Scholarly article on topic 'An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran'

An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Mojtaba Parsaee, Parinaz Motealleh, Mohamad Parva

Abstract The Bushehr city (Iran) had been the center of attention in different historical periods by foreign countries and central government due to political and economic strategic position in Persian Gulf. The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. So, the modernism process occurred in this city not long after it had emerged in Europe. So that, some buildings were built in the city which contained the features of modernism. This research, at first, introduces the former consulate of Britain (Sabzabad edifice) and discovers when the building was built based on a historical-interpretative method. After that, the principals of modern architecture are explained from the different theorists’ stand point and also the characteristics of early modern architecture in Iran are explained. Finally, by describing the Bushehr condition in the early arrival of modernism, a qualitative and adaptive comparison has been done between Sabzabad architectural mechanism and the principals of modern architecture and its features in Iran. Thus, Sabzabad edifice is regarded as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran. The results of this research demonstrate the political, economic and also the architectural status of Bushehr city in the process of modernism in Iran which has been neglected by researchers and historians thus far.

Academic research paper on topic "An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran"

HBRC Journal (2015) xxx, xxx-xxx

Housing and Building National Research Center HBRC Journal

http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj

An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran

Mojtaba Parsaee *, Parinaz Motealleh, Mohamad Parva

Department of Art and Architecture, Shiraz Branch Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran Received 25 November 2014; revised 9 January 2015; accepted 24 January 2015

KEYWORDS

Modern architecture; Bushehr; Britain consulate; Sabzabad edifice

Abstract The Bushehr city (Iran) had been the center of attention in different historical periods by foreign countries and central government due to political and economic strategic position in Persian Gulf. The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. So, the modernism process occurred in this city not long after it had emerged in Europe. So that, some buildings were built in the city which contained the features of modernism. This research, at first, introduces the former consulate of Britain (Sabzabad edifice) and discovers when the building was built based on a historical-interpretative method. After that, the principals of modern architecture are explained from the different theorists' stand point and also the characteristics of early modern architecture in Iran are explained. Finally, by describing the Bushehr condition in the early arrival of modernism, a qualitative and adaptive comparison has been done between Sabzabad architectural mechanism and the principals of modern architecture and its features in Iran. Thus, Sabzabad edifice is regarded as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran. The results of this research demonstrate the political, economic and also the architectural status of Bushehr city in the process of modernism in Iran which has been neglected by researchers and historians thus far.

© 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

* Corresponding author at: Sadra town, Shiraz, Fars, Iran. Tel.: +98 917 115 6195.

E-mail address: parsaeemojtaba@gmail.com (M. Parsaee).

Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National

Research Center.

Introduction

Sabzabad edifice is located in Sabzabad quarter in Bushehr city (Iran) which is used currently as a maritime museum by navy of Iran. This edifice is one of those historical buildings of Bushehr city which had been constructed in south of Iran by Britain government in order to do consular affairs and also for the ambassador's residency. The comparison between architectural mechanism of traditional city buildings and Sabzabad edifice revealed a lot of differences which are almost

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1687-4048 © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

new and modern in nature. So, it can be claimed that this edifice along with two other buildings (Malek edifice and Haft Bangeleh edifice), which was constructed in the vicinity of Sabzabad (in Bahmani quarter), exhibits the distinguished system of architecture in this region. Accordingly, the questions are: first, what historical period does the construction of this building had date back to? Second, what procedures had been employed internationally and nationally in Iran in this period of time? Third, what effects did these procedures have on architectural system of this building? The results of this research can clarify the state of Bushehr architecture in the architectural history of Iran. The research method is qualitative based on historical-interpretative analyses.

The Sabzabad edifice background and Bushehr condition

Bushehr city has an ancient historical background and the current city had been developed by king Nadir [1]. For a long time, the city had been considered significant by various foreign countries due to its strategic position in Persian Gulf and South of Iran. Hence, the governments of the Netherland, Portugal, France, Russia and Britain had used this city and the seaports near and far as a center for their political and economic relations [2]. Over ten foreign consulates and agencies had been located in Bushehr when the city was in its flourishing period although the locations of these agencies were unclear in documents [3]. The city had considered as a south gate of Iran for cultural relations and exchanging ideas [4].

Additionally, Bushehr was one of the first cities in Iran which experienced signs of new era (such as telegraph, electricity generating system, airplane, ice manufacturing companies) due to the development of maritime trading and political relations among Bushehr and the seaports of India, China and east Africa [5]. Therefore, Bushehr city must be considered as a pioneering city in Iran modernism history and also the modern cultural and communicational tools of European countries [6]. Moreover, the Britain, in comparison with other governments, had more and longer consideration and influences on Bushehr city. The government of Britain built and established lots of facilities and services in Bushehr so that Bushehr was changed into a city with distinctive

facilities and structure in Iran and it had been called the colony of Britain in Iran [7]. In fact, the city was the main center for British institutions in south of Iran whereas the house of Britain representative in Sabzabad, the buildings of telegraph facilities, the guardian ship of the port, which was docked in the harbor of this small port, and the other kind of such things, demonstrated the power and influences of Britain in this region [4]. Besides, English language was used as a communication tool for commercial activities in Bushehr [8]; hence, it was the only city of Iran that English language was used permanently [4].

Furthermore, the merchants of Bushehr built glorious edifices and villas inside and outside of Bushehr city (such as Bahmani quarter). Some of them contained the patterns and signs of Indian and European Building. So that, in comparison with other buildings in Bushehr, a distinctive architecture is seen in the three edifices of Haft Bangeleh, Malek and Sabzabad [3]. The remarkable point is that as a result of Russia influence, north of Iran had experienced some changes in its thoughts and also social, political and economic structure; similarly Britain and some other European governments made some changes in South of Iran especially Bushehr. So that Great Britain brought some modernity in this region for the purpose of further exploitation of Iran resources [2].

Sabzabad edifice, located in Sabzabad quarter, which is currently possessed by Iran navy as a maritime museum is a sign of this foreign governments' attention to Bushehr. Britain had resided in two main buildings, one of them inside the historical city and the other one outside, in Sabzabad quarter, which both are still existing [3]. The first settlement of Britain was in the first building and then they built the Sabzabad edifice [9]. Sabzabad edifice had been built in 1858 when Jones, the representative of Britain, prepared a new place for constructing the agency building of Britain in coordination with Tehran [10]. This building has been established in an upland, 10 km far from Bushehr (Fig. 1). At first, it was for residency of Britain representative but later it was changed to use as a permanent seat of consulate [2]. Sabzabad edifice and the other buildings and facilities of Britain in Bushehr show their power and influences in that region. The ambassador of France in Iran, 'Arthur de Gobineau', said that this beautiful house in a European style with veranda and some

Fig. 1 Sabzabad edifice (photograph by authors).

columns in front had been built for the residency of Britain representative, and also another house had been built for his deputy and along with an appropriate residence for his doctor and the other relatives [2]. By these two buildings, he meant the belvedere building which was located near the main building

(Fig. 2).

Sabzabad edifice with an area of about 13 acres was built in two levels on an upland, about one kilometer far from sea with a beautiful view [9]. Belvedere building was built in one level, with about 150 m distance from the main building and also has more private spaces with a backyard, a pond and a garden in the back [3]. Although the documents mentioned that Sabzabad edifice was supposed to build in an English-Indian style [7], it was built based on a modern style with some inspiration from Bushehr architecture and totally it is an Iranian modern building. In order to prove this point, the architectural system of the building will be analyzed in this research.

The principals of modern architecture

Most of the historians and critics believe that modernism emerged in Europe as the consequences of the changes and transitions which were made in the structure of society, culture, politics and economy and also the industrial revolution and its consequences [11]. The results of these transitions created a new kind of lifestyle for human as Giedion [12] believes that a global civilization which grows new traditions and spatial imagination is being formed, although it has not been progressed in all countries at the same pace. The main goal of modern architecture is providing new dwelling for human in the new modern world [13]. The involving factors and situations in the formation of modern movement and thought, are illustrated in Table 1.

Although it is unable to indicate the begging of modern architecture in a specific time and place or in a work of a certain person, it can be said that the first step of modern architecture was appeared in the works of Chicago architectures group in United State, and Art Nouveau in Europe [14]. This step was produced by pioneers such as William Morris, Louis Sullivan, Le Baron Jenney, Victor Horta, Otto Wagner and August Pere [12]. Following these movements and especially after World War 1, the modern architecture had been flourished and reached its zenith by the works of such pioneers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies

Van der Rohe and Alvar Aalto, and also the establishment of the international congress of modern architecture (CIAM1) was another contributing factor in this regard. Consequently, the principals of modern architecture were proposed clearly and obviously in this period of time [12]. Le Corbusier explained five principals in modern architecture as below [11]:

(1) Pilotis.

(2) Roof gardens.

(3) The free designing of plan.

(4) The horizontal window.

(5) The free design of facades.

From Schulz's [13] point of view, in fact, the free designing of plan makes the new spatial imagination objective. Free plan is like a principal or 'method' of spatial organization and in itself is of little help in varied functional adaptability. Generally in the past, spatial organization was formed by considering the central space and the axis which had a direct connection to center, so that it produced symmetric and static composition. By free plan, the static balance of central and axial symmetries had expired. It is essential for free plan to create interactive relation between inside and outside and even eliminate any kind of the apparent differences between those two. The concept of continuous and converging space is the main condition of developing the free plan and flexibility is the secondary feature of the free plan. Therefore, the major features of free plan are 'Continuity, transparency, interaction and distinction and briefly the synchronization of places' [13].

The free plan, in arrival level, had to be kept in face to the forms which had in risks of returning to the self-sufficiency of static, potentially; hence the symmetric units and formations had forbidden [13]. Moreover, Charles Jencks compared the features of modernism, late modernism and postmodernism with each other in a table and mentioned these points for modernism [15]:

'International style or non-style, sprite of time, explicitly and direct relation, simplicity, abstract form, purity, against ornaments, against historical impressions, form and not mass, transparency, non-symmetric and in order, continuity and balance'

1 The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne.

Table 1 The causes that engendered modern movement and thought in architecture.

Scholars Factors and situations

Curtis [1] • Emphasizing on the idea of developing (the modern building must represent the feature of its era) • Mistrust toward the tradition of Renaissance and the partiality theories in that field • Industrial revolution and new methods of constructing • New needs and issues and alternation in the social, economic and political structures • Creating new styles and avoiding imitating or duplicating the past

Benevolo [2] • Rejecting traditional thoughts and historicity • Separating from the past and refrain imitating the past styles • Technical, social and cultural developments resulted from industrial revolution • The idea of creating new style • Minimum use of ornaments

Giedion [3] • Growth and emerging the tradition • Redefining the human values in architecture and urbanism • Adapting the human life with the requirements and facilities of its era • Defining the new relation with the past (expressing the inner continuity of the past and present) and avoid imitating it • International architecture and new spatial imagination • Considering the formal compositions and optional form

Norberg-Schulz [4] • Sense of relief in new world (identifying itself by natural and social environment) • Providing new settlement in new world for human • New international condition for building and rejecting the past forms • New spatial and formal imagination • Believe in logic in modern art and scientific studying of artistic phenomenon • Enhancing the dualities of logic and emotion

Ghobadian [5] • Influences of Renaissance era and advent of rationalism, humanism and realism • Avoid from religious • Scientific tendencies • Enlightenment era • Industrial revolution

Modern architecture arrival to Iran

Along with political, social and economic transformation in Europe, Qajar government has been established in Iran [16]. Amir Kabir's actions laid the foundation for the arrival of modern thought in the early region of Nasser-Al-Din Shah [17]. In fact, Qajar encountered to powerful European governments which had been formed due to profound social, political and economic reformed and industrial revelation achievements. These countries looked for further expansion and influences in the world, so that they inclined to Iran government because of Iran strategic situation which had accessibility to Persian Gulf, China and India [18]. The Netherland, Britain, France and Russia were such countries which had wide political and economic relations with Iran and had remarkable influence on it [16]. Abbas Mirza, the crown prince of Qajar, felt that western-style changes were needed in political, social and economic structure of Iran in that period. Thus, he is regarded as the founder of modernism in Iran [17]. Some reasons, which led Iran to a modern society (however it seemed Syncretistic), can be listed in Table 2.

Thus, profound changes had been made in political, social and economic structure of Iran during Qajar era which were, mostly, the results of outer transitions not inner ones [18]. So that, modernism in Iran architecture started from Qajar

era as a result of increase in Iran and Europe relation and the early new architectural styles imported to Iran through Russia and Caucasus and then from Bushehr and Persian Gulf [19]. In fact, the architecture and urban design changed in order to provide the needs of society; hence, some buildings appeared in Tehran which contain west architecture elements [20].

Ghobadian [21] divided the Qajar era into 3 periods. The first period started from 1785 to 1850, the second one from 1850 to 1881 and the third one from 1881 to 1925. Some of the significant early samples of the buildings in Tehran which were built based on these transitions and also their approaches to western style, are palaces and mansions of Arg such as residence of Nasser-Al-Din Shah, Arg square, Shamsolemareh mansion, school and mosque of Sepahsalar, Baharestan mansion, Daar-al-fonon school, Firoozeh palace, Yaghoot palace and Eshrat-abad palace [17]. Along with Tehran, Bushehr had experienced some of that transitions, too. These transitions imported in urbanism and urban design, too, and formed cities and streets based on European concepts so the 'Tehran style' was the result of that. Indeed, the new concepts had been created in urban morphology related to new functions such as cinema, telegraph, theater, and also new modern technologies such as transportation systems [18]. Table 3 clarifies the features of early modern architecture samples in Iran.

Table 2 The reasons which led Iran to a modern society.

Scholars

Reasons

Habibi [6]

Ghobadian [7]

Bani Masoud [8]

The domination and influences of European colonial governments in Iran

> The tendencies of politicians and merchants in relation to Europe and visit it

European graduated students and academic education arrival in Iran universities

The entering of European advisors and engineers to Iran

Importing the new technology such as telegraph, telephone, printing

machine.

Emerging the new functions such as cinema, theater, bank, hotel.

Entering the Foreign counselors

Sending the educators and labors to abroad

Constructing some new industrial institutions based on new style

Translating the foreign books to Persian

Coming of the European and Armenian merchants and missionaries to Iran

Infrastructural and qualitative reformations and changes in government structure

Social, cultural and economic structures reformation (new educating system and establishment of school and university) Colonial influences of foreign countries, especially British and Russia European Travels of the King, courtiers and merchants Importing the new technologies

Organizing the stable and powerful central government Attending and entering the powerful European governments to Iran

> Sending the Iranian students to Europe and reforming program of 'new system'

> Using the foreign counselors and technicians

Establishment of new university, factory and institutions based on European style

Traveling to Europe (The king, courtiers, merchants) Importing new inventions and technologies

Political, social and economic reformations and western capitalists influences

Table 3 The features of early modern architecture samples in Iran (from 1785 to 1925).

Scholars

Features

Habibi [6] and [9] • Modernization and tend to modernity

• Innovation in a traditional architectural method

• Indigenous interpretation from the European architectural styles

• Rise of western architectural elements in the architecture of buildings

• Eclectic architecture

• New functions and buildings such as theater, cinema.

• The embassies of European countries and special architecture of their building, especially Britain and Russia Ghobadian [7] • Appearance of European elements in architecture

• The influences of European arts and architecture

• Combining the symbols of 'Isfahani' method with European styles (neoclassic style)

• Using abstract and realistic ornaments

• Traditional and European materials

• Locating the stair in the main axis of building

BaniMasoud [8] • The advent of eclectic or hybrid forms (creating hybrid concepts and forms)

• The emergence of some kind of external demonstration of western concepts along with inner dependence to the past

• Tendency to European styles and some imitation from European palaces and buildings, especially France

• Increasing spatial creativity and space diversity

• Architectural evolution in fields of openness, transparency and lightness of spaces

• Declining in architecture in field of proportions, sizes, shapes and ornaments

• Entering new elements and functions in the structure of the city

Table 4 The factors and situations which were put Bushehr in the process of modern movement arrival in Iran. Factors and situations

• Political relations and entering the European governments such as Britain, France, the Netherland and Russia

• Economic and commercial relations with foreign nations such as India, north of Africa and China

• Importing new technologies to the city which are the first time imported to Iran same as electricity generating system, airplane.

• Some new functions such as cinema

• The interest of Bushehr merchants in European styles and constructing similar edifices

• Locating the consulates and political and economic agencies of various countries (Britain, Russia, Portugal, France) with their special architecture

Table 5 The analysis of architectural physical structure of Sabzabad edifice.

Analyze Results

Building configuration • The orientation of building is toward a sea in main view (west facade, Fig. 2)

• Based on the building plans (Fig. 3), the general form was resulted from a free and fluid

composition of two pure rectangular cubic forms which were linked in one head

• The form of the building is a combination of open, semi-open and close spaces (Fig. 4)

• The building has a compact form and does not have any central courtyard (in contrast, the

central courtyard is common in Bushehr traditional architecture and the form is created

based on central courtyard)

• Symmetry was not considered in plans and form, although the building is integrated

and balanced, totally (Figs. 3 and 4)

• The building has a veranda in south and west facades which are like a shell for inner spaces

(two-shell form)

Ventilation and lighting • All the spaces have openings in each side which provide ventilation and lightening (same as

the spaces in Bushehr traditional buildings)

• Every space is lighting by the openings in each side. Therefore the spaces are

fully transparent

• The deep veranda, in south and west facade (Fig. 5), controls the sunlight and provides

shadow for inner spaces, so that they stay cool

• In the other facades, the window is placed only in depth of the walls and there are no signs

of veranda or Shenashira (in traditional architecture of Bushehr, Shenashir is a common

element [10]), although the semi-open spaces have done a same function as Shenashir

Ornaments and details • There are low or even no ornaments in facades or inner spaces

• The details of openings are same as in Bushehr traditional architecture except the glasses

whereas in Bushehr traditional openings the colorful glasses were used

• There are no rectangular meshb above the openings

• In some spaces, there is a fireplace which was new and European elements and it was not

seen in Bushehr traditional buildingsc

• Around the fireplaces, there is a tiling which was tried to show the fireplace as Iranian

and local elements

• There is a U type stair in lobby with a decorative railing which is made of wood, entirely.

The steps of stair are wide with low height. Ground floor and first floor are connected by this

stair. The stair is not continued to roof

• The type, proportion, ornaments and also the position in spatial organization are creative

and novel and it does not have similar sample in Bushehr traditional architecture

• The stair with new and appropriate proportion is located in main entrance and lobby

symbolically (see Fig. 3)

Proportions and scale • The spaces proportions are similar to Bushehr traditional architecture. The ratios of width

to length are about 1 by 2 or 1 by 3. The height of spaces is about 4 m

• The openings proportions (windows and doors) are similar to traditional architecture

of Bushehr (the ratio of width to height is about 1 by 2) [11]

Material and color • The materials are local and same as those in traditional buildings

• The buildings are covered with a grayish-white coating

• The structural system and construction technology are same as Bushehr

traditional buildings

a In traditional architecture of Bushehr, Shenashir is a semi-open and interfacing space between interior and exterior space and it is like a

veranda that is made of railings and canopies by wooden material [25].

b The rectangular mesh is a kind of fixed, lattice and colorful window which is placed above the openings proportionately and it is common in

Bushehr traditional buildings (Parsaee et al. [22]).

c However, as it mentioned above, some merchants, who had economic relations with foreign countries, used these new elements such as

fireplace in their buildings (such as Dehdashti and Rashidi mansions).

Fig. 3 The plans and spatial organization of Sabzabad edifice. A: The current status of building (produced by the administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of Bushehr province) and B: The basic status of building without changes (corrected by authors based on the current status plans).

Modern movement features in Bushehr

As it was mentioned above, Bushehr had a strategic position in Persian Gulf and it was considered significant by the central government and also foreign countries in Qajar era more than before. Hence, the city was placed in the way of some transitions which were made by inner and outer factors. In fact, the transitions which were made in Bushehr were similar to

those in Tehran as a capital city. On the other hand, the social and cultural structure of Bushehr could have adapted to these transitions and created an interaction. Table 4 illustrates the factors and situations which put Bushehr in the process of modernism arrival in Iran.

By comparing Tables 2 and 4, it is obvious that the factors and situations in Bushehr were similar to those factors in the process of modern movement arrival in Iran, especially in

Fig. 4 The composition of forms and the open, semi-open and close spaces (designed by the authors).

Fig. 5 West facade, deep veranda, no ornaments, opening similar to Bushehr traditional buildings without colorful glasses and rectangular mesh above (photograph by authors).

Tehran as a center of process. Therefore, Bushehr must be considered as well in this process.

The analysis of Sabzabad edifice

To analyze Sabzabad edifice, at first, field studying had been done and then the documents were checked with the recent

condition in order to reveal the changes and discover the basic building. After that the architectural mechanism of building had been analyzed in two parts. One is physical structure and the other part is spatial organization. Besides, the analysis method is based on the method which was used by Parsaee et al. [22] and also the other method which was used by Ghaffari et al. [23]. Additionally, the space syntax method,

Fig. 6 The space syntax in Bushehr traditional architecture (left, [22]) and Sabzabad edifice (designed by the authors). A: Accessibility pattern on ground floor and B: Accessibility pattern on first floor.

Table 6 The analysis of architectural spatial organization of Sabzabad edifice.

Analyze

Results

Spatial organization

Spaces sequence

Functional areas classification

Private and public zones Circulation system

Behavioral pattern

• The spaces were organized linearly from the lobby and the spaces were organized around the lobby and the corridors (see Fig. 3)

• There is a corridor behind the stair in the lobby of ground floor which is accessible by passing under the stair. The corridor links to some rooms and the backyard

• The space syntax is analyzed based on justice graphs. Therefore, the spaces sequence in Sabzabad edifice and traditional architecture of Bushehr are illustrated in Fig. 6. This comparison figure demonstrates the differences between space relations in both Sabzabad edifice and traditional architecture, as well, although they are both located in one region

• The depth of space relations is diminished compared to traditional architecture of Bushehr

• The spaces relation in Sabzabad edifice is created close and compact based on lobby but in Bushehr traditional architecture the spaces relation is open and widespread based on central courtyard

• The entrance was connected to the lobby without any filter or pre-space while in Bushehr Buildings there was an intermediate space (vestibule or corridor) between entrance and courtyard

• It can be claimed that the connection between inside and outside is created explicit and direct in Sabzabad edifice (see Figs. 3 and 6)

• There is no classification same as in traditional buildings of Bushehr, although first floor has more spaces for winter settlement

• It seems that the spaces, which are located on south and west sides, were used for living rooms and guest rooms and the east and north sides were used for services functions such as kitchen, storage, Bathroom and restroom

• The public spaces were organized on south and west sides and private spaces were organized on east and north sides

• The access to some spaces is done by the corridors and lobby (see Fig. 3)

• The access to some spaces is done by passing another spaces (see Fig. 3)

• The ground floor and first floor are connected through two stair boxes in which one of them is located in main axis of entrance and the other is in corner

• The connection between first floor and roof is done only through the corner stair box

• There is no evident that shows similarity between the behavioral pattern in this building and those in traditional zone, although it seems that first floor was used for winter settlement, mostly

• There is a semi-open space in first floor for seasonal living which is similar to Tarmeha, in Bushehr traditional architecture

a Tarmeh is a space which has at least one open side and sometimes has no roof. It is used as a temporary seasonal living, corridor or to connect several spaces [25].

Table 7 The result of Sabzabad edifice analysis. Architectural features of Sabzabad edifice

Attendance to form and form composition instead of working on mass Free and fluid forms and using pure forms

New spatial organization and spaces sequences and eliminate central courtyard Non-symmetric

Simplicity and avoid using ornaments in inner spaces and facades Explicitly and direct relation between inside and outside Transparency in inner spaces and form

Emerging new elements such as fireplace, entrance lobby and decorative stair Locating the stair in the main axis of building

Using some elements and features of indigenous architecture and reproduce them creatively (innovation in a traditional architectural method) Some similarities among architectural elements, spatial organization, behavioral patterns, materials and structures with traditional architecture

based on justice graphs, has been used in order to analyze the spatial organization. This method was extracted from Steadman, Bill Hillier & Julian Hanson work [24]. Tables 5 and 6 illustrate these analyses.

After that, the results of analyses above clear the features of Sabzabad edifice. Thus, Table 7 shows these features. Finally, based on a comparison between Tables 1, 3 and 7 and also the features of Bushehr traditional architecture (which extract from the work of Parsaee et al. [22]), there are evidences that the features of Sabzabad edifice are similar to those of the early modern architecture in Iran; therefore, it can be claimed that Sabzabad edifice is one of the first samples of early modern architecture in Iran.

Conclusion

The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. These changes made in different fields of politics, economy, society and also architecture. Sabzabad edifice was resulted from those changes in architecture. Sabzabad edifice was the former consulate of Britain in the past and was built by that government in Bushehr. The architectural mechanism of the building is new and novel and also contains some basic differences in comparison with traditional architecture of Bushehr city. This issue has been demonstrated by analyzing the architectural mechanism of the building and then a comparative study has been done between the features of Sabzabad edifice with three areas which are the principals of modern architecture, the features of early modern architecture in Iran and the features of Bushehr traditional architecture. In this process, the principals of modern architecture and the architectural features of the new samples of that in Iran had been surveyed. Therefore, the analysis has indicated that the features of Sabzabad edifice are conformed to modern architecture principals and its features in Iran. Moreover, this building has a different architectural mechanism in comparison with Bushehr traditional architecture although there are some similarities, too. Finally, Sabzabad edifice is identified as one of the early modern architectures in Iran that it illustrates the status and influences of Bushehr city in the process of modern movement and modern architecture arrival in Iran.

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgment

This article has been extracted from the master degree thesis

that was done in Shiraz branch Islamic Azad University.

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