Scholarly article on topic 'The Case Study of Team-based Learning Methodology with Teachers of four Domains in the Senior High School'

The Case Study of Team-based Learning Methodology with Teachers of four Domains in the Senior High School Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Team-Based Learning (TBL)" / "green geothermal energy" / "cross-domain teaching and learning"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Ching-hsiang Chang, Yong-yan Chen, Jen-chieh Wang, Shu-chuan Wang, Chun-te Wu

Abstract Chang Jung Christian University and National Hsin-Feng Senior High School cooperated in hosting a series of teacher training camps, teaching module design discussions relating to Team-Based Learning (TBL) and green geothermal energy in 2012. The teaching program began in September 2013, focusing TBL on “green energy”. Coupled with field visits, guest lecturers, and participation in competition, the teaching program aims to strengthen the learning effectiveness of students, and emphasize digital technology and hands-on module experience. Four cross-disciplinary senior high school teachers were invited to apply TBL methodology in innovative teaching and learning of geothermal energy. The teachers raises questions to trigger group discussion and in-class discussion on the principle and practice of energy use in daily life, as well as the establishment of energy-saving facilities. After self-learning, students then shared their learning experience with other students. Finally, the feedbacks and suggestions by the students and teachers on the TBL methodology are provided for a reference for TBL in the future.

Academic research paper on topic "The Case Study of Team-based Learning Methodology with Teachers of four Domains in the Senior High School"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 176 (2015) 804 - 810

IETC 2014

The case study of team-based learning methodology with teachers of four domains in the senior high school

Ching-hsiang Changa*, Yong-yan Chenb, Jen-chieh Wangb, Shu-chuan Wanga, and Chun-

te Wuc

a Chang Jung Christian University, No.1,Changda Rd.,Gueiren District, Tainan City 71101, Taiwan b National Hsin-Feng Senior High School, No.148, Sec. 1, Zhongzheng N. Rd., Guiren Dist., Tainan City 711, Taiwan cMing Chuan University, 250 Zhong Shan N. Rd., Sec. 5, Taipei 111, Taiwan

Abstract

Chang Jung Christian University and National Hsin-Feng Senior High School cooperated in hosting a series of teacher training camps, teaching module design discussions relating to Team-Based Learning (TBL) and green geothermal energy in 2012. The teaching program began in September 2013, focusing TBL on "green energy". Coupled with field visits, guest lecturers, and participation in competition, the teaching program aims to strengthen the learning effectiveness of students, and emphasize digital technology and hands-on module experience. Four cross-disciplinary senior high school teachers were invited to apply TBL methodology in innovative teaching and learning of geothermal energy. The teachers raises questions to trigger group discussion and in-class discussion on the principle and practice of energy use in daily life, as well as the establishment of energy-saving facilities. After self-learning, students then shared their learning experience with other students. Finally, the feedbacks and suggestions by the students and teachers on the TBL methodology are provided for a reference for TBL in the future.

©2015Published byElsevierLtd. Thisis anopenaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University.

Keywords: Team-Based Learning (TBL), green geothermal energy, cross-domain teaching and learning

1. Introduction

The "Whitepaper on Innovative Education" proposed by the Ministry of Education of Taiwan points out that innovation capability broadly includes creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship mechanisms. The outcome of innovation is the creative performance of the general public in various fields. Science and technology education has an emphasis on "learning by doing", expecting that students can learn in practice with stimulus of new experiences and knowledge, and strengthen their problem-solving ability (H.C. Wang, 2004). In the knowledge based economy, there is a high demand for talents with creative and innovative thinking. However, in the current educational system

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.543

of Taiwan, when students face problems, teachers and parents tend to help them solve the problems or directly give answers. Under the traditional teaching methodology for science education, students can only passively accept the knowledge in class, while unable to apply their knowledge in daily life, thus lacking problem-solving and learning migration abilities (C.H. Wang, 2009)( M.Y. Shih, 2012).

Although there are diverse teaching methods, students still learn passively as they follow the traditional pattern of "do as the teacher teaches". The two problems of the current teaching and learning methods, namely "team spirit" and "self-learning" can be solved by team-based learning (TBL). Hence, this paper presents the case study of National Hsin-Feng Senior High School, which uses emerging technology (geothermal energy) as the content of school course or non-standard educational activity, develops innovative curriculum or teaching activity modules, and designs scientific inquiry-based teaching strategies or activities. By using geothermal energy as the teaching theme and developing merge-integrated teaching, the teaching methodology aims to enhance the emerging technology literacy and learning effectiveness of high school students in off-shores island of Taiwan.

2. Literature review

2.1. Team-based learning (tbl)

TBL is a method of carrying out group discussion in a large class, and encouraging active learning of students (Y.W. Wang, Y.W. Wang, and J.-G. Hsieh, 2010). There are two approaches: the educational strategies for the development of academic environment, and the development and educational process at workplace. During employee recruitment, companies not only concern about professional ability, but also expect the employees to have the ability to work in teams. However, this ability is neglected in school education of Taiwan. Moreover, students in Taiwan still follow the traditional pattern of "do as the teacher teaches", which is passive learning (M.Y. Shih, 2012). Therefore, to enhance students' teamwork and self-learning abilities, the learning method should be re-designed.

In recent years, another popular teaching method is flip teaching, which flips the content and time of classroom teaching with those of assignments outside of class. TBL incorporates flip teaching with group learning, in order to make learning more effective and cultivate the teamwork spirit of students. Compared with the teacher-oriented didactic teaching, TBL is a dialectic teaching, which allows students to go through the thinking process and reflect whether the students can apply the knowledge. It is student-oriented. Unlike the team-oriented learning method, which only adds group projects in the curriculum, TBL is an integrated, systematic teaching strategy, which includes changes in the curriculum design. It requires students to spend classroom time on applying the knowledge rather than absorbing the knowledge. Under TBL, the personal learning effect is closely related to the overall formation, development and performance of the team. The comparison results of traditional teaching methods and TBL are as shown in Figure 1.

Traditional teaching TBL method

Pre-class preparation Teachers' lecturing Test to confirm preparation

Application

In-class practice and application

learn new knowledge and concept Apply learned knowledge and concept

Fig. 1. Comparison of the traditional teaching methods and TBL (L. K. Michaelsen, 2004)

2.2. Cipp evaluation

CIPP, proposed by Stufflebeam et al., represents the four evaluation items of context, input, process and product (D.L. Stufflebeam, and T. Kellaghan(Eds.), 2003). C represents context evaluation to provide the basis for determining the target, which is the most basic evaluation; I represents input evaluation to determine how to use resources to achieve goals, including the selection, design and development of curriculum resources; P represents process evaluation, which starts after the completion of curricular resource design to provide regular feedback to the people in charge of the curricular courses; P represents the cause evaluation to understand the results of the educational system to help decision-makers determine whether the curricular courses should be terminated, modified or continued (C.C. Huang, 2011). CIPP evaluation is an evaluation system mainly applied in the entire program or project, focusing on the overall process evaluation. It suggests that "the main purpose of evaluation is not to prove improvement, but deliver a professional judgment" (C.T. Wu, 1993) (Y.L. Hsieh, 2010). Therefore, it integrates both qualitative and quantitative research methods, and expects to provide the most needed information for evaluators by objective and realistic observations (C.H. Wang, 2009) (D.L. Stufflebeam, and T. Kellaghan(Eds.), 2003).

This study applied the CIPP model to evaluate the students' learning attitude, teaching objectives, and teachers' needs under Context; to evaluate the problem orientations, learning strategy, and teaching design under Input; to evaluate the content, strategies, teacher-student interaction, and learning assessment problems during the teaching process under Process; and evaluate the effectiveness of problem-oriented learning under Product. The CIPP model was used to correct and improve the teaching method, in order to achieve the optimal results.

2.3. Green geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a green energy with many characteristics. It is a clean and environmentally friendly energy. The infinite energy dissipated by the earth can be directly used for power generation or as renewable energy, without the impact of depletion, climate changes, or the development of other energy sources. The land use surface area is very small, thus, it is less likely to damage the natural environment.

The traditional geothermal energy requires low cost. Although the cost of the newly developed EGS is relatively high, it is still cost effective if compared with fossil fuel carbon sequestration, nuclear waste disposal costs of nuclear energy, wind energy and solar power grid problem. The cost of EGS can be substantially reduced after the technology is mature. Therefore, many countries have invested in the exploration and development of geothermal energy, including those with rich geothermal energy sources, such as the United States, New Zealand, Japan, Iceland, the Philippines and Indonesia, as well as those lack rich geothermal energy sources, such as France, Germany, Australia and South Korea. According to the statistics from the Emerging Energy Research, by 2008, the total amount of geothermal power worldwide was about 10.5 GWe (1 GWe=1,000 MWe=1 billion watts). It is estimated that the total worldwide geothermal power amount by 2020 will increase by 3 to 4 times to reach between 31.5 GWe to 40.5 GWe, as shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2. Global geothermal energy use: current status and future outlook (ITRI, 2008)

After the enactment of the Renewable Energy Development Act on July 8, 2009, the development of renewable energy has been booming in Taiwan. Solar power and wind power are the major power sources, but they are subject to climate changes. Geothermal energy is a sustainable and stable source of power supply. Due to the technical limitation in the early stage of development, the site selection must be at hot spring geology, thus resulting in disputes with the hot spring hotels in terms of water rights and water usage amount. Moreover, the limitation of water output restricted the power generation amount; hence, the cost of geothermal energy power generation was high. At present, the geothermal energy power plants in operation, such as those in Iceland, New Zealand, Italy, and the United States, are mostly in regions with volcanic activity or on geological fault zone, and hot spring is used for thermal energy power generation.

This study used emerging technology (deep geothermal energy) as the content of school course or non-standard educational activity, develops innovative curriculum or teaching activity modules, and designs scientific inquiry-based teaching strategies or activities. By using geothermal energy as the teaching theme and developing merge-integrated teaching, the teaching methodology aims to enhance the emerging technology literacy and learning effectiveness of high school students in off-shores island of Taiwan.

3. Application of smart life into senior high / vocational high school curriculum

The teaching program was implemented by the team of Chang Jung Christian University. It carried out TBL, discussed the acceptance of the students and teachers of TBL, guided the students to collect and analyze data through the project-based learning, and develops the problem-solving and self-learning abilities of the students. Finally, the CIPP model was used for evaluation, and proposal of suggestions and improvement methods. The team also introduced the college student TA into the high school classes, and further promoted the teaching method to other courses. The major tasks include:

(1) To assist teachers in junior and senior high school to prepare and gather relevant information on green geothermal energy and low-carbon energy;

(2) To assist observation of in-class curriculum and course activities;

(3) To regularly organize summer and winter camps and model-making activities, to hold "Energy-saving Green Map" on May 16, 2014 and "Green Energy Science Summer Camp" from August 20 to 21, 2014, to plan and design activity lessons;

(4) To assist high school teachers establishing good channels of communication with the university teams.

Finally, the feedbacks and suggestions by the students and teachers on TBL were discussed for the reference of

future application of TBL.

The specific objectives of this study are as follows:

(1) Applying TBL on the course development and merge-integrated teaching of "high school earth science": in the high school earth science courses, the team-oriented focus is on "sightseeing tourism". The teachers raise questions concerning daily life problems, such as the relationship between the environmental development and topography, the impact of volcanoes and earthquakes on the environmental use. The students are encouraged to participate in group discussion and in-class discussion. Then they conduct self-learning and share their learning with other students. They then discuss the methods of geothermal energy development and utilization.

(2) Applying TBL on the course development and merge-integrated teaching of "high school geography": in the high school geography courses, the team-oriented focus is on "sightseeing tourism". The teachers raise questions concerning daily life problems, such as the relationship between landscape conservation and environmental development, the impact of landscape planning and environmental use, the combination of the community building and geothermal energy industry. The students are encouraged to participate in group discussion and in-class discussion. Then they conduct self-learning and share their learning with other students. They then discuss the methods of geothermal energy development and utilization.

(3) Applying TBL on the course development and merge-integrated teaching of "high school physics": in high school physics courses, the team-oriented focus is on "green energy", emphasizing "eyes, hands and brains". The teachers raise questions concerning daily life problems, such as energy units, energy generation, energy conversion, energy consumption and energy conservation. The students can conduct self-learning, participate in group discussion, and discuss with the teacher. Then they share their learning with other students to train the observation ability and creativity.

(4) Applying TBL on the course development and merge-integrated teaching of "high school biology": in high school biology courses, the team-oriented focus is on "biotechnology". The teachers raise questions concerning daily life problems, such as the relationship between plant growth and the environment and temperature. The students are encouraged to participate in group discussion and in-class discussion. Then they conduct self-learning and share their learning with other students. They then discuss the methods of improvement.

4. TBL module

To achieve TBL in learning green geothermal energy, experimental teaching was conducted from September to November 2013. The subjects were the top 5% freshmen students of high school. The 44 students were grouped for teaching. In mid-November, formal teaching was conducted on 44 students in one class. Under TBL, group discussion and individual learning were carried out simultaneously, in order to guide students to understand the content of geothermal energy, and cultivate their abilities to think about geothermal energy-related issues from the geographical, biological and physical aspects. They also learned geothermal energy related knowledge and abilities that can be applied in daily life. To design the TBL course outline, the team from Chang Jung Christian University held a number of workshops on the principles and application of TBL for the teachers of National Hsin-Feng Senior High School. After the curricular modules were developed for TBL courses, the student underwent individual test (iRAT) and team test (tRAT). Then, team assignments, reports, and peer evaluation (P-E) were conducted for evaluation. The TBL approach changed the learning and teaching mode of the students and teachers. Besides learning new knowledge and broadening the vision, the students have more time for discussion, take initiative for peer interaction, have higher learning participation, achieve effective peer communication, and gain thinking ability.

5. Product benefits

The environmental improvement, academic achievement, technological innovation, economic benefits, social impacts, evaluation of academic or practical values, and major contributions are described as follows.

(1) Environmental improvement: This project focuses on integrating green geothermal energy technology into teaching outline, and highlights the characteristics of TBL, and how to develop creative and suitable teaching material teaching aids for students to enhance the emerging technology literacy of diverse ethnic groups. With the equipment and resources provided by universities (National Quemoy University and Chang Jung Christian University), the perceptions of high and medium-end low-carbon buildings and geothermal energy can be strengthened. Through training of high school seed teachers and implementation courses, the green geothermal energy technology is integrated into the design of teaching aid and lesson plan, so that the university and high school can establish the cooperation partnership.

(2) Academic achievement: through resource introduction, to assist high school teachers in the construction of the basic knowledge and capabilities of teaching and learning design, develop relevant curriculum design and explore methods of emerging energy technologies. The design challenges the traditional lecturing of teachers. Under the leadership of expert lecturers, the learning of knowledge and capabilities of emerging technology was enhanced. The initial design of teaching was changed into the student-oriented explorative teaching, team-oriented learning, problem-oriented learning model. Four TBL teaching plans were developed. Table 1 shows the design of biology teaching and learning.

(3) Knowledge innovation: In the first year, under the guidance of experts and scholars, the teachers' learning of knowledge and capability of emerging technology was enhanced. Resources were introduced to assist high school teachers to build the basic knowledge and ability of teaching and learning design. Teachers adjusted the design of teaching and learning into student-oriented innovative learning. In the second year, the green geothermal energy and TBL were introduced into curricular content and programs of teaching and learning.

Course theme The geothermal energy in Taiwan

Teaching objectives and course outline 1. To understand the techonology of geothermal energy application around the world 2. To discuss the emerging technology of geothermal energy application 3. To cultivate the confidence and enthusiasm in facing the challenges of technilogical development

Units Unit 1: Technology of geothermal energy application Unit 2: The emerging technology of geothermal energy application

Teaching design Activity 1: Usage of geothermal energy in Taiwan Question by the teacher: What are the ways of using geothermal energy in Taiwan? Teaching guideline: To guide the students answer (hot spring, boiling egg, hot spring vegetables) Activity 2: The limiations and problems of using geothermal energy (Transport of hot spring water) (Difference between hot spring water and regular water) Activity: usage of geothermal energy

Teaching design Activity: Usage of geothermal energy Transport of hot spring water (materials, distance, piping positions) Hot spring vegetables (weight, size, results; growing rate and concentration in soil)

Teaching effectiveness evaluation 1. Knowledge: students' understanding and application of the knowledge 2. Affective expression: students' learning attitude, teamwork 3. Thinking ability: in-class discussion, homework 4. Problem-identifying and solving abilities: the problems identified by the students and solutions 5. Information ability: the ability of the students to collect and use information 6. Skills: students' skills and the ability to present the skills 7. Creation expression: the learning portfoil and presentaiton of learning results

Source: Chang Jung Christian University, National Hsin-Feng Senior High School.

6. Conclusion

This project constructed the high scope courses by using the CIPP model in a stable and pragmatic manner. In the first year, capability building activities were held to verify the directions, content integration and teaching

approaches of the high school courses. Then, the teachers discussed about the selection of teaching material, collaboration of teaching method, cross-disciplinary and cross-grade coordination, in order focus on TBL model. Diverse teaching and learning evaluation methods were adopted, including paper-based test, learning sheet, and observation report. The goal of the first year, namely building the foundation for curricular design, has been reached. In the second year, the preliminary evaluation will be conducted on the course effectiveness, which is the third stage of the second phase of CIPP model (input evaluation and process evaluation). In the third year, the overall performance evaluation on the students in the high scope course will be conducted, in order verify whether the overall curriculum design is appropriate and learning effective is enhanced, specifically whether the students' understanding of green geothermal energy can be demonstrated in their daily life. This project complies with the spirit of the high scope program, and guides high school teachers in the design of teaching and learning evaluation. The evaluation not only assesses the knowledge, but also the participation and gain in the learning progress. It is believed that the evaluation model can provide students an opportunity to demonstrate their abilities, enhance learning success, learn about the low-carbon life and green geothermal energy.

Acknowledgements

This study was financially sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology under Grant No. NSC 102-3113-S-309-00 -GJ and NSC-101-2514-S-823-001.

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