Scholarly article on topic 'Objectives and Principles of Education from Critical Theorists POVs'

Objectives and Principles of Education from Critical Theorists POVs Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Akbar salehi

Abstract Philosophers and Thinkers count on education as one of the most important issues in human life, rise of the various fields of thought including postmodernism, pragmatism and critical theorists in recent decades, could manage to enter education in new realms. The main aim of this paper is to consider some critical theories which refer to the late sixties. Since its emergence, critical theory has been able to attract thinkers in variant fields like social, cultural, political and economical. The above mentioned theory has developed new interchanges in education in Germany and other countries during the recent three decades. The article is going to explore this thought track reasons in the field of objectives and principles of education, on the base of considering some of its bearers and their theories. The research is type of fundamental study. It has been done in descriptive - qualitative analysis dealt after gathering information from various library sources.

Academic research paper on topic "Objectives and Principles of Education from Critical Theorists POVs"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 89 (2013) 49 - 53 —

2nd Cyprus International Conference on Educational Research, (CY-ICER 2013)

Objectives and Principles of Education from Critical Theorists

Akbar salehia*

Assistant professor ofphilosophy of education, Kharazmi University (T.M.U), Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Philosophers and Thinkers count on education as one of the most important issues in human life, rise of the various fields of thought including postmodernism, pragmatism and critical theorists in recent decades, could manage to enter education in new realms. The main aim of this paper is to consider some critical theories which refer to the late sixties. Since its emergence, critical theory has been able to attract thinkers in variant fields like social, cultural, political and economical. The above mentioned theory has developed new interchanges in education in Germany and other countries during the recent three decades. The article is going to explore this thought track reasons in the field of objectives and principles of education, on the base of considering some of its bearers and their theories. The research is type of fundamental study. It has been done in descriptive -qualitative analysis dealt after gathering information from various library sources.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selectionand/or peer-reviewunderresponsibility ofProf.Dr. HuseyinUzunboylu, Near EastUniversity, FacultyofEducation, Cyprus

Keywords: Critical theorists, critical pedagogy, educational implications, education goals, principles of education;

1. Introduction

Due to the sensitivity of the issue of education and its importance, Philosophers and Thinkers count on education as one of the most important issues in human life. Every society requires providing education to fit their life patterns and needs of their generation. Educational thinkers, philosophers and sociologists looking at the philosophical views show that each depending on her/his perspective, as well as culture and politics of his/her era, have and had his/her ideas on education. Explain and examine the views and opinions, will provide valuable guidelines for employees training, to change community education infrastructure on the guidelines.

One of the most important contemporary intellectual aspect, the postmodernist now with emergence thinkers like Richard Rorty, McCarty, Giroux, Lyotard and M Foucault can managed with new ideas in many areas, particularly in the areas of education & enter it into a new realm. The evolution of change, innovation and creativity is emphasized over the admission and induction. Along with the emergence of new contemporary mood, Critical Pedagogy with Critical theorists has been able to be effective to theoretical background the process of education. The most famous contemporary theorists are: Paulo Freire, Giroux, Peter McLaren and others. This paper reviews the theoretical background and the " critical theory " and well pay the bearers some important theorists thought

*Correspondingauthor: Akbar salehi. Tel.: +98-021-88321311. E-mail address: salehihidji2@yahoo.com;

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu, Near East University, Faculty of Education, Cyprus doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.807

examined. Then the educational implications of critical theory in the field of education extracted and analysed and at the end of paper are presented in a brief conclusion.

2. Theoretical background of critical theory

The historical record of "critical theory" returns to establish the Institute for Social Research in Germany Frankfurt School, in 1924. A team from the gradual formation of the Institute gathered in the late 1920s to create a foundation to later critical theory (Mirlohi, NO. 49, 1376). As scholars, Max Horkhaymr (1973), Marcuse (1979) Jürgen Habermas (1929), Freire (1937) Giroux (1942), despite slight differences in their ideas of this theory have been advocating. Prominent influence of this group is Max Horkhaymr .He published a paper in social research quarterly journal and criticizes logical custom and technical master and tools for environment, endless richness rule, and totalitarian. And destroy individual and analyse the possible changing in social programs.

By existence of attractive critical view in now age different aspect, it has some criticize social critical view in its first shape. As newest dependent to educational view and attract specific groups of educators. entrance of this view in educational research attract some writers like Bardo and Fendberg that believe that critical view can go between both Educational Research schools have been attacked (Beheshti, p. 409, 1386).

Critical viewer among that shape from 20 century and the time of Frankfurt school appearance in Germany, they be able to release society from sovereignty and giving profit. In the thought of most of the critical theorist force, this sovereignty on society group with giving political, economical and educational profit that force their belief and thought on weak groups in the side of their own profit that true training can help their freedom and revolutionary of that society. This thought with centre of some aspect like 'Emancipators education ""radical pedagogy "and" revolutionary pedagogy "going into the critical theory in different background education.

Although "critic" is one of the main aspects in democratic society and it means that a person be able to distinguish basic theories from non-basic on by clear logic and provide reasonable documentation for his theory. As "a fundamental problem in modern life by Paul Richard cites lack of logic, rationality, and lack of life has not been tested. He believes that people should learn how to speak and criticize of theories that every day uses in their life. He continues that the ability to analyse, and on assumptions and logic of basic life is tested "(Paul, p. 66, 1990).

3. Critical education theorists

Famous like Wolfgang Klafki, in Germany explain Critical education: the repeated thought about that how individual in society lead to individualism, freedom and individual happiness. (Mirlohi,NO. 491376) School of critical thinkers such as Paulo Freire, Marx, and Giroux & McLaren are trying to provide the background to strengthen critical thinking in society. But with regards each of these critical aspects of the community in developing its work. This theory have applications in the context " curriculum (Apple 1982,Ven Manen 1977) administration management (Foster 1986,1980) Bates, 1982; Giroux 1982) action research (and Kmys 1986) Teacher training (Baldwin, 1987, Educational Policy Analysis (Bronty 1985) planning (Wheeler 1982) Educational Theory (Bang 1989) and adult education Mazviour, 1985). (Beheshti, p. 411, 1386)

So critical theory and education now affect in each field of education. This idea that related to Marxism new work attracts some theorist that gradually goes from social science to educational. Thinkers from critical theory of Jürgen Habermas as the basis for design thinking into education are liberal education"". Liberal education that is one of the usual fields of education in Germany put as base of his educational thoughts. Habermas interest freedom that leads to release each person from connection to forcing things. "So then the freedom meaning is famous in educational views literature on liberating that knows as new left educational in Germany lead to an idiom centre. After that Herbert Marcuse and Ferire be able to inter critical theory in educational field and interest some thinker like Giroux, that his critical thought and critical education affect from Marcuse and Ferire thoughts but Giroux cannot like Ferire used critical theory as real shape in education in class, so Giroux critical theory is more abstract and philosophical. However, critical review of ideas for thinkers in education today, its impact in shaping the objectives, principles and methods of education is important.

Giroux as a critical theorist of American art have numerous books and articles in different fields looking to his work and paper like his famous book "introduction to postmodernism, feminism and cultural politics" show that all

educational and political groups should be able to play their role well in education. And have had a participation in the creating curriculum development

From McLaren view, schools soul changes to a place for creating critical science and political and social working. Also school should be effective for being social balance for all groups and destroying the social categories, racial, gender-oriented and ideas (McLaren, 1998, p, 445) Paulo Freire believed that:

Schools are not the absolute and precise, apart from the community. The school is a scenic community attitude that have infiltrated every aspect of their schools "(Freire 1973) As critic Paulo Freire writes:

The new sociology of curriculum strongly emphasizes that the schools are part of a process that should be within the broad social, economic - social judged .In addition, the curriculum itself must be seen as a part of the larger culture. "(Freire 1973)

"In short, progress-oriented teacher education, critical reactions against such a function is institutionalized. It tries to raise questions about educational institute and others about non balance of false power of opportunities and merits for most of students about belief governs technical that has been used in life on their internal favourite due to their persons and groups "(Nicholas, 1999)

Some writers, who strongly agree with this tradition, are people such as Paulo Freire, Henry Giroux, Peter McLaren and Vara Shro. In the Critical education language, the critic is a person who is in search of freedom and justice. Such a person can elaborate masterly, but a personal injustice to detect changes in the education of critical moves. (Ibid)

Giroux in an article entitled "Towards a New Sociology of curriculum" (1979) refers to the characteristics of such a curriculum. And explains some components of such practices of the new curriculum. Critics of the new sociology of the curriculum of their duty try to see what might be called a conceptual model of curriculum. First concepts are using to underlying the traditional paradigm as a guide for the curriculum. They insist that these concepts with a twist value judgments and questions about the nature of the ethical standards of freedom and control are linked. These assumptions imply that the coaches are just some ideas for their own ideas of structured curriculum use, but also a practical curriculum that these ideas are embodied in their thoughts.

The curriculum structure of any society is the society's culture and social history. The customs and culture and achievements of the past part of the curriculum form the basis of knowledge . Moreover, in equalities in power may govern the development of curriculum content provide field to induce a specific group of facts and opinions upon others.

This vision of a new curriculum that should re-take the test of relation between schools and the community about curriculum revision and this retaking should check in 2concepts. From one side it should attend to relationship between schools and dominant and in this field should attend to Guidance's that schools provide in their informal program and hidden program from the ideological and political view. From another side they should Emphasis on how daily study texts create new different meaning, Commitments, educational values and social relationships in relation between persons. (Giroux 1979)

From the perspective of Giroux, education process is political, whether aimed at creating a community of democratic equality. And critical education instead of denies policy language should have public education to a society with equality and democracy. He also believes that education is a critical project as a major issue of moral and ethics critical education should be considered (Rashidian, p. 723-724, 1382) Of what was in particular critical theory, critical education can be summarized as follows critical: Cultural studies, political education is the core of education. Ethics as an important part of education is critical pedagogy .

A new curriculum based on critical sociology, the traditional patterns of non-formal curriculum as well as patterns hidden values curriculum should be severely criticized and reconstruction.

The conditions for critical education role is to provide students both for the teachers in the virtual environment.

4. Critical pedagogy goals

The article mentioned in the previous section. However, some of the goals of critical pedagogy can be posed as follows:

Development of critical citizenship rather than just a good citizen

Due to social issues, political issues, particularly the text of every ethnicity and race, class

To help resolve the political hegemony of the dominant political groups and the poor and marginalized in their right mind

eliminate racial and ethnic groups and defend the oppressed and various community

change and restructuring in order to change the content of the curriculum content, aims and methods of curriculum -Defining new roles for teachers and students and help them in the direction of change in society

5. Principles of critical education

5.1-The anti-authority and hegemony: is one of the important principles of critical pedagogy to the rights of all people class. According to this principle as a teacher or any authority competent authority to influence and control over ideas and thoughts on class and students not curriculum. As was mentioned in the decisive, critical theory, critical pedagogy seeks to rule with authority and power to fight. The original can be called the anti-authority and domination raised in schooling

According to this principle, teachers, curriculum planners, and even a group of pupils to authority and domination over other groups do not have opinions of the tool. It also oversees the organization of space is also the class teacher in the classroom should be a way to change the current situation. Different sounds have different cultural needs. They must learn how to act in political debates, to participate actively, critically and ethically "(Giroux and Aronowitz 1991)

5. 2-the emphasis on the critique and criticism: one based on the tenets of critical theory in education can be used by teacher education "and the criticism of criticism" is and while teaching in class is considered. Evaluation of the mentor should not only protect the students in their learning is assessed. But also Analysis of questions asked students to consider and respond to criticism with criticism in this area is important. Examine ideas, teachers, books curriculum text, values and educational policies should govern the schools by all teachers, students, administrators and curriculum planners and so on Education is the most important issue in applying this principle.

5.3-The emphasis on "discourse & dialogue ": a discussion of what the traditional system of education in schools and what is important and critical postmodernism. Traditional systems of education in debate or discussion in the education group were considered. Giroux and other thinkers of critical theory believe that the knowledge, values and attitudes are much clearer with better dialogue. "In education, teachers, scholars critical of liberation, cultural brokers, transformative intellectuals, militants and intellectuals are the property of their courage and moral criticism. They provide conditions that are rethinking their experiences. Oppressive relationships and identify ways to overcome them to provide "(Dinarvand & Emani, No3, p. 166, 1387)

5.4- Relativity of knowledge and values: another important principles of critical pedagogy are relativity of knowledge and changes in knowledge, values and insights. This principle can be called the relativity of knowledge, and values. According to this principle, never knowing for granted and will not be considered definitive. The crucial task is the responsibility of teachers and students with their knowledge and criticized previous knowledge about their rehabilitation and re-creation. More precisely this new statement replaces the previous statement and the words previous knowledge. Lawrence Khen also mentioned. : Education as a means to political and cultural revival is a form of anti-memory "(Rashidian translation, p. 726, 1382)

6. Conclusion

The emergence of intellectual ideas in the political culture of any society has an impact on social relations. In recent years the emergence of critical thinkers with the win going to the education of social issues has also penetrated and

some changing has left behind Political and social developments in the field of education.

First views of critical thinkers in this paper is the decisive ideological. Objectives and principles of education after the recent important analysis has four basic principles, as a conclusion to these issues should be noted that despite the positive aspects of each school's view that can be educational shortcomings, including the feasibility of this theory, especially in the curriculum. But it is recommended that in order to learn more about these thinkers, Joint research, particularly in the field of critical theory and its implications in the areas of curriculum, especially in the context of hidden curriculum.

References

Aronowitz, Stanley and Henry Giroux (1991) Postmodern Education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (chapter 3,5). BeheshtiS. (1386), reflectionandcriticismin thephilosophy ofeducationinthe contemporary world, Tehran, information press (chapter, 31,32). Dinarvand .H, &Emani, M. (1387), decisive, critical theory, education and training from the perspective of critical view, Journal of the new ThoughtEducation, Volume 4, Number 3, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of AL Zahra University Tehran, Iran Pp 145-176.

Kouhen Lawrence, translated by Abdul Karim Rashidian(1382) From Modernism to Postmodernism, Ney Publication press, Tehran, Iran (chapter 41,42)

MirLouhi, H, (1376). Educational approaches based on critical theory, Quarterly journal of education, No. 49,Ministryof Education. Tehran, , Iran, pp 57-17

Marjani, Behnaz (1385). Critical theory in education, Journal of Modern Educational Thought, Volume 2, No 1-2, Tehran, Iran, pp71-90, Giroux, Henry and Peter McLaren (1994) Between Borders: Pedagogy and Politics in Cultural Studies. Rout ledge, New York (chapter 9,11) Giroux, Henry (1992) Border Crossings. Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education.: Routledge. New York Giroux, Henry (1979) toward a

new sociology of curriculum. copyright by the association for supervision and curriculum development, pp 248-253. Mclaren.p,(1998) revolutionary pedagogy in post-revolutionary times: rethinking the political economy of critical education .Journalof educational theory, 48(4), 431-462.

Nicholas C, & Berk (1999) critical thinking and critical pedagogy, Relations, Differences and limits. publishid in critical Theories in Education.

Thomas popkewitz and lynn fendler ,eds.routledge .New York Paulo,F (1973) pedagogy of oppressed, Seaburypress, New York. (chapter 6,7)

Paul Richard (1990) critical thinking, what every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world (Rohnent park,C.A :centre for critical thinking and moral critique)pp 65-95