generator K

K = —Tr (B cos(2a>t) - vA sin(2rnt) + H). 2m2

Finally, the angular momentum takes the same form as in the generic case

(3.29)

Jap=£ XkPi - Pax:

(3.30)

It remains to verify that obtained generators, indeed, yield integrals of motion and define the centrally extended /-conformal Newton-Hooke algebra. To this end we need a few identities which are proven in Appendix A. First, we compute the commutators of £'s and check that they give the proper central extension. The only nontrivial case is [Cap, Cq ] with p even and q odd (or conversely). We have

[CP. Cq ] = ±(-1)'-1(n - k)!(n + k - DY+y-q

P!(2n - 1 - P)!m2n-1Saq

P!(2n - 1 - P)!m2n-1Saq

P!(2n - 1 - P)!m2n-1Saq

J2(-1)k-1q+kyk-q k=1 n

-1-P,kykq

$2n-1,P+q = P! q! 8aP&2n-1,P+q,

(3.31)

where we use consecutively Eqs. (3.19), (3.20), (3.13), (A.3) and (A.2). For p odd and q even we obtain the same result except the extra minus sign. Consequently, we obtain the central

extension (2.6). In order to find the remaining commutators let us note that

[A, B] = -2H,

[B, H] = 2rn2A,

[A, H] = -2B. (3.32)

The proof of the above relations is straightforward although tedious and involve the use of (3.14). Now, by virtue of Eq. (3.32), it is easy to check that the generators H, D, K satisfy the first line of Eqs. (2.4).

Now, we find the adjoint action of H, D, K, Jaq on Cp. Since the calculations are rather wearisome and lengthy we sketch only the main points. To show that [H, Cp] gives proper rule we use the identity (A.4). The case [D, Cp] is more involved; however, using repeatedly Eqs. (3.14) and (A.5) we arrive at the desired result. Similarly to obtain [H, Ck], first, we use Eq. (3.14) and then Eq. (A.6). Finally, it is easy to compute the commutators involving angular momentum.

Having all the commutation rules and (A.4) it is not hard to check that the obtained generators are constants of motion. This concludes the proof that, on the Hamiltonian level, they are symmetry generators and form the centrally extended l-conformal Newton-Hooke algebra.

4. Ostrogradski approach

Since the PU oscillator is an example of higher derivatives theory, it is natural to use the Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradski [29]. To this end let us expand Lagrangian (2.1) in the sum of higher derivatives terms (here Q = x)

1 n / ¿2 \ i n l = -\ Q n(4+4) Q = 2 E(-Dk-1^ (Q(k)

2*1 1 \dt2 k)* 2

k=1y 7 k=0

42 )Q = ^> ,(-1)k-L<Q(kT, (4.1)

°k = J2 «21 •••«L, k=o^..^ °n = L (4.2)

¡1 <...<in-k

It can be shown (by standard reasoning) that the following identities hold

J2pk^lm = 0, m = 0,...,n - 2, (4.3) k=1

Y,pkakn-1) = (-1)n+\ (4.4)

J2°m(-1)mJ2Pkai(r-n+m-1) = 0, r > n, (4.5)

m=0 k=1

where pk is given by Eq. (3.3). Now, we introduce the Ostrogradski variables

Q k = Q(k-1),

Pk = W - dY = (-I)k-1 yaQ(2j-k), (4.6)

k f=0\ dt) dQ(k+j) ( ) f=kjQ ,

for k = 1,..., n. Then the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian takes the form ( 1 )n_ 1 n 1 n

H = ^-P2 + E Pk_1Qk _ (_1)kak_k Q2. (4.7)

2 k=2 2 k=1

By virtue of Eqs. (3.7) and (4.6), for k = 1,..., n, we find

Q k = (_1)k_LYl V\Pj\(_1)i _Xak_Xij, k-odd; i=1 n

Qk = (_1)k j\Pj\ak-2pi, k-even; (4.8)

Pk = (_1)k (_1)i_^V\Pi\(j2ai(_1)ia2i _k)i" k-even; i=1 V=k f

k-3 " i n \ ¡k = (_1)kTj2 VPllYtVi^^ _k_j pi, k-odd. (4.9)

i=1 i=k

One can show that Eqs. (4.8) and (4.9) define a canonical transformation; to compute the Poisson brackets {Qk, Qi} and {Qk, ?i} we use (4.3) and (4.3)-(4.5), respectively; computing {Pk, Pi} is the most complicated one and involves considering two cases k _ i ^ 1 as well as applying Eqs. (4.3) and (4.5).

Next, let us note that the inverse transformation is of the form

Vi = ^Vd^ J2ai(_1)ia2i_k_iJ\pi\Qk + J^'(_1)kl^P~\ak_2Pk, k=1 i=k k=1

pi = ^Vd2+i_^Vi(_1)iafi_kV\P\Qk ^JPak^Pk. (4.10)

k=1 i=k k=1

No, we can try to find the symmetry generators (both in the odd and generic cases) in terms of the Ostrogradski variables. Of course, we expect that the Hamiltonian (3.6) should be transformed into the Ostrogradski one. Indeed, using (4.3)-(4.5) repeatedly we arrive, after straightforward but rather arduous computations (considering two cases: n-odd, even), at the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian (4.7).

Similarly, applying Eqs. (4.3)-(4.5), we check that the angular momentum (in both cases (3.12) and (3.30)) transforms under (4.10) into Ostrogradski angular momentum

Ja/ = £ (qiP/ _ Q№). (4.11)

As far as the generators C's are concerned (again using (4.3)-(4.5)) we obtain the following expressions:

C- = E(cosait)(k-1)Pk - £ (-1)k-1J2aj(cosa,t)2j-k Qk, k=1 k=1 \ j=k f n n / n \

C- = (sin ait)(k-1)Pk - £ \(-1)k-1J2 a j (sin ait)2j-k\ Q k, (4.12)

k=1 k= A j=k f

in the case of generic frequencies, and 1 n /

^V"I A (sinPat cos2n-1-P at)(k-1)

CP = zpZ si

aP k=1

+ (- l)kQk £ Oj (sinp at cos2n—1—p at)(2j—k) , (4.13)

j =k / in the odd case; which perfectly agrees with the definitions of the Ostrogradski canonical variables (4.6) and the action of C's on Q (Eqs. (3.9) and (3.16)). Similar reasoning can be done for the remaining two generators D and K in the odd case. Then, they become bilinear forms in the Ostrogradski variables; however the explicit form of coefficients is difficult to simplify and not transparent thus we skip it here.

5. Algebraic approach to odd case

Since the l -conformal Newton-Hooke algebra is related to the l-conformal Galilei one by the change of Hamiltonian

H = H + a2K, (5.1)

where tilde refers to generators of the free theory (which possesses the l-conformal Galilei symmetry); therefore, it would be instructive to construct an alternative Hamiltonian formalism for the PU-model (in the case of odd frequencies) with the help of the one for the free higher derivatives theory.

Denoting by qm, jim, m = 0, ..., n — 1 the phase space coordinates of the free theory and adapting the results of Ref. [37] to our conventions we obtain the following form of the generators of the free theory (at time t = 0)

(-1)n+1 2 n-1

TT y — 1) 2 V^ -> ->

H = -2-nn-1 — qmXm-1,

- n-1 i 2n — 1V . D= \m--2-¡qm^m,

m=0^ 7

2 n—2

K = ( —1)n+1 n- q^— 1 + J2 (2n — 1 — m)(m + 1)qmHm+1,

n — 1

J / ,, \qmJlm qmJlmJ,

\m+1„

Cm = (—1)m+1m\nm, m = 0,...,n — 1,

С 2n—1—m = (2n — 1 — m)\q[m, m = 0,...,n — 1. (5.2)

Of course, the change of the algebra basis given by (5.1) induces the corresponding one for the coordinates in dual space of the algebra (denoted in the same way); consequently we define the new Hamiltonian as follows

( n«+i "-1 " — -n

" 2 ~ (— ) 2 X—^ H = H + & K =-2-nn— 1 — qm^m — l

2 2 n—2

+ (—1)n+1 + J2 (2n — 1 — m)(m + 1)&2 qmnm+1. (5.3)

We will show that (5.3) is indeed the PU Hamiltonian in qm, nm coordinates and we will find the remaining generators in terms of them. To this end let us define the following transformation

x 1)k(x1" &—m + q , "sr' mlQJmV\Pk\ + n \ Xk = ( 1) M\J\PT\Ykmqm + ^ (2k — 1)& P2" — 1—m,k7tm ,

\ m=0 v m=0 /

Pk = —fill' & 'n?k^)C0 Y+n — l—mqm + E" ml^^^mY (5.4)

for k = 1, ..., n. Using (3.14) and (A.3) we check that (5.4) define a canonical transformation. Moreover, by applying Eqs. (3.14) and (A.2)-(A.4) we check that the PU Hamiltonian (3.6) (with odd frequencies ) transforms into (5.3). The remaining generators can be also transformed. First, using (3.14), (A.2), (A.3), (A.5) and (A.6), after troublesome computations, we find that

A = —2D,

B = —H + &2K, (5.5)

and, consequently, we obtain a nice interpretation of A and B. Using Eqs. (5.5), one checks that H, D, K take the form

h = h + &2K,

D = D cos 2&t + -1 (Hi — &2K) sin 2&t,

1 1 ~ sin2&t ~

K =- (1 + cos 2&t)K + —2 (1 — cos 2&t)H +-D. (5.6)

2 2&2 &

Finally, the angular momentum reads

n — 1

Jap=E (q>m—qmo, (5.7)

i.e., takes the same form as the one for the free theory (according to it commutes with H). The generators Ck are obtained by plugging (5.4) into (3.19) and (3.20), see also (5.17).

Summarizing, we expressed all PU symmetry generators in terms of the ones for free theory (and consequently in terms of qm and nm) and we see that the both sets of generators (except Hamiltonian) agree at time t = 0. This result becomes even more evident if we apply the algorithm of constructing integrals of motion for Hamiltonian system with symmetry presented

in Ref. [30]. Namely, for the Lie algebra spanned by Xi, i = 1,..., n, [Xi, Xj ] = YTk=i ckjXk, with the adjoint action

Adg(Xi) = gXjg- = J2 Dj(g)Xj, (5.8)

the integrals of motion Xi (f, t) corresponding to the generators Xi are of the form

Xi(M,t) = Y, Dj(etH^j, (5.9)

where f's are the coordinates of the dual space to the Lie algebra (more precisely, their restriction to the orbits of the coadjoint action in the dual space).

Let us apply this approach to our case. One can check that for H, D, K, Jaq Eq. (5.9) gives (5.6) and (5.7). For Cp we have

^p — e C pe — / j apr( r=0

Cp = etHC pe-tH =V apr(t)C r, p = 0,...,2n - 1, (5.10)

where the functions apr satisfy the set of equations

apr(t) = (r + 1)apr+i(t) + (r - 2n)rn2ap,r-i(t), (5.11)

with ak-1 = ak,2n = 0 and the initial conditions apr(0) = Spr. Substituting apr(t) = apr(trn)rnr we obtain

a pr(t) = (r + 1)ap,r+1(t) + (r — 2n)ap,r — 1 (t), (5.12)

with appropriate initial conditions. It turns out that for fixed p Eq. (5.12) is strongly related to the evolution of q's and n's in the PU model with odd frequencies. More precisely, the canonical equations of motion for the Hamiltonian (5.3) are equivalent to Eq. (5.12) for fixed p (cf. [38]). Consequently, the solution can be written in terms of combinations of harmonics with odd frequencies:

2n —1

apr(t) = Yl ir?raeiatspa, (5.13)

a=—(2n — 1)

where j3pa is given by (A.24) and sp are some constants (see [38])). Taking into account the initial conditions, we obtain

2n —1

apr(t) = vr—p Y2 irPraYapelata. (5.14)

a = — (2n — 1)

By virtue of Eqs. (A.25) and (A.29), we have

apr(t) = of -pJ2P±kY±p cos (2k - 1)^t, (5.15)

where upper (lower) sign corresponds to p, r even (odd); and

() = Tor-pY,P?kY±P sin (2k - 1)ot, (5.16)

where upper (lower) sign corresponds to p even and r odd (p odd and r even). Having the explicit form of apr(t), and using Eqs. (5.2) and (5.10) we obtain C's in terms of q's and n's:

n — 1

Cp = J2 ((—l)r—1r -apr(t)nr + (2n — 1 — r)\ap2n—1—r(t)qr). (5.17)

As we have mentioned above (5.17) is related by canonical transformation (5.4) to (3.19) and (3.20).

6. Discussion

Let us summarize. In the present paper we focused on the Hamiltonian approaches to the PU model and its symmetries. First, we derived the form of the symmetry generators, in the original Pais and Uhlenbeck approach (for both generic and odd frequencies). We have shown that the resulting algebra is the central extension of the one obtained on the Lagrangian level, i.e., the centrally extended /-conformal Newton-Hooke algebra in the case of odd frequencies and the algebra defined by Eqs. (2.5) and (2.7), in the generic case. Next, we considered the Ostrogradski method of constructing Hamiltonian formalism for theories with higher derivatives. We derived the canonical transformation (Eqs. (4.8)-(4.9)) leading the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian to the one in decoupled oscillators approach.

Let us note that the both approaches, mentioned above, do not distinguish the odd frequencies and in that case do not uncover the richer symmetry. A deeper insight is attained by nothing that for odd frequencies an alternative Hamiltonian formalism can be constructed. It is based on the Hamiltonian formalism for the free higher derivatives theory exhibiting the /-conformal Galilei symmetry. More precisely, we add to the Hamiltonian of the free theory the conformal generator. As a result, we obtain the new Hamiltonian, which turns out to be related, by canonical transformation (5.4), to the PU one. This construction can be better understood from the orbit method point of view, where the construction of dynamical realizations of a given symmetry algebra is related to a choice of one element of the dual space of the algebra as the Hamiltonian (see [30] and the references therein). In our case, both algebras (/-Galilei and /-Newton-Hooke) are isomorphic to each other; only the one generator, corresponding to the Hamiltonian, differ by adding the conformal generator of the free theory. This gives the suitable change in the dual space and consequently the definition (5.3).

The change of the Hamiltonian alters the dynamics, which implies different time dependence of the symmetry generators (which do not commute with H); however, all PU generators should be expressed in terms of the generators of the free theory (for t = 0). This fact was confirmed by applying the method presented in Ref. [30] as well as, directly, by the canonical transformation (5.4) to the decoupled oscillators approach for the PU model.

Turning to possible further developments, let us recall that in the classical case (/ = J?) the dynamics of harmonic oscillator (on the half-period) is related to the dynamics of free particle by well known Niederer's transformation [39] (this fact has also counterpart on the quantum level). It turns out that this relation can be generalized to an arbitrary half-integer / [24] on the Lagrangian level; on the Hamiltonian one, we encounter some difficulties since there is no straightforward transition to the Hamiltonian formalism for a theory with higher derivatives. However, in the recent paper [40] the canonical transformation which relates the Hamiltonian (5.3) to the one for free theory (the first line of (5.2)) has been constructed; it provides a counterpart of classical Niederer's transformation for the Hamiltonian formalism developed in Section 5. Using our

results one can obtain similar transformation for both remaining Hamiltonian approaches. We also believe that the results presented here can help in constructing quantum counterpart of the Niederer's transformation for higher l as well as to study of the symmetry of the quantum version of PU oscillator.

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to Joanna Gonera, Piotr Kosiriski and Pawel Maslanka for useful comments discussions. The e-mail discussion with Professors Anton Galajinsky and Ivan Masterov is highly acknowledged. The work is supported by the grant of National Research Center number DEC-2013/09/B/ST2/02205.

Appendix A

In this appendix we prove the following Fourier expansion

. p 2n-1-p Y+P cos(2k - 1)1, P-even;

sinP t cos 1 pt ={ p (A.1)

[121=1 Y-P sin(2k - 1)t, p-odd;

and derive some, crucial for the main part of the paper, properties of the expansion coefficients; namely

Y+ = (-y)k-1Y-2n-1-p- 3+k = (-1)k-1P-n-1-p,k' (A.2)

2p!(2n - 1 - p)!p±k = 22n-1(n - k)!(n + k - \)\y±p, (A.3)

(2k - 1)Y±P = TPY?,p-1 ± (2n - 1 - P^p+v (A.4)

(n + k)Yp+1p + (n - k + 1)yP-1p P nYppSk1 = (2n - 1 - 2p)Ypp, (A.5)

(n + k)Y±+1pp - (n - k + 1)Y±-1pp T nYpph1 = TPY^p-1 T (2n - 1 - P)Yp,p+1- (A.6)

where /3p is the inverse matrix of yP and by definition YpP = 0 whenever p < 0, p > 2n - 1, k < 1, k > n. Let us stress that 3+k, y+p (3-k, Y-P) are defined only for p even (odd).

Let us consider, for fixed n, n = 1, 2, ..., the set of functions

p+(t) =

-,+ , , V2cos(2k - 1)t

P-(T) =

os2n-1 t

V2sin(2k - 1)t

t =arctan t

, (A.7)

where k is, a priori, an integer. One can check that functions (A.7) satisfy the orthonormality relations

7 P+(T)P+(T) _ 7 P-^P-^) _

J dT = J n(1 + T2)2n dT = Skj-

r P±(T)PT(T)

j nd + ^n^ = 0- (A.8)

t= arctan t

and the following identities

P± = ±P±, (A.9)

(1 + r 2)(P±)' = T(2k — DPT + (2n — 1)tp± , (A.10)

I1 + t2)p+ = p±(1 — t2) t2Tp^ (A.11)

(1 + t2)p±— 1 = p±(1 — t2) ± 2Tp?, (A.12)

(n — k)p±+1 + (n + k — 1)p±—1 = (2n — 1)p± — 2t (p±)', (A.13)

(n — k)p±+1 — (n + k — 1)p±—1 = (2k — 1)p± t 2(pT)'. (A.14) Let X denote the operator

X = (1 + t 2)d — (2n — 1)t. (A.15)

v ' dT

Xp± = T(2k — 1)pT; (A.16)

consequently the action of the operator Y = X2 is as follows

Yp± = —(2k — \)2p±, (A.17)

i.e., p's are eigenvectors of the operator Y.

Now, the point is that for k = 1,..., n the functions p± are polynomials of degree less than or equal to 2n — 1 (this can be seen by expanding sin(2k — 1)t and cos(2k — 1)t). Due to (3.1) they form the orthonormal basis in the space W2"—1(t) of all polynomials degree less than 2n with the scalar product

,, , f f(T)g(T) , 10,

(f,g) = / _„ , _9\9» dT. (A.18)

n(1 p t 2)2n

are even (od {tp f«— of W2n—1(r) is of the form

Since Pp, (P— ) are even (odd) functions the expansion with respect to the standard basis

2n —1

P+(T) = V2£ p+krp, k= 1,...,n;

2n — 1 V

P—(t) = V2J2 j-Tp, k = 1,...,n. (A.19)

Moreover, since P+ = Pp and P— = —P- we have jp0 = jpl and j—0 = — j—v Denoting by Y± the inverse matrix of j± we get the following relations

P 1 « T ^ ' ' kp

= 72^YkpPk(x), p-even;

rp = -L Y^Y-Ppk—(T), p-odd. (A.20)

V2 k=1

Substituting t = tan t in Eqs. (A.20) we obtain the expansions

p + cos(2k - 1)t

tanpt = > yZ-t—5-, p-even;

a^fkp cos2n—11 k=1

p n sin(2k - 1)t

tanP t = £ Y- cos2n-it - P-odd; (A.21)

which are equivalent to the Fourier expansion (A.1).

Now, we prove the identities (A.2)-(A.6). First, let us note that the operator X was considered in Ref. [38]3 as acting on the space WC"-1 (the space of complex values polynomials of degree less than 2n). It was shown there that the polynomials

2n-1+a 2n-1-a

P-(t) = (1 + iT) 2 (1 - it), (A.22)

where the index a is an odd integer belonging to the set {-(2n - 1), ..., (2n - 1)}, form an orthonormal basis of WC?n-1 and are the eigenvectors of X, i.e.,

XP- = iaP-. (A.23)

Moreover, it was proved that the coefficients of the expansion

P-(T) =Y, iPPp-TP, (A.24)

satisfy the relations

2n-1-a

Pp,-a = (-1)PPpa, foto-1-p,a = (-1) Ppa- (A.25) Furthermore, with (y-p) being the inverse matrix to (Ppa) the following important relation holds

p!(2n - 1 - p)\Pp- = G(n, a)Y-pip, (A.26)

2n - 1 + a 2n - 1 - a

G(n,a) = 2-1i-\l-2-) '-. (A.27)

We can use this information to obtain some relations for p± and y ±. To this end let us note that we have

P+ = V2Re(P2k-1) = V2Re(P-(2k-1)),

P- = V2Im(P2k-x) = - V2lm(P-(2k-1}), (A.28)

which implies

3+k = (-1)2 3p,2k-1- 3~pk = 3p,2k-1-

Y+P = 2Y2k-1,p, Y-P = 2iY2k-1,p, (A.29)

where p is even (odd) for the +(-) case, respectively.

p „ „- , „, p-1

3 For our convention n must be replaced there with n - 1.

Now, we are ready to prove the relations (A.2)-(A.6). First, using (A.25), (A.26) and (A.29) we get (A.2) and (A.3). Recursion relation (A.4) is obtained by differentiating (A.1). Substituting (A.19) to (A.13) and using (A.3), (A.9) we arrive at (A.5). Similarly, inserting (A.19) into (A.14) and applying (A.2), (A.3), (A.9) we get (A.6).

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