Scholarly article on topic 'Searching for Emotional Intelligence Measurement in Indonesia Context with Innovative Approach'

Searching for Emotional Intelligence Measurement in Indonesia Context with Innovative Approach Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Yuni Ros Bangun, Ken Ratri Iswari

Abstract Emotional Intelligence is widely accepted as one of the dominant factors contributing to superior educational and professional performance. Previous research has determined the contribution of Emotional Intelligence and some factors that influence Emotional Intelligence. Researchers have introduced measurement tools for Emotional Intelligence. Those that have been accepted internationally; Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT) of Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000); Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) of Bar-on (2002); and Emotional and Social Competence Inventory (ESCI-360) of Goleman, Boyatzis and HayGroup (1999). These models are generally accepted but constructed for Western empirical setting and written in the English language. Moon (2011) suggest that EI cannot be fully or meaningfully understood without consideration of people's cultural values and beliefs due to the existence of cross-cultural differences in EI. Instead of adopting a standard for Emotional Intelligence according to a western approach, it is important to develop an innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement tool according to the context of Indonesia because Indonesia is a multi-cultural country in South East Asia with too strong different characteristic when compared with Western nations. Wang (2009) argues that Eastern and Western cultures have numerous differences because Eastern and Western people live in different environment and are educated in distinctively different way. As a result, the characteristics of each culture are shown in its people behaviour, their attitude toward life and love, and their personalities (Wang, 2009). This research is done by innovatively analyse the current research on Emotional Intelligence in Indonesia and further research recommendation on innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement for Indonesia context. The purpose of this paper is to learn about and to compile some research on Emotional Intelligence specific to Indonesia's context and its impact on determining success. The various research components such as literature review, exploratory research and descriptive research have been implemented. Self Assessment Questionnaires were designed for Indonesian Business School graduates (undergraduates and master program), leaders of multi-sectors companies, and government employees. At the end, structured equation modelling was utilized to create a path model. The findings indicate that in Indonesia, Emotional Intelligence and Competencies have an important role in determining success and influencing performance. At last, the findings will be a powerful insight to develop innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement tools in Indonesian version.

Academic research paper on topic "Searching for Emotional Intelligence Measurement in Indonesia Context with Innovative Approach"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 169 (2015) 337 - 345

The 6th Indonesia International Conference on Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Small Business,

12 - 14 August 2014

Searching for Emotional Intelligence Measurement in Indonesia Context with Innovative Approach

Yuni Ros Banguna, Ken Ratri Iswarib*

abSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Abstract

Emotional Intelligence is widely accepted as one of the dominant factors contributing to superior educational and professional performance. Previous research has determined the contribution of Emotional Intelligence and some factors that influence Emotional Intelligence. Researchers have introduced measurement tools for Emotional Intelligence. Those that have been accepted internationally; Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT) of Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000); Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) of Bar-On (2002); and Emotional and Social Competence Inventory (ESCI-360) of Goleman, Boyatzis and HayGroup (1999). These models are generally accepted but constructed for Western empirical setting and written in the English language.

Moon (2011) suggest that EI cannot be fully or meaningfully understood without consideration of people's cultural values and beliefs due to the existence of cross-cultural differences in EI. Instead of adopting a standard for Emotional Intelligence according to a western approach, it is important to develop an innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement tool according to the context of Indonesia because Indonesia is a multi-cultural country in South East Asia with too strong different characteristic when compared with Western nations. Wang (2009) argues that Eastern and Western cultures have numerous differences because Eastern and Western people live in different environment and are educated in distinctively different way. As a result, the characteristics of each culture are shown in its people behaviour, their attitude toward life and love, and their personalities (Wang, 2009).

This research is done by innovatively analyse the current research on Emotional Intelligence in Indonesia and further research recommendation on innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement for Indonesia context. The purpose of this paper is to learn about and to compile some research on Emotional Intelligence specific to Indonesia's context and its impact on determining success. The various research components such as literature review, exploratory research and descriptive research have been implemented. Self Assessment Questionnaires were designed for Indonesian Business School graduates (undergraduates and master program), leaders of multi-sectors companies, and government employees. At the end, structured equation modelling was

* Corresponding author E-mail address: ken.ratri@sbm-itb.ac.id

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Leadership (CIEL), School of Business and

Managements (SBM), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB).

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.318

utilized to create a path model.

The findings indicate that in Indonesia, Emotional Intelligence and Competencies have an important role in determining success and influencing performance. At last, the findings will be a powerful insight to develop innovative Emotional Intelligence measurement tools in Indonesian version.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Leadership (CIEL), School of Business and Managements (SBM), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB).

Keywords: emotional intelligence; competency; conflict management style; innovative approach

1. Introduction

Emotional Intelligence has an important role in organizational life. It plays a critical role in our decisions and our actions. Emotional Intelligence has gained its popularity among practitioners and has become an area of research interest. Several approaches have been introduced to explore Emotional Intelligence and its applications. According to EI researchers (Salovey and Meyer, 1990; Goleman, 1998a; Weinberger, 2002), Emotional Intelligence is the key contributor to the success of organizations. Emotional Intelligence is a factor that influences employee's work performance as it improves performance. Goleman (1998) claimed that the strongest predictor of academic achievement and success in life is emotional well-being. Goleman (1998) also states that emotional intelligence, not IQ, predicts workplace success and who transpires as a leader. Emotional Intelligence accounted for the major part of a person's success in life whereas IQ only contributed a minor part of one's successful career. Emotional Intelligence has the potential to be a strong predictor for performance. Emotional Intelligence is claimed to have effects on a wide array of work behaviors, including employee commitment, teamwork, talent development, innovation, service quality, and customer loyalty. Those who are categorized as emotionally intelligent perform more effectively in their workplace and benefit from better career advancements.

In Western countries, many researchers have conducted research on Emotional Intelligence and its influence on work performance. However, research about Emotional Intelligence has not yet received enough attention in Eastern countries, including Indonesia. Hence, this research focus on the particular Emotional Intelligence related research that has been done in Indonesia. This research is done by innovatively analyze the current research on Emotional Intelligence in Indonesia and further research recommendation for an Indonesian version of Emotional Intelligence measurement tools.

Shih and Susanto (2008) investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Conflict Management Styles (CMSs) and job performance at selected local governments in Indonesia. Iswari et al (2011) identified relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Competencies with graduates' success at business school graduates (bachelor degree). Keumalasari et al (2011) identified relationship between Academic Acceptance Test and Competencies with graduates' success at master degree graduates. Azzadina and Bangun (2013) studied the impact of Emotional Intelligence cluster dynamics upon superior performance.

2. Paper Outline

The conceptual framework for this particular research started with a literature review of Emotional Intelligence followed by the problem identification. Afterward, the white paper will describe the current measurement tools to evaluate Emotional Intelligence that are commonly used worldwide. It also describes the current research on Emotional Intelligence in Indonesia's context. At the end, it describes the future research in progress regarding Emotional Intelligence in Indonesia's context.

Literature Review

Problem Identification

Existing Tools

Current Research in Indonesia Contextual

Future Research

Measurement Tools in Indonesia

Fig. 1 Paper Outline 3. Existing Emotional Intelligence Measurement Tools

3.1 MSCEIT

Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000b) developed the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT) to objectively measure emotional skills. They defined EI (1997) as a set of interrelated skills that can be classified into four dimensions as the following:

• Perceiving Emotions: the ability to recognize how you and those around you are feeling

• Using Emotions: the ability to generate emotions and to use emotions in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and creativity

• Understanding Emotions: the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional chains, how emotions transition from one stage to another

The MSCEIT includes many such tasks; each designed to test a person's emotional ability. The chart below lists the 8 tasks on the MSCEIT.

Table 1. MSCEIT

Ability Test Sections Question Types

Accurately identify emotions in Faces Identify subtle emotions in faces

people and objects Pictures Identify emotions in complex landscapes and

designs.

Generate an emotion and solve Facilitation Knowledge of how moods impact thinking.

problems with that emotion. Sensation Relate various feeling sensations to emotions.

Understand the causes of emotions. Changes Multiple-choice questions about how emotions

change over time.

Blends Multiple choice emotion vocabulary definitions.

Stay open to emotions and blend with Emotion Management Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to

thinking. internal problems.

Emotional Relations Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to

problems involving other people.

MSCEIT applications include: (1) Selection and Promotion, (2) Career Development, (3) Executive Coaching and Leadership Development, (4) Counseling and Therapy, (5) Seminars and Workshops.

3.2 Bar-On EQ-I Scale

Bar-On (2007) outlines 5 components of emotional intelligence:

• Intrapersonal: emotional self awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence

• Interpersonal: interpersonal relationship, empathy, social responsibility

• Adaptability: problem solving, flexibility, reality testing

• Stress Management: stress tolerance, impulse control

• General mood: optimism, happiness

Bar-On developed Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior that provides an estimate of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). The EQ-I has been the most widely used measure of emotional social intelligence to date (Bar-On, 2004). In brief, the EQ-i contains 133 items in the form of short sentences and employs a 5 points response scale with a textual response format ranging from "very seldom or not true of me" (1) to "very often or true of me" (5). The individual's responses render a total EQ score and score on the following composite scales that comprise 15 subscale scores.

3.3 Goleman

Goleman co-designed Emotional Intelligence Assessment with Richard Boyatzis and the HayGroup, which is the Emotional and Social Competence Inventory, or ESCI-360. It is a multi-rater tool that assesses Emotional Competencies of individuals and organizations. It is based on the emotional competencies identified by Dr. Daniel Goleman in working with Emotional intelligence (1998), and on competencies from Hay/McBer's Generic Competency Dictionary (1996) as well as Dr. Richard Boyatzis's Sel f Assessment Questionnaires (SAQ).

Self Awareness Social Awareness

• Emotional Self • Empathy

Awareness • Organizational Awareness

• Accurate Self Assessment • Service Orientation

• Self Confidence

Self Management Relationship Management

• Emotional Self Control Developing Others

• Transparency Inspirational Leadership

• Adaptability Influence

• Achievement Orientation Change Catalyst

• Optimism Conflict Management

Fig. 2. Emotional Intelligence Element Sources: Goleman (2002)

According to Goleman (2002), the four major skills that make up emotional intelligence are:

• Self awareness: emotional self awareness, accurate self assessment, self confidence)

• Self management: emotional self-control, transparency / trustworthiness, adaptability, achievement orientation, initiatives, optimism, conscientiousness

• Social Awareness: empathy, organizational awareness, service orientation

• Relationship Management: inspirational leadership, influence, developing others, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, teamwork & collaboration, communication

4. Emotional Intelligence Research in Indonesia Context

Shih and Susanto (2008) investigated the relationship among Emotional Intelligence (EI), Conflict Management Styles (CMSs) and job performance at selected local governments in Indonesia. A total of 300 government employees from two local districts and one province in Indonesia were asked to complete the questionnaires. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the developed hypothesis.

According to the investigation of Shih and Susanto (2008) into the relationships between EI, CMSs and job performance at selected local governments in Indonesia, EI could be an antecedent of CMSs in terms of integrating and compromising style. Integrating style could partially mediate the relationship between EI and job performance. EI also had similar roles in public organization as within private organizations, specifically for its impact on job performance. It revealed that subordinates at three selected local government agencies in Indonesia tended to use integrating style followed by compromising style. Emotionally Intelligent people were more likely to select both styles because they might have believed that those styles would solve conflicts productively. These characteristics may lead people to always put other people's interests as an important consideration in solving conflicts. Thus, a win-win solution produced by integrating and compromising styles might become a priority in resolving the conflicts among individuals in order to satisfy everyone's interests.

In a research of Boyatzis (2008) "A 20-year view of trying to develop emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in graduate management education", to be an effective leader, manager, or professional, a person needs the ability to use knowledge and to make things happen which is called competencies. Various empirical researches (Bray et al., 1974; Boyatzis, 1982; Kotter, 1982; Thorton and Byham, 1982; Luthanset. Al.,

1988; Howard and Bray, 1988) have identified that there are a set of competencies that have been shown to cause or predict outstanding leader, manager or professional performance which are: (1) Cognitive intelligence competencies, such as system thinking, (2) Emotional intelligence competencies, or interpersonal abilities, such as adaptability, and (3) Social intelligence competencies, or interpersonal abilities, such as networking.

In Indonesia's context, Iswari et al (2011) studied the influence of psychological test's element (IQ and EQ elements) and competency-based model (Spencer & Spencer Competency Dictionaries) toward Business School graduates' success. Academic Achievement Index (GPA) and Market Acceptance of graduates (Market Acceptance Rate, Job Level, and Salary Level) were measuring Graduates' success. The objective of the research is to examine which element of psychological test (whether it is IQ or EQ) significantly contributes to the success of graduates

The sampling frame is the business school graduate in Indonesia from School of Business and Management (SBM ITB). It is a Self Assessment Questionnaires (SAQ) in which participants (samples) assess their tendency with which they demonstrate certain behaviors on the Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The indicators for competency assessment are derived from Spencer & Spencer Competency Dictionary (1993) that includes Achievement and Action (ACH), Helping and Human Service (HHS), The Impact and Influence (INF), Managerial (MNGR), Cognitive (COG), and Personal Effectiveness (PE).

Iswari et al (2011) verified that Emotional Intelligence makes a considerable contribution to a business school graduates' success. It is an important measure to predict Academic Achievement Index (GPA). It is also influenced by competencies. The dominant factors on Psychological Testing Elements are Emotional Competency, Personal Competency, and Social Competency. These components are a part of Emotional Intelligence. In contrast, IQ doesn't have a meaningful contribution on psychological test variables. Furthermore, for Business School graduates on an Undergraduate Program, all the Competency Variables have a factor loading value of more than 0.5 with Managerial (MNGR), Cognitive (COG), Helping and Human Service (HHS), and Impact and Influence (INF) as a dominant factors on Competency.

Azzadina and Bangun (2013) developed a conceptual framework based on the theory of Emotional Intelligence that have been proposed by Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee (2000) and Goleman (2001) as well as the theory of Superior Performance from Spencer and Spencer (1993). The research aimed to determine the four clusters of Emotional Intelligence dynamics in affecting superior performance of the young adulthood and middle adulthood group. The four clusters of Emotional Intelligence are according to Goleman's EI model and consist of 21 elements (Goleman, 2001). The four clusters are (1) Self-Awareness, (2) Self-Management, (3) Social Awareness, and (4) Relationship Management. Azzadina and Bangun (2013) also added Superior Performance, which is proposed by Spencer and Spencer (1993) as a dependent variable. There are two categories of respondents, which are young adulthood (20-40 years old) and middle adulthood (41-65 years old). These respondents are people who had a managerial position in one of Indonesian company and whom at least have a supervisory level.

Azzadina and Bangun (2013) also confirm that Emotional Intelligence based on Goleman 21 elements can be used as predictors to individual performances in 150 managers at a government owned casting company in Indonesia. Azzadina and Bangun (2013) discovered that in the Middle Adulthood group, influence of the Emotional Intelligence cluster dynamics starts with the influence of Self Awareness cluster towards Self Management and Social Awareness. This cluster undertakes as the basis that provides a positive influence in shaping effective Self Management and Social Awareness. The dynamics then continues from the Self Management and Social Awareness towards Relationship Management. These two clusters' effectiveness is dependent on an individual's ability to identify and to understand the emotions and expressions displayed by others. Moreover, how individuals respond according to the existing context. Finally, the Relationship Management cluster contributes a significant positive impact on superior performance in the workplace. It consists of social elements that are essential to create meaningful social interaction as well as comfort in the workplace. These will encourage individuals to achieve superior performance. On the other hand, for the group of Young Adulthoods, the Self Management cluster does not provide a significant positive impact on the Relationship Management cluster. Moreover, Self Management provides significant positive impact directly on superior performance variable, without the intermediation of Relationship Management cluster.

Azzadina and Bangun (2013) also proposed 21 elements to measure the influence of Emotional Intelligence on Superior Performance. The elements are emotional self awareness, accurate self assessment, self confidence, self control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, optimism, achievement drive, initiative, empathy, service

orientation, organizational awareness, developing others, influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, change catalyst, building bonds, teamwork and collaboration. She also discovered the differences between which elements each group is strong at. The Young Adulthood group has accurate self-assessment, self-confidence, trustworthiness, and empathy, service orientation, developing others, inspirational leadership, communication, and managing conflict. Whereas, Middle Adulthood has a strong achievement orientation, initiative, and change catalyst.

5. Conclusion

Shih and Susanto research (2008) indicate that EI was an antecedent of conflict management styles for integrating and compromising styles. Integrating style partially mediates the relationship between EI and job performance. Iswari et al (2011) discovered that in Indonesia's business school graduates, Emotional Intelligence has a considerable contribution to student's success. Emotional Intelligence is an important measure to predict student achievement index (GPA). Moreover, Emotional Intelligence also influences Competencies. Azzadina and Bangun (2013) also proposed 21 elements to measure the influence of Emotional Intelligence on Superior Performance. Azzadina and Bangun (2013) also confirm that Emotional Intelligence based on Goleman 21 elements can be used as predictors to individual performances in 150 managers at a government owned casting company in Indonesia.

From all the findings above, it is well defined to see that Emotional Intelligence is an important factors that predicts performance and success. The tools that are being used is a modification of the western-version of Emotional Intelligence measurement such as Goleman, Spencer & Spencer Competency Dictionary, psychological testing, etc. However, there are no Emotional Intelligence measurement that is based on a combination of the Emotional Intelligence's best practice. Therefore, to measure the impact of Emotional Intelligence toward performance, Mishar and Bangun (2013) develop an innovative approach on EQ modeling instrument by combining Emotional Intelligence measurement of Goleman, Bar-On Models and Mayor Salovey domain, Psychological defense mechanism and performance effectiveness. By combining Emotional Intelligence model of Goleman, BarOn, and Salovey and its impact to performance, Mishar and Bangun (2013) aim to identify the most predictive element of Emotional Intelligence to measure managerial level performance at State Owned Company.

Appendix A. Summary of Emotional Intelligence Research in Indonesia Context

Shih and Susanto

Iswari et al

Azzadina and Bangun. Y.R.

Topic Conflict Management Styles,

Emotional Intelligence, and job performance in public organization

The influence of psychological test's element (IQ and EQ elements) and competency-based model (Spencer & Spencer Competency Dictionaries) toward Business School graduates' success.

The Impact of the Emotional Intelligence cluster dynamics towards superior performance.

Purpose To investigate the relationship

among Emotional Intelligence (EI), Conflict Management Styles (CMSs) and job performance at selected local government in Indonesia.

To evaluate the impact of certain elements (IQ & EQ) on psychological test and competency based model towards Student Achievement Index (GPA) and market acceptance of business school graduates in Indonesia.

To determine the 4 clusters of Emotional Intelligence dynamics in affecting superior performance performed by the Young Adulthood and Middle Adulthood group.

Respondent 300 government employees from two local districts and one province in Indonesia.

Business school graduate in Indonesia from Undergraduate program of School of Business and Management (SBM ITB).

Young adulthood (20-40) and middle adulthood (41-65) on supervisory or managerial level in Indonesian company.

Methods Questionnaire, Multiple

hierarchical regression analysis:

• Self-report measure of Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) to measure EI Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II) to measure CMSs

• Five items from Pearce and Porter to measure job performance

Questionnaire developed from Spencer & Spencer Competency Dictionary, Structured Equation Modelling (SEM).

Questionnaires developed from Goleman's Four Cluster of Emotional Intelligence and Superior Performance of Spencer Spencer, PLS (Partial List Squared).

Elements Emotional Intelligence, Conflict Management Styles (CMS)

Psychological Test Score (IQ & EQ), GPA, Market Acceptance Rate, Spencer Spencer Competency Dictionary.

The four clusters of Emotional Intelligence (Self-Awareness, Self-Managemnet, Social

Awareness, Relationship

Management) based on Goleman's EI model and consist of 21 elements.; Superior Performance of Spencer and Spencer.

Findings EI was an antecedent of conflict

management styles for integrating and compromising styles. Moreover, they illustrate the direct effect of integrating style on job performance. This study also confirms that integrating styles partially mediates the relationship between EI and job performance. Finally, the result demonstrate that EI within public organization has an impact on job performance similar to that EI within private organizations

Emotional Intelligence makes a considerable contribution to a business school graduates' success. It is an important measure to predict Academic Achievement Index (GPA). It is also influenced by competencies. Managerial, Cognitive, and Helping and Human Service are dominant factors on Competency of business school graduates.

Proposed 21 elements to measure the influence of Emotional Intelligence on Superior Performance on the Young Adulthood and Middle Adulthood.

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