Scholarly article on topic 'Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces'

Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — E. Sharkov, M. Bogina, A. Chistyakov

Abstract Large igneous provinces (LIPs) formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic) to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical) originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic) type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical) plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites) and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts) was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can acquire either alkalic or tholeiitic composition depending on the concentration and composition of the fluids. The presence of melt-pockets in the peridotite matrix indicates fluid migration to the rocks of cooled upper margin of the plume head from the lower portion. This process causes secondary melting in this zone and the generation of melts of the black series and differentiated trachytic magmas.

Academic research paper on topic "Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces"

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Accepted Manuscript

Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces E. Sharkov, M. Bogina, A. Chistyakov

PII: S1674-9871(16)30024-X

DOI: 10.1016/j.gsf.2016.03.006

Reference: GSF 442

To appear in: Geoscience Frontiers

Received Date: 7 October 2015 Revised Date: 27 January 2016 Accepted Date: 9 March 2016

Please cite this article as: Sharkov, E., Bogina, M., Chistyakov, A., Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces, Geoscience Frontiers (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2016.03.006.

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Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

E. Sharkov*, M. Bogina, A. Chistyakov

Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry RAS, Staromonetnyper., 35, Moscow 119017, Russia

Corresponding author. E-mail address: sharkov@igem.ru Abstract

Large igneous provinces (LIPs) formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic) to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle whereas the second generation (thermochemical) originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic) type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian-Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical) plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites) and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ~20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts) is previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can acquire either alkalic or tholeiitic composition depending on the concentration and composition of the fluids. The presence of melt-pockets in the peridotite matrix indicates fluid migration to the rocks of cooled upper margin of the plume head

from the lower portion. This process causes secondary melting in this zone and the

anon oi

melts of the black series and differentiated trachytic magmas.

Keywords: Magmatic systems; LIP; Mantle plume; Paleoproterozoic; Mantle xenoliths; Basalts

1. Introduction

According to Ernst (2014), a LIP (large Igneous Province) is a mainly mafic (+ultramafic) magmatic province having intraplate characteristics with area extent > 100,000 km and igneous volume > 100,000 km , and that was emplaced in a short duration pulse of multiple pulses (less than 1-5 Ma) with a maximum duration of < c. 50 Ma. Silicic magmatic rocks, carbonatites and kimberlites may also co-exist. The continental LIPs, which form giant fields of intraplate flood basalts, have been recorded from the Archean and are widespread in the Phanerozoic (Ernst, 2014 and references therein). Proterozoic LIPs are usually strongly eroded and occur as relicts of lava plateau, large dike swarms, and layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Their Archean precursors are systems of greenstone belts in granite-greenstone terranes.

The origin of large LIPs is generally related to the ascent of mantle superplumes together with simultaneous manifestation of melts of similar types spread over a large area. Ancient and modern plumes could be distinguished by the impact of the plume heads and generation of radial dikes (www.largeigneousprovinces.org; Ernst, 2014). At the same time, many researchers suggest that LIP magmas bear not only mantle plume material, but also have some contribution from asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle.

Large mantle plumes are thought to be generated at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (Maruyama, 1994; Dobretsov et al., 2001; Dobretsov, 2010, Franch and Romanovicz, 2015 and references therein). However, there is opinion that these superplumes are "dry" plumes, and only plumes generated at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) are volatile-bearing (wet) plumes (Safonova et al., 2015). The latter generates due to the tectonic erosion of continental crust at the Pacific-type convergent margins and the presence of volatiles released from subducted oceanic slabs (Safonova et al., 2015).

However, the source of volatiles at the lower mantle depths is highly debated. Water can be released from the core at the core-mantle boundary (Dobretsov et al., 2010) or transported up to these depths with subducting oceanic slabs consisting of basalts, serpentinites, and oceanic sediments. The dense hydrous magnesium silicates are also sources of water in deep mantle (Kombayashi et al., 2009). Seismic tomography data illustrate that slab material can be accumulated in the MTZ, or penetrate deep into lower mantle up to the CMB, accumulated as "slab cemeteries"

(Karason and van der Hilst, 2001; French and Romanowicz, 2015), which serve as a volatile source. Thus, water in the mantle plumes material may appear during their generation or be assimilated from slab cemeteries existing in the lowermost mantle and MTZ on their way to surface. Therefore, we suggest that the subdivision into "wet" and "dry" plumes is ambiguous and also difficult to define exactly the type of plume as it can assimilate volatiles at any depths from the slab graveyards. Similarly the flood basalts with HIMU signatures are generally interpreted as derived from recycled oceanic crust (Sakuyama et al., 2013) in direct relation with definite subduction setting. However, some basalts with HIMU components were recognized in the superplume-derived LIPs, for instance, in the Emeishan basalts (Fan et al., 2008) or some hotspots (e.g., Samoa: French and Romanovicz, 2015), without any relation with destructive plate tectonics. Hanyu et al. (2011) proposed the HIMU reservoir was formed by hybridization of a subducted oceanic crust-derived melt with the ambient mantle and was then stored for several billion years in the lower mantle.

Although LIPs have been studied in detail, many aspects of their geology and genesis remain unknown, including the structure and functioning of the LIP magmatic systems. Such information can provide a general insight into their development. Hence we address this topic using data available on the Precambrian LIPs from the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and compare them with the largest Phanerozoic LIP - the Siberian Traps.

As shown in Fig. 1, the melts that are newly generated in a plume head pass through a system of intermediate chambers (survived as layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions), where they accumulate, experience crystallization differentiation, mix in variable proportions with replenished fresh magma, and are contaminated by crustal material (Sharkov, 2006). As a result, magma that leaves these chambers should be essentially different from parental melts, thus explaining the observed diversity in lava composition.

Important information on the birth and incipient stages of the LIP's magmatic systems, their roots and melting protoliths (mantle plume matter itself) may be obtained by studying the mantle xenoliths, which provide insight into temperature and pressure conditions, composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the direct estimate of the distribution of the underlying plume, which has been accreted to, injected into, or thermally perturbed lithosphere (Ernst, 2014). For this reason, the processes proceeding in the magma generation zones will be considered here using original and literature data on mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary within-plate basalts of Syria, which are ascribed to the Afro-Arabian LIP (Ernst, 2014).

Thus, the aim of this study is to elaborate a general petrological model for the formation and operation of the magmatic systems of early Precambrian and Phanerozoic large igneous provinces.

2. samples

Most of the studied samples were collected by authors during fieldwork in the eastern Karelian craton (early Paleoproterozoic volcanics in Vetreny Belt Formation: Mnts. Levgora, Golets, and Myandukha) and in Northern Karelia (mid Paleoproterozoic Elet'ozero titaniferous gabbro-syenite complex). Samples of the mid Paleoproterozoic Kuetsjarvi Formation were obtained from drillcores in the Pechenga Greenstone belt in the framework of the ICDP-FAR-Deep Project. Syrian samples (basalts and mantle xenoliths) were collected by the first author on the Quaternary Tell-Danun Volcano in South Syria during fieldwork in 1984-1986, accompanied by Dr. Samir Hanna from General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources, Damascus, Syria.

3. Methods

Major-element composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence on a PW-2400 Philips (Analytical BV) spectrometer at the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (IGEM RAS) (analyst A.I. Yakyshov). The measurement accuracy was 1-5% for concentrations over 0.5 wt.% and up to 12% for those below.

The trace element composition of the Kuetsjarvi volcanic rocks was analyzed by ICP-MS at the Institute of the Problems of Technology of Microelectronics and Ultrapure Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences (analyst V.M. Karandashev). The detection limits were as follows: 0.02-0.03 ppm for REE, Hf, Ta, and U; 0.03-0.05 ppm for Nb, Be, and Co; 0.3 ppm for Rb, Sr, and Ba; and 1-2 ppm for Cu, Zn, V, and Cr. The measurement accuracy ranged from <0.3% to <0.15%.

The trace element composition of the Elet'ozero rocks and xenoliths was analyzed at the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (IGEM RAS) (analyst Ya.V. Kulikova) on an ionization X-Series II ICP-MS. Sensitivity of the device over the entire mass scale was carried out using 68-element standard certified solutions (ICP-MS-68A, HPS, solutions A and B), which included all elements analyzed in samples. The measurement error was 1-3%. Element concentrations were calculated using calibration solutions prepared from standard solution ICP-MS-68A, HPS (A and B) with concentrations 0.03-10 ppb.

The Nd isotope composition was analyzed on a TRITON (Thermo) solid-phase multi-channel highresolution mass spectrometer at the Center for Isotope Research of the Karpinskii All-Russian Geological Research Institute in a static mode. The isotope composition of Nd was corrected for mass fractionation relative to the 146Nd/144Nd of 0.7219 accepted for natural compositions. The value of 143Nd/144Nd in the JNdi-1 international standard (Nd isotope standard) during measurements was 0.512126 ± 2 (n = 25).

4. Brief summary on evolution of tectonomagmatic processes in the Earth's history

Significant differences in the tectonomagmatic activity between the early and late Earth were first reported by Stille (1944), who divided the Earth's evolution into two stages in terms of style of magmatic activity: early Protogean and late Neogean stage which began from ~1600 Ma, i.e. Mesoproterozoic, and lasted up to the present. Later Bogatikov et al. (2000, 2010) proposed three stages of evolution (Fig. 2) namely, a primitive stage that spanned the entire Archean (from 4.0 to 2.6 Ga), a cratonic (intermediate) Paleoproterozoic stage from 2.6 to 2.0 Ga, and a continental-oceanic stage (since 2 Ga till present), i.e. this shifted the Neogean boundary to the mid-Palaeoproterozoic.

The primitive stage was characterized by mantle-derived high-Mg magmas. These resulted from ascent of the first generation mantle plumes composed of ultramafic material depleted due to the segregation of the primordial sialic crust. The end of the Archean was marked by a large crust production peak (see Roberts and Spencer, 2015), with formation of potassic granites and alkaline rocks. This time is also marked by the appearance of the first lamprophyres in the Wawa and Abitibi subprovinces, which are considered as produced by hydrous melting in the mantle and serve as evidence for the presence of volatiles in the Neoarchean mantle (Wyman and Kerrich, 1993; Wyman et al., 2006). According to these researchers, the generation of scarce Archean lamprophyres is thought to be related to the subduction-driven low-temperature thermal anomaly in the Archean mantle. However, Bogatikov et al. (2010) suggested that the downward current occurring between heads of mantle plumes led to sinking of excess crustal material represented by granulitic belts in the mantle (see Fig. 4) and these belts were the earliest precursor of subduction zones and sources of volatiles in mantle (Bogatikov et al., 2010).

Irreversible changes occurred at the cratonic (transitional) stage, in the mid-Palaeoproterozoic (Sharkov and Bogina, 2006) when high-Mg magmas of the early Precambrian were replaced by geochemically-enriched Fe-Ti alkaline and tholeiitic basalts and picrites, which are enriched in alkalis, P, LREE and other incompatible elements (Fig. 3) and are similar to Phanerozoic intraplate (plume-related) volcanics. The transition from the Protogean to the Neogean spanned ~300 million years was not controlled by any external reasons.

We explain this cardinal change by the appearance of mantle thermochemical plumes (the second generation, or the modern type), which continued to be generated at the liquid iron core-mantle boundary (CMB) due to local doping with volatiles (H2, CH2, KH, etc.) until present (Artyushkov, 1993; Maruyama, 1994; Tackley, 1998; Dobretsov et al., 2001; Maruyama et al., 2007; Superplumes, 2007; Bogatikov et al., 2010; Dobretsov, 2010 and references therein). These plumes

contain nuiu components ieleased nom tnc outei coie and, piouauxy, nom slab giaveyaids that

reached MTZ and CMB (e.g. Mamyama et al., 2007).

A change in the geodynamic setting, tectonomagmatic activity and the emeigence of a new style of magmatism is of laige significance foi the Earth's evolution, because it relates to a series of prominent environmental events such as the great oxidation event, Huronian glaciation, and the Earth's laigest positive excureion

of d3 C in sedimentaiy caibonates (Melezhik et al., 2007; Melezhik et al., 2013, 2014; Young, 2013).

The continental-oceanic stage (Neogean) began at ~2 Ga and still continues. The heads of the thei"mochemical plumes reached relatively shallow depths and caused breakdown of the ancient lithosphere, foming lithospheric plates, zones of oceanic spreading, and subduction zones, i.e., the appearance of plate tectonics (Bogatikov et al., 2010).

5. Structure of Archean and Paleoproterozoic large igneous provinces 5.1. Archean large igneous provinces

The main tectonic components of the Archean were granite-greenstone terrains (GGTs) separated by granulite belts (GBs), and transitional mobile belts (TMB) between both of them (e.g. Bogatikov et al., 2010; Roberts et al., 2015). They define a peculiar regional structural-metamorphic zoning with increasing degree of deformation and metamorphism from GGTs to GBs (Sharkov and Bogatikov, 2010). GGTs are represented by an irregular network of greenstone belts in a plagiogranite TTG matrix (85-90% of territory, probably, altered primordial sialic crust). The greenstone belts are made up of mainly high-Mg komatiite-basaltic rocks, which formed large igneous provinces within GGTs. Subordinate admixtures of geochemical analogues of boninites, andesites, and dacites were probably formed owing to crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmas and their crystallization differentiation in transitional magma chambers or en route to the surface. The greenstone belts formed within the same granite-greenstone terranes over a long period of time suggest the stability of geodynamic setting at the early stages of the Earth's evolution (Fig.

The formation of these large igneous provinces was related to the mantle plumes of the first generation (Precambrian type, Fig. 4). These plumes practically did not contain elements, characteristic of CMB-derived plumes (Fe, Ti, alkalis, Ba, Nb, Ta, etc.). So, they can be classified as classical plumes (according to French and Romanowicz, 2015) with a large head and thin tail, generated in the lower mantle. According to Arndt et al. (2008), the roots of the magmatic systems occur at depths of 200-450 km. The adiabatic melting and spread of plume heads at these depths could not lead to the break off of the ancient lithosphere and formation of spreading zones. The

granulite belts represent ancient sedimentary basins (e.g. Taylor and McLennan, 2009) and formed above downgoing mantle flows between spreading superplume heads. The tectonic setting of this stage may be described in terms of plume tectonics, but remains a topic of debate (Roberts et al., 2015; Van Kranendonk et al., 2015).

5.2. Sumian-Sariolian LIP in the eastern Fennoscandian Shield

By Proterozoic, the Earth's crust became rigid, which may be deciphered from the appearance of proper rift structures, volcanic plateaus, giant dike swarms, and large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. The early Palaeoproterozoic magmatism is mainly represented by siliceous high-Mg (boninite-like) series (SHMS) rocks (Table 1), which comprise large intracontinental igneous provinces (Sharkov and Bogina, 2006). The style of tectonic activity in the early Palaeoproterozoic remained practically unchanged: GGTs were transformed to cratons separated by moderate-pressure granulite belts.

An example of such a province is the early Palaeoproterozoic Sumian-Sariolian LIP formed within 2.5-2.35 Ga over the entire territory of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (around 1,000,000 km ) (Fig. 5) (Sharkov et al., 2005). The development of similar magmatic complexes in Scotland, Greenland, the Canadian Shield, and the East European Platform (Heaman, 1997; Sharkov and Bogina, 2006), suggests that the initial size of this province was much larger. All these cratons have been assembled into a Laurentia-Baltia supercontinent, which partly broke up in the late Proterozoic (Bogdanova et al., 2008). In this case, the province was no less than 3,750,000 km in area, i.e. significantly exceeded the largest Phanerozoic Siberian flood basalt province (see section 4.2).

Volcanic rocks show wide variations in composition spanning the range from picritic basalt to basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite, with sharply subordinate felsic rocks (Table 1). The specific features of these rocks are high LREE contents (Fig. 6), negative Nb anomalies, and non-radiogenic (mainly slightly negative) initial £Nd values.

A study of the Os isotope systematics of the ultramafic volcanics of the Vetreny Belt series showed that mantle sources of the magmas evolved with a long-term early chondritic Re/Os ratio (g187Os (T) = -0.9; Puchtel et al., 2001). This implies that the upper mantle by the end of the late Archean was well homogenized with respect to the highly siderophile elements.

Layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions (transitional chambers) are represented by alternation of cumulates of different composition from dunite, harzburgite, and pyroxenite (mainly bronzitite) to norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite: Monchegorsk, Fedorova-Pana Tundras, and other complexes in the Kola Peninsula and Burakovka, Lukkulaisvaara, Kivakka in Karelia; some of them host PGE-Cu-Ni deposits (e.g. Sharkov and Smolkin, 1998; Sharkov, 2006 and references therein). They

represent intermediate chambers of magmatic systems formed mainly at the early stages of the early Paleoproterozoic rifting.

5.3. Early Precambrian LIPs magmatic systems

The origin of the Paleoproterozoic SHMS melts and geochemical analogues of boninites in the Archean is highly debatable. Some researchers accept their generation from the enriched ''metasomatized" mantle that experienced insignificant contamination during the emplacement in the Earth's crust (Vrevsky, 2011; Bogina et al., 2015), whereas others suggest that they were derived from depleted mantle and experienced crustal contamination (Puchtel et al., 1996; Sharkov et al., 2005).

We suggest that high-temperature and deep mantle-derived ultramafic melts, similar in composition to komatiites, reached the level of their buoyancy and form magmatic chambers by spreading at the lithosphere mantle-lower crust boundary. These chambers ascended by a mechanism of zone refinement (Chalmers, 1964), i.e. by melting of the chamber roof and crystallization at bottom, which provided large-scale assimilation of the upper mantle and lower crust (Fig. 7).

6. Large igneous provinces of the Phanerozoic type 6.1. Middle Paleoproterozoic Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP

The Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP is the oldest LIP of the Phanerozoic type (Fig. 5). The age of this province corresponds to the accepted lower Precambrian stratigraphic units of Russia: the 2.32.06 Ga Jatulian and the 2.06-1.92 Ga Ludicovian, which overlie the preceding Sumian-Sariolian LIP practically on the same territory of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Sharkov and Bogina, 2006 and references herein). At the same time, mid-Palaeoproterozoic volcanics continued to build up the supracrustal sequences in the same Paleoproterozoic riftogenic structures. As in the early Palaeoproterozoic, similar complexes are traced in Scotland, Greenland, the Canadian Shield, as well as at the basement of the East European Platform.

The Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP was formed in two episodes, corresponding to the Jatulian and Ludicovian, the manifestation of which somewhat differed in the Karelian and Kola cratons, especially in the Ludicovian. 6.1.1. Jatulian episode

Jatulian rocks occur as subaerial volcanics in numerous narrow linear grabens (Golubev and Svetov, 1983). In the Karelian craton, they are subdivided into 2 groups: (1) high-Ti rocks (> 2%)

enriched in LILE and HFSE, with high contents of Al2O3, Fe-group elements and moderate Mg#, and (2) a predominant group of low to moderate-Ti (1-2%) varieties. These rocks show a variable

degree oi ree fractionation ((La/ iujn = 1.20-5.2/, (La/smjN — 0.9—2.15, (gu/ iujn = 1.19—2.55), which increases in the high-Ti varieties (Fig. 0).

The spidergrams of the Jatulian rocks of Karelian craton (Fig. 0) are similar to E-MORB (Enriched Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts), which are characteristic of the Phanerozoic traps (Wilson, 1909; www.largeigneousprovinces.org). The values of £Nd vary from -1.4 to +0.5 for the lower Jatulian and from +1.6 to +1.7 for the middle Jatulian rocks.

The analogues of moderate-Ti tholeiites are numerous dikes found at the Karelian craton and are studied in detail by Stepanova et al. (2014). These dikes range in age from 2140 ± 3 to 2126 ± 5 Ma and are very similar to the Jatulian low-Ti volcanic rocks. At the same time, these rocks are characterized by £Nd from +1.4 to +3.0 and positive Ti and Nb anomalies in the spidergrams (Stepanova et al., 2014), which indicate extremely low or no crustal contamination of these rocks, unlike their volcanic counterparts.

In the Kola craton, the subaerial Jatulian volcanic rocks are represented by volcanic rocks of the Umba and Kuetsjarvi groups in the Imandra-Varzuga and Pechenga rift structures, respectively. As compared to their Jatulian counterparts in the Karelian craton, they show a wider compositional range from rhyolites, trachydacites and trachytes to alkali basalts and picrites. According to Melezhik et al. (2013), the age of the Kuetsjarvi Group is constrained between 2220 and 2060 Ma.

The Kuetsjarvi tholeiitic basalts (Table 2) comprise mainly the upper portion of the section, whereas alkaline and subalkaline mafic rocks comprise the lower portion, resting on the Sariolian basaltic andesites of the Akhmalahti Group. The rocks, as their Karelian counterparts, show negative Nb anomaly and variable Ti-anomaly, but show steeper LREE and HREE fractionation (Fig. 0). The fNd (2100 Ma) is 0 in the lower alkaline basalts and +1.1 in the upper tholeiites (Table 3). A positive £Nd obtained in this study is very consistent with data on the tholeiitic dikes by Stepanova et al. (2014) and our data on the Jatulian rocks of the Karelian craton (unpublished data).

In the upper part, the Kuetsjarvi rocks change into the volcanosedimentary sequence of the Kolosjoki Group, which marked the end of Jatulian event in this region. The volcanic rocks are mainly represented by tholeiitic pillow lavas with thin black shale inter beds in the middle part of the sequence (Hanski et al., 2013, 2014). £Nd varies from +3.0 in the slightly enriched basalts to values between +1.7 and +2.5 for the more enriched varieties (Hanski et al., 2014).

Based on its position between the Kuetsjarvi and Pilgujarvi volcanic rocks (see below), the age of the Kolosjoki Group is constrained between 2060 and 1900 Ma (Melezhik et al., 2007; Hanski et al., 2014). Thus, the geological and geochemical data show a shift from subaerial to submarine magmatism in the Pehenga-Varzuga Belt due to continental rifting (Sharkov and Smolkin, 1997; Hanski et al., 2014).

6.1.2. Ludicovian episode

The Ludicovian volcanosedimentray sequence including the rocks of the Suisarian and Zaonega groups overlay the Jatulian supracrustals in the rift structures of Karelia (Kulikov et al., 1999). The rocks of the Zaonega Group are represented by E-MORB-like basalts characterized by weak REE fractionation and depletion in HFSE (Narkisova, 2011). Their £Nd values are characterized by positive values (+3.2) in picrobasalts of the Onega Reference Hole and from +2.3 to +3.3 in the dolerites of the Konchezero sill and picrobasalts of Lake Angozero (Puchtel et al., 1998, 1999; Narkisova, 2011).

Suisarian rocks are classified as picrobasalts and basalts; they are higher in LREE, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and similar to OIB basalts. £Nd in the Suisarian basalts varies from +0.6 to -2.9 (Puchtel et al., 1998, 1999; Narkisova, 2011).

The age equivalent of the Karelian Ludicovian on the Kola craton is the Pilgujarvi Group (Sharkov and Smolkin, 1997). It is made up of turbidites in the lower part (~1 km) and of tholeiitic pillow lavas as well as subalkaline Fe-Ti picrobasalts and picrites (ferropicrites) with intercalations of black shales and tuff silicites in the upper part. These rocks are intruded by coarsely-layered relatively small mafic-ultramafic intrusions (intrusive analogues of ferropicrites) with rich sulfide Cu-Ni mineralization (Gorbunov et al., 1999). Zircon and baddeleyite ages of 1987 ± 5 Ma and 1980±10 Ma, respectively, were obtained by (Skufin and Bayanova, 2006; Skufin et al., 2013).

The tholeiitic basalts of the Pilgujarvi Group have a T-MORB tholeiitic affinity with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns, whereas Fe-Ti picrites and basalts belong to OIB-type (Smolkin, 1992; Hanski, 2012). A thick mafic sequence contains thin intercalations of felsic tuffs characterized by £Nd from -0.7 to -0.1 (Hanski et al., 2014). The bulk of the tholeiitic basalts are characterized by more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions (£Nd from + 3.0 to + 3.8) than the underlying Kolosjoki tholeiites.

An Os isotope study shows that the Pechenga ferropicrites are characterized by relatively

187 188

high Os/ Os, which is considered as evidence for the presence of small amount (<1%) of core material (Walker et al., 1997). Similar data were obtained for the Ludicovian rocks of the Onega plateau (Puchtel et al., 1999), which supports that the formation of Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP was related to the ascent of a thermochemical mantle superplume from the CMB.

207 204

The ferropicrites have relatively low Pb/ Pb as compared to their 2.0-Ga-old analogues. This indicates that the ferropicritic melt was not contaminated by old radiogenic crustal Pb, while their initial £Nd(0 characterizes the isotope composition of the mantle source. The latter, long evolved as a LREE-depleted source, and was enriched immediately before melting. The enrichment time was 2.2 Ga (Smolkin, 1992; Hanski and Smolkin, 1995), which is close to the first

jroup in the Kola craton. Thus, we

suggest that the appearance of this mantle plume in the region occurred at ~2.2 Ga.

Geological data indicate that the evolution of the supracrustal complexes of the Pechenga-Varzuga Belt was characterized by the transition from continental rift (Kuetsjarvi Group) via intermediate stage (Kolasjoki Group) to the oceanic spreading (Pilgujarvi Group) of the Red Sea type (Sharkov, 1984). The presence of the deep, relatively uncompensated basin is supported by the submarine conditions of basaltic eruptions as well as deposition of black shales and turbidites.

Thus, the volcanism on the Karelian craton occurred in an intracontinental setting with the predominance of tholeiitic magmatism close in composition to typical flood basalts, whereas magmatism of the Kola Craton marked the final transition from the cratonic to the continental-oceanic stage (Neogean). 6.1.3. Transitional magmatic chambers

The plutonic analogues of alkali Fe-Ti basalts of the Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP are represented by two large (~100 km in area) Ti-bearing layered complexes consisting of ultramafic-mafic-alkaline rocks and carbonatites: Gremyakha Vyrmes at the Kola Peninsula (Arzamastsev et al., 2006) and Elet'ozero in northern Karelia (Sharkov et al., 2015 and references herein) (Fig. 5). The Gremyakha-Vyrmes intrusion has an age of 1926±74 Ma (Sm-Nd isochron method, £Nd = +0.8; Savatenkov et al., 1998), i.e. formed in the Ludicovian, while the age of the Elet'ozero complex, according to U-Pb SHRIMP-II zircon dates, is 2086 ± 30 Ma (Sharkov et al., 2015), which corresponds to the late Jatulian.

Generally, the structure of the bimodal Elet'ozero massif corresponds to the structure of a large mafic-ultramafic intrusion with marginal series conformable to contacts with Archean granite-gneisses and consisting of fine-grained ferrogabbros, and central layered series with autonomous inner structure (Fig. 9). It is made up of two intrusive phases: (1) predominant ferrogabbro with interlayers of peridotite and clinopyroxenite, and (2) alkali and nepheline syenites, and small carbonatite bodies.

The gabbros and ultramafic rocks of the massif are variably enriched in Fe-Ti-oxides (Ti-magnetite, magnetite, and ilmenite), the content of which usually account for around 10 vol.%, whereas ore varieties contain up to 70-80 vol.%. The rocks also contain plagioclase, olivine and Ti-augite, as well as F-apatite and phlogopite. The lithology of the intrusion is consistent with multiple injections of magmas in solidified intrusive chamber. The syenites are mainly made up of alkali feldspar, albite, and variable amount of nepheline. Accessories are aegirine-augite, aegirine, apatite, zircon, Fe-Ti oxide, and titanite. Geochemical features of the Elet'ozero and Gremyakha-Vyrmes complexes are showed in Fig. 10.

Enrichment of mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Elet ozero complex uy re-ii-oxides and frequent presence of normative nepheline in the mafic rocks as well as geochemical data indicate that the first phase of the complex was derived from alkali Fe-Ti basalts. The alkali syenites of the second phase were likely derived from alkali trachytic melt.

For understanding the interrelations between the different levels of magmatic systems, the geochemistry of volcanic and intrusive rocks by the example of alkali Fe-Ti basalts of the Kuetsjarvi Group and Elet'ozero complex are compared (Fig. 11). REE spectrums of lavas and cumulates have practically a similar shape. However, the peaks of many elements in the multicomponent diagrams either do not coincide or have an opposite trend. For example, the high contents of Ti, Eu, and Ba in the Elet'ozero cumulates are out of keeping with lavas, while U, Th, Nb, Eu and, especially, Sr peaks are opposite.

This indicates that the mantle-derived magmas lost part of their components to cumulates in the transitional magma chamber (the Elet'ozero complex, for example) and continued their way to the surface in a modified form. For example, plagioclase in gabbros contain high-Sr, Eu and Ba biotite, high-REE apatite, and Fe-Ti-oxides enriched in Nb and Ta. Correspondingly, their contents decreased in the residual melt. At the same time, olivine and Fe-Ti-oxides are depleted in U, Th, and REE, which in turn, led to their enrichment in lavas.

6.2. Permian-Triassic Siberian flood basalts

The world's largest flood basalt province, the Permian-Triassic Siberian traps spans an area of around 1,500,000 km (Fig. 12). This is one of the best preserved and best studied Phanerozoic large igneous provinces, which can serve as an illustration of major geological, petrological, and geochemical signatures of LIP.

Based on isotope dates, the Siberian LIP was formed within a narrow range of 252-248 Ma (Pirajno et al., 2009; Ernst, 2014). Note that the flood basalt cover does not represent a single homogenous field and is subdivided into at least ten sub-provinces in terms of geological structural features and peculiarities of magmatism (Zolotukhin et al., 1986). There is evidence that the adiabatic melting zones ("roots" of magmatic systems) were localized in heads of local (secondary) plumes, "fingers" on the surface of mantle superplume.

The most complete sequence of the Siberian LIP is observed in the northwestern part of the field (Noril'sk-Kharaerlakh subprovince), in the area surrounding the town of Noril'sk (Dyuzhikov et al., 1988; Fedorenko et al., 1996; Krivolutskaya et al., 2014 and references therein). The volcanic rocks represent a 4-km thick stratified sequence consisting of basaltic flows and tuff horizons (Fig.

13). uns sequence is inuuucu uy numerous suuvuicanic uuuics (necks, dikes, and sills), some oi

which (Noril'sk-1 and Talnakh) contain unique deposits of sulfide PGE-Cu-Ni ores (Dyuzhikov et al., 1988, Krivolutskaya, 2014). Re-Os isotopic systematics provide for an enriched-mantle source for these ore-bearing intrusions, the long-term Re/Os enrichment of their mantle sources relative to chondritic upper mantle may reflect derivation from a mantle plume that originated at the outer core-lower mantle interface (Walker et al., 1994).

There are also sporadic alkaline ultramafic-mafic rocks, which volumes increase eastward and reach a maximum in the Maimecha-Kotui subprovince in the northeastern LIP, where alkali volcanics and their intrusive counterparts are widely spread in association with tholeiitic uasalts (Arndt et al., 1998).

The flood basalt sequence in the Noril'sk-Kharaerlakh subprovince formed in two stages (Dyuzhikov et al., 1988, Krivolutskaya, 2011, 2014 and references therein). The early stages was responsible for the formation of the high-Ti and high-Mg subalkaline rocks (TiO2 >2-4 wt.%) in the lower part of the sequence. These are rift-related basalts of the Ivakin, Syverma, and Gudchikhin formations (Fig. 14).

The second stage was characterized by the eruptions of mainly low-Ti tholeiitic basalts of the Morongovskaya, Mokulaevskaya, Kharaerlakhskaya, Kumginskaya, and Samoedskaya formations (TiO2 <2 wt.%). These volcanic rocks are ~2 km thick and sufficiently uniform in composition, being typical tholeiitic flood basalts. They are parts of a "common basaltic plateau" of the Siberian LIP.

The transition from the first to the second stage was gradual and accompanied by the eruptions of basalts and picrobasalts of the transient formations: Khakanchan, Tuklon, and Nadezhda, which are dominated by tholeiitic basalts and contain subordinate subalkaline basalts (Fedorenko et al., 1996, Krivolutskaya, 2011). The Morongovskaya Formation with erosion overlaps Nadezhda rocks, marking a rebuilding of structural style and a general subsidence (Dyuzhikov et al., 1988).

A similar situation, with the development of alkali Fe-Ti basalts in the lower parts of the sequences, and tholeiitic basalts in their upper parts is also established in most Phanerozoic large igneous provinces, for instance, North Atlantic, Etendeka-Parana, Deccan and other provinces (Gibson et al., 2000).

Due to weak erosion, the deep-seated transitional chambers of magmatic system of the Siberian LIP are not exposed. However, they are widely represented in the unevenly eroded early Tertiary (55-50 Ma) North Atlantic LIP, where they comprise numerous layered dunite-troctolite-

U1U lllll UMUllo I OJv&Cl

rd, Rh

uni, aiiu 111

UlllW Ï3. vv

er and Brown, 19/0; Larsen et al.,

1989; Kerr, 1994; McBirney, 1996) derived from tholeiitic melts.

The transitional chambers of alkali Fe-Ti basaltic magmatic systems, like in the mid-Palaeoproterozoic Jatulian-Ludicovian LIP, are bimodal Ti-bearing syenite-gabbro layered intrusions. For example, they are widespread in the ~260 Ma Emeishan LIP (West China), containing giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits (e.g. Panzhihua, Hogge, Baima) (Xu et al., 2007; Luo et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2013). Similar Ti-bearing syenite-gabbro layered intrusions are described in the southern frame of the Siberian platform (Dovgal, 1969; Polyakov et al., 1974; Bognibov et al., 2000).

Thus, the development of continental Phanerozoic LIPs started with rifting accompanied by eruption of alkaline Fe-Ti basalts, and was completed by areal tholeiitic magmatism. The largest rift zones may develop into oceanic spreading zones like the Cenozoic Red Sea Rift and the mid-Palaeoproterozoic Pechenga Rift.

7. Magma-generation zones ("roots" of magmatic systems)

7.1. Structure of magmatic systems of the Phanerozoic-type LIP

The "roots" of magmatic systems are zones of adiabatic melting in plume heads. Due to inefficient heat conductivity, the material remained heated enough to melt adiabatically under ascent-related decompression. According to Turcotte and Schubert, (2002), the large lens-like body of ductile material embedded in less viscous rocks, due to lateral pressure inevitably should acquire a triangle shape in section. A margin of this body will become cool and rigid along the contacts of plume heads with a relatively cold and old lithosphere serving as thermoisolation for its inner portions.

Thus, due to geomechanical reasons, the axial part of the plume head generates a zone of adiabatic melting. This zone should acquire a shape of a subhorizontal lens, where melt feeding the magmatic system was accumulated beneath a relatively rigid cooled plume upper margin (Fig. 15). Some small lenses of lower crustal material can survive at the surface of the plume head.

When the chamber is overfilled with basaltic melt, magma under pressure forces through its roof and moves upward, transferring fragments of the cooled margin as mantle xenoliths. These are not derived from the melting zone sensu stricto, but bear important information on the chemical and phase composition of mantle plume heads. It is noteworthy that the alkali basalts are usually devoid of lower crustal xenoliths, unlike kimberlite and lamprophyre diatremes, which may indicate that heads of mantle plumes could reach the bottom of the sialic upper crust.

7.2. Mantle xenoliths in basalts

for understanding processes in the magma generation zone. Such information may be obtained from mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts. The populations of these xenoliths are remarkably uniform and according to Wilshire and Shervais (1975) they can be subdivided into two major types: (1) the widespread rocks of the green or Cr-diopside series represented by spinel peridotites varying in composition from prevailing depleted spinel lherzolites to spinel harzburgites with small amount of pyroxenites (websterites). Further the rocks are characterized by the presence of the bright-green chromian diopside, as well as universally high-Mg composition of olivine and pyroxenes (Mg# = 88-92); (2) less common black or Al-Ti-augite series formed by wehrlites, hornblende clinopyroxenites, kaersutite hornblendites, phlogopites, and others; their olivine and pyroxene are more ferriferous (Mg# <85) as compared to the minerals of the green series (e.g. Ionov, 1988; Downes, 2001). The rocks of this series often occur as veins in the green-series rocks with sharp, linear contacts, without mechanical deformation of host rocks (Fig. 16). The black series also includes megacrysts (fragments of large crystals > 1 cm, sometimes, up to 10 cm and more) of Al-Ti augite, kaersutite, phlogopite, ilmenite, sanidine, apatite, zircon, and other minerals. It is suggested that megacrysts were formed by disintegration of coarse-grained pegmatoid veins of the black series. Sometimes, they contain gaseous cavities and locally molten along margins (Fig. 17). These observations may suggest that the rocks of the black series were derived from strongly fluidized melts or high-density fluids that penetrated in the extension fractures in the upper cooled margin of the spreading mantle plume head.

The mantle xenoliths in alkaline basalts practically do not depend on the geographic region, or on the continental or oceanic environment (Ionov, 1988; Downes, 2001; Pearson et al., 2014 and reference therein), which indicates significant similarity and a common nature to all melted mantle protoliths. In other words, the compositions of mantle plumes are similar regardless of their localization. These xenoliths represent two major types of material of thermochemical mantle plumes that ascend from the liquid core-silicate mantle boundary. 7.2.1. Mantle xenoliths in the basalts of West Syria

One of the best studied regions of modern plume-related magmatism is the late Cenozoic flood basalt province of West Syria (NE part of the Red Sea rift system). Numerous lavas of Syrian plateau are represented by rocks widely varying in SiO2 composition from Fe-Ti basanites to trachytes, with a predominance of Fe-Ti tholeiitic and alkali basalts (Ponikarov et al., 1969; Lustrino and Sharkov, 2006; Trifonov et al., 2011).

These plateau basalts were ascribed by Ernst (2014) to the Cenozoic Afro-Arabian LIP. On the other hand, Wlison and Lustrino (2007) ascribed the Syrian basalts to the Circum Mediterranean

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT alkaline and incompatibl

signatures. However, unlike the European part of this province, Syrian plateau basalts are regarded as related to the Afar plume (Bertrand et al., 2003), which was later interpreted as thermochemical plume with roots at the CMB (Hansen et al., 2012). The upwelling material associated with the Africa-Afar plume flowed northward, assisted in continental break-up, and compelled Arabia to induce collision (Faccena et al., 2013). Like the late Cenozoic province of Central and South East Asia (including Trans-Baikal-Mongolian rift system) (Yarmolyuk et al., 2011), Syrian basalts are characterized by the predominant development of high-Ti basalts, especially alkaline, at almost complete absence of low-Ti varieties.

As reported in the earlier studies, the mantle xenoliths of this region are also found only in alkali basalts, and are absent in tholeiitic varieties (Ponikarov et al., 1969; Lustrino and Sharkov, 2006). We have investigated some such localities in the Harrat Ash Shamah and El Ghab plateaus (Fig. 18). The xenoliths usually occur in the scoria and pyroclastic cones at the plateau surfaces or, more rarely, in lavas. In addition to mantle xenoliths, the lavas rarely contain xenoliths of upper-crustal rocks (gneisses and sandstones) as well as fragments of cumulates from transitional magma chambers (usually diverse gabbros, including olivine-bearing varieties) (Sharkov et al., 1996).

The mantle xenoliths are represented by the green and black series (Sharkov et al., 1996) and in general they are similar to those occur around the World, including, for example, the Baikal Rift (Aschepkov, 1991). The xenoliths of the green series are predominantly represented by spinel lherzolites and to a less extent, spinel harzburgites. Such heterogeneity is often observed in xenoliths within even one volcano, for instance, in Tell Danun Volcano (Sharkov et al., 1996), and presumably indicates an incomplete homogenization of the plume head. This heterogeneity has been preserved ("frozen"), owing to the rapid cooling of the upper rim of plume head, at the contact with relatively cold lithospheric mantle.

The rocks of the black series are also common for such localities. They are represented by wehrlites, clinopyroxenites, amphibole pyroxenites, kaersutite hornblendites, and others, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti-augite, brown hornblende (kaersutite or pargasite), olivine, sanidine, ilmenite, and phlogopite.

Many xenoliths of the green series contain minerals such as kaersutite, phlogopite, apatite, carbonate, and others, as well as melt-pockets, i.e. these rocks were locally overprinted by mantle metasomatism. 7.2.2. Mantle metasomatism

The composition of fluid phases that generated the veins of the black series and mantle metasomatism is highly debated. The spongy minerals, especially clinopyroxenes, and fine-grained,

many mantle xenolith suites worldwide, provide some important information. Such melt-pockets (Fig. 19) were found in the xenoliths of mantle peridotites in European flood basalts (Downes, 2001) as well as in the Plio-Quaternary El Ghab plateau (Ryabchikov et al., 2011; Ma et al., 2015 and references therein). It is believed that these melt-pockets were formed during secondary incongruent melting related to the mantle metasomatism driven by two major types of agents. According to their data, the earlier carbonatite type was manifested in a hidden form owing to the percolation of mobile low-silicate CO2-rich fluid/melt and led to the enrichment of the rocks in LREE, Na, Th, U, and Ba. The silicate fluid/melt manifested immediately prior to eruption and provided the influx of Ti, Fe, P, K, Cs, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ta and Hf. This stage was responsible for the formation of lenses made up of fine-grained aggregate of olivine, Al-Ti-augite, amphibole (Ti-rich pargasite, kaersutite), feldspar (andesine + Na-sanidine), mica (Ti-rich phlogopite) ± volcanic glass varying in composition from benmoreite (trachyandesite) to trachyte. The presence of hydrous phases indicates the H2O-bearing composition of this agent.

Such pockets were presumably developed in a cooled plume head margin and represent the initial stages of the formation of the secondary black-series melts. This process depends on scales of incongruent melting and could produce more significant volumes of fluidized melt, which was sucked in via extensional fractures in the cooled plume rim. The saturation of melt in fluid components is supported by the presence of vesicles in rocks and the appearance of coarse-grained pegmatoid veins, which were defragmented to produce megacrysts. It is likely that trachyte flows in LIPs and oceanic islands (where sialic crust is absent) as well as syenites in bimodal titaniferous syenite-gabbro intrusions are also related to this process.

Thus, the rocks of the upper cooled plume head margin show traces of at least two mantle-metasomatizing agents, which percolate between grains to cause metasomatic effect. The source of these agents was, probably, intergranular fluid material in the primary plume matter involved in the processes of adiabatic melting. Excess of fluids, which appeared as a result of decompressional degassing, was accumulated as gas "bubble" beneath the upper cooled margin of the plume head and percolated into rocks, leading to the metasomatism and secondary melting. Periodically, the matter of these "bubbles" bursts at the surface to generate scoria and pyroclastic cones with mantle xenoliths.

According to geobarometric estimates (Ryabchikov et al., 2011; Ma et al., 2015), the primary peridotite of the green series were crystallized at depths of 24-42 km (0.8-1.4 GPa) at 896980 °C. Minerals in melt pockets (black series) were formed at a depth 21-27 km (0.7-0.9 GPa) at temperatures of 826-981 oC. Based on the data and inferences the following are the conclusions: (1)

Co U1 AC11U11 lllo dlC lld^lllClllo VJl L11C

CI CVJVJ1CLI llldl^lll VJ1 lilt/ piLllllC lltdVJ. oVJlllC

kilometers thick above magma generation zone; this margin was localized at depth 21-27 km and its temperature varied from 826-981 0C; (2) The peridotite matrix of this margin was made up of relatively weakly sorted spinel-facies ultramafic material. Hence, this material had no time to homogenize during ascent from depths 24-42 km (up to the buoyancy level), at frozen equilibria; (3) The high-density fluids/melts of the black series were derived from a mixture of at least two types of mantle fluids in the plume head. These fluids presumably existed as initial intergranular fluid in primary mantle plume material and were released during its ascent at relatively shallow depths. They were responsible for the secondary melting of rocks in the upper cooled margin of mantle plume head and the appearance of trachytic melts; (4) When this peridotitic rim became cold and brittle, it splits by extensional fractures due to tension stress in the spreading plume head; and secondary melt from the pockets entered the cracks, forming veins of black series.

7.2.3. Geochemical features of the mantle xenoliths from Quaternary Tell Danun Volcano

The geochemical characteristics of the xenoliths, megacrysts and host basalts are given in Table 4 and Fig. 20. All xenoliths are characterized by low REE abundance with weak to nil fractionation, except for spinel lherzolite showing slight enrichment in LREE and some incompatible elements, which is probably related to the influence of mantle metasomatism. The rocks of the black series (represented by kaersutite) show higher contents of REE and other incompatible elements, which is related to their crystallization from a fluid phase. They become more similar in composition to the alkaline basaltic melts (Fig. 20). Further, the geochemistry of the basalts was mostly controlled by fluids existing in the zone of magma generation as the matrix in the melting zone was represented by relatively depleted peridotites. The enrichment of the basalt in LREE and depletion in Cr and Ni can be related to their generation via melting of a fluid-enriched peridotite matrix.

7.3. Origin of alkali and tholeiitic basalts

It is generally believed that the alkali and tholeiitic basalts, the main components of many LIPs, are derived from a common source (hypothetical "average mantle") at different /T-parameters and at various degrees of partial melting: alkali basalts are generated at higher depths and lower melting degree than tholeiitic basalts (Hirschmann et al., 1998, 1999; Johnson et al., 2005 and references therein). However, no "average mantle" exists within the Earth. There is only "dead" lithosphere (including slab cemeteries in deep mantle) and active mantle plumes. Hence we used the available data on mantle xenoliths to suggest another explanation for the spatial association of these contrasting rocks.

viany researchers consider that geochemical features of basalts (especially REE-pattern) depend on PT-conditions of magma generation, degree of a source melting, or preceding metasomatism (e.g. Hirschmann et al., 1998, 1999; Drapper and Green, 1999; Johnson et al., 2005). However, it was shown above, the geochemical features of newly-formed basalts are mainly determined by components contained in the interganular plume's material. Composition of this material depends on fluids released from the core and on components assimilated by the plume from slab cemeteries at different levels in the lower mantle and MTZ. Thus, isotopic geochemical features cannot be used for such reconstructions.

It is likely that the intergranular fluid in a plume head can saturate the peridotitic matrix unevenly, which results in the uneven enrichment of plume protolith in Fe, Ti, incompatible components and especially alkalis. From this point of view, newly-formed melts, depending on the concentration and composition of the fluids, can occur on the different sides of the critical plane of silica undersaturation (Yoder and Tilley, 1962) and the melt can be alkalic or tholeiitic (Fig. 21).

Therefore, the appearance of one or another type of magma depends mainly on the concentration of the fluid components in the source at the time of formation, and their change with time due to depletion or addition of the fluids in the same PT conditions. In other words, even small differences in the composition and/or portion of mantle fluids in the magma generation zone may result in the appearance of alkaline or tholeiitic basalts, respectively, which later evolve independently.

This model explains how the large igneous provinces evolve with alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at the lower parts and low to moderate Ti-tholeiite basalts at the upper portions of LIPs. This is presumably related to the gradual depletion of protolith of the plume head in fluid components, especially in alkalis and other incompatible elements with their removal with newly formed melts and corresponding shift into the field of SiO2-saturated melts at the same PT-parameters. In other words, the gradual depletion of the protolith in these components causes a transition through physicochemical barrier and derivation of tholeiitic basalts at the same PT parameters; alkali basalts and picrites are first generated melts at maximum concentration of fluids in the magma generation zone which gradually decreases with time and led to appearance of tholeiitic melts. As a result, the concentrations of incompatible elements differ in alkali and tholeiite basalts.

At the same time, the La/Yb ratio in the primitive magmas (Mg>0.63) of LIPs' basalts are controlled by melting degree and the presence of garnet in melting sources. Thus, we believe that release of the fluid/melt components from intergranular material of a plume's matrix occurs prior to adiabatic melting, at higher pressure (garnet stability field). Correspondingly, LREE became more

III L11C gdlHClc>. ± 11C11

concentration gradually decreases accordingly with alkalis.

The structure of the Siberian LIP consists of several sub provinces (section 3.2), which indicates that melting was localized in heads of local (secondary) plumes, "fingers" on the surface of mantle superplume. In some cases situation is confined by two branches as in the case of the Central East African Rift (Koptev et al., 2015). Ascent of these "fingers" was presumably related to a local accumulation of volatiles, which increased the matter buoyancy. These secondary plumes reached already moderate depths, while adiabatic melting of their heads led to the appearance of definite magmatic systems (section 5).

The replenishment of secondary plumes provided their significant lifetime and practically simultaneous magmatic activity over a giant territory. Occasional change of the melt composition, as exemplified by the Maimecha-Kotui Province of the Siberian LIP (section 4.2), is possibly related to the appearance of a new secondary plume.

■ II1HI

8. Conclusions

(1) Early Precambrian large igneous provinces (Archean and early Palaeoproterozoic), are composed of high-Mg melts derived from depleted mantle protoliths of the first generation mantle plumes, sharply differ in composition from the Neogean (Phanerozoic type) LIPs, with geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites.

(2) The generation of the Neogean LIP is related to the ascent of the thermochemical superplumes of second generation from the liquid core-mantle boundary (CMB). Magmatic systems are produced from the heads of secondary plumes due to adiabatic melting, which form fingers on the superplume surface,

(3) Mantle xenoliths in basalts (green and black series) are fragments of several kilometers-thick upper cooled margin of mantle plume heads above a zone of adiabatic melting. They represent two major types of material occurred in a melting zone. The first melts were alkali Fe-Ti basalts enriched in fluid components and often containing mantle xenoliths.

(4) The heads of the mantle thermochemical plumes are composed of two types of the same

material: (i) moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites) and (ii) geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Plume heads likely cut mafic lower crust and reach bottom of the upper sialic crust at the depths ~20 km.

(5) We propose that the appearance of two major types of the mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiite basalts) presumably was unrelated to different /T-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone but strongly related to the individual fluid regime in the plume heads. Depending on the concentration and composition of the fluids (especially, alkalis content) in each case, a newly-

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to Drs. A.I. Aschepkov (Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, RF) and N. Roberts (British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK) for their insightful comments. The work was supported by grants RFBR (projects Nos. 14-05-00458a and 16-0500708).

Samples were partially collected from holes 5A and 6A of the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia-Drilling Early Earth Project with support of the International Continental Scientific Drilling program.

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Figure captions

Figure 1. Schematic structure of magmatic system.

Figure 2. Evolution of tectonomagmatic processes in the Earth's history (Bogatikov et al., 2010). Figure 3. Variations of indicator oxides in the Archean and Palaeoproterozoic mantle-derived melts (modified after Sharkov and Bogina, 2006). Figure 4. A conceptual scheme of early Precambrian tectonics.

Figure 5. Schematic geological map of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield with indication of the occurrences of the Sumian-Sariolian and Jatulian-Ludicovian volcanosedimentary structures (modified after Bogina et al., 2015). Major supracrustal structures: □ Krasnaya Rechka, Semch, Koikary; □ Kumsa, □ Lekhta, □ Shomba, □ Vetreny Belt, □ Imandra-Varzuga, □Pechenga. Figure 6. REE distribution in the rocks of the Vetreny Belt, Karelian craton, Fennoscandian Shield (modified after Sharkov et al., 2005). Field outlines the compositions of komatiites and basalts from the late Archean Sumozero-Kenozero greenstone belt.

Figure 7. Inferred scheme of the evolution of SHMS system.

Figure 8. Geochemical features of Jatulian-Ludicovian volcanics. Grey field-Jatulian basalts of Karelia; light-grey field-alkali Fe-Ti basalts of Kuetsjarvi series, Pechenga structure, the Kola Peninsula.

Figure 9. Scheme of geological structure of Elet'ozero complex.

Figure 10. REE pattern of mafic-ultramafic rocks and alkaline syenites of Elet'ozero complex. Figure 11. Comparison of geochemical features of Elet'ozero's cumulates and volcanics of Kuetsjarvi series. A-REE contents, normalized to chondrite; B-minor elements contents on the multicomponent diagram, normalized to primitive mantle. Contour - elements content in Elet'ozero rocks.

Figure 12. Scheme of distribution of the Siberian flood basalts (after Pirajno et al., 2009).

Figure 13. Siberian flood basalts, Putorana Plateau, near the town of Norilsk.

Figure 14. Generalized tuff-lava section of the Noril'sk district (modified after Krivolutskaya,

2014). Formations: P2z'v - Ivakinskaya; T^v - Syverminskaya; T1gd - Gudchikhinskaya; T^k -

Khakanchanskaya; T1tk - Tuklonskaya; T1nd1 - Nadezhdinskaya; T1«d2-3 - Nadezhdinskaya; T1mr

Morongovskaya; T1mk - Mokulaevskaya; T1^r - Kharaerlakhskaya.

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Figure 16. A vein of the black-series (right) in rock of the green series (photo by H. Downes). Figure 17. Fused megacryst of kaersutite in basaltic pyroclastics (A), and vesicles in xenolith of black series (B), Tell-Danun Volcano, Harrat Ash Shamah Plateau, Southern Syria (collection by E.V. Sharkov).

Figure 18. Late Cenozoic basaltic plateaus in Arabia.

Figure 19. Plagioclase, magnetite (bright), ilmenite and devitrified glass (Gl) in the crystallized melt pocket between primary minerals of lherzolite xenolith; spongy clinopyroxene in left. Back scattered electron image (after Ryabchikov et al., 2011).

Figure 20. Spidergram and chondrite normalized REE contents in mantle xenoliths and host-basalts of the Tell-Danun Volcano, South Syria.

Figure 21. Scheme of the Di-Fo-Ne-Qz system (Yoder and Tilley, 1962). The components of this simplified iron-free basaltic system correspond to the basic components of the major phases of basalt.

Table 1. Composition of the volcanic rocks of the Kuetsjarvi Group, Pechenga Structure (core drilling data).

Table 2. Composition of rocks of the Vetreny Belt Fm.

Table 3. Sm-Nd isotope composition of the Jatulian basalts (Kuetsjarvi Group) of the Kola Craton. Table 4. Composition of mantle xenoliths and their host basalts. Tell-Danun Volcano, South Syria.

Table 1. Composition of the volcanic rocks of the Kuetsjarvi Group, Pechenga Structure (core drilling data)

Sample 05A-H-011.75 06A-H-013.57 06A-H-018.22 06A-H-054.16 06A-H-060.53 06A-H-075.69 06A-H-086.88 06A-H-122.99 06A-H-188.16 06A-H-252.74 06A-H-303.48 06A-H-307.29

SiO2 50.68 53.26 50.33 43.65 59.74 51.74 58.10 58.14 53.14 50.48 58.56 56.59

TiO2 2.38 2.23 2.03 3.76 2.35 2.15 2.24 1.25 1.80 2.13 1.86 1.91

11.02 11.85 13.87 19.98 14.81 11.12 13.99 15.80 18.16 17.28 14.41 15.27

Fe2O3 15.01 15.25 16.07 19.31 11.92 16.17 10.30 14.80 12.53 13.87 10.10 11.60

MnO 0.18 0.19 0.28 0.11 0.02 0.21 0.21 0.01 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.12

MgO 7.23 4.97 5.34 4.95 0.62 12.66 6.01 0.07 3.36 7.40 4.98 5.23

CaO 7.88 9.24 9.20 0.19 1.71 2.66 3.70 0.58 1.09 1.41 2.42 1.34

Na2O 4.43 2.24 2.09 2.61 8.19 1.21 4.66 8.96 4.19 4.33 5.82 6.21

K2O 0.94 0.61 0.60 5.34 0.35 1.81 0.56 0.11 5.16 2.69 1.51 1.51

P2O5 0.23 0.14 0.19 0.10 0.28 0.28 0.21 0.28 0.48 0.24 0.22 0.22

Li 8.3 8.4 11.4 29.2 1.8 37 18.3 0.24 23.9 21.5 19 14.4

Sc 17.9 31.9 31.6 26.2 15.6 27 14.7 8.4 13.7 23.8 19 16.4

V 367 395 352 373 190 203 189 16.4 100 378 240 275

Cr 213 57.9 60.0 74.8 19.9 1046 98.4 9.6 33.2 26.6 32 35.6

Co 41.9 42.6 41.5 54.0 11.5 62 36.4 2.5 31.6 45.5 29 34.3

Ni 133 71.4 69.4 155 27.9 285 102 2.8 56.9 25.2 24 32.2

Cu 291 197 193 bdl 14.4 9.7 660 1.6 bdl 2.8 8.02 10.1

Zn 147 134 126 120 25.4 131 132 27.0 122 116 87 101

Rb 17.5 9.3 10.7 115 4.0 52 11.2 0.6 135 74.9 40 41.4

Sr 205 291 261 54.8 139.9 72 208.8 92.9 120 50.4 114 88.2

Y 12.1 29.1 27.4 26.1 14.9 18 17.1 24.5 32.2 19.3 16 16.3

Zr 138 166 166 279 199 180 185 352 338 187 170 184

Nb 31.1 13.7 12.5 29.0 19.2 12 17.0 24.7 30.7 16.9 13 18.2

Cs 0.64 0.64 0.57 2.4 0.06 5.0 0.63 0.026 3.0 3.3 1.54 1.4

Ba 277 232 154 2300 123 159 125 48.8 1479 233 228 176

La 80.7 22.5 20.6 58.3 25.4 30 23.8 30.2 64.9 23.6 29 15.1

Ce 154.7 54.8 49.5 146 65.1 73 53.0 67.4 137 53.4 62 37.5

Pr 12.8 6.7 6.4 16.8 9.5 9.8 6.9 8.1 14.6 6.7 7.6 4.9

Nd 40.0 28.7 27.1 68.8 41.3 41 29.1 33.7 58.2 26.8 29 22.3

Sm 5.2 6.3 5.8 12.5 7.2 8.4 5.8 7.7 10.1 5.3 5.2 4.7

Eu 1.5 1.8 1.8 2.5 2.1 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.4

Gd 5.0 7.6 7.0 9.6 6.0 7.6 5.3 6.8 9.2 6.1 5.2 4.4

Tb 0.73 1.2 1.1 1.3 0.83 0.93 0.80 1.0 1.4 0.94 0.65 0.65

Dy 2.9 6.5 6.2 5.8 3.6 4.8 3.7 5.4 6.9 4.9 3.6 3.4

Ho 0.59 1.3 1.3 1.2 0.64 0.81 0.72 1.1 1.3 0.93 0.69 0.67

Er 1.6 3.7 3.6 3.1 1.7 2.1 2.0 3.1 3.7 2.7 1.9 1.9

Tm 0.21 0.56 0.52 0.45 0.22 0.27 0.26 0.41 0.51 0.38 0.27 0.27

Yb 1.2 3.4 3.1 2.8 1.2 1.7 1.6 2.6 3.3 2.3 1.8 1.7

Lu 0.18 0.47 0.46 0.39 0.16 0.21 0.24 0.37 0.47 0.33 0.25 0.26

Hf 3.6 4.3 4.4 7.5 5.1 4.5 4.7 8.7 9.3 5.7 4.0 4.8

Ta 2.8 1.2 1.3 2.1 1.5 0.87 1.2 1.8 2.5 1.5 0.83 1.3

Pb 6.4 5.4 5.5 7.9 6.7 8.0 6.4 10.1 5.3 1.7 5.3 2.9

Th 3.5 3.2 3.0 7.7 5.0 2.3 3.8 11.3 10.6 5.5 4.0 4.6

U 0.62 0.74 0.69 1.1 1.1 0.57 0.5 1.6 1.4 0.69 0.53 0.6

Note. Whole rocks compositions in wt.% and recalculeted to 100%; bdl - below detection limit

U1G Z..

Sample Lev19 Gl3b Lev16 301 304

SiO2 44.19 45.08 52.05 51.07 52.41

TiO2 0.42 0.49 0.73 0.58 0.59

Al2O3 5.97 11.9 13.73 12.86 12.59

Fe2O3 12.81 12.84 12.38 12.03 12.06

MnO 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.18

MgO 29.23 21.25 8.10 12.21 11.36

CaO 6.17 6.41 10.82 8.65 8.24

Na2O 0.76 0.64 1.62 1.96 2.04

K2O 0.24 1.16 0.34 0.37 0.44

P2O5 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.09

Li 0.61 13.8 5.18 5.14 4.67

Sc 1.99 21 34 28 26

V 13 138 212 177 173

Cr 230 2048 316 521 788

Co 7.77 71.8 38.1 50.2 50.1

Ni 78 624 49 196 199

Cu 5.6 52 91 73 71

Zn 6.30 64 73 55 72

Rb 0.56 66 7.5 9.4 9.2

Sr 9.3 65 174 173 173

Y 0.80 8.4 14 11 11

Zr 3.3 39 56 54 54

Nb 0.12 1.7 2.1 2.0 2.0

Cs 0.008 0.65 0.082 0.11 0.12

Ba 10.27 60 186 187 201

La 0.45 6.0 7.7 8.4 8.7

Ce 1.0 13 17 18 18

Pr 0.13 1.6 2.2 2.3 2.4

Nd 0.58 6.8 9.5 9.5 9.8

Sm 0.14 1.5 2.3 2.1 2.2

Eu 0.046 0.49 0.77 0.70 0.71

Gd 0.15 1.7 2.6 2.3 2.4

Tb 0.025 0.26 0.41 0.35 0.37

Dy 0.17 1.7 2.6 2.2 2.3

Ho 0.034 0.34 0.55 0.45 0.49

Er 0.10 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.4

Tm 0.015 0.15 0.24 0.19 0.20

Yb 0.10 0.93 1.5 1.2 1.31

Lu 0.015 0.14 0.23 0.18 0.20

Hf 0.10 1.2 1.6 1.5 1.6

Ta 0.008 0.11 0.14 0.12 0.12

Pb 0.16 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.1

Th 0.07 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.3

U 0.02 0.3 ¿¿¿¿0.2 0.2

Note. Whole rocks compositions in wt.% and recalculeted to 100%

3. Sm-Nd isotope composition of the Jatulian basalts (Kuetsjarvi Group) of the Kola Craton.

ANUSCRIPT

Sample no.

05A-H-011.75 06A-H-018.22

basalts basalts

5.597 6.166

40.48 26.75

'Sm/ Nd

0.0836 0.1393

±2a (%)

0.3 0.3

Nd/ Nd

0.511075 0.511903

±2 a (%)

0.000002 0.000002

s Nd (2.10 Ga) Model age (DM, Ma)

0.0 1.1

2424 2550

Isotope composition of Nd was determined on a high-resolution Triton (Thermo) mass spectrometer at the Centre of Isotopic Research, Karpinskii All-Russia Institute of Geology in a static mode. Nd isotope composition of JNdi-1 standard: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512126 ± 2.

Table 4. Composition of mantle xenoliths and their host basalts. Tell-Danun Volcano, South Syria

Sample 149/16 814-1 819-26 20/12-1(k) 217/2-2(k) 814/12 149/3-2 149/3-4 814-4 814-10 819-17 814/05 814/09

Rock Basalt Basalt Basalt Kaersutite Kaersutite Kaersutite Spinel peridotite Spinel peridotite Spinel lherzolite Spinel harzburgite Spinel peridotite Spinel peridotite Spinel peridotite

SiO2 47.32 44.73 44.90 44.28 43.67 39.81 42.35 41.48 38.93 40.55 41.58 41.28 44.46

TiO2 2.43 2.59 2.68 4.43 5.04 5.67 0.56 0.01 0.07 0.24 0.09 0.07 0.17

Al2O3 14.91 14.97 14.00 13.4 13.33 14.03 1.39 1.06 1.09 1.70 2.44 2.04 3.46

Fe2O3 13.06 14.41 14.29 13.4 13.74 11.21 12.11 9.74 8.84 13.71 11.71 9.07 7.70

MnO 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.22 0.183 0.14 0.13

MgO 9.2 8.69 8.72 10.96 9.17 13.12 43.69 45.7 45.22 40.89 40.35 44.04 38.62

CaO 9.57 8.52 8.61 10.63 9.41 10.83 1.28 0.82 0.97 1.67 1.91 1.68 3.58

Na2O 2.75 3.76 3.49 2.4 2.86 2.60 0.08 0.11 0.12 0.19 0.34 0.16 0.32

K2O 0.82 1.17 1.58 0.88 1.46 1.59 nd nd 0.03 0.05 0.11 0.06 0.10

P2O5 0.31 0.63 0.71 0.16 0.12 0.03 0.11 0.1 0.02 0.03 0.03 <0.02 <0.02

LOI nd <0.10 <0.10 nd nd 0.70 nd nd 3.81 <0.10 0.22 0.28 0.52

Total 100.52 99.67 99.18 100.65 98.86 99.69 101.7 99.15 99.24 99.25 98.96 98.82 99.06

Li nd 7.7 15 nd nd 5.5 nd nd 1.9 6.6 11 2.7 2.4

Sc 24.2 22 16 26.8 24.2 32 9.52 8.46 7.7 8.0 11 6.8 16

V nd 185 185 nd nd 524 nd nd 34 45 46 32 89

Cr 392 187 248 52.3 18 16 2370 2950 1802 2590 2094 986 1216

Co 64.9 51 52 78.7 86.7 65 117 122 118 112 111 108 88

Ni 430 164 204 267 518 188 2020 2260 2419 2011 2075 2227 1953

Cu nd 58 76 nd nd 52 nd nd 7.4 10 18 5.9 60

Rb 25.3 12 18 10.5 nd 4.9 6.2 nd 0.67 1.2 2.3 0.70 0.64

Sr 622 816 776 575 nd 473 nd nd 20 26 38 8.5 11

Y nd 23 22 nd nd 14 nd nd 0.79 2.2 2.0 1.5 2.9

Zr 143 279 272 98 93 46 80 108 7.2 12 12 3.1 6.4

Nb nd 39 49 nd nd 12 nd nd 1.5 1.2 2.2 0.16 0.35

Cs 0.239 0.19 0.14 nd nd nd 0.05 0.186 0.004 bdl 0.041 bdl bdl

Ba 155 195 413 119 191 130 80 32 16 64 30 30 7.0

La 15.6 31 35 5.56 5.77 3.5 1.04 0.56 1.0 0.92 1.7 0.44 0.67

Ce 36.3 65 73 16.7 19.3 12 2.24 1.3 2.2 2.7 4.3 0.65 1.3

Pr nd 8.0 9.0 nd nd 2.2 nd nd 0.27 0.43 0.60 0.12 0.21

Nd 16.6 32 35 13.8 16.1 13 0.79 0.57 0.98 2.2 2.6 0.56 1.1

Sm 4.5 6.9 7.6 4.62 5.13 4.0 0.222 0.128 0.22 0.63 0.54 0.15 0.37

Eu 1.53 2.3 2.8 1.66 1.64 1.5 0.084 0.043 0.09 0.26 0.22 0.072 0.13

Gd nd 6.2 7.0 nd nd 4.3 nd nd 0.19 0.56 0.52 0.17 0.49

Tb 0.78 1.0 1.0 0.69 0.65 0.67 0.14 0.05 0.033 0.10 0.079 0.027 0.080

Dy nd 5.2 5.2 nd nd 3.6 nd nd 0.18 0.52 0.41 0.27 0.57

Ho nd 1.0 0.94 nd nd 0.63 nd nd 0.031 0.088 0.076 0.058 0.14

Er nd 2.4 2.2 nd nd 1.4 nd nd 0.074 0.20 0.22 0.17 0.40

Tm nd 0.34 0.32 nd nd 0.18 nd nd 0.010 0.029 0.026 0.026 0.055

Yb 1.598 2.0 1.8 1.22 0.672 0.83 0.133 0.078 0.080 0.19 0.20 0.16 0.37

Lu 0.248 0.28 0.25 0.181 0.073 0.11 0.024 0.01 0.009 0.020 0.032 0.022 0.049

Hf 3.72 5.6 5.6 2.24 2.72 1.5 0.062 0.097 0.06 0.14 0.23 bdl 0.015

Ta 1.86 2.2 2.7 0.88 1.31 0.96 0.11 0.13 0.21 0.007 0.18 0.048 0.085

Pb nd 3.8 6.4 nd nd 1.7 nd nd 1.4 2.0 0.88 2.2 0.38

Th 1.19 2.7 3.0 2.16 1.9 nd 0.24 0.13 0.12 0.091 0.13 bdl bdl

U 2.07 0.89 0.96 nd nd 0.020 nd nd 0.047 0.071 0.046 0.017 0.052

nd-not determined, bdl- below detection limit

Schema of magmatic system of LIP

EO Volcano-sedimentary rocks ^ Magma-generation zon< —□ Transitional magma chambers:

a- deep-seated (layered intrusions), KaH Rest'te a b b - shallow, subvolcanics r—r. Cooled marginal part of

.-. Newly formed basaltic melt, partly ^^^ mantle plume head

I^J shifted to the boundary with crust , , Fresh material arrising (underplating phenomena) MfH to plume head

Primitive stage (Protogean) Cratonic stage Continental-oceanic stage (Neogean) Ga

5(?) 4 i 0 3.0 2 I Komatiite-basaltic series 8 2.5 2 i Siliccous .3 2 M high-Mg ics - 0 1 p 8 1 îanerozoic type of tecU (Neogean) 0 ( inomagmatic activity

Geochemical analogs of boninites

Mainly plume tectonics

Mainly plate tect >nics

Mainly depleted mantle sources Enriched and depleted mantle sources

ompletely iquid core

Granite-greenstone domain Greenstone belts

Granulite belts

Regions of descending movements in the mantle between superplumes, where granulite were formed; lower part is formed by eclogites Zones of mantle magma generation in projections of superplume surface

Lower crust with zones of underplating beneath greenstone belt

Ancient sialic crust

Ancient lithospheric mantle

. Zones of crustal magma generation — in (a) granulite belts and (b) at margins of greenstone belts above high-temperature mantle magma chambers

Flow direction

TMB Transitional mobile belt

О E20/1 mineralized Krs-Ap ferrogabbro □ E20/5 gabbro-anorthosite О E20/7 Ар-bearing ferrogabbro A E21/1 Ap gabbro-anorthosite V E22/4 mineralized

• E23/2 mineralized PI peridotite

■ E28/1 PI,Bt clinopyroxenite

♦ E35 anorthosite

< E38 gabbro-diorite ©714 metamorphozed

clinopyroxenite with Ol and Ap ferrogabbro

72° n 76°_80°

Northern and Central Asian LIPs

—T-i-i—•-V III

Siberian LIP

Trapps: a - exposed, b - unexposed Meimechite Dunite, gabbro Dolerite, kersantite Alkaline mafic

Rhyolite, andesite

Dacite-rtiyolite,

andesite-trachyte

Tarim LIP Trapps: a-exposed, b- unexposed Trachybasalt Alkaline mafic Dunite, troctollte Andesite-rtiyolite

Dacite-rhyolite, andesite-trachyte

Nonvolcanic regions

Volcanic Belts:

I - Northern Mongolia

II - Northern Gobi

III - Southern Gobi

Depth (m)

+ + + Hi. —* +

+ + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + +

A A Ay /\ /\

, Lower mafic crust]

v/\ y\ /\ /\ /s /\ /\ /\ /\ /\

_L ± Uthospheric mantle!

Volcano-sedimentary rocks

|«|_i Transitional magma chambers: a b a - deep-seated (layered intrusions), b-shallow, subvolcanics

Newly formed basaltic melt, partly shifted 1-1 to the boundary with crust (underplating phenomena)

Magma-generation zone I :/ -''I Restite

]] Cooled marginal part of mantle plume head

I Fresh material arrising to plume head

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

■ 819/26 Basalt • 819/17 Spinel peridotite o 149/16 Basalt ♦ 814/5 Spinel peridotite □ 814/1 Basalt >814/9 Spinel peridotite o 814/10 Harzburgite V 20/12-1 (k) Kaersutite 814/4 sP'nel < 217/2-2(k) Kaersutite Iherzolite A 814/12 Kaersutite

Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces E. Sharkov*, M. Bogina, A. Chistyakov

Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry RAS, Staromonetnyper., 35, Moscow 119017, Russia

Corresponding author. E-mail address: sharkov@igem.ru

-Early Precambrian LIPs comprise high-Mg rocks.

- Phanerozoic-type LIPs made up of geochemically enriched basalts.

-The heads of the mantle thermochemical plumes are composed of two types of material.

-The appearance of alkali and tholeiite basalts defined by the fluid regime in the plume heads.