Scholarly article on topic 'The Effect of Web-based Instruction with Educational Animation Content at Sensory Organs Subject on Students’ Academic Achievement and Attitudes'

The Effect of Web-based Instruction with Educational Animation Content at Sensory Organs Subject on Students’ Academic Achievement and Attitudes Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Science and technology course" / "attitudes toward science and technology courses" / "web-based education" / "primary education" / "the sensory organs"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Orhan Ercan, Kadir Bilen, Ayşe Bulut

Abstract The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of web-based instruction with educational animation content at sensory organs subject on the 7th grade students’ academic achievement and attitudes in the science and technology course. Quasi- experimental research method was applied in this study. For this purpose, as a means of measuring, Science and Technology achievement test consisting of 30 questions and 15-itemed Science Course attitude scale developed by Geban et.al. (1994) were used. In experimental group, the sensory organs were explained with web-based instructional materials with educational animation content, and academic achievement test and attitude scale were applied as post-test; in the control group, subject of sensory organs were rendered in the traditional lecture method and application is finished with applying academic achievement test and attitude scale as post-test. As consequence of study, there is a meaningful difference in favor of experimental group on the academic achievement pre-test/post-test marks between experimental group instructed with web-based instructional materials with educational animation content and control group instructed with traditional lecture method. It is found that there is no significant difference on attitudes towards science and technology.

Academic research paper on topic "The Effect of Web-based Instruction with Educational Animation Content at Sensory Organs Subject on Students’ Academic Achievement and Attitudes"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 (2014) 2430 - 2436

5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013

The effect of web-based instruction with educational animation content at sensory organs subject on students' academic achievement

and attitudes

Orhan Ercana * Kadir Bilenb Ay§e Bulutc

aKSU, Faculty of Education, Science Teaching Department, Kahramanmara§, Turkey bAkdeniz University, Faculty of Education, Science Teaching Department, Antalya, Turkey cKSU, Faculty of Education, CEIT Department, Kahramanmara§, Turkey

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of web-based instruction with educational animation content at sensory organs subject on the 7th grade students' academic achievement and attitudes in the science and technology course. Quasi-experimental research method was applied in this study. For this purpose, as a means of measuring, Science and Technology achievement test consisting of 30 questions and 15-itemed Science Course attitude scale developed by Geban et.al. (1994) were used. In experimental group, the sensory organs were explained with web-based instructional materials with educational animation content, and academic achievement test and attitude scale were applied as post-test; in the control group, subject of sensory organs were rendered in the traditional lecture method and application is finished with applying academic achievement test and attitude scale as post-test. As consequence of study, there is a meaningful difference in favor of experimental group on the academic achievement pre-test / post-test marks between experimental group instructed with web-based instructional materials with educational animation content and control group instructed with traditional lecture method. It is found that there is no significant difference on attitudes towards science and technology.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center.

Keywords: Science and technology course, attitudes toward science and technology courses, web-based education, primary education, the sensory organs.

1. Introduction

New approaches in science education have been proposed as a parallel to the world wide advances in communication technologies. The best example for science and technology integration is Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). In order to keep pace with the advances in technology and to catch up with current standards, CAI utilizes computers which are defined as the most effective communication and individualized teaching tools.

Corresponding name: Orhan Ercan. Tel.: +90-344-280-1332 E-mail address: oercan@ksu.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.587

Computers in CAI are used as complementary and system empowering elements rather than alternatives to the teaching process (Namlu, 1999).

Studies in this field are centered on the positive effects of computer use in education. For instance, Kesercioglu et.al. (2001) identified that integration of mathematics; science and technology have significant benefits in science education. Education technologies, initiated at the beginning of the 90's with the use of CAI, have shown immense progress. Changes in school curricula and the software have been observed along with the inclusion of concepts such as the Internet and Web in education. Various education based web sites, electronic classes, newsgroups, electronic lists, FTP providers and also electronic universities are providing services with the help of the Internet. Regardless of the location of information, anyone can access anything now with the click of a mouse (London, 2005; Wilder, 2006; Muir-Herzig, 2004; Tekerek & Ercan, 2012a; 2012b).

Developments in today's education system have proven that memorization and sole use of traditional methods do not lead to effective teaching-learning processes. Currently used processes affect students negatively. Science classes in particular are rather practical and convenient in terms of content for computer and education technologies applications since there are various scientific concepts and principles in these classes which can be transmitted to students visually with the help of suitable teaching techniques during the preparation of classroom software (Tekerek & Ercan, 2012a; §ahin et.al., 2001).

There are a number of studies in science education literature about the effects of computer assisted and web based instruction on student achievement and attitudes (Geban et.al, 1994; Qomek & Bayram, 2006; Qepni, Ta§ & Kose, 2006; London, 2005; Wilder, 2006; Yenice et.al., 2003). Qomek & Bayram (2006) studied the effects of teaching the subject of temperature through CAI materials on student achievement in science education and found in their research with 5th grade students that use of CAI materials was more effective on student achievement compared to the use of traditional teaching methods. Qepni, Ta§ & Kose (2006) also obtained similar findings. Their study on the use of computers in biology in teaching photosynthesis showed that the use of CAI materials was effective on student comprehension and application levels. Although CAI materials were found to increase student achievement, they were not found to develop student attitudes; a finding which was linked to the fact that short periods were not sufficient to develop attitudes (Qepni, Ta§ & Kose, 2006).

It has been established that computer assisted instruction helps develop higher level thinking skills in addition to increasing student achievement and allows students assimilate the information rather than memorize it (Renshaw & Taylor, 2000). International literature about the positive effects of computer assisted and web based instruction on student achievement support these claims. With 5th graders, London (2005) studied the effect of CAI use on increasing student knowledge about outer planets and it was found that use of CAI was effective in successfully transmitting the information to students. Wilder (2006) researched the effect of CAI program titled Introduction to Electricity on 4th graders' comprehension of basic concepts related to electricity and the findings proved that CAI program was highly effective in teaching basic concepts related to the subject of electricity. Today, visual materials are used in all areas and especially students are under the effect of technological tools such as TVs and computers. When teaching materials are supported through various sounds, visuals and animations, more permanent, fun and productive learning takes place. Research in this field shows that 83% of what we learn is provided through sight, 11% through hearing, 3.5% through smell, 1.5% through touch and 1% through taste (Demirel & Yagci, 2006).

Students of today grow up with visual tools such as TV, video, computers and the internet. It is not possible to attract the attention of these students through traditional methods of the past anymore. Technological advances of the last quarter of the 20th century have resulted in a significant gap between methods of providing information at schools and methods of obtaining information in the community. They have also made it very hard to teach students with traditional methods at schools since students can now access a large variety of information through visual resources such as computers and TVs (Qepni et.al., 2004; London 2005; Tekerek & Ercan, 2012b).

The current study developed a web based teaching tool to teach "Sense Organs" subject from primary school 7th grade science and technology curriculum "Systems in Our Body" unit to keep students away from memorization techniques and to make the subject easier to comprehend by making it more visual. This teaching tool interacts with students with the help of support such as animations, visual elements and evaluation tests. Flash Technology was used in developing the teaching tool.

2. Method

The study examined the academic achievement of 7th graders in the subject "Sense Organs" and their attitudes towards science classes by using educational animations and a web based instruction method. One control and one experimental group from Zeki Karakiz Primary School, Kahramanmara§ was selected for this purpose in 2011-2012 educational year. Groups of 30 were uniformly assigned. Since the education system did not allow random grouping in schools and groups were pre-prepared, non-equivalent control group design, a quasi-experimental design type, was used in the study (Gall et.al., 1996).

Control group was taught in line with directives of the 7th grade Science and Technology textbook (MoNE, 2011) whereas the experimental group was taught with the software developed by the researchers in line with the educational animation themes and web based instruction method. Classes in the experimental group were taught in the lab by providing time for individual work under the guidance of the teacher whereas the control group was taught in the classroom with the activities included in the textbook.

2.1. Work Group

The research consisted of 60 7th graders from Zeki Karakiz Primary School. In order to familiarize the experimental group students with the method, a 2-week pilot study was conducted by using "Discharge System" unit in the VITAMIN teaching set. Table 1 provides the demographical characteristics of the students who participated in the study.

Table 1. Demographical characteristics of students

Characteristic N %

Gender Experimental Control F M F M 16 14 14 16 26,7 23,3 23,3 26,7

2.2. Data Collection Tools

Academic achievement test was used to test the acquisitions in the "Systems in Our Body" unit "Sense Organs" subject in the 7th grade Science and Technology teaching field "Living Beings and Life". The test consisted of 40 multiple choice questions with 4 options each. After this phase, a 30 item scale for "Sense Organs" subject was prepared with the help of views obtained from academicians, science and biology teachers.

Student attitudes towards science classes were collected with the help of "Attitude towards Science Scale" developed by Geban et.al. (1994). The 5-point Likert type attitude scale has 15 items. Negative items were coded in reverse in analysis. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the original scale was 0.83 and Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale used in the current study was found to be 0.85. Statistical package program was utilized in data analysis.

3. Findings

In order to evaluate the effect of web based teaching method with educational animations on learning, achievement scores of the control and experimental groups were addressed. Both in-group and cross-group comparisons were undertaken for control and experimental groups in terms of achievement scores which were regarded as indicators of efficiency in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed software. Pre tests and post test scores of both groups and the difference between the attitude scores in the two groups were compared.

Independent samples t-test was applied to identify whether there was a significant difference in the attitude scores of both control and experimental groups prior to the study and results are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Relationship between pre test attitude scores of groups

SS df t

Experimental 30 56,93 10,93 58 0,868 0,389

Control_30 59,00 7,58_

Table 2 shows that there was no significant difference between control and experimental groups in terms of attitudes towards science and technology prior to the study (t(58)=0,868; p>0,05).

Independent samples t-test was undertaken to identify whether there was a significant difference in the achievement scores of both control and experimental groups prior to the study and results are provided in Table 3.

Table 3. Relationship between pre test achievement scores of groups

N SS df t P

Experimental Control 30 30 16,97 17,07 4,92 4,42 58 0,083 0,934

Table 3 shows that there was no meaningful difference in the achievement scores between control and experimental groups prior to the study (t(58)=0,083; p>0,05). Independent samples t-test was undertaken to identify whether there was a significant difference in the achievement scores of both control and experimental groups after the study and the results are given in Table 4.

Table 4. Relationship between post test achievement scores of groups

N SS df t P

Experimental Control 30 30 22,00 17,63 5,13 58 3,642 4,10 0,001

Table 4 indicates that there was a significant difference in favor of the experimental group in terms of achievement scores after the study was conducted (t(58)=3,642; p<0,05). Independent samples t-test was undertaken to identify whether there was a significant difference in mean attitude scores of both control and experimental groups after the study and the results are given in Table 5.

Table 5. Relationship between post test altitude scores of groups

N SS df t P

Experimental 30 59,03 1 10,73 0,586 0,56

Control 30 60,47 8,01

Table 5 points to the fact that there was not a significant difference in attitude towards science and technology scores between the control and experimental groups after the study. (t(58)=0,586; p>0,05). Dependent samples t-test was applied to identify whether there was a significant difference in achievement pre test and post test scores in the experimental group and the results are given in Table 6.

Table 6. Comparison of In-group Achievement

N SS df t P

Pre-test 30 16,97 4,92 29 8,339 0,000

Post-test 30 22,00 5,13

Table 6 shows a meaningful difference in favor of post test scores for the experimental group (t(29)=8,339; p<0,05). Independent samples t-test was applied to identify whether there was a significant relationship between the achievement scores of control and experimental groups and gender. Results are displayed in Table 7.

Table 7. Relationship between achievement and gender

N SS df t P

F 30 20,47 4,56 58 0,986 0,328

M 30 19,17 5,60

Table 7 shows no significant differences in achievement scores in terms of gender after the study (t(58)=0,986; p>0,05).

4. Results and discussion

The study aimed to develop a web based teaching tool to teach "Sense Organs" subject from primary school 7th grade science and technology curriculum "Systems in Our Body" unit to keep students away from memorization techniques and to make the subject easier to comprehend by making it more visual.

According to analysis results in Table 4, a significant difference was found in favor of the experimental group between post test results of control and experimental groups (t(58)=3,642; p<0,05). This result confirms that web based teaching technologies are effective on student achievement and this finding is supported by various national and international research undertaken in different fields and levels (Ergorun, 2010; Hanger, 2007; Aykanat, Dogru & Kalender, 2005; Qomek & Bayram, 2006; Pekta§, Solak & Turkmen, 2006; Traynor, 2003; Yigit &Akdeniz, 2003; Qepm, Ta§ & Kose, 2006; Liao, 2007; Smeets, 2005; Saka & Yilmaz, 2005; Dockery, 2006). The findings of the current research and the findings of the studies mentioned in the literature are parallel.

According to analysis results in Table 5, there is no meaningful difference in attitude towards science and technology between control and experimental groups (t(58)=0,586; p>0,05). Accordingly, web based teaching technologies and traditional teaching methods implemented to groups have no affected the students to the extent that it can create differences in attitude. However, developments in post test results of both groups were observed. Similar studies in literature also point out that although there are no meaningful differences in development in both groups in terms of attitudes towards science, increases in attitude are observed albeit in small levels (Sagirli & Gurdal, 2004; Altinok & Un Afikgoz, 2006). Increases in the attitudes towards classes in the control group students were found to be low (Yenice, 2003; Akpinar et.al.,2005; §enol, Bal & Yildirim 2007).

Bilgin & Geban (2004) stated that gender does not affect attitudes towards science classes when traditional methods are applied. Telli & Qakiroglu (2004) mentioned that increases in age and grade cause decreases in motivation. The culmination of CAI implementation was found to have resulted in a loss of motivation in students (Susskind 2005). It was identified that CAI has more positive effects on student attitudes compared to traditional approaches in teaching (Cotton, 1991). Qomek & Bayram (2006) studies the effects of using CAI materials in teaching the subject of temperature in science classes on students' attitudes towards science. Their study conducted with 5th graders did not provide any evidence for the effect of both using CAI materials and using traditional methods on students' attitudes towards science.

The reason for the lack of positive developments in student attitudes may be related to the short duration of the study and the fact that students meet the method for the first time (Altmi^ik & Orhan, 2002). Since more time is needed for any attitude change, it is believed that studies should allocate more time for implementations in order to develop attitudes in students (Guven & Sulun, 2012).

Table 7 shows that gender does not create significant differences in pre-test, post-test and mean difference scores for both control and experimental groups in dependent and independent analyses. Both teaching methods do not display any significant differences in terms of achievement when analyzed in terms of gender. No meaningful differences were found in the achievement levels for male and female students (Cepni et.al., 2004; Ash, 2005; Pektas et.al., 2006). Bilgin & Geban (2004) also stated that gender is not effective in student achievement in traditional methods

Suggestions;

1. Since the study results confirm that web based instruction method used in teaching "Sense Organs" subject in "Systems in Our Body" unit increased student achievement, use of programs such as internet and classroom software that develop students' attention, interest and motivation should be utilized in the other units in science and technology curriculum.

2. Since smart boards and internet connection will be provided to all the schools in the education system in the framework of F@tih project, students must be provided with opportunities that will allow web based instruction through the internet

3. Teachers should be informed of computer use, current science and technology classroom software programs and their use in order to more actively use the web based teaching methods.

4. Since the results of the study shows no change in attitudes towards classes at the end of the implementation due to short duration of the training, studies with longer time spans should be designed.

5. Larger samples should be used for bigger and more comprehensive studies. The studies should be implemented in different class levels, for different subjects and with subject specific software.

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