Scholarly article on topic 'Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Heterocyclic Chalcone Derivatives'

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Academic research paper on topic "Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Heterocyclic Chalcone Derivatives"

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molecules

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Article

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Heterocyclic Chalcone Derivatives

1 2 Nagwa Mohamed Mahrous Hamada and Essam Mohamed Sharshira '*

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; E-Mail: nagwahamada2002@yahoo.com (N.M.M.H.)

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dressamsharshira@yahoo.com.

Received: 13 December 2010; in revised form: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 9 March 2011

Abstract: Some new heterocyclic compounds containing isoxazole, pyrazole and oxadiazole ring systems were prepared from various chalcones. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: chalcones; isoxazoles; pyrazoles; oxadiazoles; antimicrobial

1. Introduction

Chalcones are synthesized by condensing ketones with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of suitable bases. They are very useful intermediates for the synthesis of five- [1,2], six- [1,3] and seven-membered [4] heterocyclic compounds. Chalcone derivatives exhibit diverse pharmacological activities [5-14]. It is therefore, not surprising that many synthetic methods have been developed for the preparation of heterocycles starting from chalcone precursors that have been tested for their antimicrobial activities.

2. Results and Discussion

All of our results are shown in Scheme 1. The starting chalcones 1a-c were obtained in good yields by a base catalyzed condensation [15-16] of appropriately substituted benzaldehydes and cyclopropylmethyl ketone [17]. The method is attractive since it specifically generates the (EE) isomer [18].

Scheme 1. Synthesis of 2a-f, 3a-f, 4a-f and 5a-f.

1a, X = NO2 1b, X = H 1c, X = OMe

The hydrazones 2a-f were prepared by the reaction of chalcones 1a-c with benzoyl hydrazine derivatives and were subsequently used for the syntheses of various pyrazoles 3a-f and oxadiazoles 4a-f. The IR spectra of these hydrazones revealed the characteristic bands for vinyl CH=CH at 1582-1617, C=N at 1616-1647, C=O at 1664-1698 and NH at 3330-3420 cm-1. The 1H-NMR spectra showed the presence of a singlet at 5 = 9.97-10.82 ppm for the NH proton, a multiplet at 5 = 7.17-8.45 ppm characteristic for the aromatic protons and the olefinic =C-CH=CH, a doublet at 5 = 6.60-6.95 ppm

characteristic for the olefinic =C-CH=CH proton. The cyclopropyl ring protons appeared as two multiplets in the range 5 = 1.56-2.64 ppm (CH) and 5 = 0.70-1.46 ppm (2CH2), respectively.

The pyrazole derivatives 3a-f were obtained by treatment of hydrazones 2a-f with 30% hydrochloric acid. The IR of 3a-f showed the characteristic bands for C=C-Ar at 1519-1596, C=N at 1623-1644 and amide carbonyl band at 1660-1686 cm-1, while the 1H-NMR spectra showed a singlet at 5 = 6.64-7.12 ppm for the pyrazole-C4-H. On the other hand, refluxing of hydrazones 2a-f with acetic anhydride gave the corresponding dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives 4a-f. The mechanism of cyclization reaction has been well studied [19-20]. The IR spectra of the dihydro-oxadiazoles 4a-f lacked the NH, but showed a carbonyl absorption at 1667-1677 cm-1 for the acetyl group. Their structures were further confirmed from the 1H-NMR spectra which does not reveal the presence of NH signal present in the starting hydrazone 2, moreover, the 1H-NMR of 4 exhibited a singlet of three protons intensity at 5 = 2.10-2.16 ppm for the COCH3. Finally, treatment of chalcones 1a-c with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in presence of sodium acetate produced isoxazoles 5a-c in moderate yield. The structure of 5 was fully confirmed by spectral method. For example, the IR of 5 does not show the presence of carbonyl band characteristic for the starting chalcone 1. The 1H-NMR of 5 exhibited a singlet of one proton intensity at 5 = 5.42-5.69 ppm characteristic for the isoxazole-C4-H. Melting points, elemental analysis and spectral methods are outlined in Tables 1 and 2.

2.1. Antimicrobial Activity

All the synthesized heterocyclic derivatives, pyrazoles 3a-f oxadiazoles 4a-f and isoxazoles 5a-c were assayed for their antimicrobial activity against four test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538P, Escherichia coli ATCC8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027 and Candida albicans ATCC2091 using rifampicin (5 ^g/disc) and ampicillin (10 ^g/disc) as standard drugs following agar well-diffusion method [21].

The tested heterocyclic compounds showed no significant effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, whereas they showed a potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The maximum activity (+ + +) (MIC = 25 ^g/mL) was indicated for compounds 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b and 5a. These results suggest that the electron-withdrawing nitro group plays a crucial role in enhancing the observed activity.

Compounds 3e, 4c, 4e and 4f showed a moderate activity (+ +) (MIC = 50 ^g /mL) against Staphylococcus, while these compounds exhibited slight activity (+) (MIC = 75 ^g/mL) against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were inactive towards the different strains of bacteria. The results are summarized in Table 3.

Table 1. Physical and analytical data of compounds, 2a-f, 3a-f, 4a-f and 5a-c.

Compound X Y Yield Mp Molecular Calculated % Found %

(%) (°C) Formula C H N C H N

2a NO2 Me 72 181 C20 H19 N3 O3 68.77 5.44 12.03 68.71 5.39 12.09

2b NO2 NO2 79 201 C19 H16 N4 O5 60.00 4.21 14.74 60.06 4.19 14.77

2c H H 66 166 C19 H18 N2 O 78.62 6.21 9.66 78.59 6.19 9.62

2d H Me 65 180 C20 H20 O N2 78.95 6.58 9.21 79.01 6.49 9.28

2e OMe Me 69 190 C21 H22 O2 N2 75.45 6.59 8.38 75.49 6.62 8.44

2f OMe H 74 160 C20 H20 O2 N2 75.00 6.25 8.75 74.97 6.26 8.77

3a NO2 Me 81 183 C20 H17 O3 N3 69.16 4.90 12.10 69.22 4.87 12.08

3b NO2 NO2 92 197 C19 H14 O5 N4 60.32 3.70 14.81 60.33 3.69 14.77

3c H H 62 159 C19 H16 O N2 79.17 5.56 9.72 79.21 5.53 9.71

3d H Me 66 164 C20 H18 O N2 79.47 5.96 9.27 79.51 5.91 9.27

3e OMe Me 64 171 C21 H20 O2 N2 75.90 6.02 8.43 75.93 6.06 8.51

3f OMe H 59 180 C20 H18 O2 N2 75.47 5.66 8.81 75.52 5.60 8.86

4a NO2 Me 83 201 C22 H21 O4 N3 67.52 5.37 10.74 67.52 5.43 10.80

4b NO2 NO2 97 210 C21 H18 O6 N4 59.72 4.27 13.27 59.69 4.26 13.22

4c H H 59 177 C21 H20 O2 N2 57.90 6.02 8.43 57.84 5.99 8.44

4d H Me 58 179 C22 H22 O2 N2 76.30 6.36 8.09 76.28 6.31 8.12

4e OMe Me 67 189 C23 H24 O3 N2 73.40 6.38 7.45 73.44 6.39 7.49

4f OMe H 80 162 C22 H22 O3 N2 72.93 6.08 7.73 72.91 6.01 7.76

5a NO2 — 54 165 C12 H10 O3 N2 62.61 4.35 12.17 62.66 4.29 12.21

5b H — 49 159 C12 H11 O N 77.84 5.95 7.57 77.90 5.99 7.62

5c OMe — 74 161 C13 H13 O2 N 72.56 6.05 6.51 72.60 6.01 6.48

Table 2. IR and 1H-NMR spectral data of compounds 2a-f, 3a-f, 4a-f and 5a-c.

IR cm- 1 (KBr) 1H NMR (8 / ppm)a

Pyrazole- Ar-CH3

Compound Ar-H's and =C-CH=CH C4-H (s) NH Cyclopropyl ring H's (s)

C=N C=O 4 V / V /

C=C NH =C-CH=CH or Ar-OCH3

(m) (d), J =12 Hz isoxazole- (s) CH 2 (CH2) and

C4-H (s) (m) (m) CH3CO-

2a 1592 1629 1678 3420 7.36-7.91 6.72 — 10.66 1.91-2.55 0.75-1.37 2.21

2b 1617 1647 1698 3390 7.23-8.45 6.93 — 10.45 1.80-2.64 0.71-1.40 —

2c 1582 1616 1664 3330 7.19-7.63 6.60 — 9.97 1.82-2.49 0.78-1.29 —

2d 1587 1636 1669 3336 7.29-7.82 6.71 — 10.82 1.71-2.36 0.70-1.40 2.10

2e 1601 1628 1687 3411 7.20-7.71 6.75 — 10.73 1.63-2.40 0.77-1.46 2.19, 3.49

2f 1617 1644 1681 3332 7.17-7.49 6.95 — 9.99 1.56-2.59 0.78-1.16 3.42

3a 1519 1629 1670 — 7.26-7.92 b — 6.85 — 1.90-2.48 0.69-1.21 2.13

3b 1586 1633 1684 — 7.24-8.33 b — 7.12 — 1.76-2.66 0.80-1.36 —

3c 1556 1641 1660 — 7.22-7.71 b — 6.78 — 1.73-2.40 0.71-1.28 —

3d 1590 1644 1678 — 7.24-7.77 b — 6.64 — 1.75-2.41 0.77-1.33 2.11

3e 1571 1623 1686 — 7.21-7.68 b — 6.69 — 1.66-2.39 0.71-1.33 2.10,3.44

3f 1596 1633 1664 — 7.11-7.62 b — 6.74 — 1.49-2.55 0.77-1.19 3.39

4a 1587 1645 1669 — 7.18-7.79 b — — — 1.92-2.41 0.67-1.32 2.01, 2.16

4b 1610 1646 1667 — 7.22-8.22 b — — — 1.70-2.66 0.71-1.40 2.13

4c 1602 1626 1669 — 7.16-7.75 b — — — 1.68-2.39 0.75-1.26 2.11

4d 1594 1630 1670 — 7.33-7.76 b — — — 1.73-2.44 0.71-1.38 1.99, 2.13

4e 1600 1633 1677 — 7.26-7.72 b — — — 1.60-2.47 0.71-1.26 2.13,3.32,2.15

4f 1615 1646 1671 — 7.25-7.51 b — — — 1.47-2.61 0.76-1.33 3.34,2.10

5a 1580 1627 — — 7.19-7.99 b — 5.69 — 1.82-2.51 0.71-1.36 —

5b 1571 1629 — — 7.22-7.62 b — 5.42 — 1.43-2.45 0.69-1.27 —

5c 1569 1633 — — 7.26-7.70 b — 5.46 — 1.57-2.41 0.67-1.29 3.30

a Solution in DMSO-d6; b The chemical shift only indicates Ar-H's.

Table 3. Antibacterial activities of newly synthesized compounds 3-5.

Compound X Y Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli

3a NO2 Me + + + + + +

3b NO2 NO2 + + + + + +

4a NO2 Me + + + + + +

4b NO2 NO2 + + + + + +

5a NO2 — + + + + + +

3e OMe Me + + +

4c H H + + +

4e OMe Me + + +

4f OMe H + + +

3c H H — —

3d H Me — —

3f OMe H — —

4d H Me — —

5b H — — —

5c OMe — — —

+ + + for maximum activity, MIC = 25 ^g/mL; + + for moderate activity, MIC = 50 ^g/mL; +for slight activity, MIC = 75 ^g/mL and - for inactive.

3. Experimental

3.1. General

Melting points were taken in open capillary tubes using Electrothermal apparatus 9100 ( UK ) and are uncorrected. Microanalyses were performed at Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, using a Elementary Vario el III C, H, N, S Analyzer (Germany). IR spectra were recorded using potassium bromide disks on a Perkin-Elmer 1650 spectrophotometer (Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alex, Egypt). 1H-NMR spectra were determined on a Varian EM-390 MHz spectrophotometer, using TMS as internal standard.

3.2. General Procedure for Preparation of E-l-Cyclopropyl-3-(p-substituted-phenyl)-2-propenenones 1a—c

To a cold solution of sodium hydroxide (3 g) in aqueous ethanol (50 mL, 60%), cyclopropylmethyl ketone (10 mmol), was added dropwise (30 min), while rapidly stirring and the temperature kept below 20 °C, then the desired p-substituted benzaldehyde (10 mmol) was added dropwise (30 min). After five hours, the mixture was left overnight in refrigerator. The separated solid was filtered, washed with water and dried, then recrystallized from ethanol as colorless needles. The physical properties and all the spectral data were as reported in the literature [17].

3.3. General Procedure for Preparation of1-Cyclopropyl-3-(p-substituted-phenyl)-2-propene-l-aroyl hydrazones 2a—e

A solution of chalcones 1a-c (10 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) was refluxed with the appropriate aroyl hydrazines (10 mmol) in glacial acetic acid (2 mL) for about six hours, then the reaction mixture was poured onto crushed ice and was kept overnight at room temperature, the separated solid was filtered off, washed successively with water and dried, then recrystallized from methanol. IR and NMR data: see Tables 1 and 2.

3.4. General Procedure for Preparation of 1-Aroyl-3-cyclopropyl-5-(p-substituted-phenyl)-pyrazoles 3a-e

A solution of the appropriate hydrazone 3a-e (10 mmol) in 30% hydrochloric acid (15 mL) was refluxed for about two hours, the reaction mixture was concentrated, separated solid was filtered off, washed with water, dried and recrystallized from methanol. IR and NMR data: see Tables 1 and 2.

3.5. General Procedure for Preparation of 3-Acetyl-2-cyclopropyl-2-(p-substituted styryl)-5-(p-substituted phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4a-e

A mixture of the appropriate hydrazone 2a-e (10 mmol) and acetic anhydride (15 mL) was heated under reflux for three hours. After the reaction mixture attained room temperature, it was poured into crushed ice and the oily product deposited was decanted from water and extracted with ether. The ether layer was washed with sodium bicarbonate, followed by water, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and evaporated to give the corresponding oxadiazoles 4a-e as needles. IR and NMR data: see Tables 1 and 2.

3.6. General Procedure for Preparation of 3-Cyclopropyl-5-(p-substituted Phenyl)isoxazole 5a-c

A mixture of chalcone 1a-c (20 mmol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (20 mmol) and sodium acetate (20 mmol) in ethanol (25 mL) was refluxed for six hours. The mixture was concentrated by distilling out the solvent under reduced pressure and poured into ice-water. The precipitate obtained was filtered, washed and recrystallized from ethanol to give isoxazole 5 as needles. IR and NMR data: see Tables 1 and 2.

3.7. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity

All the synthesized heterocyclic compounds 3a-f, 4a-f and 5a-f were tested against four different microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The agar well-diffusion method was applied for the determination of inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Briefly, 0.75 mL of broth culture containing ca. 106 colon-forming units (CFU) per mL of the test strain was added to 75 mL of nutrient agar medium at 45 °C, mixed well, and then poured into a 15 cm sterile metallic Petri plate. The medium was allowed to solidify, and 8 mm wells were dug with a sterile metallic borer. Then, a DMSO solution of the test sample (1 mL) at 1 mg/mL was added to the respective wells. DMSO served as negative control, and the standard antimicrobial drugs rifampicin (5 ^g/disc) and ampicillin (10 ^g/disc) were used as

positive controls. Triplicate plates of each microorganism strain were prepared and were incubated aerobically at 37 °C for 24 h. The activity was determined by measuring the diameter of zone showing complete inhibition (mm), thereby, the zones were precisely measured with the aid of a Vernier Caliper (precision 0.1 mm).The growth inhibition was calculated with reference to the positive control.

4. Conclusions

In summary, this work demonstrates a rapid, efficient method for synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds of pharmacological interest.

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Sample Availability: Samples of all the compounds are available from the authors.

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