Scholarly article on topic 'Flexible PVDF-TrFE Pyroelectric Sensor Integrated on a Fully Printed P-channel Organic Transistor'

Flexible PVDF-TrFE Pyroelectric Sensor Integrated on a Fully Printed P-channel Organic Transistor Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Pyroelectric sensor" / PVDF-TRFE / "printed OTFTs"}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — L. Maiolo, F. Maita, A. Pecora, M. Rapisarda, L. Mariucci, et al.

Abstract In this work we present a flexible pyroelectric capacitive sensor, based on PVDF-TrFE, fabricated on a ultra-thin polyimide film (8μm thick) connected to a fully printed p-channel organic thin film transistor that is used to amplify the sensor signal. We fabricate a standalone device, exploiting a multi-foil approach, where the pyroelectric capacitor was glued on the organic TFT substrate, that consists of a PEN foil 125μm thick, previously made in CEA-LITEN labs. The pyroelectric properties of the PVDF-TrFE capacitor were enhanced using a thermal poling procedure before the TFT integration. The sensor behavior was analyzed at different working frequencies (up to 500Hz) under a specific infrared (IR) radiation provided by a He-Ne laser, with a wavelength of 632nm and maximum power of 5 mW. An output signal of few millivolts was observed, exploiting the pre-amplification of the fully printed organic transistor.

Academic research paper on topic "Flexible PVDF-TrFE Pyroelectric Sensor Integrated on a Fully Printed P-channel Organic Transistor"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

SciVerse ScienceDirect Procedia

Engineering

Procedia Engineering 47 (2012) 526 - 529 =

www. el sevi er. com/1 ocate/procedi a

Proc. Eurosensors XXVI, September 9-12, 2012, Krakow, Poland

Flexible PVDF-TrFE pyroelectric sensor integrated on a fully printed p-channel organic transistor

L. Maioloa*, F. Maitaa, A. Pecoraa, M. Rapisardaa, L. Mariuccia, M. Benwadihb, S. Jacobb, I. Chartierb and R. Coppardb

aIstituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Rome, 00133 Italy bCEA/Liten/DTNM/LCEI, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, 38054 cedex 9, France

ELSEVIER

Abstract

In this work we present a flexible pyroelectric capacitive sensor, based on PVDF-TrFE, fabricated on a ultra-thin polyimide film (8 ^m thick) connected to a fully printed p-channel organic thin film transistor that is used to amplify the sensor signal. We fabricate a standalone device, exploiting a multi-foil approach, where the pyroelectric capacitor was glued on the organic TFT substrate, that consists of a PEN foil 125 ^m thick, previously made in CEA-LITEN labs. The pyroelectric properties of the PVDF-TrFE capacitor were enhanced using a thermal poling procedure before the TFT integration. The sensor behavior was analyzed at different working frequencies (up to 500 Hz) under a specific infrared (IR) radiation provided by a He-Ne laser, with a wavelength of 632 nm and maximum power of 5 mW. An output signal of few millivolts was observed, exploiting the pre-amplification of the fully printed organic transistor.

© 2012ElsevierLtd....Selection and/orpeer-review under responsibility of the Symposium Cracoviense Sp. z.o.o. Keywords: Pyroelectric sensor, PVDF-TRFE; printed OTFTs

1. Introduction

Low temperature heat sensing plays an important role on the world of sensors: human body detection, environment monitoring, proximity sensors, thermal imaging are only few examples of possible applications. For these kind of devices, sensing polymers and organic electronics can represent an intriguing choice especially in terms of fabrication cost, since they can be potentially inexpensive to

* Luca Maiolo. Tel.: +39 0649934422; fax: +39 0645488066. E-mail address: luca.maiolo@cnr.it.

1877-7058 © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Symposium Cracoviense Sp. z.o.o. doi: 10. 1016/j .proeng .2012.09.200

manufacture. Moreover, pyroelectric sensors based on polymeric materials and integrated with complementary logic architecture (CMOS) organic electronics can provide rollable, light, robust devices [1-2]. In this work we present a flexible pyroelectric capacitive sensor, based on PVDF-TrFE, fabricated on a ultra-thin polyimide film (8 |am thick) connected to a fully printed p-channel organic thin film transistor (OTFT) realized on a PEN substrate 125 |am thick. P-channel OTFTs, with staggered top-gate configuration, were fabricated at CEA-LITEN [3], while the sensor capacitor was made at CNR labs and successively integrated on the OTFT substrate adopting a multi-foil approach.

2. Device fabrication

The pyroelectric sensor and the organic thin film transistor were connected together, using a multi-foil approach, which means that each device was fabricated separately and then attached one over the other. In this way the whole pyroelectric sensor reached a total thickness of about 135|am. The gate of the transistor was connected to the bottom electrode of the PVDF-TrFE capacitor by a conductive ink deposited through an ink-jet printer DIMATIX (see fig.1).

pyro-capacitance

OTFT PVDF-TrFE Potyirrude

cttop Glue t N

Au 040 Au „ » , T WA <

PIN v ■

Fig. 1. A cross-sectional view of the final sensor device, using the multi-foil approach (left). An optical image of the flexible pyroelectric capacitor and p-channel OTFTs before the integration (right)

2.1 PVDF-TrFE piezoelectric capacitors on polyimide

We started the pyroelectric capacitor fabrication, depositing on a rigid carrier (Silicon wafer with 1 ^m of thermal SiO2) a HD-Microsistems 2611 polyimide layer of about 8 ^m by spin coating. The polymer was cured at 350°C for an hour, minimizing shrinkage effect during device fabrication. A first metal bi-layer of 600 A, made in Cr-Au was thermally evaporated and patterned, forming the bottom electrode of the capacitor. Then, a film of about 2 ^m of PVDF-TrFE was deposited by spin coating and annealed at 110 °C for two hours. The upper electrode was successively lithographically defined, starting from a layer of Cr 500 A thick. Finally, exploiting a sacrificial layer of Al, the PVDF-TrFE was properly patterned by reactive ion etching, leaving an insulating region of 250 ^m in order to prevent electrical damage due to possible arcing during the poling procedure. After fabrication process, PVDF-TrFE capacitors on polyimide were cut, detached from the rigid carrier and singularly tested. No tensile or compressive mechanical stress was observed on freestanding devices. Each PVDF-TrFE capacitor was connected to a Keithley 2635 power supply to perform the poling procedure in order to align the dipoles in the polymer structure, increasing the PVDF-TrFE piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties; no electrical breakdown or evident damages were experimented on devices up to 160 V, measuring leakage currents below 1x10-6A.

To further enhance the poling procedure, the substrate was heated up to 80°C and then cooled down during the final voltage step, in order to freeze the dipoles in a proper position.

2.2 Organic thin film transistor fabrication

P-channel OTFTs, with staggered top-gate configuration, were fabricated at CEA-LITEN, using printing processes on heat stabilized, low roughness polyethylenenaphtalate PEN foils (125 |am thick). The source and drain gold contacts were defined by laser ablation. The p-type semiconductor is a solution processed 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene derivative and could be deposited by different techniques such as spin coating or screen printing. The fluoropolymer gate dielectric (1.2 |am thick) and the Ag gate electrode are both deposited by screen printing. All curing steps are kept below 100°C, to be compatible with the PEN substrate limitation. The fabricated OTFTs have a multifinger structure with different channel lengths (from 5 to 200 |am) and channel widths W (from 100 to 2000 |am). From the transfer characteristics measured at low Vds on long channel devices, as shown in Fig. 2a, we deduced typical field effect mobility, |aFE , in the range 1.4-2 cm2/Vs, threshold voltage, VT , between -10 V and -15 V and subthreshold swing, S, of 5-7 V/dec. Field effect mobility evaluated from saturated transfer characteristics, |asat , is in the range 0.9-1.4 cm2/Vs. The output characteristics, reported in Fig. 2b, show linear behavior at low |Vds|, suggesting a low contact resistance, in agreement to what has been already observed in staggered OTFTs.

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50

■vgs [V] (a)

0 S 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

-Vdî [V] (b)

Fig.2. (a) Transfer characteristic for the organic TFT with W/L=2000um/10um, (b) Output characteristics of the same device, measured at room temperature

3. Results and discussion

The sensor capacitor and the OTFTs were preliminary tested separately in order to characterize their electrical behavior at specific different bending radii, since the structure is conceived to work on a static curved surface. No relevant changes could be observed on the pyroelectric sensor response and on the OTFT transfer characteristics (see fig.3a) for mechanical stress with a bending radius of 1.5 cm. To arrange this experiment we put the PVDF-TrFE capacitor on different curved stages and we connected the device to an oscilloscope, striking the structure with an incoming IR radiation chopped at increasing frequencies (up to 500 Hz). In case of the printed OTFT we mount the device on the curved stages and we directly measured transfer characteristic using a probe station and two Keithley 236. Measures reported in Fig.4 have been carried out using setup shown in Fig. 3b, where a trans-impedance amplifier was connected to the source terminal of the TFT providing virtual-ground and allowing the reading of the Ids current. Gain of the amplifier (Rgain) has been set equal to Rload (5MQ) in order to obtain a voltage variation consistent with the output voltage. A signal of few mV could be detected in the range of 100500 Hz.

Fig. 3.(a) Transfer characteristic for the OTFT with W/L=2000um/10um, measure in a flat condition and on a curved stage with a bending radius of 1.5 cm. (b) A scheme of the measurement's setup. DUT is arranged in a common-source amplifier configuration with passive load. A trans-impedance op-amp is used to read drain current and to provide virtual ground to the source terminal

250Hz 500Hz

Fig. 4. Two sensor output voltages measured at 250 Hz and 500 Hz respectively, for a PVDF-TrFE flexible capacitor with a diameter of 2 mm and an integrated p-channel organic TFT with W/L=200

4. Conclusions

We fabricated a flexible pyroelectric sensor based on PVDF-TrFE, connecting in a multi-foil approach the sensing capacitor together with a fully printed p-channel OTFT made on PEN substrate. The device showed an output of few mV to an incoming IR chopped radiation provided by a He-Ne laser, with a wavelength of 632 nm and maximum power of 5 mW. These devices can represent a good candidate for low temperature heat sensing applications.

References

[1] T. Someya et al., Conformable, flexible, large-area networks of pressure and thermal sensors with organic transistor active matrixes, PNAS August 30,(2005) vol. 102 no. 35

[2] M. Zirkl et al., Low-Voltage Organic Thin-Film Transistors with High-k Nanocomposite Gate Dielectrics for Flexible Electronics and Optothermal Sensors, Advanced Materials, Volume 19, Issue 17 (2007)

[3] A. Daami et al., Fully Printed Organic CMOS Technology on Plastic Substrates for Digital and Analog Applications in ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (IEEE-SSCS. Piscataway, USA, 2011), (2011)