Scholarly article on topic 'Microcellulose particles for surface modification to enhance moisture management properties of polyester, and polyester/cotton blend fabrics'

Microcellulose particles for surface modification to enhance moisture management properties of polyester, and polyester/cotton blend fabrics Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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{"Moisture management" / "Humidity comfort" / Wicking / Diffusion / Absorption / "Micro-cellulose particles" / Wettability}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Magdi El Messiry, Affaf El Ouffy, Marwa Issa

Abstract In this work we studied the effect of surface treated fabric by applying Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) Particles using two different procedures. The first method was to dissolve MCC particles and form a MCC solution which further was blended with a textile binder to obtain the fabric coating. The second treatment was direct blending MCC particles with same textile binder in order to get the fabric finishing to be sprayed on the fabric surface. The percentage of MCC particles was chosen 6%, as this ratio can be considered the most appropriate one. The effect of these treatments on fabrics moisture wettability with varying percentage of coating was studied. It was concluded that the second method by spraying MCC Particles directly on the fabric surface gives superior improved fabric’s wettability and moisture management than solving the MCC and coating the fabric surface. The morphological study using SEM confirmed the presence of MCC particles on the fabric surface; therefore, intensification fiber surface energy leads to increase the wicking properties and increase the rate of water absorption.

Academic research paper on topic "Microcellulose particles for surface modification to enhance moisture management properties of polyester, and polyester/cotton blend fabrics"

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Alexandria Engineering Journal (2015) 54, 127-140

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Alexandria University Alexandria Engineering Journal

www.elsevier.com/locate/aej www.sciencedirect.com

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Microcellulose particles for surface modification cn«^ to enhance moisture management properties of polyester, and polyester/cotton blend fabrics

Magdi El Messiry a *, Affaf El Ouffy b, Marwa Issa c

a Textile Engineering Textile Dept Faculty of Engineering Alexandria university, Egypt b Textile Engineering Textile Dept Faculty of Engineering Alexandria university, Egypt c Faculty of Engineering Alexandria university, Egypt

Received 13 August 2014; revised 13 January 2015; accepted 8 March 2015 Available online 7 April 2015

KEYWORDS

Moisture management; Humidity comfort; Wicking; Diffusion; Absorption;

Micro-cellulose particles; Wettability

Abstract In this work we studied the effect of surface treated fabric by applying Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) Particles using two different procedures. The first method was to dissolve MCC particles and form a MCC solution which further was blended with a textile binder to obtain the fabric coating. The second treatment was direct blending MCC particles with same textile binder in order to get the fabric finishing to be sprayed on the fabric surface. The percentage of MCC particles was chosen 6%, as this ratio can be considered the most appropriate one. The effect of these treatments on fabrics moisture wettability with varying percentage of coating was studied. It was concluded that the second method by spraying MCC Particles directly on the fabric surface gives superior improved fabric's wettability and moisture management than solving the MCC and coating the fabric surface. The morphological study using SEM confirmed the presence of MCC particles on the fabric surface; therefore, intensification fiber surface energy leads to increase the wicking properties and increase the rate of water absorption.

© 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

In recent years, there have been considerable research and developments in moisture management fabrics in such a way that the body perspiration is transported away from the skin to the outer surface of fabric where it can evaporate quickly in order to accomplishing the consumer satisfaction of comfort. To achieve such moisture management, the structural

* Corresponding author.

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

design and quality of fibers are modified so that the textile products can have good performance in absorbing, transporting, and dissipating moisture. These properties can be affected by the structure and type of fiber, yarn and fabric along with finishes or coating applied; methods for enhancing the moisture management [1-7].

Polyester fiber is one of widely consumed of all fibers (about 70%), and when one perspires, the Polyester tends to keep the perspiration trapped against the body. Due to the hydrophobic nature, Polyester is also more electrostatic compared to the natural fibers. Therefore, numerous researchers are in progress on the hydrolysis and aminolysis of Polyester

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2015.03.001

1110-0168 © 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Figure 1 Experimental Design Layout.

fibers to overcome this disadvantage [8-12], in contrary to cotton which is hydrophilic fiber and composed mainly of cellulose. Cotton fabric is able to absorb high levels of moisture, 8.5% moisture regain. Unfortunately, the wicking property between inner and outer surfaces of the fabrics made of cotton fibers is very poor; this makes cotton unsuitable for use against the skin during energetic activity. However, fabrics made of modified Polyester can give better moisture management, especially with using fine filament yarn [13-18]. Moisture management of fabrics not only depends on the materials, but also on their assembly in the fabric. In case of knitted fabrics, warp knitting tends to be a more effective knitting pattern for moisture management than circular knitting [19]. Multi-layers fabric of hydrophilic and hydrophobic material was developed in order to improve its moisture management [20,21]. Various techniques have been emphasized to develop better moisture management such as combining Polyester with different natural fiber types, microfiber, Bi-component fiber, especially different cross-section, plasma treatment and applying surface finish [22-40]. A material such as cellulose that is produced by both plants and bacteria on a totally sustainable basis assumes great significance for future materials development [41,42]. Mechanical treatment and acid hydrolysis are the main and common approaches for isolating cellulose particles [4246]. Numerous approaches in this direction used different cellulose materials: cationic cellulose, cationic Nanocrystalline cellulose and cotton powder in a way that the hydrophilicity of Polyester fabric was significantly improved [47-50]. Many researchers investigate the mechanism of water vapor transferred through fibrous materials. Das [7,27] indicates that there are several ways: (i) Diffusion of the water vapor through the fibrous layers, (ii) Absorption, transmission and desorption of water vapor by the fibers and (iii) Transmission of water vapor by forced convection. Diffusion of water vapor molecules through air spaces in fabrics is a major contributor to moisture vapor transport. The other transfer processes mentioned above involve smaller amounts of moisture vapor. These processes are more complex than the diffusion processes and can

significantly contribute to clothing comfort. With the idea of improving the moisture management, different nano/mi-croparticles were tried by several researchers. Yin Fa et al. [50] applied nano-wool particles to enhance the moisture management capability and hydrophility of Polyester fabrics. Ying Ting et al. [51] treated samples of wool by cotton particles for better moisture management function of the fabrics such as wetting time at bottom, top maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum wetted radius and bottom spreading speed. All these property changes suggest that the hydrophobicity of wool fibers increased after the treatment by cotton fibrils.

In this study, two techniques were suggested in order to study the effect of applying microcrystalline cellulose particles as coating materials on Polyester fabric and its blend with cotton. The wettability of the fabric was measured through the wicking height and the contact angle of the treated samples.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Materials

Three woven fabrics were selected for this study: Polyester (plain weave, 142 g/m2, 26 picks/cm, 31 ends/cm), Cotton (plain weave, 195 g/m2, 21 picks/cm, 25 end/cm) and Polyester/ Cotton (65/35) blend (twill weave 2/1, 186 g/m2, 28 picks/cm, 24 ends/cm).

Microcrystalline cellulose particles (MCC) 20 im were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis process, produced by Sigma-Aldrich. For Method (A), two commercial textile additives, self-cross linking acrylic binder and Polyacrylate thickener, have been used for cellulosic coating for woven fabrics.

In order to prepare the aqueous mixtures of MCC Particles, Method B, with different mass ratios of Urea, Thiourea and NaOH, the following chemicals were used for the preparation of the cellulose finish Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Urea and Thiourea and textile binder.

Figure 2 Contact angle analysis set-up.

Figure 3 Mechanism of water vapor transferred through coated fibrous material.

2.2. Methods

Two methods were investigated, Fig. 1, to find a technique to apply a thin coating of microcellulose particles on the surface of the fabric in order to increase the wettability of Polyester fabric and its blends. These methods are as follows:

• Binding MCC particles to the surface of fabric directly (Method A).

• Applying of aqueous mixtures of MCC particles with the optimal mass ratios of Urea, Thiourea and NaOH to the surface of fabric, (Method B).

For this purpose three different finish ratios were applied to the fabric surface (50%, 30% and 20%). Several fabric properties were measured for the treated and untreated woven fabric samples (100% Polyester, Polyester/Cotton 65 /35 blends and 100% cotton).

Method (A): The MCC particles were mixed directly with the binder so that it could be sprayed directly on the fabric surface with three different ratios respectively to their weight. The percentage of MCC particles in the spray was 6%, and this ratio can be considered the most appropriate one.

Method (B): Three aqueous mixtures with the optimal mass ratios of Urea, Thiourea and NaOH reported in a literature [49] were used as solvent systems in this study. For the binding of aqueous MCC mixtures, two commercial textile

additives, a self-cross linking acrylic binder and a Polyacrylate thickener, were employed to form the coating formulation [48]. After MCC solution was prepared, the binder and the thickener are mixed by a mechanical stirrer until the coating attained sufficient viscosity to be applied.

2.3. Procedures

For each method, fabric samples of 75 mm x 75 mm were prepared from Polyester, Polyester/Cotton (65/35) and washed with distilled water and dried in an oven before applying the coat. The increase of dried fabric weight due to coating material was 0%, 20%, 30% and 50%. After applying the coating, the fabric was dried at 80 0C for 20 min and cured for 15 min.

2.4. Testing apparatus

2.4.1. Fabric wicking

Wicking of fabrics was measured in accordance with ISO 9073 after three washes. According to the ISO 9073 standard, the water transport height is determined by a vertical strip wicking test. This test method was applied to determine the wicking of fabrics in warp and weft directions.

2.4.2. Fabric contact angle

The test was carried out according to ASTM D7334, and a fabric specimen was placed in the instrument, and a drop of

Type of materials

Figure 4 Wicking height in warp and weft directions versus the type of material coating.

Type of materials

Figure 5a Wicking height in warp direction using different percentages of coating versus the type of material coating.

Wicking height weft wise

Polyester Polyester Polyester Poly/cotton Poly/cotton Poly/cotton cotton

100% coat MCC coat MCC uncoated coat MCC coat MCC uncoated uncoated Solution Particles Solution Particles

Type of materials

Figure 5b Wicking height in weft direction using different percentages of coating versus the type of material coating.

distilled water was placed on the fabric surface using a syringe at room temperature. Video of the drop was recorded and analyzed. After the drop was set on the fabric surface, video of droplet was executed on three different spots on each sample. The contact angle and percentages of water absorption were calculated by analyzing the shape of the water droplet using the set-up shown in Fig. 1.

2.4.3. Fabric air permeability

Fabric Air Permeability test is preformed according to the ASTM D737 - 04, and five samples were tested in each case (see Fig. 2)

2.4.4. Fabric surface morphology

The surface morphology of the treated fabrics was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were mounted on aluminum stumps and coated with gold in a sputtering device for 1.5 min at 15 mA and examined under scanning electron microscope (Model JEOL, JSM 5300).

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Mechanism of water vapor transfer

In this work, we introduce a technique to assist the diffusion of water vapor molecules through the filling of the air gaps in the fabric by ultra-hydrophilic material that absorbs water vapor and transfers it to the hyperbolic coating layer on the fabric. Fig. 3 represents the sketch of the mechanism of water vapor transfer through fibrous material coated by ultra-hydrophobic layer with piles that are passing through the porous spaces between crossed yarns forming the fabric.

By implementing this method of partial fine particle application in which the particles are to be firmly deposited at the miso-pores of the woven fabric structure, combined with a targeted binding of the particles to the woven fabric fibers, the coated layer will have a moisture attracting piles through the fabric pores that activate the mechanism of diffusion of the water vapor through the fibrous layers and rapidly pulled

Method (A)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Coating ratio

♦ Polyester fabric coat MCC Particles ■ Poly/cotton fabric coat MCC Particles

Figure 6 Wicking height of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics versus the ratio of material coating.

through to the outer layer. The micro-cellulose particles are ultra-hydrophilic material in which the moisture content can reach 20% [52-54] and the water absorption may reach 5000 (ll/g).

Furthermore, they have high specific surface. This mechanism will force the transfer of moisture away from the skin to the outside of the fabric. The coating applied to outer surface enables the water to spread quickly where it can evaporate. The moisture vapor transport occurs by 'molecular wicking', and the water molecules are first adsorbed to the surface of the hydrophilic material then they move to the next molecule along. This process continues throughout the thickness of the hydrophilic material.

Covering both sides of the fabric by ultra-hydrophobic material increases the diffusion of the water vapor through the fibrous layers, absorption, and transmission and desorption of water vapor by the outer coating layer.

3.2. Effect of cellulosic coating on fabric wicking performance

Mainly, performance fabrics are engineered to keep the body dry during vigorous activities. Keeping the body dry, especially during cold weather, ensures that the wearer does not lose heat unnecessarily by having wet skin; hence, the interaction of a fabric with moisture affects body comforts [51-55]. Wicking is the spontaneous flow of liquid in a porous substance driven by capillarity force [56]. The wicking is the most effective process to maintain a feel of comfort. In the case of clothing with high wicking properties, moisture coming from the skin is spread throughout the fabric offering a dry feeling and the spreading of the liquid enables moisture to evaporate easily [7]. The capillary pressure increases as the radius of the capillary reduces causing higher capillary rise of the liquid. The coatings will result in reduction of the pore size in the yarn and between weft and warp. Depending on the distribution and size of the pores, the wicking height will be determined by Laplace equation [7], as the radius of the capillary decreases, the pressure generated in the capillary will be higher, causing faster flow through the capillary. Hence the application of MMC to the surface of fabric will reduce the water vapor resistance and lessen the air permeability. Accordingly, the difference between the methods (A) and (B) will be distinguished.

Fig. 4 illustrates the wicking height in warp and weft directions for different types of coated material. It is noticeable that the wicking height is generally increased when using method (A), and there is difference in the wickability of the weft and warp directions of the fabric. This may be due to the fabric structure; hence, the number of picks/cm and ends/cm is not equal which leads to the different sizes of capillarity between the yarns, thus variation of the wicking height. Generally, the treatment of the fabric with cellulosic coat will change the performance of wicking in the fabric; therefore the coat will pull more water up increasing the fabric wickability. So, the mechanism of wicking in this case is rather complicated and will depend on the capillarity phenomena as well as the ability of finishing coat to absorb moisture.

Figs. 5a and 5b) illustrate wicking height in warp and weft directions when using several percentage of coating for the different types of fabric. It is clear that the increase in the weight of coating layer will increase the wickability of the fabric in all

Original Polyester fabric Original Polyester/ cotton Fabric

Figure 7 SEM micrographs of untreated Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics.

At 20 % MCC Particles At 30 % MCC Particles

finishing ratio finishing ratio

At 50 % MCC Particles finishing ratio

Figure 8a SEM images of treated Polyester fabric with different finishing ratios using Method (A).

circumstances; however, the percentage increase is more significant when using a coat ratio higher than 20% and when the coating material is prepared by method (A), especially when coating a Polyester fabric. It can be also detected that the MCC particles, Method (A), have a pronounced influence in improving the wicking heights in both directions for Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics which has also been proven by the Single factor ANOVA at confidence level 95%.

Moreover, Method (B) has no significant effect on the wick-ing heights for both types of fabric, even by increasing of coating percentage, which is also emphasized by the Single factor ANOVA at confidence level 95%. The wicking mechanism

depends on two factors: the presence of capillarity still opened and the absorption ability of the coating material.

For the anti-wicking performance, it prevents the fabric from absorbing water through capillary action of the yarns as the coating material absorbs water by itself. In the case of anti-wicking fabric coating, the capillarity will be completely closed and the coating material has no-wickable properties. In our case, both methods have different degrees of each effect.

Fig. 6 illustrates that the increase of the coating ratio over 30% has no effect on the wickability of the fabric.

The analysis of the above results exemplifies that the wicka-bility of Polyester fabric and Polyester/Cotton fabric improved

At 20 % MCC Particles At 30 % MCC Particles

finishing ratio finishing ratio

At 50 % MCC Particles At 50 % MCC Particles

Figure 8b SEM images of treated Polyester/Cotton fabric with different finishing ratios using Method (A).

in the case when treated with coating method (A) with coating percent 30%.

Coating fabric with a hydrophilic microcellulosic coat increases the surface energy, but substantially increases the surface energy of the outer Polyester face, and this difference in surface energy is what drives the one-way wicking behavior.

3.2.1. Morphological study

The morphology treated by both methods samples was investigated using SEM. Fig. 7 shows SEM micrographs of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton original untreated fabrics. When fabric is treated by Method (A), it is expected that the microcellulosic particles on the surface of the fibers are aggregated on the surface of the fibers due to the tendency of the microcellulosic particles to gather together. Continuous or discontinuous coats may not be smooth as in the case of Method (B). Figs 8a and 8b and Figs. 9a and 9b) illustrate SEM micrographs of Method (A) for treated Polyester and Polyester/ Cotton fabrics.

The morphology of the fibers was assessed by SEM, and studies revealed that micrometer-sized fibers were obtained after application of coating by method (A) in all fiber. With the increase of the coat percentage, a fragment of the coat flakes is attached to the fibers, and at 50% the coat closes some pores between fibers and covers the fibers surface. The type of fibers affects the continuity of the coating film. The method (B)

creates a thicker continuous film of coat which will reduce the porosity and consequently, the fabric wickability. This will also influence the fabric air permeability.

Fig. 10a and b shows the effect of two treatments, Method (A) and Method (B), on the air permeability. It can be observed that both of the treatments cause the reduction of air permeability as it was detected by the morphological study. With method (A) reduction in the air permeability of the Polyester fabric after coating significantly depends on the coating ratio, on the contrary to the Method (B), while in the case of Polyester/Cotton fabric, the reduction of the air permeability is a function of the coating ratio for both methods. The single factor ANOVA with confidence level 95% shows a significant effect of the percentage of the coating on the air permeability of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics treated by method (A).

3.3. Effect ofsurface treatment method on the fabric wettability

According to Young's equation, a liquid (water) will wet a fabric when its surface energy is lower than the fabric's surface energy. Surface energy is sensitive to the chemistry of the surface, the morphology and the presence of absorbed materials. There are several factors influencing the wettability of the material, and surfaces with high surface energies will have a strong tendency to adsorb water, as well as surfaces with

At 20 % MCC Solution At 30 % MCC Solution

Finishing ratio Finishing ratio

At 50 % MCC Solution Finishing ratio

Figure 9a SEM image of treated Polyester/Cotton fabric With different finishing ratios using Method (B).

At 20 % MCC Solution At 30 % MCC Solution

Finishing ratio Finishing ratio

At 50 % MCC Solution Finishing ratio

Figure 9b SEM image of treated Polyester fabric With different finishing ratios using Method (B).

Coating percentage

(a) Polyester fabric

Coating percentage

i Poly/cotton uncoated ■ Poly/cotton coat MCC Solution ■ Poly/cotton coat MCC partids

(b) Polyester/Cotton Fabric Figure 10 (a, b) Air permeability of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton coated with different coat percentages.

irregular texture. The contact angle measurement is directly related to capability of the fabric wettability. A low contact angle between the fabric and the liquid means high wettability [56]. The wettability also increases as the surface tension between the solid and the liquid interface diminishes. The wettability of the material additionally changes with the chemical nature of the surface and so with an increase in hydropho-bicity, the contact angle is reduced, thus increasing the surface wettability [57]. Drop shape analysis (DSA) is an image analysis method for determining the contact angle from the shadow image of drop using video imaging. The contact angle was recorded at the start and after 10 s. Both, the contact angle and percentages of water absorption, were calculated by analyzing the shape of the water droplet and measured for untreated and treated woven fabrics with three different finishing ratios (see Table 1)

3.3.1. Drop shape analysis (DSA) of fabrics

Further measurements of the contact angle of all treated samples were made using the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. Table 2 displays captured images of the contact angles of the untreated and coated fabrics at zero time and after 10 s

from the initial water drop contact the surface of the fabric which was coated by 50% using methods (A and B). It can be observed that the cotton fabric has the lowest contact angle and completely absorbed the water drop after 10 s which reflects its high wettability. On the other hand, the Polyester fabric has high contact angle 99.67° which did not change after 10 s due to its hydrophobic nature and low wettability. For Polyester/Cotton fabric, the contact angle is 90° and slightly reduced to 77.67° after 10 s owing to the cotton fiber presence.

Fig. 11 shows the contact angle for the different fabrics treatments which illustrates captured images of the initial contact angles of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics treated by Method (A) and Method (B) using 50% coating percentage and after 10sec from the initial contact. It is clear that the Method (A) reduced the contact angles and improved water drop absorption for both fabric types, and also the water drop is distributed better on the fabric surface in less than 10 s. Although Method (B) with 50% coating percentage enhanced the contact angles and water drop absorption after 10 s for both fabric types, the water drop absorption was not distributed evenly over the fabric surface.

Table 1 Drop shape analysis of different untreated and coated fabrics.

Material of Fabric Untreated

Method "A''

Percentage of coating 50%

Method "B"

Percentage of coating 50%

100% Cotton

0 s and 10 s

0 s and 10 s

0 s and 10 s

Polyester fabric

Polyester/cotton

Table 2 gives a ranking for the different treatments confirming the improvement of the fabrics with the use of Method (A).

3.3.2. Effect of method of treatment on the Contact Angles at different finishing ratios

For different percentages of the coating the value of contact angle is found to be varied significantly as shown in Fig. 12. With the increasing percentage of coating material, Method (A), the contact angle is significantly reduced for both treated fabric types which has also been proved by single factor ANOVA at 95% confidence level, versus to Method (B).

Fig. 13 shows the value of the initial contact angle as a function of the coating percentage for the fabrics treated by method (A).

The rate of fabric absorption is established to depend on fabric material and type of coating, as shown in

Fig. 14. The Polyester fabric has the highest rate when coated by MMC particles in Method (A).

3.4. Effect of washing cycles on the fabric coating

After coating of the samples by either Method (A) or (B), the samples are washed several times and the loss of its weight is determined. Figs. 15 and 16 indicate the loss of the fabric weight after washing cycles for the different ratios of cellulosic coating prepared by Methods (A) and (B). The results specify that in all cases the loss of fabric weight after washing is less with the use of Method (A), reaching 8-10%. Moreover, the comparison between two methods states that Method (A)

Table 2 Ranking of fabrics for the different treatment according to the value of contact angle.

Cotton Polyester Polyester Polyester/ Cotton Polyester cotton

Treatment Methods Initial Contact Angle Contact Angle After 10 sec Initial Contact Angle Contact Angle After 10 sec

Method (A) 18° zero 16° zéro

Method (B) 45.33° 37° 37.67° Zéro

Untreated 22.3° 99.67° 99.67° 90° 77.67°

Spreading J Good Wetting _| Incomplete Wetting _| No wetting _|

Type of materials

Figure 11 Initial contact angle and after 10 s. of various types of material.

Figure 12 Contact angles for untreated and coated fabrics by Method (A) and Method (B) for Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics with different percentages of coating.

Figure 13 Initial value of contact angle versus the coating percentage for Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics treated by Method (A).

Type of materials Figure 14 Fabric absorption rate of the different materials.

Method "A"

V - 7.0713X01391 S

RJ = 0.9604 ■

■ Á

■ 1 Ж ▲ ♦

■ л • ж Ж /"à у = 4.2242Х0-3318 R2 = 0.9442

01234567 Number of washing cycles

♦ 50% Coating Polyester 100% ■ 50% Coating Poly/cotton A 30% Coating Polyester 100% 30% Coating Poly/cotton Ж 20% Coating Polyester 100% • 20% Coating Poly/cotton

Figure 15 Fabric weight loss after washing versus the number of washing cycles in the case of using Method (A) with different percentages of coating.

Figure 16 Fabric weight loss after washing versus the number of washing cycles in the case of using Method (B) with different percentages of coating.

has a better coat binding of the micro-cellulose to the fabric than Method (B). This may be due to the fact that in Method (A) the microparticles are bound, while in Method (B) the cellulosic layer is adhered to the fabric surface which can easily separate from the surface of the fabric.

4. Conclusion

The results obtained within the frame of this work prove the concept for functional microcellulose finishing as a surface modifying system with the aim to upgrade the moisture management of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics. MMC particles are applied using two different methods, based on that, treatment has advantage of the activation of surface energy in order to obtain super-hydrophilic matrix over the fabric and through its pores.

1. The analysis of the results of wetting properties of both fabrics proves the improvement in the moisture management of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics.

2. The treatment of the fabric with cellulosic coat will change the performance of wicking in the fabric depending on the percentage of coating.

3. The Drop shape analysis (DSA) of the results indicates that:

• For both methods, the initial contact angle is affected by the cellulosic coating.

• The use of the MMC particles - binder spray directly to the surface of the fabric, Method (A), reduces significantly the value of the contact angle.

• The percentage cellulosic coating on Polyester/Cotton and Polyester fabrics reduced contact angles as the percent of coating increases. The spraying of small percentage of coating will significantly reduce the contact angle enhancing the wetting properties of the Polyester fabric and insure high rate of water absorption.

4. SEM micrographs of Polyester and Polyester/Cotton fabrics treated by Method (A) show that the presence of cellulose particles on the surface is rather evidential influence on high hydrophilic properties of the coat.

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