Scholarly article on topic 'Reading Comprehension Intervention Program for Teachers from 3rd Grade’ Students'

Reading Comprehension Intervention Program for Teachers from 3rd Grade’ Students Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Simone Aparecida Capellini, Cataryne de Almeida Rodrigues Pinto, Vera Lúcia Orlandi Cunha

Abstract This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of Reading comprehension intervention program for teachers from 3rd grade'students. 4 teachers of 3rd grade from public school were divided: GI - two teachers submitted to intervention program and GII - two teachers not submitted to intervention program. Reading Comprehension Assessment Protocol was applied in all students of these teachers in pre and post-intervention. The results revealed a difference between the performance of the situations of pre and post-testing for GI. The intervention program was effectiveness for teachers to teach narrative and expository texts comprehension for students.

Academic research paper on topic "Reading Comprehension Intervention Program for Teachers from 3rd Grade’ Students"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 1339 - 1345

INTE 2014

Reading comprehension intervention program for teachers from 3rd

grade'students

Simone Aparecida Capellinia; Cataryne de Almeida Rodrigues Pintoa; Vera Lucia Orlandi

Cunhaa

aInvestigation of Learning Disabilities Laboratory of Speech and Hearing Sciences Department of Sao Paulo State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho" - UNESP - Marilia - Sao Paulo - Brasil. Avenue Hygino Muzzi Filho, 737, Postal Code: 17.525-000, Marilia-Sao Paulo-Brazil.

Abstract

This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of Reading comprehension intervention program for teachers from 3rd grade'students. 4 teachers of 3rd grade from public school were divided: GI - two teachers submitted to intervention program and GII - two teachers not submitted to intervention program. Reading Comprehension Assessment Protocol was applied in all students of these teachers in pre and post-intervention. The results revealed a difference between the performance of the situations of pre and post-testing for GI. The intervention program was effectiveness for teachers to teach narrative and expository texts comprehension for students.

© 2015TheAuthors.Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

Keywords: Learning. Reading. Intervention. Reading Comprehension.

1. INTRODUCTION

To the process of reading occur some skills are considered essential, as: language, attention to understand and interpret written language, auditory memory, visual memory, identifying words, contextual and structural analysis of language, logic synthesis, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency in reading. Thus, reading involves a variety of processes that begins on the visual identification of the letters and to the understanding of the content of the text message (Andrade and Dias, 2006).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 00-000-000-0000 E-mail address: sacap@uol.com.br

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.756

Several factors contribute to the comprehension of texts, all of which are necessary, but insufficient to, in isolation, determine the comprehension. It is widely acknowledged the role played by linguistic factors, such as the ability of decoding, vocabulary and syntactic knowledge (Cain, Okkhill and Elbro, 2003); by cognitive factors such as working memory, monitoring, and the ability to establish inferences (Andrade and Dias, 2006); and by social factors, involving the circumstances under which the reading occurs (social context, objectives, motivations and expectations of the reader), but also the previous knowledge of the reader and your social and cultural experiences (Baleghizade and Babapour, 2011). However, educators and professionals who work with students know the difficulties that many of them present in the skill of reading comprehension.

Cain, Oakhill, Barnes and Bryant (2001) argued that the most important measures of the performance of reading are related to how much and how the student understand a text and identifying processes and processing underlying to the comprehension. This is done in different levels, from the most superficial, even that which allows to use creatively the information removed from the text and to answer questions whose answers are not literally written or identify problems occurring during the reading and looking for ways to solve them (self-regulation). Differences of the performance in reading tests observed in students showed that the development of cognitive processes and of language interferes in the comprehension.

Massignani, Oliveira, Kubo and Botome (2012) cited the importance of developing the behavior of reading comprehension in students through the use of any resource or strategy, as the dramatization of stories. Their results indicated that the use of this resource contributed to improving of the reading comprehension. This results are in agree with Ferreira and Dias (2004) which concluded how the use of reading strategies can assist in overcoming difficulties in comprehension of text, especially when allows the active participation of the reader with the text, contributing to the integration of the information contained therein and the construction of inferences.

Considering the results obtained by the different research presented, this study intends to apply an informative intervention program, with the possibility that the students will progress in the reading comprehension after its realization, because this ability is a process essential for the achievement of learning the different curriculum subjects.

2. OBJECTIVES

-Verify the effectiveness of an intervention informative program to the reading comprehension to third grade teachers of elementary level.

3.MATERIAL AND METHOD

This research was conducted after approval by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Philosophy and Science - FFC/UNESP-Marilia, Sao Paulo, under the Protocol 0720/2013 approved in 5/29/2013.

3.1 Pre-assessment of the 3th of elementary level in reading comprehension

Participated this study 45 students of the third grade of elementary level, of two municipal public schools in the city of Marilia-SP, of both genders between the ages of seven years to eight years and eleven months.

A pre-assessment was conducted using the Protocol of evaluation of reading comprehension-PROCOMLE (Cunha and Capellini, 2014). The evaluation was applied through a narrative and expositive text, being respectively N1 and E1. These texts contain each of them eight multiple-choice comprehension questions, four related to microstructure of text (two literals and two of the inferences) and four related to the macrostructure of the text (two literals and two of the inferences).

3.2 Application of Informative intervention program for reading comprehension for teachers of the elementary level

At this phase it was applied a informative intervention program for reading comprehension for students of the third year of elementary school I.

The guidelines and strategies of intervention provided were about the processes involved in reading comprehension both of narrative texts and expositive texts.

Informative Program guidelines were held in two sessions of four hours each, being two hours for the theoretical part and two hours with workshops, in which were worked for activities practices to the teacher.

Participated of the study two teachers of the students participating in the phase 1 of this study. These teachers were divided into:

Research Group (GI): composed of two teachers of the third grade that was submitted to informative intervention program,

The control group (GII): composed of two teachers of the third grade that has not been submitted to the intervention program.

The teachers of the GII group did not receive any sort of guidance on the specific and directed work with reading comprehension, while the teachers of GI group received guidelines of interventive program informative about the cognitive and metacognitive processes of reading comprehension and reading comprehension strategies with specific and targeted activities.

3.3 Verification of the educational effectiveness of the Informative Intervention Program to the reading comprehension to the students of the third grade of elementary level.

In order to verify the educational effectiveness of the program developed in this study, after the implementation of the program, all the students of the phase 1 of this study were subject to reapplication of the evaluation Protocol of reading comprehension-PROCOMLE (Cunha and Capellini, 2014), after eight weeks between the first and second evaluation. In the post assessment was used a second narrative text and a second expositive text of the Protocol, being respectively N2 and E2, each with eight multiple-choice comprehension questions, four related to microstructure of text (two literals and two of inferences) and four related to the macrostructure of the text (two literals and two of inferences), constant in the original assessment procedure.

4. RESULTS

The results of the pre and the post assessment were statistically analyzed with the purpose of comparing the results intergroups in situation of pre and post implementation of the informative program in order to verify the educational effectiveness of the program. For this analysis, we used the program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), in its version 21.0. Was applied the test of Wilcoxon, aiming to check possible differences between the moments of implementation of the evaluation of the understanding reader in study groups, submitted and not subjected to the intervention program.

Table 1 presents the values of average, standard deviation and the values of p regarding the performance of the GI in situation of pre and post intervention in narrative texts N1 and N2 and expositive texts E1 and E2.

Table 1. Distribution of values of average, standard deviation and p value regarding the performance of the GI in the pre and post intervention situation.

Texts n average standard deviation p value

N1 Lmi Pre 20 0,60 0,88 0,627

N2 Lmi Post 20 0,70 0,80

N1 Lma Pre 20 1,30 0,80 0,001*

N2 Lma Post 20 0,30 0,47

N1 Imi Pre 20 1,25 0,72 0,083

N2 Imi Post 20 0,95 0,61

N1 Ima Pre 20 1,05 0,89 0,018*

N2 Ima Post 20 0,30 0,66

TN Pre 20 4,20 2,57 0,009*

TN Post 20 2,25 1,80

Texts n average standard deviation p value

E1 Lmi Pre 20 1,10 0,79 0,059

E2 Lmi Post 20 0,70 0,73

E1 Lma Pre 20 0,85 0,81 0,802

E2 Lma Post 20 0,90 0,79

E1 Imi Pre 20 0,95 0,83 > 0,999

E2 Imi Post 20 0,95 0,83

E1 Ima Pre 20 1,10 0,91 0,448

E2 Ima Post 20 1,25 0,72

TE Pre 20 4,00 2,43 0,282

TE Post 20 3,55 1,76

Legend: N1: narrative text 1; N2: narrative text 2; E1: expositive text 1; E2: expositive text 2; Lmi: literals questions of microstructure; Lma: literals questions of macro structure; Imi: questions of inferences of microstructure; Ima: questions of inference de macrostructure; Pre: pre-assessment; Post: post-assessment.

The data in the Table 1 reveal that the GI's students, whose teacher was subjected to intervention with the informative program showed statistically significant differences in the comparison between the literals questions of macrostructure with lower average for the text applied on post-assessment, N2 indicating a smaller number of incorrect answers, suggesting superior performance on questions of the post-assessment. The same occurred for the questions of inferences of macro structure, indicating superior performance also in the post-assessment. On comparison between the pre-and post-assessment to the total number of questions of narrative texts, the lower average also occurred in the post-assessment pointing to superior performance after the intervention activities.

Table 2 presents the values of average, standard deviation and p value regarding the performance of the GII in evaluation Protocol of reading comprehension-PROCOMLE (Cunha and Capellini, 2014) in situation of pre and post intervention.

Table 2. Distribution of values of average, standard deviation and p value regarding the performance of the GII in the pre and post intervention situation.

Texts n average standard deviation p value

N1 Lmi Pre 25 0,64 0,70 > 0,999

N2 Lmi Post 25 0,64 0,64

N1 Lma Pre 25 1,04 0,68 0,004*

N2 Lma Post 25 0,52 0,65

N1 Imi Pre 25 0,84 0,69 0,186

N2 Imi Post 25 1,08 0,86

N1 Ima Pre 25 1,08 0,70 0,348

N2 Ima Post 25 0,88 0,73

TN Pre 25 3,60 1,78 0,303

TN Post 25 3,12 2,11

E1 Lmi Pre 25 0,84 0,75 0,430

E2 Lmi Post 25 0,68 0,80

E1 Lma Pre 25 0,88 0,73 0,973

Texts n average standard deviation p value

E2 Lma Post 25 0,88 0,83

E1 Imi Pre 25 1,16 0,75 0,739

E2 Imi Post 25 1,12 0,73

E1 Ima Pre 25 1,08 0,64 0,830

E2 Ima Post 25 1,04 0,84

TE Pre 25 3,96 1,93 0,646

TE Post 25 3,72 2,34

Legend: N1: narrative text 1; N2: narrative text 2; E1: expositive text 1; E2: expositive text 2; Lmi: literals questions of micro structure; Lma: literals questions of macro structure; Imi: questions of inferences of microstructure; Ima: questions of inference de macrostructure; Pre: pre-assessment; Post: post-assessment.

The data in the Table 2 show that the GII's students, whose teacher was not subjected to intervention with the informative program showed statistically significant differences only in the comparison between the literals questions of macrostructure with lower average at post-assessment, indicating superior performance in this type of question in the narrative text N2.

5. DISCUSSION

Our results showed the positive effects of explicit information strategies for comprehension narrative texts, because students presented significant differences between pre and post assessment for the literal and inferences questions and of macrostructure, indicating superior performance to the central ideas and in the association with previous knowledge, agreeing with studies of Rabren, Darch and Eaves (1999) who demonstrated that students performance was better when the pedagogical approach used textually explicit material.

Specific strategies for reading comprehension have also been investigated in a study of Ferreira and Dias (2004) performed in order to check and compare the training effect of strategies of note-taking and Mental image on the reading comprehension of students of 8 to 14 years old (3rd and 4th grades) with reading comprehension difficulties of public and private schools. Their results indicated that the group with little difficulty in comprehension progressed more about inferences questions than the group with great difficulty of comprehension. Children from public schools were the most benefited. Both strategies have enabled the emergence of answers to literals and inferences questions, agreeing with our results that demonstrated positive effects on these types of questions on work with narrative texts.

The positive effects of specific practices for the teaching of reading comprehension have also been demonstrated in study of Lai, McNaughton, Amituanai-Toloa, Turner and Hsiao (2009) whose results showed systematic improvement in performance to the students who received these specific practices and the maintenance of this improvement from one year to the next over the three years of study.

The positive results have also been observed in study of Block, Parris, Reed, Whiteley and Cleveland (2009), which indicated the positive effects of instructional approaches, noting that when readers with difficulty received 20 minutes of instruction with reading practices in the classroom with the teacher's monitoring produced significantly higher scores in reading comprehension.

In a study of Baleghizade and Babapour (2011) conducted with the objective to investigate the effect of summary written in reading comprehension, found that this kind of strategy improved the reading comprehension and retention of the main ideas. Our findings corroborate these results, because between the activities developed for the comprehension of narrative texts had also written summary of the main ideas so that the diagrams were filled. This strategy therefore proved effective also in our study since students presented superior performance in the macrostructure questions on post-assessment.

Diakidoy, Mouskounti and Ioannides (2011) conducted study to compare the effects of a contested text in performance comprehension and learning of expositive texts. 61 students of a psychology university course

participated of the study. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: one for reading a text of refutation and another expositive text pattern on the scientific concept of energy. The results indicated that compared with expositive text, the text of contestation facilitated learning and an overall increase of inference generation bridges and elaborativas, but not the memory for the text. Comprehension performance indicated the performance in learning, especially for students with prior knowledge low and inaccurate. The results contributed to the understanding of the effect of the contested text, indicating its association with increased generation of inference and the construction of a more elaborate and coherent textual representation.

Study of Sampaio, Assis and Baptista (2010) also proved the effects of explicit teaching procedures on reading comprehension. The students were exposed to teaching conditional relations, equivalence tests, teaching by thread of responses, production tests of sentences, and connectivity tests and reading comprehension tests. The results indicated that these procedures were significant in performance in reading comprehension.

The intervention program developed with the expositive texts of this study was based on studies of Sánchez (1992, 2002, 2012) that discuss the work in thematic progression of text, extraction of global significance (application of macro roles selection, generalization and integration), recognition and use of basic organizational forms. The results obtained by this study did not corroborate those obtained by Sánchez, which studies have shown that students who received the training program presented superior performance after the intervention activities, because our students did not present significant differences between pre and post assessment for the expositive texts.

Our results do not corroborate also study of Miranda, Villaescusa and Vidal-Abarca (1997) that showed that explicit instructions about identification of main ideas by means of the application of the generalization macro roles brought benefits in performance comprehension of the students of the study, because they did not significant differences between pre and post assessment for the expositive texts.

Study of Kinniburgh and Shaw Jr. (2009) performed with the goal of teaching strategies for reading comprehension of expositive texts for students of the third to sixth grade, which would have to identify the type of question whether explicit or implicit, framed them in two categories: "memory for events" and "inferences", showed that by incorporating strategies for reading comprehension, students have become more skilled in reading of scientific texts. Your reading and comprehension of theoretical texts improved its results in the tests in science and reading. Our results however showed that the way the strategies were provided were not efficient, because no significant differences between the pre and post assessment demonstrating that students did not understand the relationship between questions and answers.

Study developed by Wilawan (2011) in order to investigate the effects of a procedure which incorporated lexical cohesion and macro roles to promote the comprehension of the main idea of the text read, revealed in its results a significant improvement in comprehension the main idea in the experimental and control groups on the post-test. However, no significant differences were found between the groups. The findings suggested that the statement of the main idea requires a simultaneous integration of various techniques of reading. Our results for the expositive texts indicated that in some variables there was a decrease in the averages indicating some improvement in post-assessment although not statistically significant differences have occurred.

Our results indicated that the strategies used in informative program for teachers concerning the comprehension of narrative texts were more effective than those used for the expositive texts, because for the first statistically significant differences occurred while for the latter, these differences did not occur. In this way, it is necessary that the strategies used for the expositive texts (types of strategies) and the way in which they were used (frequency and duration of follow-up monitoring guidelines, of the guidelines and how they have been applied, for example) are revised to that subsequent studies should be reconsidered in order that greater effectiveness of its results. However, the results recorded for the narrative texts, we find also in our study, the use of explicit and specific strategies for reading comprehension had significant effects on this ability to students participants in this study.

6. CONCLUSION

From the results found in this study it can be concluded that: -The profile of the 3rd grade in reading comprehension before the implementation of the informative program developed for this study was similar, meaning that not presented significant differences for both performance

narrative texts as for the expositive.

-The intervention program developed for this study was effective for the comprehension narrative texts because to the narrative texts statistically significant differences occurred while these differences did not occur for the expositive texts.

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