Scholarly article on topic 'Comparison between personality profiles of the parents with schizophrenic offspring and normal parents based on MCMI-III'

Comparison between personality profiles of the parents with schizophrenic offspring and normal parents based on MCMI-III Academic research paper on "Clinical medicine"

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{Schizophrenia / MCMI-III / "psychiatric profile" / "first degree relative" / genetics}

Abstract of research paper on Clinical medicine, author of scientific article — N. Khorram, O. Resaei, B. Dolatshahi

Abstract MCMI-III used to compare the psychiatric profile of the parents with schizophrenic children and parents without schizophrenia in the family. We did not observed any significant differences between fathers in case and control groups in all 27 scales of MCMI-III (p-value>0.10). However the in female subjects the scores of disclosure, debasement, schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, negativistic, masochistic, schizotypal, paranoid and anxiety scales in two groups were significant (P-value<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the scores in desirability, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, sadistic, compulsive, borderline, bipolar, alcohol dependence and drug dependence scales in two groups were significant (P-value>0.05).

Academic research paper on topic "Comparison between personality profiles of the parents with schizophrenic offspring and normal parents based on MCMI-III"

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Procedía Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 901-904

WCPCG-2010

Comparison between personality profiles of the parents with schizophrenic offspring and normal parents based on MCMI-III

Khorram Na, Resaei Ob * , Dolatshahi Bb

aDepartment of Clinical Psychology, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Islamic Azad University,Iran Department of Psychiatry, University of Welfare & Rehabilitation Science, Tehran,Iran

Received January 12, 2010; revised February 3, 2010; accepted March 6, 2010

Abstract

MCMI-III used to compare the psychiatric profile of the parents with schizophrenic children and parents without schizophrenia in the family. We did not observed any significant differences between fathers in case and control groups in all 27 scales of MCMI-III (p-value>0.10). However the in female subjects the scores of disclosure, debasement, schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, negativistic, masochistic, schizotypal, paranoid and anxiety scales in two groups were significant (P-value<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the scores in desirability, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, sadistic, compulsive, borderline, bipolar, alcohol dependence and drug dependence scales in two groups were significant (P-value >0.05). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, MCMI-III, psychiatric profile, first degree relative, genetics.

1. Introduction

Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome comprising the disruption of reality and illogical patterns in thought and behavior. Schizophrenia is indeed a collection of disorders with a heterogenic etiology, different clinical manifestation, diverse prognosis and therapeutic response. The disorder usually manifest as auditory hallucination, paranoia, bizarre, delusions, disorganized speech, and thought with significant social or occupational dysfunction. Until now, there is no diagnostic laboratory test for schizophrenia and diagnosis is based on patients' self-reported experience and observed behavior (Snowden, 2009). Symptoms of schizophrenia are generally divided in two groups: positive symptoms included delusion, auditory hallucination and though disorder; and negative symptoms included asociality, avolition, anhedonia and alogia (Maki et al., 2005). Schizophrenia symptoms usually begin before 25 years of age and persist thorough the life (Castle, Wesseley, Der, & Murray, 1991). Around 0.4-0.6 of people suffer from schizophrenia and it is seen in all social classes (Goldner, Hsu, Waraich, & Somers, 2002). Although the figure is not high, schizophrenic patients need extensive care and impose heavy emotional load on their parents and families.

* Omid Rezaei. Tel.: +98 21 33401220; fax: +9821 33401604. E-mail address: dr.Rezaei@uswr.ac.ir.

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.207

The causes of schizophrenia are unknown; birth defects, environmental factors, and imbalances of brain's neurotransmitters are considered as potential causes of schizophrenia. Studies of identical twins have established that genetics plays an important role in the development of the illness. A person whose parent has schizophrenia has a ten percent chance of inheriting the disorder. Heredity pattern of schizophrenia is very complex; it seems that environmental factors may combine with heredity factors of parents to trigger the disorder (Maki, et al., 2005)

Although psychiatric characteristics of relatives of schizophrenic patients were extensively investigated (Mata et al., 2000), not much attention has been paid to investigate the roles of father and mother independently.

In this investigation Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Grove & SI, 2009) questionnaire was used to compare the psychiatric profile of the parents having one or more schizophrenic children to the psychiatric profile of the parents without history of schizophrenia in their family. This research may be interesting from two important points of view. Parental personality disorders can be effective in developing schizophrenia in the children as genetical or environmental factor. On the other hand, schizophrenic patients impose high level of stress to their parents that may results in personality deterioration. In the present investigation, we tried to answer the question which of the parents of schizophrenic patients is more likely to show psychiatric abnormality.

2. Methods and Subjects

2.1. Subjects

This was an Ex-post Facto Research study performed in Razi Hospital (Tehran-Iran) from September 2008 to June 2009. Cases were randomly selected from inpatients, which were schizophrenic based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR. The case group included 40 male (52±16 y) and 61 female (47±13 y). The control group that was randomly selected from Tehran citizens without any history of schizophrenic their family included 60 male (38±9 y) and 47 females (42±11 y). All the subjects were over 18 years of age and their minimum education was 8th grade. We tried to match the control groups to the case groups, as possible.

2.2. Scale:

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III, 1997) questionnaire was used to assess personality profile in each group. MCMI-III is a self- performed yes/no questionnaire with 175 questions. The MCMI-III consists of 24 clinical scales and 3 modifier scales. The modifier scales are used to identify Disclosure (tendency to hide or exaggerate pathology), Desirability (tendency to give socially desirable responses), and Debasement (tendency to give responses suggestive of pathology).

The clinical scales consist of 11 clinical personality pattern scales (Schizoid, Avoidant, Depressive, Dependent, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Antisocial, Sadistic, Compulsive, Negativistic, Masochistic); 3 severe personality pathology scales (Schizotypal, Borderline, Paranoid); 7 Clinical Syndrome Scales (Anxiety, Somatoform, Bipolar, Dysthymia, Alcohol Dependence, Drug Dependence, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder); and three Severe Clinical Syndrome scales ( Thought Disorder, Major Depression, and Delusional Disorder). This test was already validated for Iranian population.

The row scores of each subject were converted into BR scores considering the gender. The scores for each scale were averaged in two groups independently. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to check the significance of difference between the two groups. T-test was used to compare the difference in scales of between the two groups.

3. Result:

3.1. Comparison between males in case and control groups:

The efficacy of MCMI-III to discriminate the scores of male subjects in case and control groups was assessed with analysis of variance. ANOVA did not show any significant difference (p-value <0.10) between the scores of

fathers in case and control groups. Two-tailed t-test was also used to compare the scores in all 27 scales of MCMI-III between two groups independently and the results are presented in table 1. As cab be seen the difference between all the 27 scales are not significant (p-value>0.10).

3.2. Comparison between females in case and control groups:

MCMI-III test efficacy in discriminating between females in case and control groups was assessed with analysis of variance. ANOVA showed significant differences (P-value<0.001) between the scores of mothers with schizophrenic children and the scores mothers with normal children. Two-tailed t-test was performed to compare the scores of mothers in two groups independently and the results are presented in table 1. The results showed that the scores of disclosure, debasement, schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, negativistic, masochistic, schizotypal, paranoid and anxiety scales in two groups were significant (P-value<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the scores in

desirability, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, sadistic, compulsive, borderline, bipolar, alcohol dependence and drug dependence scales in two groups were significant (P-value >0.05).

Table-1 the mean score ± standard deviation of all 27 scales of MCMI-III in male and female groups are presented in the table. The p-values of the paired t-test performed between normal and case groups are also presented.

Male Subjects Female Subjects

Category Diagnostic scales Score Control ± S.D. Case t-test p-value Score Control ± S.D. Case t-test p-value

Modifying Indices X Disclosure 67 ± 10 68 ± 9 > 0.05 69 ± 7 74 ± 13 < 0.05

Y Desirability 62 ± 18 61 ± 18 > 0.05 64 ± 23 57 ± 21 > 0.05

Z Debasement 41 ± 27 45 ± 24 > 0.05 45 ± 27 59 ± 30 < 0.01

1 Schizoid 39 ± 19 43 ± 23 > 0.05 37 ± 28 49 ± 18 < 0.05

2A Avoidant 41 ± 22 43 ± 20 > 0.05 38 ± 23 46 ± 17 < 0.05

2B Depressive 46 ± 26 54 ± 23 > 0.05 49 ± 28 65 ± 28 < 0.01

3 Dependent 30 ± 22 31 ± 21 > 0.05 34 ± 25 47 ± 27 < 0.05

Clinical 4 Histrionic 47 ± 22 43 ± 24 > 0.05 49 ± 20 54 ± 20 > 0.05

Personality 5 Narcissistic 44 ± 19 42 ± 18 > 0.05 46 ± 19 41 ± 20 > 0.05

Patterns 6A Antisocial 31 ± 20 32 ± 21 > 0.05 36 ± 20 40 ± 18 > 0.05

6B Sadistic 34 ± 19 31 ± 17 > 0.05 40 ± 17 40 ± 17 > 0.05

7 Compulsive 60 ± 22 60 ± 20 > 0.05 50 ± 23 51 ± 23 > 0.05

8A Negativistic 38 ± 24 42 ± 18 > 0.05 44 ± 22 55 ± 21 < 0.01

8B Masochistic 36 ± 22 40 ± 24 > 0.05 38 ± 23 48 ± 21 < 0.05

Severe S Schizotypal 36 ± 20 35 ± 22 > 0.05 35 ± 18 42 ± 21 < 0.05

Personality C Borderline 36 ± 19 34 ± 18 > 0.05 45 ± 19 48 ± 23 > 0.05

Pathology P Paranoid 41 ± 19 47 ± 16 > 0.05 43 ± 21 53 ± 19 < 0.05

A Anxiety 45 ± 23 42 ± 23 > 0.05 49 ± 23 60 ± 25 < 0.05

H Somatoform 32 ± 22 39 ± 22 > 0.05 38 ± 25 49 ± 24 < 0.05

Clinical Syndromes N Bipolar 30 ± 25 26 ± 27 > 0.05 36 ± 24 38 ± 24 > 0.05

D Dysthymia 37 ± 21 42 ± 20 > 0.05 38 ± 20 56 ± 24 < 0.01

B Alcohol Dependence 19 ± 17 19 ± 16 > 0.05 24 ± 19 29 ± 17 > 0.05

T Drug Dependence 23 ± 18 19 ± 15 > 0.05 24 ± 20 24 ± 16 > 0.05

R Severe Clinical Syndromes 27 ± 22 25 ± 23 > 0.05 31 ± 30 47 ± 28 < 0.01

Severe SS Thought Disorder 45 ± 25 47 ± 22 > 0.05 46 ± 21 61 ± 25 < 0.01

Clinical CC Major Depression 34 ± 24 40 ± 27 > 0.05 36 ± 26 58 ± 26 < 0.01

Syndromes PP Delusional Disorder. 30 ± 22 36 ± 25 > 0.05 31 ± 22 44 ± 24 < 0.01

4. Discussion

Until now, there has been no published research using MCMI-III test to compare personality profile of parents who have schizophrenic descendant with ordinary parents. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the results of this

study with the others. By now most of research focused on three personality disorders (scales in MCMI-II terms); schizotypal, paranoid and schizoid. Kendler reported high prevalence of schizotypal, paranoid and schizoid personality in schizophrenic patients' relatives (Kendler, 1985). Chang in Taiwan assessed 234 persons of schizophrenic patients' relatives and concluded that schizotypal, paranoid and schizoid personality in schizophrenic patients' relatives are more common than normal population (Chang et al., 2002). In addition, they reported that risks of major depression in patients' relatives are higher than normal.

The results of this study are in consistence with these reports but only in female (mothers) not in male subjects. Regarding the major depression and dysthymia scales our results was similar to Chang results (Chang, et al., 2002).

Kendler et al. reported that prevalence of schizotypal personality disorder in parents of schizophrenic probands is more than their siblings. They concluded that schizotypal personality disorder has a strong relationship with schizophrenia, paranoid, schizoid and avoidant personality disorders, but not with borderline personality disorder. Our results were in agreement to this report but only in females. Kendler also reported that presence of a schizophrenic patient in family does not increase the risk of mood disorder, anxiety disorder and alcoholism that was comparable with our results.

We have to emphasis that no studies used MCMI-III test and no studies considered the gender role in relatives of schizophrenic patients.

5. Conclusion

This study aimed to compare personality profile of parents who have schizophrenic descendants with ordinary parents. The results suggest that roles of mother is much more prominent that the fathers

References

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Chang, C. J., Chen, W. J., Liu, S. K., Cheng, J. J., Yang, W. C., Chang, H. J., et al. (2002). Morbidity risk of psychiatric disorders among the first

degree relatives of schizophrenia patients in Taiwan. Schizophr Bull, 28(3), 379-392. Goldner, E. M., Hsu, L., Waraich, P., & Somers, J. M. (2002). Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review

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