Scholarly article on topic 'Impact of Urban Waste Water Reject on the Quality of Watercourse “Case of Oued Meboudja EST OF ALGERIA≫'

Impact of Urban Waste Water Reject on the Quality of Watercourse “Case of Oued Meboudja EST OF ALGERIA≫ Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — H.R. Lamia, A. Hocine

Abstract This study evaluates the impact of urban water reject pollution by the city of El Hadjar in Oued Meboudja, an important affluent of the Oued Seybouse. In full extension, the city rejected those waste waters and without any prior treatment to the Oued Meboudja, which led to the deterioration of the quality and aesthetic all of its waters. The study of various pollution parameters shown the vulnerability of the water of the Oued Meboudja against the pollution from urban waste water, and found that in all waters of the Oued Meboudja are unacceptable because they exceed the normative limits generally accepted e. in order to conclude on the nature of pollution, a series of physical and chemical analysis to determine the degree of pollution of the Oued, has given a preliminary overview of the current situation. Water Quality of Oued Meboudja pleads for non-conformity of water to be used directly in all areas.

Academic research paper on topic "Impact of Urban Waste Water Reject on the Quality of Watercourse “Case of Oued Meboudja EST OF ALGERIA≫"

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Energy Procedia 18 (2012) 587 - 593

Impact of urban waste water reject on the quality of watercourse "Case of Oued Meboudja EST OF ALGERIA»

HACHEMI RACHEDI.Lamiaa,AMARCHI Hocineb

aHydraulic and Hydraulics Constructions Laboratory Badji Mokhtar University Annaba lamia_hrachedi@yahoo.fr b Badji Mokhtar University Annba, amarchihocine@yahoo.fr

Abstract

This study evaluates the impact of urban water reject pollution by the city of El Hadjar in Oued Meboudja, an important affluent of the Oued Seybouse. In full extension, the city rejected those waste waters and without any prior treatment to the Oued Meboudja, which led to the deterioration of the quality and aesthetic all of its waters. The study of various pollution parameters shown the vulnerability of the water of the Oued Meboudja against the pollution from urban waste water, and found that in all waters of the Oued Meboudja are unacceptable because they exceed the normative limits generally accepted e. in order to conclude on the nature of pollution, a series of physical and chemical analysis to determine the degree of pollution of the Oued, has given a preliminary overview of the current situation. Water Quality of Oued Meboudja pleads for non-conformity of water to be used directly in all areas.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society.

Key Words: impact, Oued, pollution, reject, waste water

1. Introduction

Has long been considered renewable and inexhaustible water resources in recent decades has a real phenomenon of rareness. The degradation of the quality and excessive use of this resource are the main causes of this phenomenon. And often when environmental disasters that we become aware of the damage done by man in the water.

Become the receptacle of wastewater from industrial, urban and agricultural, streams in Algeria in recent years have reached an alarming level of pollution. [1]

An industrial vocation, EL HADJAR is one of the most important cities in the wilaya of Annaba, fully extended over, the region drains the most of these waters to the Oued of Meboudja an important effluent of the river Seybouse. As a result, the water quality of the river is constantly deteriorating. Deal with this situation that affects more and more quality of life in this region and the neighboring ones, we set a target in this study to identified the impact of urban waste water of the city of El Hajar on a water quality of the river Meboudja.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-000-000-0000 ; fax: +0-000-000-0000 . E-mail address: lamia_hrachedi@yahoo.fr.

1876-6102 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.071

2. Presentation of the study area

Oued Meboudja is located in the lower plain of the Seybouse (NE Algeria), in the sub-basin of the Oued Meboudja (Fig. 1) Daira EL HADJAR, it is limited to the west by the Massif metamorphic Belilieta Boukhadra and to the south by the extension of the mountains of El-Kala and Chaffia. The eastern edge of the area consists of the Oued Seybouse, witch receives Meboudja near 8 km from the Mediterranean which is the northern limit of the study area.

The Oued Meboudja is characterized by a steady flow in winter; its power is supplied by rain water, and drainage Fetzara Lake, located in the SW. Its speed can reach then 16m3/ s. In summer, the contributions are made primarily by the exit of the lake (the flows oscillate between 1 and 5 m3/s. The Oued also receives on its journey urban discharges of several villages (Hajar Diss, Sidi Amar, El-Hajar, ..) and industrial (steel mill, "Mittal Steel", Industrial Zone Chaib, Pont Bouchet, ...) .

Fig 1 : Geographic location of the study area

The study area - the region of El Hajar- currently has over 47,106 inhabitants, is the most urbanized town in the city of Annaba. Agglomerations in the region are on both sides of the Oued Meboudja. It is among the wettest regions of Algeria. It is subject to a Mediterranean climate, mild and wet winters and hot, dry summer. The average annual rainfall varies between 45.70 and 55 mm, 49 mm in an average temperature of about 17.98 ° C.

It has a sewer-type unit, with different diameters (300-1000mm) with two pumping stations of wastewater.

Domestic waters origin flow into the Oued Meboudja without any treatment. All waste collected by the sewerage network of El Hajar end up in the Oued Meboudja, either directly or through tributaries discharge into ditches.

3. Methodology and evaluation of water quality of Oued Meboudja

The chemical composition of water plays an important role in determining its quality and therefore the sector from its use. Either for water supply to meet industrial and agricultural. [5]

3.1. Selection of sampling points

Given the variability of the composition of urban waste water, we used the sampling instant. Samples are taken from three points of the river Meboudja according to a distribution area that covers the discharge of sewage from El Hajar (fig2). Three sampling campaigns were conducted for each of these points. Indeed wastewater from the city of El Hajar flow into two different places of the river Meboudja, so the choice of sampling points was as follows:

The point P0 is located upstream

The point P1 is located at the first rejection

The point P2 is located at the second rejection

Fig 2 : Location of sampling points of water 3.2. Experimental procedure

Physico-chemical parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity; conductivity and potential hydrogen are measured directly in situ using multi parameters apparatus WTWMULTI 340I/SET. All water withdrawals are made in glass bottles filled by sub-surface. The samples, stored at 4 ° C, are transported to the laboratory. The determination of levels of elements nitrite, ammonium nitrate and total phosphorus is carried out by spectrophotometry.

Fig3: Evolution of some physical and chemical parameters in waters of Oued Meboudja.

3.3. Results and discussion

The measurement of physicochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids), and analysis of some elements (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus), we have identified the following observations:

-The temperature values are stored below 30 ° C considered limit of direct discharge into the receiving environment. [6]

-In The points P1, P2 the pH values of samples values range from 7.57 and 8.79, showing the character slightly alkaline waters of the river Meboudja (Fig. 2b) we also note a strong mineralization expressed conductivities in the range of 2600|j.S/cm (Fig. 2c), which makes the water of very poor quality. [6] - The waters of the river Meboudja are loaded with suspended solids at a rate up to 64 mg/l (P2) (Fig. 2d) in the third companion.

For the sampling points chosen, the analytical results show a high organic load expressed as BOD5, corresponding to 150 mg/l of oxidizing materials. However, significant values of BOD can be explained by the phenomenon of self-purification of the resulting degradation of the polluting organic load. [6] We also note that the values of COD are relatively high contribution to the recommended standard. In fact the reports DCO/DBO5 which is an indicator of the degradability of organic matter by microorganisms, which can be deduced that water Meboudja have a better biodegradability against organic matter with a ratio between 1.5 and 3. [6]

Low levels of dissolved oxygen were recorded at points 1 and 2, reaching a minimum value of 0.26 mg/l, these low values can be explained by the presence of oxidizable organic matter. [6]

Campaigns, to the point P1, P2 downstream of the two discharges are richer in elements analyzed. In particular, total phosphorus stored in the water of the river are high compared with the content limits of 0.05 mg/l for waters of lakes and 0.1 mg / L for river water.

This comparison can be argued that the Oued Meboudja can be affected by eutrophication. This is explained by the dominant nature of domestic waste is rich in these materials. This reflects clearly the direct impact of discharges on water quality. The nutrient content measured are more important partner for the last (June) and this because of the concentration of water caused by evaporation. [4]

4. Vulnerability to pollution of the Oued Meboudja

Among the methods commonly used to assess the quality of surface water or groundwater, are: [7] -The index of organic pollution (Leclercq and Maquet, 1987) -Lisec-index-(Becker and Steegmans 1979) -The Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology 1986

4.1. Index of organic pollution (Leclercq and Maquet, 1987) (IPO)

The principle is to spread the values of the pollutant into five classes and to determine from its own actions the class number corresponding to each parameter and then average them. IPO = average number of classes of the 4 parameters (at best): = 5.0 - 4.6: no organic pollution = 4.5 - 4.0: low organic pollution = 3.9 - 3.0: moderate organic pollution = 2.9 - 2.0: organic pollution = 1.9 - 1.0: very strong organic pollution

Table 1: Index of organic pollution of waters of the Meboudja

Water points IPO 1 IPO2

P0 3 3,33

P1 1,75 2

P2 1,75 1,75

Against the values given by the IPO method, we find that the waters of the river Meboudja have a very high organic pollution.

4.2. Lisec Index (Becker et Steegmans 1979)

The principle is the same as that of the IPO, but we calculate the sum of the class and not the average. The classes here are numbered in reverse to those of the IPO: thus, a high index correspond to significant pollution.

LISEC-INDEX = sum of class numbers: 4 - <6: very good 6 - <10: good 10 - <14: medium 14 - <18: poor 18 to 20: very bad

Table 2: Index of organic pollution (Lisec-Index 1979)

Water points Lisec-Index 1 Lisec-Index 2

P0 15 12

P1 15 12

P2 13 11

The method Lisec-Index indicates that the waters of the river Meboudja are of average quality to bad for LI values between 11 and 15

4.3. Method of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (IHE 1986)

This is similar to the IPO (distribution of values in five classes) but it's other settings and other classes.

Pollution levels calculated by the method of IHE are given by:

5.0 - 4.6: no organic pollution

4.5 - 4.0: low organic pollution

3.9 - 3.0: moderate organic pollution

2.9 - 2.0: organic pollution

1.9 - 1.0: very strong organic pollution

Table 3: Index of organic pollution (IHE 1986)

Water points IHE 1 IHE 2

P0 1,5 2,4

P1 1,6 2

P2 1,8 1,6

The evaluation of organic pollution by the method IHE indicates a very strong organic pollution with IIHE = 1, 6.

5. Conclusion

In full extension and in the absence of a treatment plant to purify water from urban waste, the city of El Hajar rejects its waters directly into the Oued Meboudja, altering the quality and esthetics appearance of the river.

In this context this study treats the impact of urban waste discharged into the Oued Meboudja. A series of physical and chemical analysis to determine the composition of surface water was executed. The results show that the waters quality of the river Meboudja is fairly degraded, compared to international standards and that the impact of the pollution provided by the discharged water is felt at the level of water downstream. The waters are hard and have a significant mineralization at higher than the general limits of the conductivity indicated.

Water Quality of Oued Meboudja calls for non-conformity of water to be used directly in all domains. The influence of the elements rejected by the urban sewage is being felt from upstream to downstream. The wealth of domestic waste enNH4et P affects water quality.

To reduce the impact of discharges on the aquatic environment and stop the degradation it is necessary to carry out studies for the establishment of work to reduce the pollution load in waste, implementation of regulatory measures to reduce discharges industrial water and wastewater of domestic origin and development of a program to monitor water quality of the Oued Meboudja.

References

[1] Mémento technique de l'eau. Degremont. Ed. Lavoisier Technique et Documentation, Paris (2005).

[2] RAMADE (F), « Dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences de l'eau». p. Ediscience international; Paris (1998).

[3] GAUJOUX (D), « la pollution des milieux aquatique», Ed. Technique et documentation Lavoisier (1993).

[4] CHRISTIAN (NGO), ALAIN REGENT, «Déchet et pollution -impact sur l'environnement et la santé ».Paris 2004.

[5] ECKENFELDER (W.W), « Gestion des eaux usées urbaines et industrielles. Caractérisation. Technique d'épuration. Technique et documentation», Paris (1982).

[6] RODIER (J), « l'analyse de l'eau: eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eau de mer», DUNODE, huitième édition, 1996, 1357 pages.

[7] MENVIQ, « Critères de qualité de l'eau», 1990, 425 pages.