Scholarly article on topic 'Regulated Deficit Drip Irrigation Influences on Seed Maize Growth and Yield under Film'

Regulated Deficit Drip Irrigation Influences on Seed Maize Growth and Yield under Film Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{"regulated deficit drip irrigation" / film / height / "leaf area index" / "dry matter" / yield}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Zhang Jinxia, Cheng Ziyong, Zhang Rui

Abstract An experiment about influence on seed maize growth index and yield with deficit drip irrigation under film was conducted at Irrigation Station in Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. There were severe deficit, mild deficit and full irrigation treatment in each seed maize stage. The lower limit of soil relative water content (the percentage of field capacity) was 45%, 60% and 75%. Results show that single-stage, continuous and alternating deficit irrigation will affect the seed maize normal development, especially the continuous deficit irrigation is obvious, which makes the process of seed maize leaf lag behind and makes dry matter accumulation reduce. And it is the most unfavorable to deficit irrigation in jointing-heading of seed maize, resulting in small plant, decreasing leaf area index. However, a certain degree of deficit irrigation in seedling or grouting could achieve water saving and significantly improve water use efficiency.

Academic research paper on topic "Regulated Deficit Drip Irrigation Influences on Seed Maize Growth and Yield under Film"

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Procedía Engineering 28 (2012) 464 - 468

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/Iocate/procedia

2012 International Conference on Modern Hydraulic Engineering

Regulated Deficit Drip Irrigation Influences on Seed Maize Growth and Yield under Film

Zhang Jinxia, Cheng Ziyonga, Zhang Rui, a*

Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou Gansu 730030, China

Abstract

An experiment about influence on seed maize growth index and yield with deficit drip irrigation under film was conducted at Irrigation Station in Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. There were severe deficit, mild deficit and full irrigation treatment in each seed maize stage. The lower limit of soil relative water content (the percentage of field capacity) was 45%, 60% and 75%. Results show that single-stage, continuous and alternating deficit irrigation will affect the seed maize normal development, especially the continuous deficit irrigation is obvious, which makes the process of seed maize leaf lag behind and makes dry matter accumulation reduce. And it is the most unfavorable to deficit irrigation in jointing-heading of seed maize, resulting in small plant, decreasing leaf area index. However, a certain degree of deficit irrigation in seedling or grouting could achieve water saving and significantly improve water use efficiency.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Society for Resources, Environment and Engineering

Keywords: regulated deficit drip irrigation; film; height; leaf area index; dry matter; yield

1. Introduction

Drip irrigation under film was the combination of drip irrigation and film; since being introduced into China in the 1970s, it has developed rapidly [1]. Regulated deficit irrigation could increase fighting drought ability, improve economic coefficient and quality of some crops, and play the role of water saving, high quality, and efficiency [2-3]. Combined drip irrigation under film with regulated deficit irrigation, a large number of studies on growth, yield and water use efficiency of cotton and grapes had been carried out at home and abroad[4-8]. However, little information has been focused on seed maize. Maize is one of major cash crops at the western Gansu Province, China. This paper will report on seed

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 13919006906.

E-mail address: chengzy@gsau.edu.cn.

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Society for Resources, Environment and Engineering doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.752

maize with regulated deficit drip irrigation under film in this region. We will discuss influences on seed maize growth index and yield with these conditions there. For further promotion and application on these in this region, it will be provided a theoretical basis and practical guidance.

2. Materials and methods

The experiment was conducted at Irrigation Station in Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. The annual average temperature is 7.3 °C. The elevation is 1482.7m. The annual average rainfall is 129mm, and most are focused on July, August and September. The agriculture in this region totally relies on irrigation.

The test crop was seed maize: female parent was the 478, male parent was the Chang 7-2. Common agricultural film was selected. Turbulence labyrinth drip tape was used in experiment, thickness 0.2mm, design pressure 100kPa, and emitter design flow 1.5L/h.

The growth period of seed maize is divided into four stages: seedling-jointing, jointing-heading, heading-grouting and grouting-mature. There were severe deficit, mild deficit and full irrigation treatment in each stage. The lower limit of soil relative water content (the percentage of field capacity) was 45%, 60% and 75%. The experiment was a random block design. There were 8 treatments with 3 replicates. The plot size was 7.2m*5m. When the soil moisture content reduced to the lower limit, irrigation would be done, and times not limited. Farming, fertilization, pest control, et al. was the same as the traditional field planting in each treatment. The situation about experiment design of seed maize is shown Table 1.

Table 1. Experiment design of seed maize

Treatment Seedling-Jointing Jointing-Heading Heading -Grouting Grouting-Mature

Y1 45 75 75 75

Y2 75 45 75 75

Y3 75 75 45 75

Y4 75 75 75 45

Y5 45 75 75 60

Y6 45 60 75 60

Y7 60 75 75 60

Y8 75 75 75 75

Note: Data in the table is the lower limit of soil relative water content (the percentage of field capacity) in corresponding growth stages. Table 2. Irrigation of each treatment at different growth stages

Growth period Time Irrigation (m3/hm2)

(Month - Day) Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 y8

Seedling 5-1~6-6 0 180 180 180 0 0 180 180

Pre-jointing 6-7~6-19 360 180 180 180 360 180 360 180

Late Jointing 6-20~7-11 450 405 765 630 450 630 270 765

Heading 7-12~8-8 450 675 225 450 450 450 450 675

Grouting 8-9~8-20 225 225 225 0 225 225 225 225

Mature 8-21~9-24 450 450 450 225 225 225 225 450

Total 1935 2115 2025 1665 1710 1710 1710 2475

3. Results and analysis

3.1. Seed maize irrigation conditions of regulated deficit drip irrigation under film

The 1st irrigation was on May 3, with drip irrigation under film. The specific irrigation is seen table 2. Irrigation quota is 180m3/hm2 before jointing stage, and is 225m3/hm2 after jointing stage.

3.2. Regulated deficit drip irrigation under film influences on seed maize leaves number

Figure 1. Single plant leaves number of seed maize (left) Figure 2. Seed maize height of different irrigation schedule (right)

Leaves sprout faster in seedling, the fastest in jointing; to heading, leaves number per plant is up to the maximum, then gradually reduce (Figurel). In seedling there is no significant difference in leaves number per plant before deficit (P>0.05). After deficit lower soil moisture result in slower leaves germination in deficit irrigation treatment. In jointing leaves number per plant on Y2, Y3, Y4, Y8 (full irrigation in seedling-jointing) is significantly higher than those on Y6 and Y7 (deficit irrigation in seedling-jointing) (P<0.05). In heading, leaves number per plant on Y2 (severe deficit irrigation in jointing-heading) is extremely significantly less than those on Y8 treatment (full irrigation in growth period) (P<0.01); and those on Y6 (severe deficit irrigation in seedling-jointing and mild deficit irrigation in jointing-heading, that is continuous water deficit) is the least. This shows that effect on leaves number of continuous water deficit is more than those of single-stage water deficit. Into the grouting, leaves number per plant on Y8 is significantly higher than those on Y3 (severe deficit irrigation in heading-grouting) (P<0.05). In mature, leaves number per plant on Y8 is extremely significantly higher than those on Y7 (alternating mild deficit irrigation in seedling-jointing and grouting-mature) (P<0.01). It is observed that alternating deficit irrigation will significantly affect the normal development of seed maize.

3.3. Regulated deficit drip irrigation under film influences on seed maize height

Seed maize grows faster in seedling, the fastest in jointing, gradually slower in grouting; and stops in milky (Figure 2). In seedling there is no significant difference (P>0.05). However, in jointing there is significant difference (P<0.05); height on Y2, Y3, Y4, Y8 is significantly higher than those on Y1, Y5, Y6, Y7. This ensures that deficit irrigation could inhibit the growth of height. In heading height on Y8 is very significantly higher than those on Y2 and Y6 (P<0.01); the max difference is up to 32 cm; the growth rate on Y2 is the slowest, followed by Y6. However, into the grouting there is little change in height, almost horizontal straight line, indicating that there is no effect on height after heading (P>0.05). It is because that seed maize is shifting from vegetative growth to reproductive growth now. In addition, during the late growth, height on Y2 has been the lowest, indicating that severe deficit irrigation in the jointing-heading is the most unfavorable for seed maize, will result in small plant. In other words, irrigation in jointing stage has the greatest impact on plant height.

Zhang Jinoia et al. / Procedia Engineering 28 (2012) 464 - 468 3.4. Regulated deficit drip irrigation under film influences on seed maize leaf area index

Figure 3. LAI of different irrigation schedule

Leaf area index (LAI) increases at first, stabilizes, and finally reduces (Figure 3). In seedling there is no significant difference (P>0.05). However, into jointing the growth rate of LAI suddenly accelerates. There is significant difference in LAI of each treatment (P<0.05), LAI on Y2, Y3, Y4, Y8 is significantly higher than that on Yb Y5, Y6, Y7. This ensures that deficit irrigation could inhibit the growth of LAI too. In heading, the growth of LAI stabilizes. The growth rate on Y6 is the slowest, followed by Y2. In grouting there is negative growth in LAI, and there is no significant difference (P>0.05). This shows that deficit irrigation after heading is no significant effect on LAI.

3.5. Regulated deficit drip irrigation under film influences on seed maize dry matter and yield

Table 3. Dry matter and yield of different irrigation schedule

Treatment Dry matter (g) Yield(kg/hm2)

Seedling Jointing Heading Grouting Mature

Yi 0.34aA 6.03cdBC 86.60abA 116.07bcAB 190.94abA 6029.20abAB

Y2 0.29aA 19.76aA 57.57bA 81.99cB 153.84bA 3947.97cB

Y3 0.29aA 13.54abcAB 64.78abA 139.81bcAB 205.51aA 5463.49abcAB

Y4 0.30aA 9 57bcdABC 84.60abA 174.71aA 192.70abA 6275.04abAB

Y5 0.33aA 2.15dC 69.79abA 149.12abcAB 174.65abA 5482.60abcAB

Y6 0.30aA 4.98dBC 87.21abA 165.74abAB 190.04abA 4929.12bcAB

Y7 0.31aA 7.94bcdBC 87.27abA 109.51bcAB 189.93abA 5163.88bcAB

y8 0.31aA 14.88abAB 106.80aA 185.98aA 199.97aA 7257.10aA

Note: Uppercase and lowercase letters after the same column respectively express significant level of 0.01, 0.05 (LSD method)

Dry matter shows a rising trend during growth period (Table 3). In seedling, there is no difference (P>0.05). However, into jointing dry matter on Y2, Y3, Y4, Y8 is extremely higher than that on Yb Y5, Y6, Y7 (P<0.01). This ensures that deficit irrigation could inhibit dry matter accumulation too. In heading, there is significant difference in dry matter of each treatment (P<0.05). In grouting, dry matter accumulation on Y2 is the least, and is extremely less than Y8 (P<0.01),showing that severe deficit irrigation in jointing- heading significantly affects on dry matter accumulation. In mature, Y4 is significantly less than other treatment (P<0.05), ensuring that deficit irrigation after grouting has some effect on those.

Regulated deficit drip irrigation has obviously influences on seed maize yield (Table 3). Yield on Y2 is the lowest, and is extremely significantly less than Y8 (P<0.01),further showing that jointing - heading stage of seed maize is the most sensitive period of water, deficit irrigation now has the greatest impact on

yield. Yield on Y6 and Y7 is significantly lower than those on Y8 (P<0.05), explaining that both continuous and alternating deficit irrigation will significantly reduce seed maize production. Though yield on Yj and Y4 is lower than that on Y8, no significant difference (P>0.05), showing that deficit irrigation will not significantly reduce seed maize production during seedling - jointing or grouting - mature.

4. Conclusion

Deficit irrigation in the jointing seriously affects on leaves germination, height, LAI, dry matter and yield. That is because that deficit irrigation in the jointing makes LAI smaller in the vegetative growth stage, resulting in small plant, lower dry matter accumulation, and ultimately affecting the output. Therefore, the jointing - heading of seed maize is the most sensitive stage of water, now seed maize should be full irrigation, otherwise it is impossible to ensure high yield.

Both continuous and alternating deficit irrigation will significantly affect seed maize normal development, and obviously reduce leaves germination, height, LAI, dry matter and yield. Intensity of severe deficit irrigation is very big, even if rehydration it was difficult to eliminate adverse effects on growth indicators. It must pay attention to in water-saving cultivation of seed maize.

In the water shortage zone, a certain degree of deficit irrigation in seedling or grouting could achieve saving water and significantly improving water use efficiency.

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Gansu Province Key Technology P&D program (grant no. 090NKCA069) and Gansu Province education Department graduate tutor program (grant no. 0902-02).

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