Scholarly article on topic 'Low-Impact-Development as an Implementation of the Eco-Green-Tourism Concept to Develop Kampung towards Sustainable City'

Low-Impact-Development as an Implementation of the Eco-Green-Tourism Concept to Develop Kampung towards Sustainable City Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Wiwik Setyaningsih, Tri Yuni Iswati, Sriyuliani, Wiendu Nuryanti, Budi Prayitno, et al.

Abstract Kampung is an urban area (where a group of people lives) with an Indonesian settlement local identity. This characteristic of kampung has the potential to be an asset of the city tourism. The presented tourism potentials include the construction of social, cultural, environmental, and historical values. Development of the tourist-kampung, one of which is the case study in Kauman Surakarta, is still not optimal. This tendency is seen in the development of several regions that started to lose some local characters. Such character shifting is among others the changes in the function and region physical order due to the developments that neglects the environment. Therefore, this research is an applied research for the proper and integrated handling in the development of tourist-kampung. The purpose of this research is to make a model formulation of the tourist-kampung development through the low-impact-development, to put into realization an eco-green-tourism which supports the city sustainability. This research used the natural observation method with content and comparative analysis. Determining the location of the research is based on purposive random with considering the potential value of the local-wisdom characteristics that still exist and flourish. The analysis was performed through three stages. First, identified the potential tourist-kampung character dominance as a development in the tourism sector, which includes physical and non-physical aspects. Second, the empowerment of the community participatory potentials which roots in local-wisdom. Third, the arrangement based on the eco-green-tourism concept on the management of natural resources and an environmental-friendly physical development of the kampung area. The result of this research is the model formulation for the development policy of tourist-kampung, with a case study of the Kauman tourist-kampung. The policy model can be the tourist-kampung development pilot project in Indonesia. The application of the concept in this study can be implementation steps useful to enrich the eco-green-tourism concept.

Academic research paper on topic "Low-Impact-Development as an Implementation of the Eco-Green-Tourism Concept to Develop Kampung towards Sustainable City"

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ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 179 (2015) 109 - 117

International Conference Green Architecture for Sustainable Living and Environment (GASLE)

29 November 2014

Low-Impact-Development as an Implementation of the Eco-Green-Tourism Concept to Develop Kampung towards Sustainable City

Wiwik Setyaningsiha*9 Tri Yuni Iswatib? SriYulianib, Wiendu Nuryanti0, Budi Prayitno0, Ahmad Sarwadi0

"PhD Student in Architecture Department ofUniversitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) Yogyakarta, Indonesia bDepartment of Architecture, Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta, Indonesia cDepartment of Architecture,University Gadjah Mada (UGM) Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

Kampung is an urban area (where a group of people lives) with an Indonesian settlement local identity. This characteristic of kampung has the potential to be an asset of the city tourism. The presented tourism potentials include the construction of social, cultural, environmental, and historical values. Development of the tourist-kampung, one of which is the case study in Kauman Surakarta, is still not optimal. This tendency is seen in the development of several regions that started to lose some local characters. Such character shifting is among others the changes in the function and region physical order due to the developments that neglects the environment. Therefore, this research is an applied research for the proper and integrated handling in the development of tourist-kampung. The purpose of this research is to make a model formulation of the tourist -kampung development through the low-impact-development, to put into realization an eco-green-tourism which supports the city sustainability. This research used the natural observation method with content and comparative analysis. Determining the location of the research is based on purposive random with considering the potential value of the local-wisdom characteristics that still exist and flourish. The analysis was performed through three stages. First, identified the potential tourist-kampung character dominance as a development in the tourism sector, which includes physical and non-physical aspects. Second, the empowerment of the community participatory potentials which roots in local-wisdom. Third, the arrangement based on the eco-green-tourism concept on the management of natural resources and an environmental-friendly physical development of the kampung area. The result of this research is the model formulation for the development policy of tourist-kampung, with a case study of the Kauman tourist-kampung. The policy model can be the tourist-kampung development pilot project in Indonesia. The application of the concept in this study can be implementation steps useful to enrich the eco-green-tourism concept.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62821-1545-4949; fax: +0-000-000-0000 E-mail address: wiwikhermono@yahoo.co.id

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning,Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS). doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.414

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning,Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS).

Keywords: low-impact-development; eco-green-tourism; the tourist-kampung; sustainable city

1. Introduction

A historical district in urban architecture is one of the assets in tourist attraction that will provide a close bond continuity between past, present and future. Such is created with the idea of serial vision, which combines heritage tourism and cultural significance from works of architecture as a sustainable tourist -kampung. Development of a comprehensive tourist-kampung which combines various associated stakeholders has high influence on the potential increase of the local-wisdom. In fact, people tend to not yet pay attention and understand that the potential existence of this tourist-kampung local-wisdom can be packed as an eco-green-tourism asset with high value.

This research is done based on the descriptive exploratory method, content and comparative analysis that combines characteristic potential of local-wisdom with; the regional spatial development and the social-economic-culture and behavioral mapping, with an eco-green-tourism approach. Until now, no study has recommended the model formulation of the tourist-kampung development concept as the embodiment of eco-green-tourism. Thus causing the not yet appearance of any government and public policies which give attentions to the local-wisdom potentials that embodies eco-green-tourism in the tourist-kampung historical district. Therefore, this research which is also a model formulation of a tourist-kampung development as the embodiment of eco-green-tourism through the exploration of the local-wisdom domestication characteristics potentials (physical and non-physical) with the variable of eco-green-tourism, is an urgent research study to be done.

2. Research Theory and Methods

The research location is the historical district of Surakarta Kauman tourist-kampung, based on the dominant factor of domestic potential historical value of local-wisdom. The primary data of information on doers and key-persons, and also places and events, are in the form of physical existing study on the local-wisdom domestic potential region (regarding land-use, buildings and the environment) and also on the social-economic-culture and community-behavioral mapping. Secondary data are from various documents and related institutions. Primary data were obtained from interviews with local community leaders. Secondary data were obtained from journals and relevant references. Verification and data sorting were based on characteristics of the study area as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the local-wisdom domestication. And also the social-economic-culture mapping with interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. Group discussion techniques were used to capture the needs and aspirations of the community with the green-tourism approach.

Fig.l. Interactive method. Source: Miles & Huberman, 1992, redrawn by Setyaningsih, W., 2014

The Kauman residents who are mostly Muslims still hold strong kinship traditions hence forming a santri kampung. The characteristics that stand out are the number of Islamic activities and the strong Islamic life-norms in almost every household. The behavior of Kauman individuals and community groups reflects Islamic features (Nakamura, 1983 in Setyaningsih, 2012). Harmony are seen in their lives, either in social activities and even more in the field of religion in which the Islamic laws are obeyed; performed in mosques, langgar (small mosque), or at home. Until now the six langgar spread over Kauman are the; Sememen, Trayeman, Winongan, Hidayat, Gontoran,

The community structure in Kauman was initially divided into groups of gentry or nobles, and kawulo-dalem (ordinary people). Initially the garwo (the Ketibs' wife) were cultivated in making batik-fabrics as a home-industry for the needs of the palace. Later on with the changes in the palace structure; taken over by the Japanese during World-War II, the salaries were not fulfilled, hence the batik-fabrics were traded outside the palace. This becomes an attraction for teteko to participate in the trade as batik-fabrics merchants or entrepreneurs. Many teteko settled in Kauman working as kawulo-dalem to meet the palace needs. Some of them work as batik-artisan, tailors, embroiderer in the Blodiran kampung, and kuluk (Javanese hat) makers in the Gebangsan kampung.

In line with the city growth, both physical and non-physical shifting emerges, especially on the outskirts which many original residents and newcomers use as shops and trading area. Starting in 1988, since the issuance of the Presidential Decree 23, on the transfer of power from the Palace to the government, the influence of the Palace life is no longer tight, even the Kauman communities tend to rarely used nobility titles. Thus kinship and culture influenced the religious behaviors in Kauman. Newcomers tend to highlight more on the business character which

3.1. The Development of the Kauman Tourist-Kampung Strategic Area through the Low-Impact-Development

The position of the Kauman region is a strategic area in the city, namely the cultural triangle between the Kasunanan Palace - Mangkunegaran Palace - Pasar Gede, and lies at the heart of Surakarta. Geographically considering that the region is at the central of Surakarta, hence Kauman is planned as a place of commercial, trade, business, and services-industry, as far as without leaving the local-wisdom characters. Thus the expected changes in the facade shape and building function is hoped not to only optimize the commercial profit benefits, but must also follow correctly the rules of building and area revitalization. Every regional development must pay attention to the sustainability element and multiple effects by maximizing positive impacts and minimizing the negative ones. Therefore, the basic concepts in an integrated and sustainable area development can be developed, particularly in developing the Kauman tourist-kampung that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations. Sustainable development depends on three basic elements, namely: ecological integrity which could be realized if people (both individually and collectively) live in harmony with the natural environment; economic security that is the economic development to achieve the level that can control the society where individuals and groups can live on their own socio-economic conditions; and democracy where development

Application of Eco- Green Environment to touñst-kampung ......................¿—

-▼—

RECYCLE -REDUCE - REUSE

Waste management plant and efficient use of electrical power and water

• The implementation of the plant waste management system

• Applying good management of groundwater

• Efficient use of water to the lawn watering system and minimize the use of shrubs and herbaceous plants.

• Efficient use of electrical power for lighting outdoor space with the right selection of lamp type and sensor regulator.

Fig. 3. The application of the eco-green-tourism concept to Kauman kampung. Source: Setyaningsih, 2014.

3.2. Green Open Space Concept

Outside the spatial area that consists of several activity zones is planned as a continuous green line which has a graded hierarchy. The entry point to the exit would become the main orientation of area access. Orientations will be made continuously through the circulation, reaching to the vertices of activity within the region. Transitions between spaces are made to flow so that the large enough and distant feeling space scale is not a constraint. Therefore, landscape planning considers horizontal and vertical elements that can form a comfortable space scale and facilitate the orientation of view.

3.3. Circulation Concept

The entry and exit of the area is the main orientation and achievement tracks which consists of vehicles and pedestrians circulation. Regions need to be designed with convenient, safe, and attractive pedestrian movement paths. There are three criteria lines; first, the natural pedestrian paths (natural corridor) where the concept of natural pedestrian with comfortable and artistic supporting materials, which has the quality to water conservation. Second, the path with pedestrians and vehicles (lane way) which uses a mixture of track roads with the approach concept that can be applied in development space with limited safer land area for pedestrians and motorists. Third, pedestrian paths or roads for people, restoring the function of street as locus-solus (unique place) of communication, where the road is regarded as a meaningful space with character, in order to restore the road as a public-owned space.

3.4. Vegetation Concept

As one of the dominant component of the landscape, vegetation arrangement becomes important in shaping the landscape of space as a whole. Therefore, the grouping of vegetation will be adjusted according to the function and space allotment.

Table 1. Plant criteria accordance to its function

Function Criteria Type Vegetation

eye catcher aesthetic structured shade trees, large, crown lengthening, solid or transparent leaves, leafy shrubs, and beautiful flowering

forming micro climates and have aesthetic value elongated or vertical structure tress, branching well above the ground, dense leaf mass

aesthetically, shade and space-forming trees with a vertical structure, round, triangle, oval and elongated, medium-sized to large, solid mass or transparent leaves, leafy or beautiful flowering, flowering bushes and beautiful leafy shrubs

Barrier vertical structured tree, elongated, medium, large, leaf mass transparent, solid, beautiful flowering or leafy «

Direction vertical structure tree, branching high or without branch •p ..is*

Source: Setyaningsih, 2014

3.5. Lighting Concept

When an area functions at night, outdoor lighting becomes important to provide:

• security purposes

• visual comfort and aesthetic

• orientation

• accentuate the important areas

3.6. Landscape Components and Signs Markers Concept

Arrangements on the hierarchy of information should be based in accordance with the sequence of spaces which will start from the area entry and exit point. Proper information system makes it easy to reach an area or building. Markers are in the forms of; building and area sign-boards, sign interpretations, zebra-crosses, name-signs, road-signs, billboards, gates, traffic-signs, and inscriptions. Regional information is a detailed description of the area and so forth. The form of such information may include; information-boards, inscriptions, signage, and also electronic devices that contains a data-base of the region, and so forth. Other markers can be; monuments, fountains, ponds or waterscape, and so forth, which are meant to strengthen the designation of the area as tetenger (prominent signage).

Landscape components function highly in proper placement. Planning of landscape furniture are intended for the benefit of pedestrians and also two-wheels and four wheel users, which basically will be complementary components that meet the needs of the region. Landscape furniture is the furniture that is needed in public spaces so that social, cultural, economic and others activities can run more optimal. Public spaces require landscape furniture such as; road lights, pedestrian lights, garden lights, seats, bus-stops, public-phones, flower pots, and fences. Lights in the region need to be hierarchical, from; road lights, pedestrian lights, garden lights, up to building lights.

The area landscape is planned to provide an interesting gradation, natural contour shape and plants strata which does not change the existing condition. Building ornaments management maintains the ornamentation characteristic and decorative elements of the buildings to a minimalist protrusion. The local building materials should be used with

The wastewater and rainwater treatment is planned in such a way that the building area are free of waste; both residential buildings waste and rain puddles. The concept applied for drainage and rain water is "zero run-offs" where the rain-water is flowed into catchment-wells or catchment-area, and the rest into rainwater-tanks, which then can be used for lawn watering. Dirty water and also liquid and solid effluent from each building, are drained and collected into an STP (Sewage Treatment Plant); a waste-water treatment facility located in each building. The treatment system planned to be used is the "extended aeration activated sludge process". In this process, biological treatment is used to help bacteria in dissolving organic substances so that the resulting effluent can meet the specified quality standard. Furthermore, the effluent from the STP flows into the centralized WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant) for the filtration process, then distributed to a lower water-reservoir in each building for the usage of watering gardens and cooling tower water makeup. Infrastructure is the basic completeness for the physical environment that allows settlement to function properly. The provision of the minimum infrastructure that must exist in the Kauman tourist-kampung is adapted to the current and future infrastructure and activities there.

Parking provision for each zone and each activity are defined by general standards for each activity. In the Kauman tourist-kampung historical district, parking facilities are advised to be provided by any existing activity on every road, in the form of off-street parking. In certain road sections, on-street parking can be used, but still with considering avoidance of any congestion. Several roads can be allowed for on-street parking but only temporarily

Dimensions of road network and its completeness are determined by considering the function of the road, traffic volume, and zoning designation. In the Kauman tourist-kampung historical district, the building and road network has been formed. Pedestrian-path can be grouped based on the roads or locations that require large, medium, and small volume (dimensions). Under area conditions, the pedestrian paths dimensions are:

a. Large, namely the public space, and the Kauman kampung main axis, namely Trisula-Street, with the minimum

b. Medium, namely roads with commercial or recreational characteristics, namely Slamet-Riyadi-Street, and Alun-

c. Small, namely the secondary local roads, with a minimum dimension of 1.2 meters

Integrating Kauman into the city-walk (Slamet-Riyadi-Street) has been followed up with the planning and construction of Wijayakusuma-Street and Cakra-Street as a heritage-walk (heritage-road). Slamet-Riyadi-Street is traversed by the Surakarta-Wonogiri railway which is parallel to the road, and the rail-lines are on the road-shoulders. To anticipate the safety of road-users, treatments are necessary to those road-shoulders. The city-walk development in Surakarta can be supported with a wide pedestrian path around the benteng (fort) along with other infrastructures, such as park benches, lighting, shading plants, as well as other aesthetic supporting elements.

The main step to ground-water conservation is the provision of plants which can be done by planting trees and a garden around the house. The plants roots will hold water in the soil, so that water can be stored in the soil and does not flow out of the land. Plants that can be planted around the house could be medicinal plants, fruits, and flowers. Furthermore, making catchment wells. The working principle of the catchment wells is by catching rain-water and channeling it into holes or wells in order for the water to have more time on the surface before little by little seeping into the ground. The main purpose of the catchment wells is to enlarge the entry of water into the ground aquifer as the water infiltration. Thus, more water will enter the soil and little flow as surface runoff. Porous paving blocks or grass block can be use to cover the soil when needed. Grass block can be used in parking areas, pedestrian areas, and

so on. In addition, there needs to be bio-pores, where the cross-section bio-pores holes can also be used to create compost by inserting organic waste. It also helps prevent flooding and maintain the availability of ground water.

3.10. Concept Of Waste Management

The concept of recycle-reduce-reuse is an effective way of applying eco-friendly lifestyle. By applying those three actions consistently throughout the building elements, a green architecture desirable product is created. Household garbage will pose potential environmental and health hazards if not managed properly. Garbage is divided into; organic and inorganic, which then distinguished into; plastic, glass or metal, paper, and disposable.

Table 2. The Waste Management

CONTAINING COLLECTIONING REMOVING CARRIAGE

Individual cabin based on Wagon 1 m3 Transfer depot type Garbage truck

characteristic of waste transfer > (200 m2)

- As a substitute for - The collection of - The meeting place - Transporting waste

permanent containers (tub) individuals (from house for carts and trucks, from a transfer depot

- Placement in front yard for to house). not the temporary to landfill

easy access or in the home - Material steel frame or waste storage area. - Hydraulic mechanism

and taken out hourly or wood - Serves as: Office to speed up the

daily (1 house - 1 month) - Useful life of 3 years administration, process of waste

- Material plastic or - For the home, can be equipment storage demolition in landfill

polyester linen or fiber communal or semi- areas, and light - Age 3-5 years of

- Useful life of 3 years communal system fixtures. service

- Frequency of collection - Age 20 years of - Need workshop

every 2-3 days service facilities or centered

workshops

Source: Setyaningsih, 2014.

4. Conclusion

Tourism area development model scenarios include:

a. Region structure scenario, including: framework, network, area network hierarchy, hierarchy, solid concept of the central area or figure ground, urban linkage, green blue.

b. Urban landscape corridor scenario; structuring landscape corridors which include: green layout, lighting, road-furniture and signage.

c. Zoning and thematic sub-region scenario; to facilitate the area development required in each zoning, and naming each sub-region in accordance with the intended function.

d. Open space landscape system and green space scenario; landscapes are intervened as urban landscape as well as strategic region frame structure. Such landscape intervention is as a steering element, a liaison and a movement diverter of each core of the planning area. Vegetations are intervened-into as elements that reinforce the urban void figuration, such as squares, plazas, and corridors, which can act as a specific aesthetic language that can be very beautiful. The aesthetic effects created can be transcendental, expressing feelings of; love, tenderness, joy, tension, authority, and other nuances through detailed colors, shape-lines, shapes, proportions, and natural vegetation.

e. Linkage and circulatory system scenario; which is a design concept of circulation "system" and regional integration, in terms of integration of functions, activity, and physical.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the Director General of Higher Education through the Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta for funding this research for two years with the contract number: 165/UN27.1 l/PN/2013, dated: June 10, 2013.

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Setyaningsih, W. (2012). The Historic Area Conservation toward Heritage Tourism in Kauman Settlement Surakarta. Proceeding in International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning. ICIAP. UGM, Yogyakarta. 9 -10 July, 2012. ISBN 978-979-98815-5-7.