Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of process parameters in surface roughness during turning of GFRP pipes using PCD insert tool'

Effect of process parameters in surface roughness during turning of GFRP pipes using PCD insert tool Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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{"E-Glass mat pipe" / "E-Glass woven pipe" / "CNC turning" / "surface roughness"}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — S. Sivasankaran, P.T. Harisagar, E. Saminathan, S. Siddharth, P. Sasikumar

Abstract Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite pipes are finding its increased applications in variety of engineering applications such as water softening plants, desalination plants, paper mill industry, marine water treatments. However, the users of FRP are facing difficulties to machine it, because of fiber de-lamination, fiber pull out, short tool life, matrix de-bonding and formation of powder like chips. The present investigation focuses on the effect of process parameters for surface roughness of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite pipes. Experiments were conducted based on the high speed turning centre (CNC) using poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) tool. The process parameters considered were cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, and work piece type (E-Glass mat and E-Glass woven specimen). Both pipes are fabricated using the filament winding process. The pipe consists of 70 percent epoxy polyester resin and 30 percent glass fiber. A comparative study has been undergone between the E-Glass woven and E-Glass mat fiber reinforced composite material. The mechanical properties were also conducted as per ASTM standards. Based on the results, it was observed that good machinability was obtained at lower cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut for mat fiber reinforced GFRP pipe and at high cutting speed, lower feed rate, depth of cut for mat fiber reinforced GFRP pipe.

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of process parameters in surface roughness during turning of GFRP pipes using PCD insert tool"

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Procedía Engineering 97 (2014) 64-71

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

12th GLOBAL CONGRESS ON MANUFACTURING AND MANAGEMENT, GCMM 2014

Effect of process parameters in surface roughness during turning of GFRP pipes using PCD insert tool

S.Sivasankarana*, P.T.Harisagarb, E.Saminathanb, S. Siddharthb, P.Sasikumarb

aSchool of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, HAWASSA University, HAWASSA, Ethiopia bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Arasur, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu - 641 407

Abstract

Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite pipes are finding its increased applications in variety of engineering applications such as water softening plants, desalination plants, paper mill industry, marine water treatments. However, the users of FRP are facing difficulties to machine it, because of fiber de-lamination, fiber pull out, short tool life, matrix de-bonding and formation of powder like chips. The present investigation focuses on the effect of process parameters for surface roughness of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite pipes. Experiments were conducted based on the high speed turning centre (CNC) using poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) tool. The process parameters considered were cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, and work piece type (E-Glass mat and E-Glass woven specimen). Both pipes are fabricated using the filament winding process. The pipe consists of 70 percent epoxy polyester resin and 30 percent glass fiber. A comparative study has been undergone between the E-Glass woven and E-Glass mat fiber reinforced composite material. The mechanical properties were also conducted as per ASTM standards. Based on the results, it was observed that good machinability was obtained at lower cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut for mat fiber reinforced GFRP pipe and at high cutting speed, lower feed rate, depth of cut for mat fiber reinforced GFRP pipe.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibility oftheOrganizing CommitteeofGCMM2014 Keywords: E-Glass mat pipe, E-Glass woven pipe, CNC turning, surface roughness.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +251941367525; E-mail address:sivasankarangs1979@gmail.com

1877-7058 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GCMM 2014 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.225

1.0 Introduction

Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) are increasingly being used for varieties of engineering applications because of their superior advantage over other engineering materials. The advantages include high strength to weight ratio, high fracture toughness and excellent corrosion and thermal resistance [1,2]. The tailarability of composites for specific applications has been one of their greater advantages and also one of the more perplexing challenges to adopting them as alternative to conventional materials [3]. As the application fields of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) expand the opportunity of machining such as cutting off, drilling, milling, turning, etc. has increased for its fabrication [4-6]. The machining of FRP is different from that of metal working in many respects, because the metal behavior is not only inhomogeneous, but also dependent on fiber and matrix properties, fiber orientation and the type of weave. In this work, two types of GFRP are fabricated, E-glass mat pipe and E-glass woven pipe. The mechanical properties in terms of tensile and flexural strengths, E-glass mat and E-glass woven plates were also manufactured in plate forms and investigated. The surface roughness was measured by changing the parameters like feed rate, depth of cut and cutting speed during turning of GFRP pipes.

2.0 Experimental procedure

2.1 Fabrication of GFRP plate specimens

To carry out the mechanical property investigations, GFRP composite plates were manufactured by hand-lay-up technique. The specimen is to be cut into ASTM 2990-01 standard with length, breadth and height as 127*12.5*6.5mm respectively. Fig 1 shows the specimen as a model in isometric view. Test Method is selected based on D790 standard as the flexural properties of unreinforced, reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials are under this category. Hence it was decided to fabricate a plate of thickness 6.5mm which length and breadth are 150*120mm.

Fig 1.ASTM standard specimen

During hand-lay-up process (Fig.2), first, in order to fasten the process, epoxy polyester resin is mixed with hardener HY951 and an accelerator (cobalt octate). The ratio of mixing the epoxy hand hardener is 10:1 and the accelerator is added drop-wise. The releasing agent called PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) was coated over the marked area, and then the fiber is placed over the releasing agent. The resin is spread over the fiber uniformly using a brush over the entire area. The resin is applied on each layer of the fiber such that the measured amount of fiber and resin should be fully used for the fabrication process. When the fiber is completely mixed with resin on every layer, a sheet metal is placed over it and a load is kept on it with a C-clamp holding it rigidly. After 10 hours of drying the load is taken off and unwanted fibers with have not bonded is being removed and the plate is cut to the required dimension.

2.2 Fabrication of GFRP pipe

The pipe specimen was fabricated by filament winding process. The dimensions of GFRP pipes are: inner diameter of 30mm, outer diameter 60mm and length is 200mm. A Galvanized iron pipe of 30mm was chosen as a mandrel. The E-Glass mat fibre was cut with the breadth of 200mm with infinite length as shown in Fig.3. Fiber was coated with the resin which is prepared as a measured quantity. Then the pipe was rolled along with the fiber from

one end to other end. When the fiber was rolled with fiber, the rolled pipe is covered with the plastic sheet then rolled over surface with high pressure to overcome the pipe defects like blow holes etc... The fiber was rolled completely again and again to attain the enough outer diameters. For winding of each fiber there must be interval of 60 minutes. During the 60 minutes the pipe was remain undisturbed and the resin will react with the fiber to attain a good strength. When the desired thickness was obtained, the fibre winding was stopped and checked for required length. The GI pipe was removed from the winding. Then the excess material was removed by using the ceramic cutter. The final E-Glass mat pipe was shown in Fig 3(a). The same procedure was repeated for the E-glass woven pipe. The final E-Glass woven pipe is shown in Fig 3(b).

Fig.2 (a) Initiation of the process; (b) Specimen under cutting; (c) E-glass mat plate specimen.

2.3 Testing the tensile and flexural strength.

The mechanical properties in terms of tensile and flexural strength were evaluated using Universal Testing Machine and three point bending test method respectively. The materials were tested based on the standard of as per ASTM 2990 and test method was chosen as D790. The tensile test was done (as shown in Fig. 4.(a)) as three trials with two different GFRP specimens and averaged for investigation. The flexural test was carried out with cross head movement of 1 mm per minute. Two samples were taken from each composition and the mean values were used for investigation. The schematic of three point bending test is shown in Fig 4(b).

Fig 3 (a) E-glass mat pipe; (b) E-glass woven pipe.

Fig. 4 (a) Tensile test; (b) Flexural test

2.3. Turning process

The cutting experiments were carried out on LMW Smart Jr CNC Turning centre using Poly Crystalline Diamond insert. The turning centre was shown in Fig 5(a). Each specimen was cut into smaller pieces for machining purpose. The specimens were turned separately. The cutting speed was selected between ranges of 125 mm/min to 200 mm/min, feed rate range between the range of 0.075 mm/rev and 0.15mm/rev and depth of cut between a range of 0.5mm and 1.0mm. The turning process was conducted on all two types of pipes which were fabricated as shown in Fig 5(b). Two types of combinations of feed rate and depth of cut was chosen in order to measure the surface roughness of the turned product.

Fig 5 (a) LMW Smart Jr CNC centre; (b) Turning of the fabricated pipe

2.4 Measurement of surface roughness

Handy surf surface roughness measuring device of E-DT5706 was used. It consists of a probe surface roughness calculating device connected to it. It has 4mN of measuring force or less. It has 5p,mR Diamond, 90° cone measuring probe. The setup is represented in Fig. 6. Each sample was turned and the surface roughness test was carried out on each turned surface.

Fig. 6 Handysurf surface roughness measuring device

3. Results and dicussions

3.1 Examination of tensile and flexural.

The mechanical properties (Table 1) of E-glass mat reinforced material and E-glass woven reinforced material are examined in terms of tensile and flexural strength on the basis ASTM 2990 standard. From Fig 7(a) it is observed that the tensile strength of the E-glass mat reinforced material has lower tensile strength than the E-glass woven reinforced material. It is due to the nature of packing of the glass fiber. Further, the observed tensile strength of glass woven reinforced material was 54% higher than glass mat reinforced material.

Table 1. Mechanical properties of E-glass mat and woven GFRP composte

Sl.No Material Tensile Strength, Mpa Flexural Strength, Mpa

1 E-glass mat 215.86 298.7

2 E-glass woven 332.11 411.44

The flexural test of the GFRP specimens is done as 3 point bend test. From Fig 7 (b) and Table1, it is observed that the flexural strength of the E-glass mat reinforced material had lower flexural strength than the E-glass woven reinforced material. It was also due to the nature of packing of the glass fiber. Further, the flexural strength of glass woven reinforced material has 38% higher than glass mat reinforced material.

Type of material Type of material

Fig. 7 (a)Variation of tensile strength; (b)Variation of flexural Strength.

3.2 Examination of surface roughness during turning

The plan of experiment was developed for assessing the influence of cutting speed, feed rate and axial depth of cut on the surface roughness of the GFRP pipes. The variation of surface roughness with the cutting speed, the feed rate and depth of cut while turning of E-glass mat reinforced composite material and E-glass woven reinforced composite material using PCD tool is shown in Table 2 and Fig. 8 (a)&(b). From Fig. 8 (a) & (b), it was observed that when cutting speed was increased there was decrease in surface roughness. Considering the E-glass mat reinforced composite material, at a depth of cut of 0.5mm and feed rate 0.075mm/rev, the surface roughness value was at minimum range and there was small significant change in the surface roughness. However these values decreases significantly when the cutting speed was increased for E-Glass mat fiber reinforced composite material. Further increasing the feed rate to 0.15mm/rev and depth of cut0.5mm to 1.0mm the surface roughness values increased as predicted, at the same time these values did not change significantly when the cutting speed was increased. The surface roughness for both glass mat and woven turned specimens are shown in table below. The variation of surface roughness with the cutting speed, the feed rate and depth of cut while turning of E-glass wove n reinforced composite material and E-glass woven reinforced composite material using PCD tool is shown in Table 2 and Fig. 8 (a)&(b). From Fig. 8 (a) & (b), it was observed that when cutting speed was increased there was increase in surface roughness. Considering the E-glass woven reinforced composite material, at a depth of cut of 0.5mm and feed rate 0.075mm/rev, the surface roughness value was at minimum range and there was small significant change in the surface roughness. However these values increases significantly when the cutting speed was increased for E-Glass woven fiber reinforced composite material. Further increasing the feed rate to 0.15mm/rev and depth of cut0.5mm to 1.0mm the surface roughness values increased as predicted, at the same time these values did not change significantly when the cutting speed was increased.

Table 2: Variation of surface roughness during turning

Feed (mm/rev)

Depth of cut (mm)

Cutting speed (m/min)

Avg. Surface roughness, Ra (^M)

E-glass mat specimen

E-glass woven specimen

125 3.04 3.869

0.075 0.5 150 3.49 3.55

175 3.55 3.26

200 3.608 3.18

125 150

4.09 4.14

5.25 4.915

Fig 8.Variation of surface roughness against cutting speed during turning of GFRP pies: (a)Feed rate of 0.075 mm/re and depth of cut of 0.5 mm, (b) Feed rate of 0.15 mm/re and depth of cut of 1 mm

4. Conclusion

The following conclusions were derived from the turning of E-glass mat reinforced composite material and E-glass woven reinforced composite material using PCD (poly crystalline diamond) insert tool.

❖ The tensile and flexural strength of the E-glass woven reinforced composite material was higher than the E-glass mat reinforced composite material.

❖ During turning, as the cutting speed increased there was small decrease in the surface roughness E-glass mat reinforced composite material.

❖ During turning, as the cutting speed increased there was small increase in the surface roughness E-glass woven reinforced composite material.

♦♦♦ The surface roughness of the material was majorly dependent on the feed rate and depth of cut. When the feed rate and depth of cut increased the surface roughness increased for the GFRP composite material

♦♦♦ The optimum feed rate and depth of cut was observed as 0.075mm/rev and 0.5mm with high cutting speed has the surface roughness values were minimum for E-glass mat reinforced composite material.

♦♦♦ . The optimum feed rate and depth of cut was observed as 0.075mm/rev and 0.5mm with low cutting speed has the surface roughness values were minimum for E-glass woven reinforced composite material.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Management of KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, INDIA, for providing research facilities for the present work.

References

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