Scholarly article on topic 'Does the Status of a UNESCO World Heritage City Make a Destination More Attractive to Mainland Chinese Tourists? A Preliminary Study of Melaka'

Does the Status of a UNESCO World Heritage City Make a Destination More Attractive to Mainland Chinese Tourists? A Preliminary Study of Melaka Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Mainland Chinese outbound tourism" / Melaka / "UNESCO World Heritage" / "Heritage Tourism"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Lisa Yong Yeu Moy, Charuwan Phongpanichanan

Abstract The statistics projection by the China Academic (CTA), the number of outbound tourists from China is in the range from 2015:75-80 million, and 2020: 100-110 million. It is projected that China will become the world's fourth largest outbound market by 2020. In 2009, in less than a year after the inscribed of UNESCO World Heritage city in Melaka, the number of Chinese outbound tourists hit 47.66 million (4% increase versus 2008) which was nine fold increase from 1995 with only 5 million traveled abroad. (Boyd, 2011). To narrow it down, out of the 47.66 million, 66.70% was for the Asia region (Chinese Outbound Tourism Express 2010); whereas in Malaysia, the tourist arrival by country, the statistics shows that China stands at the third most tourist arrivals to Malaysia. (Tourism Malaysia with the cooperation of Immigration Department). From January to September 2013 tourist arrivals from China to Malaysia versus 2012 was 1,118,692 visitors to 1,229,477 visitors, respectively, or a 22.6% increase. According to the projection by Tourism Malaysia 2014, Malaysia is expecting over 2 million China tourists to Malaysia. Is the state of Melaka ready to receive China tourists? What are the expectations of the Chinese tourists for Melaka? This article examines the relationship between the ever-growing importance of Chinese outbound tourism and the opportunities provided for the city of Melaka, Malaysia, with particular importance being placed on the UNESCO World Heritage status of Melaka and the opinions of working class Chinese tourists.

Academic research paper on topic "Does the Status of a UNESCO World Heritage City Make a Destination More Attractive to Mainland Chinese Tourists? A Preliminary Study of Melaka"

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 144 (2014) 280 - 289

5th Asia Euro Conference 2014

Does the status of a UNESCO World Heritage City make a destination more attractive to Mainland Chinese tourists? A preliminary study of Melaka

Lisa Yong Yeu Moya*, Charuwan Phongpanichanana

aSchool of Hospitality, Tourism and Culinary Arts, Taylor's University, No.1, Jalan Taylor's, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract

The statistics projection by the China Academic (CTA), the number of outbound tourists from China is in the range from 2015:75-80 million, and 2020: 100-110 million. It is projected that China will become the world's fourth largest outbound market by 2020. In 2009, in less than a year after the inscribed of UNESCO World Heritage city in Melaka, the number of Chinese outbound tourists hit 47.66 million (4% increase versus 2008) which was nine fold increase from 1995 with only 5 million traveled abroad. (Boyd, 2011). To narrow it down, out of the 47.66 million, 66.70% was for the Asia region (Chinese Outbound Tourism Express 2010); whereas in Malaysia, the tourist arrival by country, the statistics shows that China stands at the third most tourist arrivals to Malaysia. (Tourism Malaysia with the cooperation of Immigration Department). From January to September 2013 tourist arrivals from China to Malaysia versus 2012 was 1,118,692 visitors to 1,229,477 visitors, respectively, or a 22.6% increase. According to the projection by Tourism Malaysia 2014, Malaysia is expecting over 2 million China tourists to Malaysia. Is the state of Melaka ready to receive China tourists? What are the expectations of the Chinese tourists for Melaka? This article examines the relationship between the ever-growing importance of Chinese outbound tourism and the opportunities provided for the city of Melaka, Malaysia, with particular importance being placed on the UNESCO World Heritage status of Melaka and the opinions of working class Chinese tourists.

© 2014 ElsevierLtd. Thisisanopenaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of 5AEC2014.

Keywords: Mainland Chinese outbound tourism; Melaka; UNESCO World Heritage; Heritage Tourism

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +603-5629-5436; fax: +603-5629-5522. E-mail address: Lisa.Yong@taylors.edu.my

1877-0428 © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of 5AEC2014.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.297

1. Introduction

According to the China Tourism Academic (CTA), the number of outbound tourists from China should be in the following range over the next 10 years, the number of tourist has been increasing from 2010 with 53-54 million, expecting in 2015 with 75-80 million and 2020 with 100-110 million tourist. From the statistics, China is anticipated to become the world's fourth largest outbound market in 2020. Similarly in the projections by Zhang and Lew (2003) that the mainland Chinese tourists could become the fourth world tourist country by 2020 with a market share of 6.2%. Likewise the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) reported that by 2020, China tourists will reach 100 million, making to the fourth largest source of outbound travel in the world. China being a country rich in cultural heritage of over 5000 years, versus Melaka being only 500 years of history, will the Chinese tourists choose to visit Melaka after the inscribed status as the UNESCO World Heritage city? What would be the understanding of the Chinese tourists toward UNESCO World Heritage status and their interest in Melaka?

The article examines the relationship between the ever-growing importance of Chinese outbound tourism and the opportunity provided for the city of Melaka, Malaysia. It is with particular importance being placed at the UNESCO World Heritage status of Melaka and the opinions of working class Chinese nationals towards visiting a UNESCO World Heritage city of Melaka.

2. Literature Review

2.1. The Rise of China Outbound Tourism Industry

The rise of China outbound tourism industry begun in the early 1980's, the Chinese outbound tourism started allowing the Guangdong province residents to travel in organization group tours to Hong Kong and Macao for family visits, under the condition that their relatives could cover for all the travelling expenses. This policy eventually were lifted off, travelers were allowed to pay on their own expenses incurred. Later in 1988, Thailand joined in to enjoy the privileges to receive Chinese travelers, followed by Malaysia and Singapore in 1990, and Philippines in 1992. (Cai, L. A., Boger, C., & OLeary, J,1999)

By the year 2013, it has sprung up to 116 countries. The strong support by the Chinese government in the outbound tourism industry is clearly identified from the inclusion of the outbound tourism industry in the "Chinese National Development Strategy Framework 2013-2020". The National Development Strategy outlines the National Tourism and Leisure (2013-2020), issued by the State Council of China, and sets the ground for a new phase of tourism development and management in China. The outlines focus on promoting the taking of paid annual leave days and boosting the healthy development of the tourism sector in China. The following literature reviews reported the importance of Chinese outbound tourism to the respective countries. Strizzi (2001), a Canadian concluded China will become one of the world's largest international tourists if China continues to grow in wealth, and per capita income continues to rise, and the government continues to loosen the travel policies. Jeannerat (2002), a Swiss analyses China's outbound market taking consideration of its segments, characteristics of Chinese tourist, environment, structure, its purchasing power, and its competition concludes that China is a growing potential for the Swiss inbound tourism industry. Becken (2003) a New Zealand study that identified three segments education, business travel, and conference tourism. The studies find that the New Zealand sees a greater opportunity in attracting FIT travelers than in developing resource-intensive and low-yield group tourism. Verhelst (2003) from Belgium analyzed the push factors in China and the pull factors in destination markets.

Push factors are the increasing number of well-off middle class and loosen of the travel restrictions. Pull factors, on the other hands, have different effect in different destinations. For example, France offers historic sites; Australia offers different history, culture and natural scenery; and Korea offers celebrities. The study concludes that outbound tourism to Europe and the US is also increasing. Australia's Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources (2005) foresees to receive 1,202,300, accounting for 12.9 percent of the total arrivals of Chinese visitors in 2014, and estimates to rank second among the top 10 countries of visitor origin. In 2005 - 2009, the number of Chinese outbound tourists increased from 31 million to 47.7 million, which is an increase of 16.7 million or +53.9%.

Table 1. ADS Agreement by Year

Recipient

Cumulative total with ADS

1983 1988 1990 1992

2000 2002

Hong Kong, Macau Thailand

Malaysia, Singapore Philippines South Korea Australia, New Zealand

Brunei, Cambodia, Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam Egypt, Indonesia, Malta, Nepal, Turkey

Croatia, Cuba, Germany, Hungary, India, Maldives, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Seychelles, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Fiji, Jamaica, Lao PDR, Mexico, Northern Mariana Island, Peru, Russia, United Kingdom, Vanuatu

6 7 9 14 19 28

2010 2011 2012

Bahamas, Grenada, Mongolia, Tonga

Andorra, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Uganda, Morocco, Monaco, Namibia, Venezuela, Oman, Syria

French Polynesia, Israel, Taiwan, United States

Cape Verde, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Guyana,Mali, Montenegro, Papua New Guinea, United Arab Emirates

Canada, Lebanon, Federated States of Micronesia, North Korea, Uzbekistan, Serbia

Madagascar, Columbia Source:

CNTA: http://www.cnta.gov.cn/html/2009-5/2009-5-13-10-53-54953.html

80 91 95 104

110 111 113

By 2011, a total of 70.25 million Chinese visited other countries or regions, making it the biggest source of outbound tourists in Asia, state run Xinhua quoted. The recent 2013 report from the China Tourism Academy (CTA) indicated that in the first three quarters of 2013, the number of outbound trips made in the first nine months than in the whole of 2011, with an increase of 18%, or 72.5 million, and no signs of slowing down.

2.2. Melaka since the UNESCO World Heritage City Status

On 7 July 2008 Melaka was declared a World Heritage City, Following the UNESCO's recognition; Melaka's tourism therefore plays an instrumental role, not only in safeguarding heritage, but also in increasing international visitor numbers. Ideally, Melaka promotes the city as a heritage destination due to its UNESCO World Heritage status. As Butler, Khoo-Lattimore & Mura puts it, "Heritage tourism may be a powerful key to promote Malaysia, its people and the collective identity to international markets". (Butler, Khoo-Lattimore & Mura, 2012). Ever since then, Melaka has been attracting an increasing number of international tourists (China Daily, 2014). The report from Malaysia Tourist Arrivals 2013 clearly reflects the increase of tourists, from 22.05 million tourists in 2008 to 25.05 million tourists in 2012 (Malaysia tourist arrivals 2013).

Table 2. Tourist Arrivals & Receipts to Malaysia

Year Arrivals (Million) Receipts (Billion RM)

2012 25.03 60.6

2011 24.71 58.3

2010 24.58 56.5

2009 23.65 53.4

2008 22.05 49.6

2007 20.97 46.1

2006 17.55 36.3

2005 16.43 32.0

2004 15.70 29.7

2003 10.58 21.3

2002 13.29 25.8

2001 12.78 24.2

2000 10.22 17.3

1999 7.93 12.3

1998 5.56 8.6

Source: Malaysia Tourist Arrival 2013

2.3. The Chinese Tourist to Melaka

Table below illustrates the composition of Chinese outbound travel to foreign countries by region (2008- 2009). In 2009, despite the influenza H1N1 scare, the number of Chinese outbound tourists hit steadily to 47.66 million (4% increase versus 2008), which was nine-fold increase from 1995 with only 5 million travelled abroad (Boyd, 2011). Figure 1 shows the concentration of 66.70% of the Chinese tourists visit the Asia regions since 2009, which was less than a year after Melaka was declared the UNESCO World Heritage status. How big was the market share of Melaka in the Asia region in the composition? China currently provides the third most tourist arrivals to Malaysia by country. The January to September 2013 tourist arrivals figures (from China to Malaysia) shows a 22.6% increase for 2013 as compared to 2012, 1,118,692 visitors to 1,449,477 visitors, and Tourism Malaysia expects over 2 million total mainland Chinese tourists in 2014 (Tourism Malaysia, 2013).

Fig 1. Composition of Chinese outbound travel to foreign countries by region (2008-2009)

According to the report by the Melaka State Tourism Department, from January to April 2011, Malacca received 3.62 million tourists visiting the state. On the other hand, for the same corresponding period in 2012, there has been an increase of 481,217 visitors. Foreign tourists saw a sharp increase of 37.3 percent or 321,441 tourists. The report also indicated that the top five foreign tourists were China with 222,999 tourists.

Table 3. Malaysia Tourist Arrivals By Country Of Nationality September 2013

No Country of Nationality September January-September

2012 2013 Growth% 2012 2013 Growth%

1 Singapore 1,021,447 1,081,175 5.8 9,257,587 9,474,081 2.3

2 fef Indonesia 196,293 214,498 9.3 1,7,11,086 1,861,891 8.8

3 China 108,314 147,307 36.0 1,182,692 1,449,477 22.6

(Source: Tourism Malaysia with the Cooperation of Immigration Department)

2.4. The Trend of the Chinese Tourists

The above tables illustrate the importance of Chinese tourists to Malaysia, especially for Melaka, with UNESCO World Heritage status, Melaka cannot afford to miss out this market. Melaka needs to capitalize on every Chinese tourist who visits Malaysia, especially to the young Chinese tourists. What would be the China outbound tourists' preferences like in terms of choosing destinations? Maria Boyd puts it: Chinese outbound tourists are becoming more discerning and sophisticated and therefore it influences their preferences towards more individualized and customized travel experiences, a greater variety of products and flexibility in terms of catering needs. (Boyd, 2011) The literature reviews in the past studied about the characteristics of the China tourists in consumer and destination approach in research and is illustrated in the following discussions:

Zhang & Lam (1999) identified six push and pull factors of Chinese visitor motivations to visit Hong Kong, they are "knowledge", "prestige" and "enhancement of human relationship"; whereas the most important pull factors is "high-tech image", "expenditure" and "accessibility". Cai, Boger & O'Leary (1999) illustrated the demographic and socio-economic characteristics and trip-related attributes of outbound Chinese travelers to Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand and concluded that the average Chinese travelers to Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand appeared to be middle-aged, married, male, living in a three-four member family, highly educated, and holding managerial positions in state enterprises or foreign joint-venture businesses or foreign joint-venture business. Mok & DeFranco (1999) examines the values of dominant Chinese cultural values that influence the behaviour of Chinese travellers. The six cultural values are: "respect for authority", "inter-dependence", "group orientation", "face", "harmony", and "external attribution". The study suggests that understanding the cultural values and how they shape preferences and expectations is the first step of any business that wants a share of the Chinese market. Pan & Laws (2001) interviewed the travel agencies dealing with the Chinese outbound tourism market. The authors identified the characteristics of Chinese tour package in Australia as being all-inclusive in nature, and problems incurred in tour package arrangements. Ryan & Mo (2001) assessed the values of Chinese visitors to New Zealand as a destination. The study identifies five clusters of Chinese visitors to New Zealand, the five clusters of visitors are: Sightseers in 28 new places; Investment seekers; Package holidaymakers; Low scorers; and New Zealand enthusiasts. Jang, Yu & Pearson (2003) examined the socio-demographic, trip-related characteristics and travel behaviours of Chinese tourists to the US, comparing business travels and visiting friends and relatives. The study finds that the business travellers are higher spender than those visiting friends and relatives and staying in lodging facilities. The Chinese business travellers and the casual visitors rely on travel agencies, airlines and word of mouth for travelling information. Tse (2003) identified the spending pattern of mainland Chinese visitors to Hong Kong in the 10 years from 1992 to 2001. The analysis covered the history of growth, administrative regulations, demographics, geographic sub-markets; purpose of visit, duration of stay, travel companions, seasonality and spending patterns. The author concludes that visitors from mainland China are becoming younger, better educated and of higher social status. As such, it is assume that they have higher disposable incomes and they value travel more. (9th Annual Conference Asia Pacific Tourism Association, 2003) Maria Boyd identified the FIT travellers and in their mid-thirties to mid- forties. The study also indicated that they are internet savvy and use social networking sites to decide

on a destination. It further noted that the FITs represent 50 percent of outbound travellers from Shanghai in 2010 (from over 46% in 2009). Recently, religion and culture travel has increased with the more relaxed of the Chinese state control on religious matters. As a result, The UNESCO World Heritage sites are of great interest, such as Nepal or Bodh Gaya in India. (Boyd, 2011)

3. Methodology

The methodological approach used in this study is qualitative research. The data analysis was collected from the online forum (web message boards) in China called, "BaiduTieba" website. This is typically similar to Google search engine and other portal features. Due to the enormous geographical size of China, electronic data collection method is nothing unusual when comes to conducting surveys. It also allows the Chinese community to communicate and exchange their opinions electronically. According to the Computer Industry Almanac, the internet users globally in 2005 states that 36 percentages of users are native English speaking and 64 percent are not. The questionnaire was designed in both English and Mandarin for the respondent to understand the questions well. The questionnaire was designed for open-ended text responses. Electronic data collection method proved advantages as it allows participants to take their time to provide thoughtful responses and fully anonymous. According to Anderson & Kanuka, 1997; Hsiung, 2000) the asynchronous online forums have been reported to be observable, relatively easy to use, safe and accessible.

4. Analysis & Findings

4.1. Analysis

The sample size for the study was 42 respondents. The survey questionnaire is combined into two sections which are the tourists' demographics and tourist behavior characteristics to explain the differences in tourist's attributes and what attracts mainland Chinese tourists to travel to Melaka. Tourist's demographic characteristics include age, gender and profession. Tourist behavior characteristics is also included such as domestic travelling (China) experience, international travelling experience, travelling experience in Melaka, the selection basic when travelling, must-see and must-do activities, budget spending, visit to appreciate heritage site, knowledge of UNESCO World Heritage site, importance of UNESCO World Heritage site, visit UNESCO World Heritage is an obligation on the holiday, preferred accommodation type, preferred dining type, visitor expectation to Melaka and the impact on visiting UNESCO World Heritage sites. According to 2010 Cultural Heritage Traveler, the number of overseas visitors who visited the cultural heritage sites has increased to 14%. The Mainland Chinese is listed in top 12 countries. They recorded an increase from 2.7% in 2010 comparing to 2.4% in 2009.

4.1.1 Demographic Characteristics of the respondents

Table 4. Demographic Characteristics of the respondents (N=42)

Age Under 21, 2.4%; 21-30, 35.7%; 31-40, 23.8% ■i>; 41-50,

28.6%; 51- 50, 9.5%

Gender Male, 0%; Female, 100%

Profession Administrator, 11.9%; Student, 4.8%; Accountant 9.5%;

Sales, 2.4%; Doctor, 7.1%; Martial Arts Instructor, 2.4%, Service Industry, 2.4%; Civil Servant, 2.4%; Freelancer, 2.4%; Self-employed, 2.4%; Purchasing, 2.4%; Purchasing, 2.4%; Housewife, 2.4%; International Trade, 2.4%; Real estate manager, 2.4%; Unemployed,2.4%; Teacher,2.4%; Non-Management Staff,2.4%; Corporate Staff,2.4%; Customer Service,2.4%; N/A,12%_

The gender distribution is 100% female respondents. The dominant age group of the respondents was 21 to 30 years (35.7%), followed by 41 to 50 years (28.6%), 31 to 40 years (23.8%), 51 to 60 years (9.5%) and age under 21 years made up the smallest group which is 2.4%. The result shows that respondents who do not indicate for a specific profession was 28.6%, 11.9% of respondents works as administrator while 2.4% is combined with many profession such as doctors, service industry, teacher, etc.

4.1.2 Tourist Behaviour Characteristics

In this part, the tourist behaviour characteristics of the respondents are shown in table 5. Based on the tourist behaviour characteristics table above, respondents who travel more than three times was around 12% (classified as experience travellers) and the respondents did not have previous experience travelling was less than 10%. While slightly less than 50% of the respondents have been travelling outside China and 26% never travel outside the country. About 2% of the respondents visited Melaka. The percentage of who never visit Melaka or planning to visit was quite close with 38.10% and 40.48% respectively. With the basic selection when travelling, there were more than 50%. The must-see/do activities, sightseeing and cultural/history count for a percentage of around 26%. All respondents admitted that they will not spend more than RMB10K. 64% of the respondents who visited Melaka stated that their sole purpose being there was for heritage appreciation. 7.14% disagree with such kind of visit and 9% stated that such visit has no interest in their travel plan.

In the category of knowledge on UNESCO World Heritage sites, 45% did not know or understand about UNESCO World Heritage sites. Multi-knowledge on UNESCO World Heritage sites account for a mere 2%. These sites include ancient heritage sites, historical or lost in the culture, traces of historical background et cetera. Only 14% did not understand the importance of UNESCO. Respondents who understood the importance of UNESCO World Heritage sites, scored a remarkable 62%. With regard to visit UNESCO World Heritage is an obligation on the holiday the result was 36% and not necessary at 40%. In relation to accommodation type, home stay at 29%, cultural stay 24%, luxury hotel 7%, budget hotel 2%. In their preference of dining, the respondents that preferred local food was 76% and Chinese food was not more than 5%. Their expectations in the following area were scenery 20%, cultural and custom versus food percentage was even at 18% while to understand Melaka (racial harmony) was only 2%. The positive and negative impact on visiting the UNESCO World Heritage site; there were 29% on safety and multi-opinion in political stability, artificial features at sites, hospitality, no expectation at 5% and ease of entry VISA counts for 2%.

4.2. Findings

Respondents were also questioned whether the UNESCO World Heritage City is attractive to Mainland China travellers. Within the sample, 42 respondents did not have knowledge about world heritage city function which counts for 45%. All respondents were women. Almost half of the respondents had previous experience travelling abroad. However, there was little number who had visited Melaka (2%). The respondents understood the importance of UNESCO World Heritage sites.

However, the interesting finding was that when respondent were asked whether they will include UNESCO World Heritage site in their itinerary. The number showed that 36% agree to make it compulsory and 40% did not agree on this. This finding shows that the tourism planners in Melaka (and including Malaysia Tourism Promotion department) may need to improve and create key promotion strategy to market to Chinese tourist. In addition, tourism planners should develop special events, improve service level, or products that can make the destinations to attract repeat tourists and potential visitors to heritage site. The survey showed that more than half of respondents chose sightseeing as the basic when travelling (57%). The respondents were asked questions about must-see/do activities, sightseeing and cultural/history were both at around 26%. They would engage in range of different activities where possible. Based on the research findings, all of respondents will spend not more than RM 10K on their travelling.

Table 5. Tourist Behavior Characteristics (N=42)

Domestic Travelling (China) Experience

None, 9.52%; Once, 9.52%; Twice, 9.52%; More than 3 times, 11.90%; N/A, 59.52%

International Travelling Experience Travelling experience in Melaka Basic selection when travelling

Must-see/do activities

Budget spending under RMB10K Visit to appreciate heritage site

Knowledge of UNESCO World Heritage site

Importance of UNESCO World Heritage site

Visit UNESCO World Heritage is an obligation on the holiday Preferred accommodation type

Preferred dining type Visitor expectation to Melaka

Yes, 45.24%; No, 26.19%, Planning, 11.90%, N/A, 16.67% Yes, 2.38%; No, 38.10%; Planning,40.48%; N/A,19.05% Sightseeing,57.14%; Flight,2.38%, Itinerary,19.05%, Accommodation,11.90%; Dining,4.76%;Friend's Referral, 2.38%; Social Custom; 2.38%

Sightseeing,25.74%; Shopping,6.93%; Dining,20.79%; Cultural/History,25.74%; Sports,2.97%; Leisure,16.83%; Safety,0.99% Under RMB10K,100%

Yes,64.29%; No,7.14%; Not necessary,9.52%; N/A,19.05% Ancient Heritage Sites,2.38%; Don't know,45.24%; Preserved Strong History,2.38%; Contributed to the history,4.76%; Little knowledge,2.38%, N/A,26.19%; Historical or lost in the culture,2.38%; Characteristic historical sites,2.38%; Traces of historical background,2.38%; Historical cultural natural living, 2.38%; Other World Heritage (Pyramid, Great Wall), 2.38%; Unique, traditional influence, 2.38%; Must meet UNESCO requirement, 2.38% Yes,61.90%; No,14.29%; N/A,23.81%

Yes,35.71%; No,40.48%; N/A,23.81%

Home stay,28.57%; Cultural stay,23.81%; Star Hotel,7.14%; Budget, 2.38%; N/A, 38.10 Local,76.19%; Chinese,4.76%; N/A,19.05% Transportation,4.44%; Leisure,11.11%;Scenery,20%;Cultural & Custom,17.78%; Safety,11.11%; Minimal shopping,4.44%; Food,17.78%; Location,2.22%; Interest,2.22%; Hospitality & Service to Chinese,6.67%; To understand Melaka (racial harmony),2.22%

Positive or negative impact on visiting the UNESCO World Heritage site

Safety,28.54%; High expenses,4.76%; Political stability,4.76%; Discriminate to Chinese,9.52%; Artificial features at sites,4.76%; Unique site,2.38%; Visa ease, 2.38%; Transportation,4.76%; Hospitality,4.76%; No expectation,4.76%, Time,2.38%; Popularity,2.38%; Bad attitude/Scam,2.38%; N/A,21.43%

In this research, one aspect is the belief of UNESCO World Heritage status is important to heritage sites. Majority of the respondents acknowledged the importance of heritage site. This survey has shown that the positive belief on recreation experience and supported by the example below:

The reason that I believe for visiting heritage sites because I am interested in history and cultural of the place I visit. I visit the place to observe, learn, appreciate the physical nature of the site and its historical background. It is a world heritage site which is famous so I had to see once in my life. I also can share my experience with my family and friends once I return home.

The next two criterions of respondents included the "expectation when visiting Melaka" and "positive and negative impact" on visiting the UNESCO World Heritage site. These two results showed multi-answers from respondents. Firstly, the majority expectation was scenery, cultural, custom and food. The rest was combined in a

small percentage such as safety, hospitality service to Chinese tourist and to understand Melaka (racial harmony). However, in racial harmony comment has shown fears and safety which reflect on how negative publicity. This creates doubt and disturbs the mind of prospective traveller. It is also shown a lack of information provided to future traveller. Secondly, "positive and negative impact" on visiting UNESCO Heritage Site, the results has shown the negative impact such as safety, discrimination to Chinese, artificial features of sites, hospitality and service to Chinese, transportation, visa ease, etc. This is one example of negative impact on visiting UNESCO Heritage site:

Chinese tourists also have expectations when travel...we desire genuine respect and hospitality service. Few of my friends said that when we travel abroad, foreigners are not respect us. We do not want discrimination and we spend lots of money.

Another example from respondent who mentioned about safety concerns: My most concern when I travel is safety; I must ensure that the place I visit must be safe and secure while I away from home such as no political issues, racial harmony and the place I visit should provide written information and message in safety in Chinese, it would be nice if have Chinese speaking staff.

From findings, the respondents are interested to experience different historical and cultural resources such as in Melaka. They belief and realize the importance of the UNESCO World Heritage site, however respondents has lack of knowledge in cultural attractions and information prior to their journey. To increase the number of visitors to Melaka, Malaysia Tourism Board should promote such as road show, media advertisement and provide early information which will help Chinese Mainland tourists to appreciate their travel better.

5. Conclusion

The opportunities provided for the state of Melaka being the UNESCO World Heritage city to attract the Chinese tourists are plentiful. Firstly, for the sites, the accommodations could focus on improving on home stay; for dining, focuses on local food, and the scenery of Melaka, to preserve the buildings to maintain its' genuine. Secondly, for advertisements and promotions, create awareness among the Chinese tourists about UNESCO World Heritage as well as to promote more about Melaka and its uniqueness in cultural history, specifically on the cultural heritage such as the Baba Nyonya heritage, and to stress on the history of Princess Hanglipoh being the Chinese origin to create the sentiments and bondage among the Chinese tourists for Melaka. Thirdly, for the target groups of Chinese tourists, focuses on men and women ages between 21 - 40 groups as they are internet savvy and tend to search information from the internet than from the travel agencies. As such, the advertisements and promotions of Melaka messages will reach these groups of tourists. Fourthly, for the Chinese tourists' expectations of Melaka, to meet their expectations by providing genuine respect to the Chinese tourists and to provide good hospitality services to them. Fifthly, the negative impact that hinders the Chinese tourists to visit Melaka, what prevent them from visiting Melaka are: discrimination towards the Chinese visitors; safety conditions; inconvenience of transportations, artificial features at the sites.

References

Anderson T, Kanuka H. On-line forum: New platforms for professional development and group collaboration. Journal of Computer Mediated

Communication. 1997;3(3) NP. Annual Report of China Outbound Tourism Development (2009/2010), China Tourism Academy

Arita, S., Edmonds, C., Croix, S. L., & Mak, J. (2009). The Impact of Approved Destination Status on Chinese Travel Abroad: An Economic Analysis.

Arita, S., Croix, S. L., & Mak, J. (2012). How China's Approved Destination Status Policy Spurs and Hinders Chinese Travel Abroad. Becken, S. (2003). Chinese tourism to New Zealand. Landcare Research, December 2003.

Boyd, Maria. "Can Any Country Afford to Snub Chinese Tourists?." Nepal Tourism and Development Review [Online], 1.1 (2011): 77-82. Web. 21 Apr. 2014

Butler, G., Khoo-Lattimore, C, &Mura, P. (2012). Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Fostering a Collective National Identity in an Ethnically

Diverse Country. Asian Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(2), 199-218. DOI:10.1080/10941665.2012.735682 Cai, L. A., Boger, C., & OLeary, J. (1999). The Chinese travelers to Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand: A unique Chinese outbound market.

Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. China Outbound Tourism Research Institute (COTR) (n.d.). China's outbound tourism in 2009 remedy or casualty. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/COTRI_Outbound/chinas-outbound-tourism-in-2009-remedy-or-casualty

China's new national tourism strategy set to increase outbound tourism, Breaking Travel News. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.breakingtravelnews.com/news/article/chinas-new-national-tourism-strategy-set-to-increase-outbound-tourism/ ClickZ (2004), "Population explosion!" (2004), September 10, available at: www.clickz.com/stats/big_picture/geographics/article.php/151151 Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources (2005). Media Release. Canberra. Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Burnett, T., & Zhan, X. (2010). Estimating the size of the Chinese outbound travel market: A demand-side approach. Tourism Management. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.001 Hsiung RC. The best of both worlds: An online self-help group hosted by a mental health professional. Cyber Psychology & Behavior. 2000;3(6):935-950.

Jang, S., Yu, L., & Pearson, T.E. (2003). Chinese Travellers to the United States Comparison of Business and Travel and Visiting Friends and Relatives. Tourism Geographies, 5(1), 87-108. Jeannerat, E. (2002). China: Switzerland's big tourism market of the future and how to approach it!. Sierre.

Lim, C., & Wang, Y. (2008). China's post-1978 experience in outbound tourism. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2008.01.033

Malacca sees 13.3pc rise in tourist arrivals - General - New Straits Times. (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2012, from

http://www.nst.com.my/nation/general/malacca-sees-13-3pc-rise-in-tourist-arrivals-1.94308 Mok, C., & De Franco, A. L. (1999). Chinese Cultural Values: Their Implications for Traveland Tourism Marketing. Journal of Travel and

Tourism Marketing, 8(2), 99-114. Nepal Tourism and Development Review Vol.1 (1) 2011 77-82

Pan, G. and Laws, E. (2001) 'Attracting Chinese outbound tourists to Australia', in D. Buhalis and E. Laws (eds) Tourism Dist ribution Channels:

Practice, Issues and Transformations. London: Continuum. Ryan, C., & Mo, X. (2001). Chinese visitors to New Zealand — Demographics and perceptions. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(1), 13-27. Salazar, Noel B. (2013). The double bind of World Heritage tourism. In B. G. Jansson (Ed.), The significance of World Heritage: Origins,

management, consequences (pp. 274-291). Strizzi, Nicolino. (2001). An overview of China's Inbound and Outbound Tourism Markets. Canadian Tourism Commission research report 2001-2005. Ottawa.

Tse, S. M. (2009). Forces shaping the trends and patterns of China's outbound international tourist flows. Epublication at Southern Cross University.

Tourism Malaysia (n.d.). Melaka, UNESCO World Heritage City Celebration Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved July 7, 2013, from

http://www.tourism.gov.my/en/Master/Web-Page/Events-n-Festivals/2013/7/Melaka-UNESCO-World-Heritage-City-Celebration Tourism Malaysia (2013). Malaysia Tourist Arrival. Retrieved from

http://corporate.tourism.gov.my/images/research/pdf/2013/arrival/Tourist_Arrivals_Jan_2013.pdf U.S. Department of Commerce (2010). 2010 Cultural Heritage Traveler. Retrieved from Office of Travel and Tourism Industries website: http://tinet.ita.doc.gov

Verhelst, V. (2003). Study of the outbound tourism industry of the People's Republic of China: the probability of a bilateral ADS agreement between the PRC and Shengen Area. Department of Oriental and Eastern European Studies, Faculty of Arts, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Wolfgang, G. A. (n.d.). China's Outbound Tourism Growing By 18% - And No Sign Of Slowing Down. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/profdrwolfganggarlt/2013/11/21/chinas-outbound-tourism-growing-by-18-and-no-sign-of-slowing-down/ Xinhua (n.d.). Articles about Tourist Destination - Economic Times. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/keyword/tourist-destination Zhang, Q. H., & Lam, T. (1999). An analysis of mainland Chinese visitors' motivations to visit Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 20, 587-594. Zhang, G.R., & Lew, A.A. (2003). Introduction: China's Tourism Boom. In A.A. Lew, L. Yu, J. Ap, & Zhang, G.R. (Eds.), Touris m in China. N.Y.: Haworth Hospitality Press.