Scholarly article on topic 'Predicatives of the Workers’ Burnout Level: Life Satisfaction and Social Support'

Predicatives of the Workers’ Burnout Level: Life Satisfaction and Social Support Academic research paper on "Sociology"

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Abstract of research paper on Sociology, author of scientific article — Betül Gökçen Doğan, Emre Laçin, Nihal Tutal

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate whether social support and life satisfaction are predicatives of burnout levels of people working in various occupational groups. 116 people from three different occupational groups participated in the study. Data were collected by using Maslach Burnout Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Life Satisfaction Scale. According to the results of the multiple regression, social support and life satisfaction has moderate and positive correlation with burnout. These two variables explain 34% of the total variance of burnout. According to the standardized regression coefficient, the order of relative importance of predicative variables on burnout is life satisfaction and social support. Therefore, it can be recommended that psychological services for workers should be promoted.

Academic research paper on topic "Predicatives of the Workers’ Burnout Level: Life Satisfaction and Social Support"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191 (2015) 1801 - 1806

WCES 2014

Predicatives of the Workers' Burnout Level: Life Satisfaction and

Social Support

Betul Gok?en DOGANa Emre LA£lNa Nihal TUTALa

* Psychological Counselling and Guidance Departmant, Ankara University, Ankara, 06300, Turkey

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate whether social support and life satisfaction are predicatives of burnout levels of people working in various occupational groups. 116 people from three different occupational groups participated in the study. Data were collected by using Maslach Burnout Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Life Satisfaction Scale. According to the results of the multiple regression, social support and life satisfaction has moderate and positive correlation with burnout. These two variables explain 34% of the total variance of burnout. According to the standardized regression coefficient, the order of relative importance of predicative variables on burnout is life satisfaction and social support. Therefore, it can be recommended that psychological services for workers should be promoted. © 2015PublishedbyElsevierLtd. This isan openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCES 2014

Keywords:Burnout levels, Burnout, Social support, Life satisfaction

1. Introduction

Burnout has been defined in different ways. Freudenberger (1974) defined it as "an emotional exhaustion situation caused by failure, psychological burden, loss of energy and strength or unsatisfied aspirations by the human beings' inner sources whereas Maslach and Jackson (1981) described it as a syndrome meaning that human beings develop negative attitudes towards their environment and professions due to a long period in which they experience physical exhaustion and boredom and thus they feel desperate and lose their hope.

* Betul Gokgen DOGAN. Tel.: +90 (312) 363 33 50 / 3120. E-mail address: betulgokcen.dogan@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCES 2014 doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.705

In this context,bumout can be often observed in the people who have such jobs as teacher, nurse and social service expert who have to work in the environment where there is a huge amount of intensive emotional demand and where they should work with great care and attention for a long time as idealist people who want to do their best all the time to help people (cited by Aydemir, 2013; Qetin, Basim and Aydogan, 2011).This burnout situation has been examined in many studies in terms of the causes, results, the variables related to this situation and preventive and intervention services. In some of these studies, the relationship between burnout syndrome and social support (Altay, Gonener and Demirkiran, 2010; Duygun and Sezgin, 2003; Hamama, 2012; Kutsal and Bilge, 2012; Ozbey, 2012; Yellice, Kaner and Guzeller, 2011; Yurur and Sarikaya, 2011), and the relationship between this syndrome and life satisfaction (Afyon, I^ikdemir, 2013; Aydemir, 2013; Bennett, 2011; Ozyurek, Gumu§ and Dogan, 2012) have been examined. Yellice-Yuksel, Kaner, and Guzeller (2011), in their research, examined the effects of perceived social support and Professional competence beliefs on 212 special education teachers and 238 general education teachers' burnout level through structural equality model.The findings of this research showed that social support obtained by administrators and colleagues help teachers feel that they have more professional competence and thus they feel less burnout, In the same way, Torun (1995), in his study about family structure and social support and burnout level, found that when the opportunities to benefit from the coherence and social support in families are on the increase, people suffer from less burnout. Social support is a multidimensional term. Therefore, there is no shared definition among people about the functions of social support. However, generally, it can be said that social support is to provide the services that can help decrease the negative results of the stressful situations and events and improve the adaptive competence of the people by the individuals themselves and the related organizations (Kaner, 2007).Cohen and Wills (1985), in their study they conducted on adolescents, suggested that an increase in social support brings about an increase in the social adaptation and the increase in the social adaptation results in an increase in the self-respect level of adolescents. Therefore, it can be said that when social support channels are many in number, this can affect individuals' social adaptation in a positive way. According to Thoits (1995); social support is socioemotional devices and help given to individuals by their friends, family members, neighbors' and relatives who have important places in their lives. Individuals can avoid negative effects of stress and burnout syndrome through social support they get from people around them. It is known that when people perceive their professional groups and colleagues and administrators as more supportive, they suffer less from burnout syndrome (Leiter and Maslach, 1988). On the other hand, life satisfaction is related to individuals' attitudes towards their free time, work life, and the other fields of their lives.Life satisfaction is a result or situation that can be assessed by comparing the people's aspirations and what they really have. Generally, it includes people's whole life and various dimensions of this whole life. The term life satisfaction stands for not a satisfaction level at a specific moment or towards a specific event but a satisfaction level about the whole life (cited by Aydemir, 2013; Sahin, 2008). In other words, life satisfaction expresses individuals' psychological health and having positive emotions and attitudes towards their interpersonal relationships. According to Diener (1984), life satisfaction represents the cognitive side of the individuals' subjective psychological goodness with respect to their happiness. Subjective psychological goodness is depicted as individuals' self- assessment of their own life with a cognitive and affective point of view. In the related literature, there are a great number of studies examining the relationship between burnout level and social support and the relationship between burnout level and life satisfaction. However, there are a few studies in which these three variables are examined together. Bennet (2011) examined the effects of social support, life satisfaction and burnout on the Roman Catholics. In this study, it was found that social support and life satisfaction variables could be used as predictive variables to understand the workers' burnout level.

2.Method

In this study, the subjects, the theme and the participants were defined regarding their own conditions in which they acted as they really are. Therefore, this study is a survey. The participants were randomly chosen individuals and this sample was used to obtain results about the target population including a lot of people. Hence, universal screening model was utilized. Furthermore, since there were more than one variables and the relationship among them was examined, this study has a relational screening model.

2.1.Participants

The participants of the study include 116 people from different professional fields; most of them are academicians, lawyers, doctors and people working at banks. These 116 participants consist of 69 females and 47 males who are between 23 and 55 years old.

2.2 Data Collection Tools

• Personal Information Form: This form was developed by the researchers to obtain data related to participants' demographic information.

• The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support: Original form was developed by Zimet et al (1988) in the USA. Its adaptation to Turkish and all the related reliability and validity measures were realized by Qakir and Palabiyikoglu (1997); Eker, Arkar, and Yaldiz (2001). This scale enables to make a subjective assessment of the social support from three different resources. According to Eker, Arkar, and Yaldiz, in the scale, twelve items include three different social supports given by family, friends and private person and the total point taken by these twelve items stands for the perceived social support. The cronbach alpha coefficiencies for the whole scale .89 whereas the cronbach alpha for the whole study is .90.

• Life Satisfaction Scale: Diener et al (1985) developed the original form of the scale. In 1991, Yetim adapted the scale to Turkish. According to Yetim, the reliability of the scale (Alpha = .86) and test-retest method validity is .73. The top point that can be taken from the Life Satisfaction Scale is 35 and the bottom point is 5. The low point taken from the scale is accepted as low life satisfaction. The cronbach alpha value for the scale is .87. Maslach Burnout Scale: This scale was developed by Maslach and Jackson in 1981 and it was adapted to Turkish by Ergin (1992). In the original form, there were 7 answer choices. This was found inapplicable and inappropriate for Turkish culture. Therefore, in the Turkish form, there are five answer choices. As the points taken from the scale increase so does the burnout level. In the adaptation by Ergin, the alpha coefficiency for the scale of 22 items is .88 and for the whole study this value is .85.

2.3. Data Collection and Analysis

The scale designed online was applied to the researchers' acquaintances that have a job at the moment.

Data was analyzed through SPSS 17.0 package programme, multiple regression and T-test methods.

3.Findings

The T-test results showing the relationship between the burnout level and gender and marital status are presented in Table 1.

Table -1 T-Test Results of Burnout Level According to Gender and Marital Status

Variables N X S Sd t P

Gender female 69 29.12 11.73 114 .176 .86

male 47 28.72 11.80

Marital Status married 31 26.23 12.28 114 -1.525 .130

single 85 29.95 11.42

It is seen in Table 1 that there is no significant relationship between the burnout level and gender t(114)=0,176, p>.05. Similarly, there is no significant relationship between burnout level and marital status, t(114)=-1,525, p>.05. In Table-2, the correlation results related to the relationship between burnout level and perceived social support and life satisfaction are presented.

Table 2 Correlation Results Related to Burnout Level

Variables N p r

Social support 116 ,000 -.383

Life Satisfaction 116 ,000 -.539

In Table 2, it can easily be seen that there is a negative meaningful relationship at a medium level between the burnout level and the other two variables, perceived social support and life satisfaction. For social support, r=-0.38 p<.05, as the burnout level increases social support decreases. For life satisfaction, r=-539 p<.05, as the burnout level increases, life satisfaction decreases.

The multiple regression results related to the relationship between the burnout level and multidimensional perceived social support and job satisfaction are presented in Table 3.

Table-3 Multiple Regression Analysis Results Related to the prediction of burnout level

Variable

Standard Deviation

Binary r Partial r

static

Social support Life Satisfaction R=0,583

F(2,113) = 29,099

61.932 -0,125 -1,259

4,668 0,064 0,219

R2 = 0,34 p=.000

- 1,269

-0,235 -2,916 -0,464 -5,755

.000 .004 .000

-0,383 -0.27

-0,539 -0,48

In Table 3, it is observed that there is a medium level and negative relationship between burnout level and the multidimensional perceived social support (r=-0,38), when the other variable is checked, a low level negative relationship (r=-0,24) is found. There is a negative and medium level relationship (r=-0,54) between burnout level and life satisfaction and when the other variable is checked, a negative and medium level relationship (r=0-48) is observed. There are a medium level and positive relationship between social support and life satisfaction variables together and the burnout level points. R=0,58fl2=0.34 p<.05, so-called two variables stand for %34 of burnout total variance. According to standardized regression coefficiency, the importance order of (P) the predictive variables about burnout level is life satisfaction and social support, respectively. From T-test results showing the meaningfulness of the regression coefficiency, it can be seen that the two variables are strong predictive variables of the burnout level.

4. Discussions And Implications

In this study, the burnout level, social support and life satisfaction variables were examined not separately but together and from the results of the study, it can be understood that social support and life satisfaction variables can be utilized as predictor of the burnout level. According to the findings, the independent variables of the study explained 34 % of the burnout dependent variable. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the predictive power of the life satisfaction variable is more than that of the social support variable. According to the result of the study, a negative relationship between the burnout level and life satisfaction was observed. In the related literature, Aydemir (2013) and Av^aroglu, Deniz and Kahraman (2005) stated that when the level of burnout increases the life satisfaction level decreases. Therefore, it can be said that the findings of the study are in compliance with those of the previous studies. Work life occupies a huge place of individuals' lives. Hence, when people cannot feel satisfied about their job and work life, it will be difficult for them to feel satisfaction in the other fields of their lives as well. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that there is a negative relationship between the burnout level and the social support and this result is parallel with the results Yellice-Yuksel, Kaner, and Guzeller (2011) and Torun (1995) found in their studies. In some studies (Kirilmaz; Qelen; Sarp, 2003; Dolunay, 2002; Qokluk, 1999), it was

found that there is no significant relationship between the burnout level and gender variables in terms of statistics. Agaoglu, Ceylan, Kerim and Maden (2004), in their studies, suggested that male research assistants suffer more from burnout syndrome than female research assistants in exhaustion, depersonalization and personal success subdimensions. The results showed that life satisfaction and perceived social support are effective in the burnout level. These results were similar to the findings of the study conducted by Bennet (2011). The burnout syndrome most probably causes people not to get enough satisfaction from their lives and get enough social support from their beloved friends and family members. This situation affects people's lives negatively. It can be said that a positive perceived social support and life satisfaction decreases the level of burnout people suffer from. Undoubtedly, these results were obtained at the end of an academic attempt to describe the structure of the burnout syndrome but not to determine the cause effect relationship. In other words, although the results of the study showed the relationship between the burnout level and the two independent variables life satisfaction and perceived social support, the moderator effect of the burnout syndrome on the life satisfaction and perceived social support can be examined through structural equality model. The results of this study are important in several aspects. Initially, this is among the first studies examining the three variables at the same time in one study in Turkey. Secondly, due to the literature review realized in this study to support the results of the study, this study can open new doors for the career counseling psychoeducation workshops, in-services training workshops and counseling services that can support workers to be organized. As for the limitations of the study, it can be said that the most important limitation is the age distributions of the participants. In terms of the ages of the participants, there is no proportional distribution, which can affect the generalizability of the results. The same situation is observed in the job groups, too. In the future, this study can be conducted with different groups who show more variety in their demographic features such as different job groups, different age groups and different seniority years. The prospective studies can pursue the relationship between the burnout level and other variables.

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