Scholarly article on topic 'Comparison of the Attitude of Bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) Boy and Girl Students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as Their Second Language and the Effect of the Place of Their Living(City or Village) on Their Attitude'

Comparison of the Attitude of Bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) Boy and Girl Students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as Their Second Language and the Effect of the Place of Their Living(City or Village) on Their Attitude Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Akram Korani

Abstract It is not easy to define the term “Bilingualism”. The most common definition of it is the ability to speak two languages. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the attitude of bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) boy and girl students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as their second language and the effect of the place of their living(city or village) on their attitude and investigating if kordi(their first language) is in danger of language death or not .Statistical society of this study was the students of Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch .there were 2040 students in that university and 1436 people were boys and 604 people were girls. For determining sample society, coloran relation was used .It was 164 people. Regarding proportional allocation according to the number of two sex boys and girls were selected. The method for data analysis was descriptive. The results of the study revealed that girls don’t prefer to speak in their first language and students living in city have more positive attitude toward kordi. It is recommended that parents especially mothers try to speak in the local language in order to prevent language death.

Academic research paper on topic "Comparison of the Attitude of Bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) Boy and Girl Students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as Their Second Language and the Effect of the Place of Their Living(City or Village) on Their Attitude"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 47 (2012) 1747 - 1750

CY-ICER 2012

Comparison of the attitude of bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) boy

and girl students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as their second language and the effect of the place of their living(city or village) on their attitude

Akram Korani*

Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University,Kermanshah, 6718997551, IRAN

Abstract

It is not easy to define the term "Bilingualism". The most common definition of it is the ability to speak two languages. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the attitude of bilingual (Kordi and Farsi) boy and girl students in Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch toward Farsi as their second language and the effect of the place of their living(city or village) on their attitude and investigating if kordi(their first language) is in danger of language death or not .Statistical society of this study was the students of Islamic Azad University Islamabad Branch .there were 2040 students in that university and 1436 people were boys and 604 people were girls. For determining sample society, coloran relation was used .It was 164 people. Regarding proportional allocation according to the number of two sex boys and girls were selected. The method for data analysis was descriptive. The results of the study revealed that girls don't prefer to speak in their first language and students living in city have more positive attitude toward kordi. It is recommended that parents especially mothers try to speak in the local language in order to prevent language death.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu Keywords: bilingual, language death, attitude, sex, linguistic society

1. Introduction

The purpose of the present study was to make a comparison between the attitudes of students (boy

and girl) in Islamic Azad University toward Farsi as their second language and the effect of the place of their living (city or village) on their attitudes. Islam Abad is a city in Iran whose residents are bilingual; Kordi which is a local language is their mother tongue and Farsi as the official language in Iran is their second language It is clear that people in every society are from different classes, genders, ages and etc. so it is natural to observe differences in their speaking. Studies show that women prefer to use standard forms of language more than men, because they are more sensitive toward their social position. In addition to that women tend their children to acquire the prestigious language, for this little by little local languages will die because no longer they have any speaker. Many people believe that decreasing the number of languages is an important step toward universal peace, in their idea the reason

* Corresponding author name. Tel.: +988317243181 E-mail address: Korani222@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.894

of most wars is misunderstandings between nations. But really it isn't so. Having a united language can't be a guarantee for peace. This article was to investigate if boys and girls have similar attitudes to Farsi and if kordi is in danger of dying. Safai(1383) investigated the attitudes of school students in Marand toward Farsi(as their second language) and found that girls like to speak farsi more than boys. Ranjbar (1379) compared the attitudes of students in Pave and Kermanshah and observed that students in Pave (as a town) tend to speak kordi and students in Kermanshah (as a city) tend to speak in Farsi. Salim (1995)studied the attitudes of school students who were originally Arab but lived in Canada and learned English as their second language. He divided students into two groups and observed that the attitude of boys toward English was completely instrumental it means that they just looked at it as an instrument to satisfy their needs but girls in addition to that tried to accept English culture. It is not easy to define the term "bilingualism"(Mahmoodzade, 2000:78). In common sense bilinguals are those who can speak in two languages. Some believe that we can draw a continuum; in one pole people who can speak in two languages as fluent as their mother tongue are and in another pole people who speak in two genres of a language are but this definition has some insufficiencies. Generally it can be said that bilingual is a person who can switch from one language to another one when it is necessary. (Modaresi, 1368:30).bilinguals can be categorized according to their domination on the second language into two categories: equal and dominant. Equals dominate the two languages as much as each other and dominants dominate one language more than another.Fasold (1987:115) categorizes it into equal and non- equal. Equals learn the two languages separately during his childhood and he has two separate semantic systems and non equals child learn two languages in similar situations and can make use of them alternatively. Different genders and different verbal behavior: women and men differ from

each other not only for their appearance but also for their behavior and speech. In some languages these differences are small but in other languages they are considerable. We can divide these differences into four groups: 1. lexical differences: women are more sensitive in choosing the words. For example in Iran they use religious words and oaths more cautiously. Yesperson believes that the differences between women and men's speech are due to taboo. Taboo are words which their use is in conflict with public morality and people become ashamed when hearing or sa^ng them. For example women in Zulu aren't allowed to mention their brother in law's name; otherwise they will be killed (Tradgil, 1376:106).2..phonetic differences: these differences in Farsi are prominent. For example women in informal speech use /u/ more than men such as khiraban and khirabun(street).Zulu has a taboo phoneme. Women can't say "amanzi" because it contains /z/ instead of that she should say "amandabi".3.syntactic differences: women use more tag questions in their speech. May be it is for that they are less certain in expressing their ideas. In addition to that double opposition (I don't know none) can be regarded in women's speech less than men because it is not a standard form and women tend to use standard forms.4.suprasegmental differences: women make use of intonation in their speech a lot. May be it is because they try to attract the listener's attention (tradgil, 1379:114). Language change and language death: Aitchson (1995:197) asserts after a language was born and passed its childhood, it grows up and for some reason it will die. Sometimes the speakers' attitudes cause language change. In Anthill Islands people don't use pidgin for teaching because it reminds low social class so they have a negative attitude toward that.another important factor in language change is sex.the role of women in language death is more than men .women specially low middle class ones propagate standard forms. In a research by Cheshire it was observer that boys from low class tend to use people non - standard forms more than girls from that class (wardhauagh, 1990:195). Language change causes language death. When the last speaker of a language dies that language will die too. Natural disasters cause the death of speakers such as flood, earthquake (crystal, 2000:20). When people are ashamed of using a language and tell jokes in which they address the speakers of a language they don't tend to use that and it causes language death.

2. The hypothesis of this paper were:1. students (boys' and girls') attitudes toward Farsi are like eachother.2.girls and boys' feeling toward Farsi are different from eachother.3.regarding students' place of living(city or village)they have different attitudes toward Farsi 4. Regarding students' place of living (city or village)they have different feelings toward Farsi 5. Kordi is in danger of language death.

Method

Applied method was used in this study. This research was carried out in Iran-Islamic Azad University Islam Abad Branch. There were 2040 students in that university. 1436 boys and 604 girls. The data was collected through a questionnaire consists of 30 questions. The first 10 questions investigated students' attitudes toward Kordi; the second 10 questions investigated students' behavior toward Kordi, the third 10 questions investigated students' feeling toward Kordi. The data analysis of this study can be discussed during two parts. In descriptive level there was a table of the number of those who answered the questions, the average and standard deviation of any part. In inference level after testing the normality of society one sample test was used for investigating the attitude, behavior and feeling of students toward Farsi. After that two t sample , test was used to compare the attitude, behavior and feeling of girls and boys .Finally for comparing these items variance analysis and t, test were used and with the help of Duncan test the most important views of students were investigated.

Discussion

This study showed the attitude of students in Iran-Islamic Azad University Islam Abad Branch toward Kordi is more positive than their attitudes toward Farsi. In addition to that they preferred to speak in Kordi rather than Farsi but their feeling toward Kordi is neither bad nor good. In other words neither they like it very much nor they hate it a lot. There is a meaningful relationship between girls and boys attitudes toward kordi.boys' attitude is more positive than girls'. In their behavior boys tend to use Kordi more than girls but their feelings are like each other and there wasn't a meaningful difference between them and about the place of living, the attitude of students living in village is more positive than those living in city but their behavior are like each other and they make use of it as a means of communication like each other. Their feeling are like each other too and there wasn't a meaningful relationship between them. So the result of this study was like the research done by Safai and Ranjbar and (1383) in which he investigated the attitudes of school students in Marand toward Farsi(as Salim their second language) and found that girls like to speak farsi more than boys.Ranjbar (1379) compared the attitudes of students in Pave and Kermanshah and observed that students in Pave (as a town) tend to speak kordi and students in Kermanshah(as a city) tend to speak in Farsi. Salim (1995)studied the attitudes of school students who were originally Arab but lived in Canada and learned English as their second language. He divided students into two groups and observed that the attitude of boys toward English was completely instrumental it means that they just looked at it as an instrument to satisfy their needs but girls in addition to that tried to accept English culture so Kordi isn't in danger of language death.

3. Tables

To investigate if there is a meaningful difference between the attitude, behavior and feeling of students toward Farsi, F test and variance analysis were used. In this test the issue that was analyzed was if the averages of some society are equal to each other. In reality we were going to test a hypothesis like this:

ji! = n2=(i3: Ho

fit ± nj :Hi

;the results of this test was as follows

Table 1: the comparison of students' attitude, behavior and feeling toward Kordi

source of variations sum of squares degree of freedom Min squares value of meaningful level

between groups 10/062 2 5/031 7/103 0/0001

in groups 359/069 0/708

total 369/131 509 -

Regarding this table and comparing the meaningful level (0/001 with 0/05) it is observed that null-hypothesis with 0/95 certainty was refused.

The best and the worst statistical index between attitude, behavior and feeling of students toward Kordi: After the meaningfulness of F test and the difference between attitude, behavior and feeling of students toward Kordi Duncan test was used to recognize the worst and the best view of student. According to the following table it can be concluded that the behavior and feeling of students are like each other and it is different from their attitudes statistically. It means that students' attitude toward Kordi is more positive than their behavior and feeling toward Kordi.

table 2: The best and the worst statistical index between attitude, behavior and feeling of students toward Kordi

group number

sub set1 sub set 2

feeling 173 3/0902

behavior 171 3/1825

attitude 166 3/4247

Meaningful level 0/313 1/000

References

Aitchson, J., (1995) Language Change: Progress or Decay? Cambridge University press: Cambridge ,95-99. Crystal, D.(2000/), Language Death, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge,346-351. Fasold R. (1987), The sociolinguistic of society: Cambridge University press Cambridge,67-78.

Mahmoodzadeh, K., (2000), A Critical Study of the Impact of Bilingualism on the teaching and Practice of Interpreting.ph.D.thesis. Allameh Tabatabai University,299-305.

Modaresi, Y. (1368). An introduction to sociolinguistics: Tehran, cultural studies and investigations institute,104-111.

Ranjbar, K., (1383) an investigation of bilingualism in Kermanshah and Paveh,"M.A thesis, Allame Tababai University,25-27.

Safai, E., (1383),"An investigation of bilingualism students inMarand", Allame Tababai University,154-156.

Salim, A.B (1995)., Attitudes and cultural background and their relationship to English in a multicultural social context: The case of male and female Arab immigrants in Canada, Educational psychology 15:3,323-35

Tradgil, P., (1983), social linguistics, translated by Mohammad Tabatabai, Agah:Tehran, 227-228.

Wardhauagh, R. (1990), An Introduction to sociolinguistics .Basil Blackwell: oxford,395-398.