Scholarly article on topic 'Physiochemical and sensory properties of functional low fat cheesecake manufactured using cottage cheese'

Physiochemical and sensory properties of functional low fat cheesecake manufactured using cottage cheese Academic research paper on "Animal and dairy science"

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Abstract of research paper on Animal and dairy science, author of scientific article — Nessrien M.N. Yasin, Samah M. Shalaby

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of functional low-fat cheesecake prepared by using full, low and fat-free cottage cheese as a healthier alternative of cream cheese as a control which traditionally used in cheesecake making. The results revealed that moisture content of different prepared cottage cheese samples varied from 78.38% to 81.22% and fat content from 0.41% to 5.30%. The protein content in cottage cheese samples ranged from 12.15% to 14.85% which was, on average, greater than its content in cream cheese. Also, the ash content of cottage cheeses was higher than that of cream cheese. A reduction in fat content was occurred in cheesecakes prepared with full, low and fat free cottage cheeses compared to cream cheesecake; it was approximately 50%, 71% and 88%, respectively. The carbohydrates were also gradually and significantly (P <0.05) decreased by substitution with the above respective cottage cheeses, comparing to cream cheesecake. Cheesecakes prepared with free fat and reduced fat cottage cheese had significantly (P <0.05) higher protein content (20.49% and 17.0%, resp.) as well as ash content (8.94% and 8.54% resp.) than the control cheesecake made from cream cheese, thus promoting the nutritive value. Measurements of tenderness using (penetrometer) indicated that the substitution with full fat cottage cheese (4% milk fat) was more significantly (P <0.05) tender than the other cheesecake samples. Both cheesecakes substituted with free fat and full fat-cottage cheeses were more significantly (P <0.05) lighter than the other samples, meanwhile, the color values of yellowness of these two kinds of cottage cheese were less significantly (P <0.05) lesser. The functional low-fat cheesecakes prepared from cottage cheeses showed good organoleptic properties which accepted by panelists. Since, the manufacture of cheesecakes with the use of cottage cheese from milk contained 4%, 2% and 0.1% milk fat reduced the total calories of the final product by 30, 41.77 and 48.57, respectively and also caused a reduction in total cost of the cheesecakes by 40%. So, it is easy to say that, cottage cheese with 4% or 2% milk fat is a healthy and functional choice in manufacture of low-fat cheesecake.

Academic research paper on topic "Physiochemical and sensory properties of functional low fat cheesecake manufactured using cottage cheese"

Annals of Agricultural Science (2013) 58(1), 61-67

Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University Annals of Agricultural Science

www.elsevier.com/locate/aoas

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Physiochemical and sensory properties of functional low fat cheesecake manufactured using cottage cheese

Nessrien M.N. Yasin, Samah M. Shalaby *

Food Science Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Shoubra El Kheima, Cairo, Egypt

Received 2 December 2012; accepted 12 December 2012 Available online 5 March 2013

KEYWORDS

Cheesecake; Cottage cheese; Calories; Costs;

Physicochemical properties

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of functional low-fat cheesecake prepared by using full, low and fat-free cottage cheese as a healthier alternative of cream cheese as a control which traditionally used in cheesecake making. The results revealed that moisture content of different prepared cottage cheese samples varied from 78.38% to 81.22% and fat content from 0.41% to 5.30%. The protein content in cottage cheese samples ranged from 12.15% to 14.85% which was, on average, greater than its content in cream cheese. Also, the ash content of cottage cheeses was higher than that of cream cheese. A reduction in fat content was occurred in cheesecakes prepared with full, low and fat free cottage cheeses compared to cream cheesecake; it was approximately 50%, 71% and 88%, respectively. The carbohydrates were also gradually and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by substitution with the above respective cottage cheeses, comparing to cream cheesecake. Cheesecakes prepared with free fat and reduced fat cottage cheese had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein content (20.49% and 17.0%, resp.) as well as ash content (8.94% and 8.54% resp.) than the control cheesecake made from cream cheese, thus promoting the nutritive value. Measurements of tenderness using (penetrometer) indicated that the substitution with full fat cottage cheese (4% milk fat) was more significantly (P < 0.05) tender than the other cheesecake samples. Both cheesecakes substituted with free fat and full fat-cottage cheeses were more significantly (P < 0.05) lighter than the other samples, meanwhile, the color values of yellowness of these two kinds of cottage cheese were less significantly (P < 0.05) lesser.

The functional low-fat cheesecakes prepared from cottage cheeses showed good organoleptic properties which accepted by panelists. Since, the manufacture of cheesecakes with the use of cottage cheese from milk contained 4%, 2% and 0.1% milk fat reduced the total calories of the final product by 30, 41.77 and 48.57, respectively and also caused a reduction in total cost of the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 01003681272. E-mail address: Samahshalaby_boss@yahoo.com (S.M. Shalaby). Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Agriculture, Ain-Shams University.

0570-1783 © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2013.01.009

cheesecakes by 40%. So, it is easy to say that, cottage cheese with 4% or 2% milk fat is a healthy and functional choice in manufacture of low-fat cheesecake.

© 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams

University.

Introduction

The increasing need for foods, particularly low fat and carbohydrate products to face a common health problems such as obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension, has paved the way for the formulation of a food product that is sweet in taste and of a high nutritive value; at the same time low in fat and carbohydrate (Abdel-Salam and Ahmed, 2007). An excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. As a consequence, limiting the saturated fat consumption is a central theme in national and international dietary guidelines, aiming to help the public to reduce cardiovascular disease risks. Consumption of total fat and saturated fat should not exceed, respectively, 30 and 10 energy-percent of total energy intake (Mullie et al., 2012).

There are tremendous prospects for fermented dairy ingredients in food products due to increasing interest in 'healthy foods', increasing internationalization of food tastes and continuing interest in additive free ingredient labels. The fermented dairy ingredients include the traditional fermented products such as cheese and yoghurt (Main, 1991).

Cheese therefore provides an ideal vehicle for preserving the valuable nutrients in milk and making them available throughout the year. Cheese is an excellent source of protein and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and essential amino acids, therefore it is an important food in the diet of both young and old people. Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of texture, flavor and end uses. Cheese is used in wide varieties of prepared foods including appetizers, soups, sauces, casseroles, crackers, fillings in pastry and pies. The most popular usage is as a topping on pizzas and as cheese slices in hamburgers and cold sandwiches. Cream cheese is used as an ingredient in cheesecakes and in spreads (Krupa et al., 2011).

Cottage cheese is a product of fresh cheese curd that has been drained. The process of draining allows the whey to remain in the product which is gets its high protein content and also why cottage cheese is white in color. It does not undergo aging and washed to give its different taste, sweet and mildly flavor. According to ideal standards for cultured dairy products, the ideal creamed cottage cheese (full fat) flavor should be fresh, pleasant, and clean, with slight acidity and mild diacetyl flavor with no after taste. Ideal cottage cheese curds should be uniform, and with a meaty texture without being too firm, rubbery, or tough (Bodyfelt and Potter, 2009). Few studies have addressed sensory properties or consumer perception of this product.

Cottage cheese is well recognized as being a healthy food, a fact that adds value to its use as an ingredient that it's add sensory appeal, mild flavor, and nutritional value to foods. A 125 g serving of cottage cheese (creamed, low fat or dry curd) provides an excellent source of vitamin B12 and a source of calcium, phosphorous, zinc, folate, riboflavin and vitamin B6 (Hill, 2012). Cottage cheese is a very popular product com-

monly consumed to its own and also suitable for use in particular baked food as shown in Table 1.

Cheesecake is a dessert consisting of a topping made of soft, fresh cheese, usually on a crust or base made from biscuit, pastry or sponge cake. They may be baked or unbaked. Cheesecakes are usually sweetened with sugar and may be flavored or topped with fruit, nuts, fruit sauce and/or chocolate. The texture of any cheesecake can vary greatly, from light and airy to dense and rich to smooth and creamy. All cheesecakes begin with cheese, usually cream cheese, ricotta cheese, cottage cheese or sometimes Swiss or Cheddar cheese. A cheesecake may or may not have a crust, which can be a light dusting of bread crumbs, a cookie crust or a pastry crust. The filling is made by creaming the cheese and mixing it with eggs, sugar (for desserts) and other flavorings. The mixture is then poured into a special pan and baked. These days there are hundreds of different cheesecake recipes. The ingredients are what make one cheesecake different from another. The most essential ingredient in any cheesecake is cheese. (http://www.dianasdes-serts.com/Tips for cheesecakes).

Cheesecake is typically made using full-fat cream cheese as a main ingredient, which is one of the main reasons why cheesecake is very unhealthy. For example, the average slice of cheesecake contains about 350 calories, 55 g of carbohydrates and 35 g of sugar. Whereas, a serving of cottage cheese replacement cheesecake contains 148 calories, 12.65 g of protein, 20.5 g of carbohydrates and 2.5 g of fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of functional low-fat cheesecake prepared by using cottage cheese (full, low and fat-free) as a healthier alternative of full-fat cream cheese which traditionally used in cheesecake making.

Materials and methods

Materials

Raw cows' milk was obtained from the National Research Center, Giza. Calf rennet powder (Ha-La) and starter culture (FD-DVS R-703) were obtained from CHR - Hansen's Lab. Denmark. Wheat flour (72%), eggs, sugar, baking powder, butter, vanilla, lemon peel, honey and yoghurt were purchased from local market.

Methods

Cottage cheese manufacture

Cottage cheese was manufactured according to Scott et al. (1998) and Hallab et al. (2007), using full fat cow milk (4.2% fat), reduced-fat cow milk (2% fat) and skim cow milk (0.1% fat). Cow milk (pH 6.55-6.85) was pasteurized at 72 0C/ 15-20 s, cooled to 35 oc, and then 0.01% calcium chloride was added. After that milk was placed in a small stainless steel, double-walled cheese making vat set at the same temperature

Table 1 Type of cheese recommended for a particular bakery product.a

Cheese variety Bakery item in which cheese is a prized ingredient

Mature Cheddar cheese Cottage cheese Bakers' cheese (green or dried) White cheese (Fromage Blanc) Quarg cheese Mozzarella cheese Romano, Parmesan, Provolone Cheese biscuits, cheese sticks, specialty breads, hamburger, buns, muffins Sour dough formulations, muffins, cheesecake, yellow layer cake, lemon pudding Cheese cakes, pastries Cheese cakes Cakes, cheese-cream baked goods, fillings, confectioneries Pizza, cheeseburger Pizza

a Patel and Jana (1994).

(35 0C). 10% (v/v) mesophilic starter culture (Lactococcus lac-tis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris) was added, mixed and left for 30 min at 35 0C then 0.5% rennet (w/v) (diluted 10 times with water) was added and mixed well. After 3 h at 35 0C the milk was coagulated into a gel-like structure (pH 4.65-4.82), the curd was cut manually into pieces of approximately 1 cm using stainless steel wire cutters, and left to stand for 20 min before being heated to 59 0C over a period of 2 h (scalding process). The process of washing curd was then started at three times, first with water at 49 0C for 20 min to remove lactose from the curd. Then the washing water was drained off and replaced with cold water at 10 0C for 20 min with stirring to the same quantity of used milk. Last wash was with cold water at 1 0C for 30 min. The curd was finally drained through fine cheese cloth (pH 4.82-5.29) and stored at 4 0C until used.

Cream cheese manufacture

Cream cheese is known for Egyptian people by double cream cheese, it is manufacture from a mixture of full cream buffalo milk with fresh cream to prepare a mixture contains not less than 10% fat. Cream cheese was manufactured according to Phadungath (2005) with some modifications. 1.3 kg of fresh cream (50% fat) was added to 8.7 kg cow milk (4% fat) to prepare 10 kg of mixture contained 10% fat. The mixture was then homogenized using X520, UAC 30-R, Chicago II G064 (3000 rpm/min) homogenizer at 55-60 0C and further heat treated to 74 0C for 30 s and then cooled to 39 0C. Calcium chloride (0.02%) was added then 2% rennet (diluted 10 times with water) to coagulate in about 3 h. The resulted curd was then transferred to perforated cheese molds over night to remove all the whey then stored at 4 0C until used.

Preparation of cheesecake crust

The crust of cheesecake was prepared as described by Abdel-Salam and Ahmed (2007). The ingredients 200 g flour (72%), 75 g sugar, 1 g baking powder and 2 whole eggs were all blended in 80 g butter in a medium mixing bowl and mixed manually. The dough was used to line the bottom of a 2032 cm round pan and chilled before filling.

Preparation of cheesecake mixtures

The experimental design was performed to create the cheesecakes by using four different cheeses, full-fat cream cheese, full fat cottage cheese, reduced fat cottage and non-fat cottage cheeses. The control cheesecake recipe was created by using full-fat cream cheese (made from mixture 10% milk fat). In the three recipes, the full fat cream cheese was replaced by full

fat cottage cheese (made from 4% milk fat), reduced fat-cottage cheese (made from 2% milk fat) and non-fat. The cheesecakes were prepared as described by Elaine (2005). The ingredients were as follows: 457 g full fat-cream cheese, 110 g plain reduced-fat yoghurt (1.7% fat), 75.4 g honey, 4.9-5.9 g vanilla, 3 eggs and 5 ml grated lemon peel. The combined ingredients were well blended for 5 min using an electric mixer on medium speed in a large mixing bowl and then cheese mixtures were poured into the prepared crust. The pans were placed in a preheated baking oven and the cakes were baked at 175 0C for 30 min or until edges are slightly browned and center was set, then cooled and refrigerated for 8 h.

Chemical analysis of cheeses and cheesecakes The samples were tested for their fat content (Gerber method), total protein content (micro-Kjeldahal method), moisture and ash were determined according to the method in AOAC (2000). pH value was measured using pH meter model Cole-Armer Instrument Co., USA. Lactose content was determined according to the method reported in IDF (1982). Total carbohydrates were calculated by differences.

Physical measurements of cheesecakes

Color of cheesecake samples were determined according to the tristimulus color system described by Francis (1983) using spectrophotometer (MOM, 100D, Hungary). Color coordinates X, Y and Z were converted to corresponding Hunter L, a and b color coordinates according to formula given by manufacturer.

For tenderness value, penetrometer number reading was measured using a penetrometer (Kochler Instrument Co. Inc., USA) as described by Gupta and Reuter (1993). The penetration depth was recorded in units of 0.1 mm.

Sensory evaluation of cheesecakes

The cheesecake samples (with crust layer) were submitted to sensory evaluation by ten members of Food Science Department Staff. The panelists were asked to score each sensory attribute using the control cheesecake as the basic for evaluation. Cheesecakes were evaluated for texture, flavor, appearance, color and overall acceptability according to the scoring system of sensory evaluation adopted from Abdel-Salam and Ahmed (2007).

Statistical analysis

All data were expressed as mean values. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test with P 6 0.05 being

Table 2 Proximate composition (%) of cheeses used in the manufacture of cheesecake mixtures.

Kind of cheese Composition (%)

Fat F/DMa Protein Lactose Ash Moisture

Cream cheese (control) 26.58a 66.77a 8.69c 3.21a 1.33b 60.19b

Full fat-cottage cheese 5.30b 24.27b 12.15b 2.90ab 1.49b 78.16b

Reduced fat-cottage cheese 3.14c 15.46c 12.89b 2.68ab 1.62ab 79.67b

Free fat-cottage cheese 0.41d 2.31d 13.85a 1.74c 1.78a 82.22a

Mean values in the same column bearing the same superscript do not differ significantly (P > 0.05).

A F/DM: fat in dry matter.

considered statistically significant using SAS program (SAS, 2001).

Results and discussions

Proximate composition of cheeses and cheesecakes

The main purpose of this study was to prepare functional low fat cheesecake; this could be achieved by replacing cream cheese (control) the basic resource of milk fat by low fat cheese (cottage cheese). According to the difference in the manufacture of each kind of cheese, there were clear differences in the proximate composition between the two kinds of cheeses used in this study (Table 2). Cream cheese showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher content of fat, lactose and total solids than those of cottage cheese samples. In the case of cottage cheeses, it was noticed a variability between samples in their moisture content which varied from 78.38% to 81.22% and fat content from 0.41% to 5.30%. Protein content of the cottage cheese samples ranged from 12.15% to 14.85% which was greater than that of cream cheese. Also, the ash content of cottage cheeses was higher than that of cream cheese, it seems logically, because the gel formation in making cottage cheese, thus, occurs under more acidic conditions than for the production of most other types of cheeses, so that about 20% and 35% of the calcium and phosphorus, respectively, are typically found in the final cheese (Hill, 1995).

All of the tested samples complied with the standard of identity for cottage cheese, which states that cottage cheeses should have a minimum fat free dry matter content of 18% and that their fat level should be from 0% to 5% (Codex standard, 2010). There is no standard of identity for fat-free cheeses; however, these products have to comply with the regulation for labeling fat-free products, which requires that the fat content should be less than 0.5 g per serving (Code of Federal Regulations, 2006). Naturally, lactose significantly

(P < 0.05) decreased gradually with decreasing the percent of fat, as a result of that the activity of starter was higher in low fat cheese. This decreasing in lactose content was only significant in the manufacture of free fat cheese, while, the different in lactose percent between full and reduced fat cheese was not significant.

Due to differences in the type of cheese used in the preparation of cheesecakes, all the characteristics of the final product will be different significantly. Table 3 shows the proximate chemical composition of cheesecakes. The total solids of control cheesecake sample were higher than those of cheesecakes made with cottage cheeses according to its significant (P < 0.05) higher content of fat and carbohydrates and lower moisture content. These findings were in agreement with Hill (2012), who reported that cottage cheese characterized by a high moisture content. Therefore, incorporating cottage cheese into baked goods will help to keep the product moist.

From Table 3 it could be seen that the reduction in fat content of cheesecakes made from full fat, reduced fat and free fat cottage cheese was approximately 50%, 71% and 88%, respectively. The results showed also that the carbohydrates were gradually and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by substitution with different cottage cheese, comparing to cream cheese cheesecake. The decrease in carbohydrate content was insignificant between the three cottage cheese samples. Cheesecakes prepared with free fat and reduced fat cottage cheese had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein content (20.49% and 17.0%, resp.) as well as ash content (8.94% and 8.54% resp.) than those of the cream cheese cheesecake (control), thus influencing the nutritive value positively.

Physical properties of cheesecakes

The main factor influencing the experimental parameter in this study was the fat content, which influenced the texture attributes. The high-fat control sample (cream cheese-cheesecake)

Table 3 Proximate composition (%) of cheesecakes.

Cheesecakes made using Composition (%)

Moisture Protein Fat Ash Total carbohydratesA

Cream cheese (control) 50.58d 11.59d 18.83a 7.72c 10.28a

Full fat-cottage cheese 58.38c 15.55c 9.42b 8.37b 8.28b

Reduced fat-cottage cheese 61.87b 17.0b 5.45c 8.54b 8.14b

Free fat-cottage cheese 63.22a 20.49a 2.20d 8. 94a 7.60b

Mean values in the same column bearing the same superscript do not differ significantly (P > 0.05).

A Calculated by differences.

Table 4 Physical characteristics of cheesecakes.

Cheesecakes made using Penetrometer reading (mm) Color values

L" a" b"

Cream cheese (control) Full fat-cottage cheese Reduced fat-cottage cheese Free fat-cottage cheese 27.0c 35.0a 32.0b 31.5b 88.404a 89.654a 75.345b 91.595a -9.170c -12.123a -11.888a — 10.880b 14.728b 6.472c 24.999a 7.410c

Mean values in the same column bearing the same superscript do not differ significantly (P > 0.05). L*, lightness; a*, redness; b*, yellowness.

was less granular (appearance and texture), less watery, more compact, more fat-creamy and had a higher intensity of butter flavor than samples with low-fat (cottage cheese-cheesecakes); this could be due to the high fat content. The analysis shown in Table 4 revealed that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between cheesecakes c different kinds of cottage cheese and cream cheese (as a control) in their physical characteristics. The measurement of tenderness (penetrometer) indicated that the substitution with full fat cottage cheese was more significantly (P < 0.05) tender than the other samples. Meanwhile, both reduced fat-cottage cheese and free fat cottage cheese showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in this parameter. On the other hand, the control sample (cream cheese) had the less significant (P < 0.05) tenderness. Fat level showed a significant effect on tenderness of cheese; this result is go parallel with that of Brighenti et al. (2008) who found that, full-fat cream cheeses were more elastic, harder and more cohesive than fat-free cheeses, which could be due to the greater total solids and homogenized fat content of full-fat cheese.. By the same way, these results are in agreement with Hill (2012), who mentioned that cottage cheese is a fresh cheese consisting of individual, moist curds of variable size, and can be incorporated into products such as cheesecakes to provide lighter and softer texture.

Color as a matter of visual perception is an important consideration in food product development because food color and appearance are usually the first impressions to register in the consumers mind. Color values of different cheesecakes for (L*) lightness, (a*) redness and (b*) yellowness are also presented in the same Table 4. It could be seen that, both free fat and full-fat cottage cheese were significantly (P < 0.05) more lighter than the other samples, and had significantly (P < 0.05) less yellowness values. Reduced -fat cottage cheese showed the most significant (P < 0.05) yellow in appearance. All cheesecakes had low a* values indicating a slight green tinge. Moreover, both cream cheese and free fat-cottage cheese intended to the orange color as shown by having the highest a* values (P < 0.05) while, full-fat and reduced fat-cottage cheeses were lacked in red color and had more green in color.

This finding might be due to the additives used in the mixture of cheesecake.

Sensory evaluation of cheesecakes

Table 5 shows the sensory attributes of full- and low-fat cheesecakes as affected by replacement of cream cheese in the base blend with cottage cheese made from 4%, 2% and 0% milk fat. Cream cheese is a stabilized dairy emulsion containing, its high milk solids provides sufficient protein to create a firm gel at low pH level. In this gel, the primary function of the stabilizing process is to immobilize the moisture content and help smooth texture. Cottage cheese is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. It is drained, but not pressed, so some -whey remains and the individual curds remain loose. The curd is usually washed to remove acidity, giving sweet curd cheese (Wadhwani and McMahon, 2012).

The control cream cheese-cheesecake was softer and smoother with pronounced flavor and overall preference than the low-fat cheesecakes. The flavor of cheesecakes substituted with cottage cheeses was generally acceptable by the panelists and had significantly lower score values than that of the control except for the reduced-fat cottage cheesecake. The texture and color of full and reduced fat cottage cheeses were more accepted to panelists than those of the control sample according to their higher scores (Table 5), this may be due to the more whiteness of low-fat cheesecakes and the higher moisture content of cottage cheese which makes the resulted cheesecakes softer. While, the flavor and taste were still better in cream cheese-cheesecake than in low fat cheesecakes due to the creamy flavor. No much difference was found in sensory attributes of cheesecakes as affected by using cottage cheese with different levels of milk fat. Decreasing of the percent of fat in cottage cheese-cheesecakes blends resulted in decreasing the sensory properties.

All these findings were result of used low-fat cheese in the manufacture of cheesecakes. Since the flavor and texture are well-known issues for low-fat cheeses (Drake and Swanson, 1995; Johnson et al., 2010) and consumers are unwilling to sac-

Table 5 Sensory properties of different cheesecakes.

Cheesecakes made using Texture Flavor Appearance Color Overall acceptability

Cream cheese (control) 7.7c 9.4a 9.5a 8.7b 9.5a

Full fat-cottage cheese 9.3a 8.5b 8.3b 9.5a 9.0a

Reduced fat-cottage cheese 8.8a 9.0ab 8.0b 9.0ab 9.2a

Free fat-cottage cheese 8.2bc 8.0bc 7.8b 8.6b 7.8b

Mean values in the same column bearing the same superscript do not differ significantly (P > 0.05).

Table 6 Calculated total calories of cheesecakes (100 g).

Cheesecakes Calories from Calories Calories from Total calories Reduction in Reduction in

made using protein from fat carbohydrates total calories (%) total cost (%)

Cream cheese (control) 46.36c 169.47a 41.12a 256.95a - -

Full fat-cottage cheese 62.20b 84.78b 33.12b 180.10b 30b 40

Reduced fat-cottage cheese 68.00b 49.05c 32.56b 149.61c 41.77a 40

Free fat-cottage cheese 81.96a 19.80d 30.40b 132.16d 48.57a 40

Mean values in the same column bearing the same superscript do not differ significantly (P > 0.05).

rifice the flavor or texture qualities of cheese for the sake of purchasing a cheese with reduced fat content (Childs and Drake, 2009). Furthermore, color of food is an often overlooked sensory attribute that can actually change consumers' flavor perception. In case of cheese, flavor is an important attribute that affects consumer acceptance and marketing (Young et al., 2004). When likeable flavor notes are missing in low-fat cheeses, such as buttery, nutty, and milky attributes, the attention of consumers can be drawn to the cheese color and, thus, become a detriment to sales if the cheese color is outside the norm for cheese. Removing fat from cheese is known to impart a translucent appearance. Color of low-fat cheese influences flavor perception and consumer liking and also carry over to cooking and eating decisions. Consequently, when food colors are different from the expected norm, flavor identification is decreased, the color-flavor association becomes stronger, and color has a greater effect on liking of the food. This occurs in simple foods and in complex foods in which there are multiple taste stimuli (Wadhwani and McMahon, 2012).

On the above bases results in Table 5 indicated insignificant differences in the overall acceptable property of low-fat cheesecakes prepared from full-fat and reduced fat cottage cheese and the control one, however the lowest scores were received for the last treatment made from free-fat cottage cheese, it would be due to its high content of moisture as well as more acidic flavor.

The reduction (%) of total calories and costs of cheesecakes

The total calories of prepared cheesecakes were calculated according to their chemical composition as shown in Table 6. The manufacture of cheesecake with cottage cheeses made from 4%, 2% and 0.1% milk fat reduced the fat by 50%, 71% and 88%, respectively, carbohydrates also decreased by using cottage cheese (lactose decreased). This reduction in fat and carbohydrates contents reduced the total calories of the final products by 30%, 41.77% and 48.57%, respectively (Table 6). The loses in fat and calories of cottage cheese make the cheesecakes with cottage cheese healthier and more effective in the trend of nowadays calls for make your foods are your medicine and your medicine is food.

From another viewpoint, there was a reduction in total cost of preparing low fat cheesecake instead of cream cheese cheesecake which considered expensive product (Table 6) reached ~40% as a result of the price of fresh cream in the market. On the other side, there was no difference in the cost of the three samples of cottage cheese-cheesecakes, because the reduction in fat content was so little and not affected on the total cost.

Conclusion

Cream cheese is the main ingredient in manufacturing of cheesecake, which makes it a high calorie food. So, healthy cheesecake must be manufactured by using low fat cheese such as, cottage cheese. Cottage cheese is a very popular product commonly consumed on its own but also suitable for use in other products. Cottage cheese is a fresh cheese consisting of individual, moist curds of variable size, possessing a mild flavor and an off white color. Cottage cheese is used as an ingredient to add sensory appeal, mild flavor, and nutritional value to foods. It is well recognized as being a healthy food, a fact that adds value to its use. Cottage cheese (creamed, low fat or dry curd) provides an excellent source of vitamins and minerals (calcium, phosphorous, zinc, and folate), it is also a rich source of total milk protein.

Functional low-fat cheesecakes made from cottage cheese had good organoleptic properties which accepted by panelists more than the fat-free cottage cheese-cheesecake. So, it could be concluded that a functional low-fat cheesecakes could be produced via substitution of cream cheese by cottage cheese made from milk containing 4% and 2% fat due to the low calorific value, low-fat content, low cost and high-mineral content of the resultant cheesecakes.

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