Scholarly article on topic 'Poster Session Abstracts'

Poster Session Abstracts Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Academic research paper on topic "Poster Session Abstracts"

Poster Session Abstracts

THE ROLE OF THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IN EMOTION-MODULATED RESPONSE INHIBITION

Jacobo Albert1, Sara Lopez-Martin1, Daniel Montoya2, & Luis Carretie1 1Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 2Fayetteville State University

riptors: ERP, response inhibition, emotion

aim of the present study was to examine the precise contribution of the ACC to tion-modulated response inhibition by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the t-related potentials (ERPs) and recent advances in the reconstruction of electrophys-acal sources. To this end, participants (N = 30) performed an indirect affective go/ ) task that required the inhibition of a motor response to three types of visual stimuli: ising negative (A-), neutral (N), and arousing positive (A+). Behavioral analyses aled that subjects made more commission errors to A+than to N and A-. ERP source yses showed that a specific region of the ACC at the intersection of its dorsal and al subdivisions was significantly involved in the interaction between emotional prong and motor inhibition. Specifically, activity reflecting this interaction was observed Le P3 time range, and was greater during the inhibition of responses to A+than to N A-. Moreover, regression analyses showed that inhibition-related activity within this region was associated with the emotional valence of the stimuli and with behavioral armance. The present results provide additional data for understanding how, when, where emotion interacts with response inhibition within the ACC. research was supported by grant PSI2008-03688 from the Ministerio de Ciencia e >vacion (MICINN) of Spain. MICINN also supports Jacobo Albert through a Juan de ierva contract (JCI-2010-07766).

Poster 2

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2011 POSTER SESSION I

Poster 1

TERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX CONTRIBUTIONS TO EMOTION AND RESPONSE INHIBITION

Sara Lopez-Martin, Jacobo Albert, Manuel Tapia, & Luis Carretie Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

criptors: ERP, inhibition, emotion

goal of the present study was to explore the specific contribution of the ACC to emotional

essing and response inhibition while participants performed an implicit emotional Go/ ¡o task. Temporal principal component analysis was employed to detect and quantify, in a ble manner, those ERP components associated with response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3). lequently, sLORETA was applied to N2 and P3 in 16 regions of interests (ROIs) within \CC and the functionally related areas of the medial wall. First, ROIs associated with anse inhibition were primarily located in the dorsal region of the ACC, whereas ROIs ciated with emotional processing were distributed throughout the ACC. Second, reise inhibition effects on ACC activity were more extensive than emotional effects: whereas nvolvement of the ACC in conflict monitoring- and inhibition-related processes ( reflected 2- and P3-related activity, respectively) was observed in all ROIs, emotional effects were shown in three specific regions. These results suggest that the ACC is conspicuously lved in inhibition-related processes during emotional response inhibition, regardless of ulus type and task characteristics. By contrast, the effects of emotion on ACC activity are precise and probably more dependent on the task and experimental conditions, nowledgements. This research was supported by grant PSI2008-03688 from the Minio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) of Spain. MICINN also supports Jacobo Albert ugh a Juan de la Cierva contract ( JCI-2010-07766).

Poster 3

'CHO PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING PANIC ATTACKS IN PATIENTS WITH PANIC DISORDER AND AGORAPHOBIA

Jan Richter, Christiane A. Melzig, & Alfons O. Hamm University of Greifswald

riptors: panic disorder, panic attack

ic attacks are the key feature of panic disorder. However, little is known about the course of physiological responses immediately before and after panic onset. Fur-more, until now no study measured modulation of startle blink magnitude in the ext of panic attacks. In a multicenter study 345 patients suffering from panic dis-r and agoraphobia were investigated during a standardized behavioral avoidance in which patients were instructed to remain in a small, dark and closed chamber as as possible. Overall, 45 patients reported post hoc a panic attack during the ex-jre period. Of those, 26 patients marked 34 panic attacks by pressing a panic button tie. Already during first minute of exposure panicking patients differed from those who did not panic: while they showed significantly larger heart rate increases from the end of an anticipation period, panicking patients' startle reflex potentiation was sig-

nificantly smaller. Second by second analyses revealed that panic attacks were accompanied by a significant heart rate increase that, interestingly, started 20 s prior the button press and peaked out 20 s afterwards. However, startle reflex did not modulated significantly during this time course. The results are discussed with reference to the modern learning theory of panic disorder as well as to the threat-imminence-model. Funding provided by German federal government, Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (DM3-FNEU02).

Poster 4

TO SAY "IT'S SAFE'' DOESN'T MAKE IT SAFE — IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTED FEAR PARADIGMS

Elisa C.K. Steinfurth, Julia Wendt, & Alfons O. Hamm University of Greifswald

Descriptors: instructed fear, safety, amygdala

The inability to differentiate between safe and threatening contexts and the exaggerated anticipation of undesirable events are main characteristics of anxiety disorders. Therefore, it is of crucial interest to find out more about the experience and the neural substrates of safety. The current fMRI study implemented an instructed fear paradigm to investigate differences between threat and safe contexts. Twenty right-handed participants were instructed that an orange slide indicated a high likelihood for an aversive stimulus whereas a blue slide indicated that there would not be an aversive stimulus. During the rest period participants were instructed to relax. No aversive stimuli were applied during the whole experiment. Participants' subjective ratings revealed lower feelings of tension and anxiety in safe compared to threat conditions. On a neurobiological level, we focused our analysis on emotion processing regions. We observed enhanced insula and amygdala activity in threat compared to safe conditions. However, both ROIs showed the least activity during relax conditions. Taken together, the subjective data indicates that the safe condition is perceived as safe. However, prolonged BOLD activity in the main emotion processing brain regions suggests that there is still brain activity related to emotions in safe conditions. Therefore, future instructed fear studies should consider that the instruction 'there are no threat stimuli' might not be sufficient to induce a safe context.

Poster 5

DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF ATTENTION ON AMYGDALA RESPONSES TO PICTURES OF EMOTIONAL SCENES AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

Julia Wendt, Martin Lotze, & Alfons O. Hamm University of Greifswald

Descriptors: amygdala, attention

Pictures of emotional scenes and facial expressions are commonly used to investigate emotional processing. Startle and SCR data suggest that emotionally evocative scenes may be more prone to actually trigger an emotional response than facial expressions which may primarily induce an emotion recognition process. To differentiate amygdala function in both processes we investigated the influence of directed attention on processing of pictures of emotional scenes and facial expressions. One group viewed erotic, neutral and threatening scenes (IAPS pictures) and was instructed to silently count one of the image categories in each ofthree conditions to control for the attention direction. Another group viewed happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions using the same counting paradigm. Whereas processing of erotic scenes evoked pronounced amygdala activity independent of instructed attention, threatening scenes only triggered stronger amygdala responses than neutral scenes when being counting targets. Angry expressions evoked stronger amygdala activity than neutral and happy ones, which was not influenced by instructed attention. In contrast, amygdala responses to neutral expressions were clearly modulated by the counting instruction. Overall, amygdala activity was determined by evolutionary relevance (erotic scenes, angry faces) and task difficulty (neutral faces). Hence, the amygdala seems to represent a cumulating area for bottom-up and top-down processes reflecting both automatic significance detection and controlled attention allocation.

Poster 6

SUBJECTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE PATTERNS TO THE SENSATION OF DYSPNEA IN HIGH AND LOW ANXIETY SENSITIVE INDIVIDUALS

Manuela G. Alius1, Christiane A. Melzig1, Andreas von Leupoldt2, & Alfons O. Hamm1 1University of Greifswald, 2University of Hamburg

Descriptors: anxiety sensitivity, resistive loads

Although respiratory sensations are of high relevance to etiological models of anxiety, responses of anxious populations to resistive loads have rarely been studied. We, therefore, compared physiological and subjective responses to the sensation of dyspnea induced via inspiratory resistive loads in 20 persons high in anxiety sensitivity (AS) and 22 low AS controls. Participants were exposed to 3 individually tailored loads that were

rated as strong, very strong or maximally tolerable. During repeated 3 min exposure and 3 min recovery periods respiratory parameters (e.g., tidal volume, respiratory rate (RR)) and SCL were recorded. Participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea as well as a number of respiratory and anxiety symptoms. Although both experimental groups experienced similarly intense and unpleasant levels of dyspnea, high AS persons reported more anxiety symptoms and greater symptom severity for respiratory symptoms during the exposure periods. Group differences in physiological responses were detected in respiratory parameters for the strong load (increased RR and minute ventilation for high AS) and in autonomic arousal (lack of habituation in SCL for high AS) for the very strong load. The results suggest that high anxiety sensitive individuals show a distinct response pattern to resistive load induced sensations of dyspnea. The findings will be discussed with reference to Klein's suffocation alarm theory.

Poster 7

THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE CONTROL IN THE IMPLICIT

ASSOCIATIONS TEST: A PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ACCOUNT

Joseph B. Hilgard1, Bruce D. Bartholow1, Cheryl L. Dickter2, & Hart Blanton3 'University of Missouri - Columbia, 2College of William and Mary, 3University of

Connecticut

Descriptors: IAT, EEG, control

While some still consider the Implicit Associations Test (Greenwald et al., 1998) to be a process-pure measurement of subjects' implicit attitudes and stereotypes, some evidence suggests that innate task-switching ability also substantially influences IAT performance (Back et al., 2005). In this study, we recorded EEG while White subjects performed a race-evaluation IAT. In this task, subjects sorted stereotypically White and Black names and positive and negative words in two blocks — one with a stereotype-congruent response mapping (White-positive/Black-negative) and one with a stereotype-incongruent response mapping (Black-positive/White-negative). While a process-pure model of the IAT would suggest that the two blocks differ only in the ease of activation of the correct response, our data show significant effects of congruency on several ERP components related to cognitive control, such as the negative slow wave. These findings suggest that IAT scores are not related only to the strength of implicit associations, but to one's capacity for cognitive control.

Poster 8

BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF TRAIT ANXIETY: CHANGES IN RIGHT HEMISPHERE ACTIVATION AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TO AFFECTIVE STRESS

Sara E. Newton1, Alissa K. Holland1, Daniel Hinson1, Amber Smith1, Mark Coe1, Joseph E. Carmona2, & David W. Harrison2 1University of South Carolina - Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: trait anxiety, right hemisphere activtion, emotion

The association between trait anxiety classification and right hemisphere activation is poorly understood. Women who evidenced high levels of trait anxiety were predicted to experience a diminished capacity to regulate sympathetic tone after exposure to affective stress. Right-handed women obtaining a score of 34 or higher on the trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were classified as having high levels of trait anxiety (n 5 22). Women obtaining a score of 33 or lower were classified as having low levels of trait anxiety (n 5 17). Left-hand grip strength measures were obtained before and after exposure to affective stress. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) measures were taken. A main effect for Trial was found for left hand grip strength (F(4, 152) 5 40.43, p< .0001), indicating a decrease in grip strength measures across 5 consecutive administrations. A Trait Anxiety x Condition interaction was found (F(1, 38) 5 4.16, p< .05), indicating an increase in left-hand grip strength in high but not low anxious women after exposure to affective stress. Finally, a main effect for Trait Anxiety was found for SBP (F(1, 38) 5 4.48, p< .05), indicating that highly anxious women evidenced heightened SBP relative to low anxious women in the post stress condition. The current results show promising preliminary findings regarding changes in right hemisphere activation as a function of trait anxiety classification. Highly anxious women were unable to maintain stable levels of right hemisphere activation concurrent with carrying out a right-lateralized motor task.

Poster 9

CHANGES IN STATE ANXIETY AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TO RIGHT-LATERALIZED STRESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION OF SYMPATHETIC TONE USING A DUAL CONCURRENT TASK PARADIGM

Alissa K. Holland1, Sara E. Newton1, Amber Smith1, Daniel Hinson1, Bettie Obi-Johnson1, Joseph Carmona2, & David Harrison2 1University of South Carolina - Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: state anxiety, sympathetic tone, emotion

Symptoms of anxiety are associated with changes in the sympathetic nervous system. Our aim was to examine changes in regulation of sympathetic tone as a function state anxiety classification after exposure to two right lateralized stressors. We predicted that the dual task demands of completing a right lateralized motor task concurrent with exposure to affective stress would result in compromised regulation of sympathetic tone in women with

high levels of state anxiety. The state subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered before and after exposure to stress. Women who demonstrated an increase in the second administration (n 5 16) were classified as having high levels of state anxiety. Women who demonstrated no increase (n 5 24) were classified as having low levels of state anxiety. Grip strength and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measures were taken. A main effect for Trial was found (F(4, 116) 5 11.98, p< .0001) for error in half-hand grip strength at the left hand, indicating a decrease in the capacity to estimate half-hand grip strength across 5 consecutive trials. A State Anxiety x Condition x Hand interaction was found for SBP (F(1, 29) 5 4.22, p< .05), indicating a decrease in SBP after left hand grip strength measures were taken for low but not high anxious women in the post stress condition. Conversely, high but not low anxious women evidenced a decrease in SBP after right hand grip strength measures were taken. The results support that women with high levels of state anxiety evidenced a reduction in capacity to regulate right lateralized stress.

Poster 10

SPEEDING REACTION TIME WITH A STARTLE STIMULUS

Terry D. Blumenthal1, Tamara E. Spence2, John Z. Reynolds1, Sarah M. Brown1, Kelsey Meekins1, Adreanna T. Massey1, & Alex Firan1 1Wake Forest University, 2Wake Forest University School of Medicine

Descriptors: startle, reaction time, prepulse

Startle response inhibition by a prepulse (PPI) is a sensitive measure of the processing of the information inherent in the prepulse. However, this prepulse-startle methodology can be "reversed" to see the impact of the startle stimulus on tasks associated with the prepulse. For example, reaction time for stimulus detection decreases if a startle stimulus is presented at the same time as a target stimulus (the StartReact effect). This speeding of voluntary reaction time may be due to the startle stimulus either (1) activating an already programmed motor sequence (which has been seen in simple reaction time tasks, but should not be seen in a choice reaction time task), or (2) increasing arousal (which could occur in either simple or choice reaction time tasks). To test these alternatives, we presented acoustic prepulses and startle stimuli and made the prepulses targets in either a simple Detection task (N 5 18; press a button when you hear a prepulse) or a Discrimination task (N 5 19; press a button for a high-frequency prepulse, and a different button for a low-frequency prepulse). PPI of the eyeblink was seen in all cases. Speeding of reaction time was greater in the Discriminate than in the Detect group. Because the StartReact effect occurred in a choice reaction time task that required the selection of a motor program before its execution, an increase in arousal is the more likely explanation. This means that the startle stimulus can facilitate some aspects of reacting to a prepulse, even while the startling impact of that stimulus is being inhibited by that prepulse.

Poster 11

FAILURE TO FIND ACOUSTIC PREPULSE INHIBITION OF SHOCK-INDUCED PAIN

Terry D. Blumenthal1, Alex Firan1, Kelsey Meekins1, Adreanna T. Massey1, & Magne A. Flaten2 1Wake Forest University, 2University of Troms0

Descriptors: pain, EMG, prepulse

The present study tested the impact of an acoustic prepulse on pain caused by an electrical shock to the arm. If pain can be inhibited by a prepulse, then prepulses might be added to diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions in which pain is unavoidable in order to decrease patient discomfort and increase patient compliance. College students had shocks (150V,0.5ms duration) delivered to the upper arm. On some trials this shock was preceded by a 40 ms broadband noise at 80 dB, with a lead interval of 80 ms. Midway through the 16-trial session, participants were told that the prepulse would either increase or decrease the pain of the shock (N 5 20 per instruction group). The only difference between Blocks 1 and 2 were these instructions; the actual prepulses were not changed. Participants rated the pain and unpleasantness of each shock on a 100 mm visual analog scale (a separate sheet for each trial). Eyeblink EMG was measured from orbicularis oculi ipsilateral to the shocked arm. Rated pain in the shock-alone condition increased from Block 1 to Block 2 by 38%. In Block 1, the prepulse increased pain by 19%. In Block 2, the prepulse increased pain by 6% in the Increase group, and decreased pain by 5% in the Decrease group, relative to the control condition in Block 2. EMG activity elicited by the shock was not affected by the prepulse. These data show that an acoustic prepulse did not inhibit the pain of an intense shock to the arm, perhaps because the timing between the two stimuli was too long. A second study with a shorter lead interval will also be reported.

Poster 12

FACETS OF PSYCHOPATHY AND ERP RESPONSE TO AFFECTIVE PICTURES: SPECIFIC VERSUS GENERALIZED DEFICITS

Jason R. Hall1, Edward M. Bernat2, Brittany M. Schrager1, NoahC. Venables2, Eva R. Kimonis1, Norman G. Poythress1, & Christopher J. Patrick2 1University of South Florida, 2Florida State University

Descriptors: psychopathy, emotion, ERP

Psychopathy, as indexed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), is comprised of distinctive affective-interpersonal and antisocial deviance factors. Prior research has sug-

gested that the affective-interpersonal facet ofpsychopathy (as indexed by PCL-R Factor 1) is underpinned by deficient reactivity to aversive stimuli; the antisocial deviance factor (assessed by PCL-R Factor 2) is associated with trait disinhibition, which is in turn related broadly to reduced P3/delta amplitude under varying task conditions. The present study examined ERP correlates of these two constructs using a standard IAPS picture-viewing paradigm in a sample of adult male offenders (N 5 71) in a residential substance abuse treatment facility. Picture-locked ERP responses were filtered to isolate slow-wave (< 1 Hz) activity, which has previously been associated with affective processing of visual stimuli. As predicted, Factor 1 of the PCL-R was specifically related to reduced aversive-neutral slow-wave differences; Factor 2, on the other hand, was associated with an overall slow-wave amplitude reduction to picture stimuli, regardless of hedonic valence. These findings highlight the distinctiveness of the two psychopathy factors in terms of affective processing, and bolster the notion that the affective-interpersonal factor of psychopathy is associated with a specific deficit in reactivity to aversive cues, whereas the antisocial deviance component reflects a more generalized deficit associated with weak inhibitory control of behavior. National Institute of Mental Health, RC1-MH089727; K08-MH080239.

Poster 13

PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL CONSTRUCTS: I. STRUCTURE OF TRAIT-RELEVANT VARIANCE IN BRAIN INDICATORS OF WEAK INHIBITORY CONTROL

Christopher J. Patrick, Mark D. Kramer, & Lindsay D. Nelson Florida State University

Descriptors: ERP, ERN, externalizing

Neurobehavioral constructs—constructs with direct ties to both neurobiology and behavior—provide valuable referents for efforts to index trait dispositions physiologically. One such construct, strongly relevant to psychopathology, is inhibitory control. We sought to: (1) isolate, for 6 ERP measures, variance in each that intersected with a psychometric measure of inhibitory control/dyscontrol, and (2) delineate the structure of this trait-related variance to gain insights into brain processes underlying disinhibition. Participants (N 5 149) completed the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory, a scale for comprehensively assessing traits and behaviors reflecting low vs. high impulse control. Brain measures were 5 variants of P3 (3 from a novelty-oddball task, 1 from a flanker task, and 1 from a feedback task) and flanker ERN; all exhibited relations with ESI scores. A 3-step analysis was performed: (1) An initial factor analysis was performed on brain-response residual scores, after removing variance in common with the ESI from each, yielding a single "generic ERP'' (gERP) factor reflecting covariance not attributable to ESI scores; (2) variance associated with this gERP factor was removed from each of the original brain measures; (3) these brain-response residual scores (with gERP removed, but ESI-related variance retained) were subjected to factor analysis to evaluate their structure. This final analysis revealed two distinct ESI-related brain factors, which cut across tasks. This work illustrates a strategy for redefining a psychological construct in physiological terms.

Poster 14

ANCHORING SELF-REPORT ASSESSMENT OF DISPOSITIONAL FEAR IN PHYSIOLOGY

Mark D. Kramer & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: fear-potentiated startle, personality, self-report

A 'psycho-neurometric' approach to delineation of a key dispositional construct (cf, Patrick & Bernat, 2010) was implemented by using trait measures known to correlate with fear-potentiated startle (FPS) as referents for development of a new self-report scale for assessing variations in fear/fearlessness. Statistical modeling of FPS-related trait measures in a community-based twin sample (N 5 2511) revealed a hierarchical structure in which a general fear-fearlessness factor emerged as common to all measures. When data from an independent participant sample tested in a picture-startle paradigm (N 5 88) were integrated into the model, FPS (operationalized as threat-neutral difference) exhibited a loading of .35 on the general factor (Kramer, Patrick et al., submitted). The fear/fearlessness measures from the model were administered along with a pool of133 new candidate items to a large undergraduate sample (N 5 1768) in order to develop a new scale for assessing the general fear/fearlessness factor directly and effectively. A subset of items from the measures used in the model served to 'anchor' evaluation of candidate items' parameters to the general factor through factor analytic and item response psychometric techniques. Associations between scores on the new Trait Fear scale and general factor scores from the model in the twin and student samples were r 5 .95 and r 5 .87, respectively. For the independent sample tested in the picture-startle procedure (N 5 88), the correlation between FPS and scores on the Trait Fear scale was estimated at .32.

Poster 15

THE SUCCESSFUL AGING OF EPISODIC MEMORY RETRIEVAL

David Friedman1, Ray Johnson Jr.2, Julianna Kulik1, Timothy Martin1, & Yuji Yi1 1NY Psychiatric Institute, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2Queens College of CUNY

Descriptors: cognitive aging, episodic memory, recollection

Relative to young adults, older adults show both deficits in episodic memory retrieval and significantly greater variability in memory performance across individuals.

To investigate the source of variability, we divided older adults on the basis of their pre-experimental scores on the Wechsler Memory (WMS III) Delayed Recall Test into Old-low (OL) and Old-high (OH) scoring subsamples. Participants were then administered a study/test episodic recognition series to assess their retrieval performance (Pr, memory sensitivity) and recollection-related ERP activity. Performance indices and ERPs were recorded in 14 young, 14 OL and 14 OH adults after presenting words at encoding either once (1 x) or thrice (3 x). We expected that, relative to 1 x , multiple encoding opportunities would promote greater use of recollection (parietal episodic memory, EM, effect) and that recollection would be greater for OH than OL. Pr was greater for 3 x than 1 x and OH had Pr values to 1 x and 3 x equivalent to those ofthe young but reliably greater than those ofOL. Similarly, a larger parietal EM effect was found both for 3 x than 1 x and in OH compared to OL. This recollection-related activity in OH did not differ from young adults to 3 x but showed reliable reductions at 1 x . These data indicate that the cognitive aging of episodic memory is not uniform within older-age samples, with some proportion of older individuals exhibiting well-preserved episodic-memory function. The results point to the importance ofunderstanding the factors that lead to the successful aging ofepisodic memory.

NIA grant #AG005213.

Poster 16

LOW ALPHA POWER ASYMMETRY IS ASSOCIATED WITH AMOUNT WAGERED DURING A SIMULATED GAMBLING TASK

Daniel E. Everhart1, Jonathan M. Highsmith1, Alicia M. Moran1, Katie L. Lehockey1, & Heath A. Demaree2 1East Carolina University, 2Case Western Reserve University

Descriptors: gambling, risk taking, frontal asymmetry

Previous studies indicate that behavioral inhibition is associated with lower wagers, while impulsivity and left frontal activity are associated with higher wagers, suggesting that wagering is partially attributable to differences in emotion regulation. Examination of this relationship can occur via separation of the alpha bandwidths where the low alpha bandwidth (7.5-9.5 Hz) is associated with differentiation of mood states, and the high alpha bandwidth (11.5-13.0Hz) is associated with cognitive load. This study examined the wagers of 67 adults during a simulated gambling task and anterior alpha asymmetry scores for total alpha (7.5 -13 Hz) and three alpha bandwidths [low alpha (7.5-9.5Hz), mid alpha (9.5-11.5Hz) and high alpha (11.5-13.0Hz)]. It was hypothesized that increased wagers would be associated with greater left frontal activity and the magnitude of this relationship would be prominent for the low alpha bandwidth. For the total alpha bandwidth, positive relationships between anterior difference scores and the wager were observed for sites F3-F4 (r 5 .26, p 5 .02) and F7-F8 (r 5 .26, p 5 .02), indicating greater left frontal activity with higher wagers. Examination of separate bandwidths yielded a positive relationship for only low alpha power difference scores and the amount wagered for sites F3-F4 (r 5 .25, p 5 .03). The hypothesis is partially supported; wagering is related to differences in frontal asymmetry within the low alpha bandwidth. The results are discussed in term of emotion regulation theory.

Poster 17

EMOTIONAL RESPONSIVITY IN PEOPLE HIGH AND LOW IN TRAIT POSITIVE AFFECT

Stacia N. Gessner & Diane L. Filion

University of Missouri - Kansas City

Descriptors: positive affect, EMG, emotion

Individuals high in trait positive affect are often linked with positive outcomes such as better relationships, jobs, and health compared to individuals with low trait positive affect. These beneficial outcomes are hypothesized to be due to an increased resilience that results from the accumulated experience of increased positive affect and decreased negative affect across the lifespan (Matthews, Raikk-onen, Gallo, & Kuller, 2008). This hypothesis assumes that individuals with high trait positive affect respond differently to positive and negative experiences than individuals with low trait positive affect (Forgas, 2002). To test this hypothesis, the purpose of the current study was to compare emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli in college students low and high in trait positive affect, based on the State and Trait Cheerfulness Inventory (Ruch, Kohler, & van Thriel, 1996). Eyeblink and postauricular reflex (PAR) were recorded during an affective modulation of startle paradigm. Participants viewed positive, negative, and neutral IAPS pictures, with a startle-eliciting probe presented on a subset of the trials. Replicating Gessner & Filion (2010), the eyeblink data indicated that participants with high trait positive affect exhibited greater positive emotion to the positive pictures and surprisingly, greater negative emotion to the negative pictures compared to participants with low trait positive affect. Results for the PAR and relationships between the startle, PAR and measures of depression and trait affect will also be presented.

ATTENTIONAL BIAS TOWARD POSITIVE CUES FOLLOWING ANXIETY INDUCTION LINKED TO COGNITIVE REAPPRAISAL USE

Angela J. Harris & Sarah R. Cavanagh Assumption College

Descriptors: well-being, emotion regulation, attentional bias

Attentional bias toward threatening cues has long been implicated in states of ill-being such as anxiety, but less research has explored how attentional bias toward positive cues may relate to well-being and healthy modes of regulating one's emotions. In this study, thirty participants completed a dot probe task designed to assess attentional bias toward threatening (angry) and friendly (smiling) faces before and after watching an anxiety-inducing film clip. Skin conductance was recorded during the anxiety-inducing clip and during a neutral baseline clip. Participants also rated their life satisfaction and regular use of emotion regulation strategies demonstrated in previous research to be linked with healthy (cognitive reappraisal) and unhealthy (expressive suppression) outcomes. Results revealed that attentional bias toward positive faces following anxiety induction was significantly associated with self-reported use of reappraisal and (at a trend level) higher life satisfaction. Higher life satisfaction was significantly correlated with lower mean skin conductance during the anxiety-producing clip (relative to the neutral clip). These findings suggest that directing one's attention toward positive cues following a state of anxiety could be an adaptive reaction to anxiety that shares variance with healthy forms of emotion regulation, and that reduced physiological response to anxiety could be related to greater life satisfaction. Future research should evaluate the causal directions of these relationships so as to inform possible treatment interventions.

Poster 19

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING AMUSEMENT ARE CORRELATED WITH EUDAIMONIC AND HEDONIC WELL-BEING

Sarah R. Cavanagh1, Jeffrey A. Birk2, Philipp C. Opitz2, & Heather L. Urry2 1Assumption College, 2Tufts University

Descriptors: humor, well-being, cardiovascular

Evidence is mounting that positive emotions yield benefits in well-being. There are some indications that amusement in particular may be beneficial, though whether this is due to the effects of expressed positivity (e.g., laughter), changes in physiology, or the subjective experience of amusement is unclear. We present a preliminary study that examined how expressed laughter, physiological responses, and ratings of amusement during induced amusement relate to well-being. Participants viewed amusing and neutral film clips while physiological data, including heart rate, were collected. Self-report measures of eudaimonic and hedonic forms of well-being, ratings of amusement, and ratings of expressed laughter (from no reaction to laughed uncontrollably) were also collected. Results indicated that lower heart rate during amusement induction (relative to the neutral induction) was correlated with higher eudaimonic well-being, r(49) 5 — .29, p 5 04. Higher ratings of amusement, on the other hand, were correlated with higher hedonic well-being (satisfaction with life), r(53) 5 .29, p 5 .03. Ratings of expressed laughter were unrelated to either form of well-being. These findings indicate that changes in cardiac physiology and the subjective experience of amusement (but not expressed laughter) may account for the amusement-well-being association. Future research will need to evaluate whether these effects are specific to humor.

Poster 20

RESILIENCE AND VULNERABILITY TO PTSD: CARDIAC REACTIVITY TO TRAUMA CUES

Carlos E. Norte1, Gabriela G.L. Souza2, Liliane Villete1, Carla Marques-Portella1,

Evandro Coutinho3, Ivan Figueira1, & Eliane Volchan1 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Federal University of Ouro Preto, 3National School of Public Health (ENSP - FIOCRUZ)

Descriptors: resilience, posttraumatic stress disorder, heart rate variability Many people are exposed to traumatic events during their lifetime, but not develop mental disorders. Resilience, conceptualized as a positive adaptation in the context of significant risk or adversity, characterizes the survivors of trauma that do not develop PTSD. Here we compared individual predispositions and cardiac reactivity differentiating victims of urban violence with PTSD (vulnerable) and without PTSD (resilient). Electrocardiographic recordings immediately after listening of personalized trauma-related script were analyzed. R-R intervals were averaged to obtain the mean heart period. A time-domain measure ofheart rate variability was calculated by the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) between adjacent R-R intervals. Resilient group (n 5 15) presented higher scores on ego-resilience (p<0.05) and positive affect trait (p< 0.05), and lower scores on negative affect trait (p<0.05) when compared to the vulnerable PTSD group (n 5 17). Heart period (p<0.05) and RMSSD was higher (p< 0.05) for the resilient compared to the vulnerable group. In addition, for the PTSD group ego-resilience trait correlated positively with RMSSD (r 5 0.65, p<0.05), indi-

cating that patients with lower scores on ego-resilience trait exhibited the lowest indices of parasympathetic control after the symptom provocation. Positive affect and ego-resilience traits have been associated with successful coping strategies in face of traumatic events. The present study adds support for the potential links between cardiac reactivity with resilience/vulnerability predispositions for PTSD. This work was supported by FAPERJ, CNPq, CAPES, FINEP and CNC.

Poster 21

RESILIENCE AND VULNERABILITY TO PTSD: GRAY MATTER DIFFERENCES IN PREGENUAL ANTERIOR CINGULATE AND PREMOTOR CORTICES

Vanessa Rocha-Rego1, Mirtes G. Pereira2, Leticia Oliveira2, Mauro V. Mendlowicz2, Adriana Fiszman1, Carla Marques-Portella1, William Berger 1, Mateus Joffily1, Ivan Figueira1, & Eliane Volchan1 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Fluminense Federal University

Descriptors: post-traumatic stress disorder, resilience, structural magnetic resonance imaging

Objective: Resilience, conceptualized as a positive adaptation in the context of significant risk or adversity, characterize the survivors of trauma that do not develop PTSD. The present study aimed to investigate brain areas differentiating victims of urban violence with PTSD (vulnerable) and without PTSD (resilient). Methods: Questionnaires (Ego-Resilience, PANAS) assessed trait predisposition. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for voxel-based analysis. Results: Resilient group presented significant higher scores on ego-resilience trait and positive affect trait, and lower scores on negative affect trait when compared to the PTSD group. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that gray matter volume in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC: BA 32) and ventral premotor cortex (vPM, BA 6) differentiated the resilient from the PTSD group (p<0.05 corrected). Conclusions: Positive Affect and Ego-Resilience traits have been related with successful coping strategies in face of traumatic events. Activity in the rostral pregenual anterior cingulate (BA 32) has been associated with happiness and pleasant states; while the ventral premotor cortex was shown to play a role in the preparation of action in response to threat. Altered volumes in those areas potentially provide clues to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying resilience and vulnerability to traumatic events.

Poster 22

AFFILIATIVE PICTURES MODULATE LATE POSITIVE POTENTIALS AND FACILITATE GROOMING-LIKE MOVEMENTS

Rafaela R. Campagnoli1, Laura Krutman1, Isabela Lobo2, Isabel A. David2, Leticia Oliveira2, Mirtes G. Pereira2, & Eliane Volchan1 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Fluminense Federal University

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, affiliative pictures, prosocial

Background: Affiliative relations, like grooming, prove to be critical to attachment and prosocial behaviors by strengthening group cohesion. The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral processing of affiliative stimuli and its relation to prosocial predispositions. Methods: Thirty-two students (17 women) viewed affiliative and non-affiliative pictures in a blocked design. Participants made a grooming-like movement consisting of caressing a piece of soft cloth with the left fingers, a few seconds after each picture onset. The late positive potential (LPP) was analyzed from electroencephalo-graphy. Electromyography recordings of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle estimated the latency to start the voluntary movement. To assess prosocial predispositions, participants completed the scale ''Measure of Mutual Grooming'' proposed by Nelson and Geher (2007), which measures the frequency of grooming a significant other person during the last year. Results: A significant valence effect at parietal sites revealed that affiliative stimuli evoked greater LPP amplitudes compared to non-affiliative ones (p< 0.05). Higher scores in the Mutual Grooming scale were related to shorter latencies to voluntarily start the fingers movement under affiliative compared to non-affiliative stimuli presentations (r 5 — 0.36, p 5 0.04). Discussion: The results suggest that affiliative stimuli are effective to modulate brain responses and facilitate the initiation of a grooming-like movement, especially for those who more habitually groom others. CNPq, FAPERJ, CAPES, FINEP.

Poster 23

THE JOINT EFFECT OF DYSPHORIA AND TASK FRAMING ON EFFORT-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE

Kerstin Brinkmann & Guido H.E. Gendolla University of Geneva

Descriptors: depression, effort mobilization

Mental tasks without fixed performance standards lead to stronger cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoric compared to nondysphoric participants (Brinkmann & Gendolla, 2007). This effect can be explained either by higher subjective task demand or by higher self-set performance standards. The present study tested this idea in a 2 (dysphoric vs. nondysphoric) x 2 (frame: demand vs. standard) between-persons design. Before work-

ing on a memory task without fixed performance standard, half of the participants answered questions related to perceived task demand. The other half answered questions related to self-set performance standards. Effort mobilization during task performance was operationalized as sympathetically mediated cardiovascular response relative to a baseline. Self-report measures revealed lower subjective task-related capacity as well as a negative discrepancy between minimal performance standards and self-efficacy expectations in dysphorics compared to nondysphorics. Reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and systolic blood pressure revealed a crossover interaction effect: In the demand-frame condition dysphoric participants showed lower cardiovascular reactivity than nondysphoric participants, suggesting disengagement of effort mobilization due to too high perceived task demand. In the standard-frame condition dysphoric participants showed higher cardiovascular reactivity than nondysphoric participants, suggesting higher effort mobilization due to higher minimal performance standards.

Poster 24

ARE MEMORY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION MODERATED BY CARDIOVASCULAR RISK?

Judith A. Thomas & Helen Gaeta AUT University

Descriptors: cardiovascular, memory

Reduced cardiovascular efficacy may negatively impact the cognitive function of older adults. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) was assessed in seventy five low active individuals, between 40 - 65 years of age, with no clinical history of cardiovascular disease. CVR was assessed by measuring resting blood pressure; fasting total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose. In addition, assessments of memory (WMS-III-A) and executive function (Wisconsin Card Sort Test) were conducted. Individuals were assigned to one of three groups: control, physical activity, and aerobic exercise. The physical activity group participated in the 10,000 Steps® (pedometer-based walking) program for sixteen weeks. The aerobic exercise group participated in a sixteen week supervised high intensity exercycle program. Control group participants made no changes to their daily routines. Post-completion of the activity programs, all individuals were reassessed for CVR and cognitive performance. There was no significant difference in cognitive performance between the three groups. However, when physical activity and aerobic exercise participants were classified according to high or low CVR, participants with high CVR were more labile to change, significantly improving immediate logical memory. The purported protective effects of exercise on cognitive decline may only apply to individuals with compromised cardiovascular function. SPARC New Zealand.

Poster 25

COMICS ON THE BRAIN: STRUCTURE AND MEANING IN SEQUENTIAL IMAGE COMPREHENSION

Neil Cohn1, Martin Paczynski1, Phil Holcomb1, Ray Jackendoff1, & Gina Kuperberg1,2 1Tufts University, ^Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: narrative, discourse, N400

Just as syntax differentiates coherent sentences from scrambled words, sequential images must also use a system to distinguish coherent narratives from scrambled images. We conducted experiments analogous to two studies of language processing (1, 2) to examine structure and semantics in sequential images. Using Cohn's (3) model of visual narrative, we compared four strip types: 1) Normal strips with both narrative structure and meaning, 2) Semantic Only strips (semantic relationships but no structure), 3) Structural Only strips (structure but no semantics), 4) Scrambled strips of random panels. In Exp. 1, participants monitored for target panels in strips shown panel-by-panel. Slowest RTs were in Scrambled strips, intermediate in both Structural Only and Semantic Only, and fastest in Normal strips. This suggests both semantics and structure offer processing advantages. Exp. 2 measured ERPs to the same strips. The largest N400 appeared in both Scrambled and Structural Only strips, intermediate in Semantic Only and smallest in Normal strips. This implies structure and semantics jointly facilitate the N400's semantic processing, but structure may be separate from semantics. Together, the results suggest sequential images use a grammar going beyond semantic associations between frames. Graphic narratives are guided by an interaction of structure and meaning, akin to that between syntax and semantics in language. 1 .Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, Nature 257 (1975) 2.Van Petten & Kutas, Memory and Cognition 19 (1991) 3.Cohn, Visual Narrative Structure. Continuum (in prep).

Poster 26

''ARE YOU IN THERE?'': A COMPARISON OF BRAIN-BASED EVALUATION OF CONSCIOUS AWARENESS AND THE GLASGOW COMA SCALE

Ryan C.N. D'Arcy, Lauren D. Sculthorpe, Careesa Liu, & Sujoy Ghosh Hajra National Research Council of Canada

Descriptors: brain injury, diagnostics, consciousness

For the last 35 years, the medical evaluation of level of consciousness in emergency and intensive care situations has been carried out using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Though it has long been a ''gold standard'' for consciousness evaluation, the behavior-

dependent criteria used in this scale put patients suffering from paralysis and/or aphasia at a distinct disadvantage. Brain-based measures represent one promising way to replace the GCS. Our team has developed an auditory stimulus sequence that evokes a comprehensive range of ERPs to assess the integrity of brain functions related to conscious awareness. These include sensory, perceptual, attentional, memory, and language function. Results from brain injured patients, each diagnosed at a different level of consciousness, demonstrate the power of this method over the GCS.

Poster 27

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF AGING IN DIRECTED FORGETTING

Brigitta Toth1, Roland Boha1, Zsofia Gaail1, Aniko Konya2, & Mark Molrnr1 institute for Psychology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2University of Eotvos Lorand, Department of Cognitive Science

Descriptors: linear and nonlinear eeg analysis, aging and memory, directed forgetting Forgetting is crucial for the efficient use of memory. It allows for updating goal relevant information, and thereby is effective in reducing interference between the irrelevant and relevant information. This interference reduction can occur intentionally by using explicit cues. In the directed-forgetting paradigm each encoded items are followed by a cue either to 'remember' or to 'forget.' These cues typically lead to reduced recognition memory for to-be-forgotten information, which is called directed forgetting. The aim of this study was to investigate forgetting on both the behavioral and electrophysiological (linear and nonlinear EEG properties) level. In order to test the hypothetical involvement of control processes in forgetting, we compared the performance of young and elderly adult in an intentional forgetting task. The EEG was recorded during the encoding phase. We expected age related differences based on the impaired inhibitory mechanisms in older adults. It was found that older subjects were less able to suppress the processing of items designated to be forgotten than younger adults. The anterior theta synchronization increased due to the forget cue compared to remember cue. This cue specific theta synchronization increase was lower in the elderly compared to young adults, which localized exclusively to the frontal brain. Furthermore, the correlation between the behavioral results and the theta synchronization response indicates that the frontal theta rhythm is a reliable correlate of the mechanism of efficient control processes during encoding. OTKA 77750;TAMOP 4.2.1./B-09/KMR-2010-0003.

Poster 28

REMEMBERING THE SELF VERSUS KNOWING THE WORLD: EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC FEAR REPRESENTATIONS

Suzanne Oosterwijk1, Mark Rotteveel2, & Agneta H. Fischer2 1Northeastern University, 2University of Amsterdam

Descriptors: emotion knowledge, fear

Embodiment theories hypothesize that embodied reactions are strengthened in tasks where emotion knowledge is activated in a self-relevant way. In the present study we test this hypothesis by comparing how the retrieval of episodic fear knowledge, representing a personal fear experience, and the retrieval of semantic fear knowledge, representing a general fear concept, affects bodily, subjective and implicit measures related to fear. Participants retrieved a personal fear memory or generated fear words while we recorded skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, participants were asked to report subjectively experienced fear, and we presented an implicit task measuring a bias for fear faces. The results demonstrated that the activation of episodic and semantic fear knowledge resulted in larger amplitude SCR compared to the activation of neutral knowledge, F(1,56) 5 4.86, p< .05. The SCR amplitude during fear knowledge retrieval was correlated with the extent to which participants showed a bias for fear faces (r 5 .29). In line with our predictions, we found that episodic knowledge retrieval was associated with larger SCR amplitude, greater subjective fear report and a stronger bias for fear faces than semantic knowledge retrieval. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between SCR amplitude and subjective fear report in the episodic condition (r 5 .33), whereas this correlation was absent in the semantic condition. These findings will be discussed using embodiment theory's views on emotion knowledge activation.

Poster 29

CONSCIOUS AND NON-CONSCIOUS JUDGEMENTS OF TRUSTWORTHINESS IN ADULTS WITH ASPERGER'S

Danielle Mathersul, Skye McDonald, & Jacqueline Rushby

Descriptors: asperger's, trust, autonomic

Previous research has suggested that individuals with Asperger's judge others as more trustworthy than controls (Adolphs et al., 2001), implying an underlying deficit in the amygdala due to similarities with lesion patients (Adolphs et al., 1998). Given the role ofthe amygdala in mediating autonomic responses, corresponding differences in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SCR) might be proposed. The current study investigated the relationship between judgment ratings, HR and SCR under explicit, implicit and subliminal conditions. Twenty adults (16 males; mean age 41.24 years) with Asperger's were matched

to 21 controls. Stimuli were happy (positive) and angry (negative) faces from Ekman and NimStim. For both explicit and subliminal, participants judged faces on trustworthiness (7-point likert scale). However, subliminal presented the emotional face for 30 ms, with a neutral mask (total 6 s). For implicit, participants rapidly identified the gender of the face. Contrary to past research, Asperger's judged faces as less trustworthy than controls (both explicit and subliminal). These lower ratings were associated with greater HR acceleration. In contrast, controls had positive associations between higher ratings and greater HR acceleration and deceleration. Asperger's were also less accurate at labelling the gender of negative faces (implicit), reflected in greater HR deceleration. Accuracy in controls was associated with higher maximum change in SCR, regardless of valence. Findings suggest disruptions in neural networks mediating autonomic responses to affective stimuli.

Poster 30

PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL CHANGES TO EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Jacqueline A. Rushby1, Anne Murphy1, Skye McDonald1, & Robert J. Barry2 University of New South Wales, 2University of Wollongong

Descriptors: arousal, emotion

While arousal is generally agreed to be a component of emotion, an accurate measure of physiological arousal produced by emotional stimuli is still a matter of wide debate. Barry et al. (2005, 2007, 2008) have consistently shown an inverse relationship between skin conductance level (SCL) and mean alpha power during an eyes-closed (EC) resting condition, accompanied by a concomitant significant increase in SCL and reduction in alpha power in an eyes-open (EO) resting condition. For the current study, the effect of observing positive (happy) and negative (angry) valanced emotional facial expressions was examined. Thirty right-handed female undergraduate students participated in five 2-minute conditions (EC, EO, view neutral face, view happy face, view angry face). The same female face with each expression was presented (NimStim set of facial expressions, Tottenham, et al., 2009). Presentation order for happy and angry expression was counterbalanced. As expected, SCL was negatively correlated with alpha power, for the EC condition, and a significant increase in SCL, and reduction in alpha power, was observed from EC to EO. Further, a significant increase in SCL and reduction in alpha power was observed for each comparison, (EO vs. emotion expression), and (neutral expression vs. emotion expression). No differences were found in either SCL or alpha power for valence (angry vs. happy). These findings provide further support for the utility of using SCL and alpha power as reliable indices of arousal.

Poster 31

ANXIETY MODULATES EARLY STAGES OF FACIAL EMOTION PROCESSING

Wioleta Walentowska & Eligiusz Wronka Jagiellonian University, Psychophysiology Laboratory

Descriptors: anxiety, face, erps

Emotional expression can influence brain activity even when the subject is not explicitly involved in the recognition. This can be reflected in specific ERP responses starting 100 ms poststimulus. Trait anxiety is supposed to influence the processing of threat-related information, and therefore can alter brain responses to facial emotions (fearful faces). To test this hypothesis, we recorded ERPs in response to faces (fearful & neutral) and non-faces in preselected low- and high-anxious individuals (STAI scores). We found increased amplitude of the N170 elicited by faces in comparison to non-face objects. Additionally, an emotional expression effect starting 100 ms poststimulus was observed. Higher amplitudes of the P1 and N170 components were obtained in response to fearful faces when compared to neutral ones. Moreover, we observed enhanced negativity (EPN) elicited by emotional expression at occipital sites between 240-340 ms poststimulus. These effects were modulated by the level of anxiety. Specifically, an early P1 effect, as well as a late EPN effect, were evident for low-anxious subjects and diminished for high-anxious group. We also found an anxiety-specific effect reflected in enhanced positivity observed for high-anxious subjects between 60 and 260 ms after the stimulus onset. This effect was evident irrespective ofthe stimulus type (faces & non-face objects).

Poster 32

SUBJECTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO BODY IMAGES IN WOMEN WITH HIGH AND LOW BODY DISSATISFACTION

Blanca Ortega-Roldan, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz, Sandra Diaz, Jose L. Mata, M. Carmen Fernandez-Santaella, & Jaime C. Vila University of Granada

Descriptors: skin conductance response, emotion, body dissatisfaction Body dissatisfaction is the body image disturbance most prevalent among young women, being an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the psychophysiological mechanisms involved in body dissatisfaction using Lang's passive picture viewing paradigm. A sample of 54 college women, 24 with high and 30 with low body dissatisfaction, viewed 60 slides of female bodies, 30 professional models and 30 college students, classified according to their body mass index (BMI) in three categories:

thin, normal and overweight. Participants had to compare their body with the bodies being displayed. Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings of valence, arousal and dominance were recorded. Results indicate that women with high body dissatisfaction evaluated all bodies as less pleasant, more arousing and less controllable, showing the most aversive emotional response to the comparison with normal bodies. The skin conductance response revealed that, for all participants, thin and overweight bodies were significantly more arousing than bodies with normal BMI. However, women with high body dissatisfaction showed the largest skin conductance response to the thin bodies. These findings confirm (a) that women with high body dissatisfaction are more physiologically activated when they compare their body with thin bodies, and (b) that for all women thin and overweight bodies appear to have greater emotional relevance than normal bodies.

This research was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. [Ref. PSI2009-08417].

Poster 33

I AM IN A BAD MOOD BECAUSE I AM IN A BAD MOOD: EVIDENCE OF FRACTAL VARIABILITY IN MOOD SWINGS

Carmen S. Goicoechea, Pandelis Perakakis, Gema M. Calvillo, & Jaime C. Vila University of Granada

Descriptors: mood swings, fractal variability

Although we are sometimes able to identify the cause of a sudden drop from the skies of heaven to the abyss of hell, more often than not, mood swings seem to come ''out of the blue.'' Although several specific sources of mood variability, such as physiological rhythms, the weather, and social activity have been identified, the dynamical pattern of intrinsic mood fluctuations has never been the object ofdirect examination. In this study we use the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis to investigate the correlation properties of mood swings in four healthy young adults. Separate analysis was performed on valence and arousal ratings obtained six times a day during four consecutive weeks. Results show that in all four subjects valence fluctuations are characterized by a pattern of fractal variability (a 5 0.94 + 0.95), while physiological arousal ratings revealed a periodic oscillation with period of one day. These findings imply that mood swings in emotionally healthy people are a) independent from periodic patterns ofphysiological arousal, and b) have a dynamical structure characterized by complex intrinsic variability that is probably crucial in maintaining emotional stability by absorbing the effect of constant minor emotional perturbations, without losing the capacity to adaptively respond to stronger emotional events. An intriguing interpretation of these results suggests that changes in experienced mood do not always result from explicit internal or external causes, but rather emerge as a natural consequence of the intrinsic adaptive complexity of our emotional world.

Poster 34

AFFECTIVE PROCESSING OF LOVED FAMILIAR FACES: AN ERP SOURCE ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY FRONTAL P3 GENERATORS

Pedro Guerra, Alicia Sánchez-Adam, Isis González, Lourdes Anllo-Vento, & Jaime C. Vila University of Granada

Descriptors: loved faces, erps, source analysis

Previous data from this laboratory have shown that the processing of loved familiar faces is accompanied by an increase in skin conductance, a biphasic accelerative heart rate pattern, potentiated zygomatic muscle activity, startle inhibition, and larger frontal P3 and centro-parietal Late Positive Potential components (Sanchez et al., 2010). These data suggest that loved familiar faces elicit an intense positive emotional reaction. However, while the LPP was similar for both loved faces and mutilated faces, the frontal P3 component was specific of loved ones. The present study was aimed at estimating brain sources of this frontal P3 in order to confirm its specific relationship with positive emotional processing linked to recognition of identity (Bobes et al., 2010). Participants were 42 undergraduate students (12 men). They viewed faces belonging to three categories: Loved (romantic partner, father, mother, and best friend), neutral (unknown), and unpleasant (4 mutilated faces taken from the IAPS). Pictures were presented in black and white following six sequences of latin square matrices to control for order effects. Each picture was presented six times making a total of 72 trials. EEG was recorded at 64 locations using ActiveTwo system with a sampling rate of 256 Hz.Neural sources of frontal P3 were estimated by applying the Bayesian Model Averaging method. Preliminary results indicate that the brain sources of frontal P3 component associated with loved familiar faces involve the rectus, hippocampus, caudate, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Research funded by Junta de Andalucía, project SEJ-02964.

Poster 35

PHASIC POSTURAL RESPONSES TO AFFECTIVE PICTURE-VIEWING: A NEW INDEX OF ORIENTING BEHAVIOR

Sofia Idrissi1, Pandelis Perakakis1,2, Plamen Ivanov3, & Jaime C. Vila1 1University of Granada, 2University Jaume I, 3Harvard Medical School/Boston University

Descriptors: phasic postural responses, approach-avoidance, orienting response Human postural responses to emotional stimuli have only recently begun to attract the attention of psychophysiologists. Previous studies suggest that postural adjustments to

sustained emotional states may index approach-avoidance behavior. In this study we investigate whether the presentation ofdiscrete emotional stimuli evokes phasic postural responses that can be clearly interpreted as approach-avoidance behavior. Thirty-eight healthy adults (19 male, 19 female) participated in an experiment designed to assess center ofpressure (COP) displacements during affective picture-viewing. Stimuli were 81 pictures (27 pleasant, 27 unpleasant, 27 neutral) drawn from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and presented in random order. Each picture was displayed for 6 sec, while subjects stood on a force platform. Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded to obtain heart rate responses to affective picture-viewing as a measure of attentional engagement. Results showed that all visual stimuli induce a posterior postural displacement whose amplitude is modulated by affective valence. Specifically, both pleasant and unpleasant pictures produce a significantly more pronounced deviation from postural baseline equilibrium relative to neutral (F 5 6.86, p<0.01). Importantly, our results discard the interpretation of postural responses to emotional stimuli as approach-avoidance behavior. Instead, we propose that these postural disturbances constitute a motor component of the more global human orienting response to novel and significant stimuli.

Funding provided by The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grant PSI2008-04372).

Poster 36

CYBEREMOTIONS: SUBJECTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES ELICITED BY CONTRIBUTING TO ONLINE DISCUSSION FORUMS

Arvid Kappas, Elena Tsankova, Mathias Theunis, & Dennis Kuester Jacobs University Bremen

Descriptors: internet, facial emg, communication

In what way does contributing to discussions on the Internet shape emotions? It is neither trivial how thinking of and writing emotional contents affects an individual subjectively and physiologically, nor how full-blown emotional responses may propagate to others online. Previously, we provided evidence that emotions can be elicited by merely reading about emotional online exchanges. This study focuses on subjective and physiological effects of writing emotional forum posts. Here, 64 participants wrote contributions to positive and negative emotional topics either in the form of replies or as initiators of new forum threads, while we recorded facial EMG (Corrugator Supercilii, Zygomaticus Major), heart rate, and skin conductance. Additionally, subjective experience was collected and 18 IAPS images where shown in a control condition. Self-reports indicated significant differences for valence as well as effects of response-type. Results of facial EMG as well as subjective report indicated significantly more smiling and more positive valence after writing the post than while thinking about the post. Additionally, heart rate tended to accelerate during and after writing of a contribution with significant HR acceleration already occurring while thinking. We will discuss the implications of the differences in ANS and SNS responses throughout the various stages of individual online emotional writing as well as the practical challenges posed by measuring activation during text creation, and how our findings might be related to models of spreading emotions in online networks. Funded by the European Commission 7th Framework(Future and Emerging Technologies - Proactive, Science of Complex Systems for Socially Intelligent ICT). Grant agreement 231323.

Poster 37

BILATERAL PLANTAR ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY ELICITED BY CONTRIBUTING TO ONLINE DISCUSSION FORUMS: DO MALES AND FEMALES RECOVER ASYMMETRICALLY?

Dennis Kuester, Arvid Kappas, Mathias Theunis, & Elena Tsankova Jacobs University Bremen

Descriptors: bilateral plantar eda, internet, asymmetry

Sex differences in hemispheric specialization have long been suspected to be reflected by left-hand/right-hand differences in electrodermal activity. Of particular interest to this question are language processing and language production. However, most research has focused on recall of individual words rather than elaborative production, isolated stimulus-responses rather than ecological emotional recovery, and palmar rather than plantar regions. Bilateral EDA recordings face methodological and technical problems that may be partially avoidable by moving the region of recording to the feet. Here, we recorded bilateral EDA from the feet of 59 dextral participants (30 female, 29 male) who each produced 4 complete Internet forum posts (2 negative, 2 positive) with a mean of 86 words per post. Self-report showed that participants felt emotionally activated by thinking and writing about the topics, and EDA was significantly correlated with perceived relative ranked arousal. Furthermore initial evidence suggests a pattern of EDA asymmetries that may be influenced by gender, as well as a possible recovery-advantage of females. However, data on left/right asymmetries appears tentative and in need of further study. We argue that recording bilateral EDA at plantar regions may be both feasible and useful in studies of lateralization during ecological writing. We will discuss the implications, practical opportunities, and challenges posed by bilateral EDA-re-cordings from the feet during complex language production, including additional exploratory automated text-analyses.

Funded by the European Commission 7th Framework (Future and Emerging Technologies - Proactive, Science of Complex Systems for Socially Intelligent ICT). Grant agreement 231323.

Poster 38

QUANTIFYING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SKIN CONDUCTANCE REACTIVITY: UNIQUE ASSOCIATIONS WITH CHILDREN'S SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Cynthia J. Willner & Lisa M. Gatzke-Kopp The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: skin conductance, autonomic reactivity, social competence The frequency of skin conductance responses (SCRs) to stressors is often used as a measure of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity, with many studies reporting associations between SCR frequency and measures of anxiety and antisocial behavior. However, significant variation may occur between individuals with the same number of SCRs, depending on the duration of each event. The current study examines the construct validity of SCR duration to determine if this measure captures unique interindividual variation beyond what is characterized in SCR count. Skin conductance activity was monitored in 300 kindergarteners while they viewed emotion-inducing video clips. Children's social competence, aggression, and internalizing behaviors were assessed by teacher report. Preliminary analyses suggest that children who exhibit more prolonged SCRs while viewing a fear-inducing video clip are rated by their teachers as more socially competent and less aggressive. In contrast, SCR frequency during the fear video clip is not correlated with these behavioral measures. SCR duration remains a significant predictor of children's behavior after controlling for SCR frequency, race, and sex. Thus, SCR duration holds promise as a measure of SNS reactivity with relevance to behavioral dispositions. Implications for the significance of SCR duration as a distinct facet of SC reactivity and issues in the measurement of SCR duration will be discussed. Funding provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Health.

Poster 39

INFLUENCE OF BODY POSITION ON CORTICAL PAINFUL AND PAINLESS PROCESSING: AN ERP STUDY

Chiara Spironelli & Alessandro Angrilli University of Padova

Descriptors: somatosensory evoked potentials, pain

Compared with consistent information on physiological changes induced by head-down bed rest — a condition that simulates space microgravity — our knowledge on possible perceptual-cortical alterations is still poor. The present study investigated the effects of 2-h head-down bed rest on subjective and cortical responses elicited by electrical, no-ciceptive/somatosensory painful and painless stimulation. Twenty male participants were randomly assigned to head-down bed rest (BR) or sitting control condition. After the assessment of individual painful thresholds, electrical stimuli at four different intensities (i.e., control painless condition, electrical pain threshold, 30% above and 30% below pain threshold) were randomly administered to the left wrist. Subjective pain ratings revealed decreased pain perception in BR compared to Control group [t(1,18) 5 1.69, p 5 0.05]. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials analysis on four electrode clusters and sLORETA source analysis revealed a P1 component (40-50 ms) in the right somatosensory cortex of sitting controls, whereas it was bilateral and differently located in BR group. Controls' N1 (80-90ms) had widespread right hemisphere activation, extended to the anterior cingulate, whereas BR group showed primary so-matosensory cortex activation. The P2 component (190-220 ms) was larger in left-central locations of controls compared with BR group. Head-down bed rest induced an overall decrease of pain sensitivity, which was associated with significant alterations of cortical mechanisms underlying pain processing.

Poster 40

REDUCED SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH ANOREXIA NERVOSA: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS BEYOND STARVATION?

Daniela Palomba1, Marta Venturini2, Marialuisa Rausa2, Anna Franco2, Michela Sarlo1, Romana Schumann2, Giulia Buodo1, & Donatella Ballardini2 1University of Padova, Italy, 2Gruber Center, Bologna, Italy

Descriptors: anorexia nervosa, worry, skin conductance

Reduced sympathetic activity in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been ascribed to low body mass index (BMI). However, the existing literature suggests an association between worry and sympathetic hypoactivation. The present study was aimed at investigating the association between low sympathetic activity, BMI and worry in a group of AN patients as compared to healthy controls. Skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR) and frontalis electromyography were recorded at rest in 16 ANs and 16 healthy controls. Anxiety and worry were assessed through questionnaires. Compared to controls, ANs showed lower SC and HR. ANs also showed higher anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and worry symptoms than controls. In ANs, a significant negative correlation was observed between negative

worry beliefs and SC. Regression analyses confirmed that the presence of negative worry beliefs was the main predictor for reduced SC. These data suggest that worry symptoms and cognitive rumination could be associated with reduced sympathetic activity in ANs.

Poster 41

TAKING ONE'S TIME IN FEELING OTHER-RACE PAIN: NEURAL ACTIVITY REVEALS DIFFERENT EMPATHIC RESPONSES TO PAIN OF OWN-RACE AND OTHER-RACE INDIVIDUALS

Federica Meconi & Paola Sessa University of Padova

Descriptors: empathy, race, event-related potentials

The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time-course of emphatic response to pain of White participants when exposed to stimuli showing own-race (White) or other-race (Black) neutral faces receiving painful (needle penetration) or non-painful (Q-tip touch) stimulation. Participants had to judge painful vs. non-painful pictures on each trial. The general structure of ERPs evoked by pictures was characterized by the N1 component, followed by the P2 and the N2 components. There was also another negative deflection peaking at 380ms (N380) over the fronto-central area followed by a long-latency positivity between 380 and 650 ms (P3) with the maximum amplitude over the parietal area. In line with previous studies, the N1-P2-N2 complex was modulated as a function of race, indicating earlier orienting of attention to the more novel individuals (other-race faces; N1 and P2) and later and deeper orienting of attention to the more familiar individuals (own-race faces; N2). Notably, both the P2 and the N380 were modulated as a function of the interaction between the race of the faces and the stimulation condition, produced by a positive shift only when participants watched own-race faces penetrated by a needle. The P3 amplitude was modulated only by the stimulation condition, with larger amplitude for the painful stimulation. These findings support the notion of an early (automatic) empathic response to pain of own-race individuals, while empathy to pain of other-race individuals manifests only later, likely relying on slower controlled processing.

Poster 42

EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL PICTURES AND GENDER ON PAIN RESPONSES: AN ERPS STUDY

Francesca Fardo & Alessandro Angrilli University of Padova

Descriptors: pain, emotion, ERP

The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of an emotional background on gender pain responses. Emotions were elicited through five categories of pictures with different content, valence and arousal: pleasant (erotic and sport), neutral (household objects) and unpleasant (threat and mutilation). During the 4 s picture presentation, electrical painful stimuli were delivered to the left forearm with a fixed intensity of 40% above subjective pain thresholds. 17 female and 17 male participants were required to watch each picture and then to rate the perceived pain intensity and the picture pleasantness on two 10-point visuo-analogue scales. Results showed for erotic pictures compared with the other four categories, decreased self-perceived pain intensity (F(4) 5 15.11, p<0.001) and dampened N150 and P260 amplitudes (F(4)>5.69, p<0.001) independently from gender. Also sport pictures were able, although to a less extent, to evoke dampened pain perception compared with mutilation slides, and no clear self-perceived pain differentiation was found among neutral, threat and mutilation pictures. In addition, a significant Gender by Category by Electrode interaction (F(8,256) 5 2.08, p<0.05) for N150 component was found. Women showed N150 amplitude significantly varying across all categories while males had smaller N150 to erotic compared with all other categories. Men and women showed clear differences in emotion modulation of pain responses with a stronger and more complex modulation found in women.

Poster 43

FACILITATED ECONOMIC WIN PROCESSING IN HIGH SENSATION SEEKERS: AN ERPS STUDY

Marta Bianchin1 & Alessandro Angrilli1,2 1University of Padova, 2CNR Institute of Neuroscience

Descriptors: decision making, feedback processing, sensation seeking Decision-making and risk taking are complex processes involving several cortical areas. Limited research has been dedicated to personality differences in economic decision and their influence in the processing of economic win/losses Several studies described an ERP negative component picking between 250 - 300 ms in response to negative feedback (N260 or Feedback Related Negativity, FRN), typically superimposed to the P300 (Donchin & Coles, 1988). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the sensation-seeking trait in economic feedback elaboration. To this end, behavioral and EEG data were collected during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, Bechara et al., 1994, adapted for ERPs analysis) from a group of 12 High Sensation Seekers, and a group of 12 low sensation seekers. During the gambling task EEG was measured from 38 tin electrodes. At behavioral level, high compared with low sensation seekers did not learn to avoid picking from economically disadvantageous decks. Participants with high sen-

sation seeking showed also a more positive P300 to economic wins compared with their own losses and with wins of low sensation seekers (Group x Feedback interaction, F(1,22) 5 4.43, p<0.05). Intention-TAS sub-scale of the Sensation Seeking Scale positively correlated with amplitude of the FRN (r 5 .50). Results suggest that decision making behavior of high sensation seekers reflects an increased reward elaboration which might be related to the inability to correctly evaluate future outcomes, and which could explain their unusual seeking for immediate gratification.

Poster 44

CHRONIC HYPOTENSION AND SLEEP: ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME

Naima Covassin, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Nicola Cellini, Michela Sarlo, Michela De Bortoli, Elena Lucchetti, & Luciano Stegagno University of Padova

Descriptors: hypotension, blood pressure, heart rate variability

Chronic hypotension is defined by World Health Organization as a systolic blood pressure lower than 100 mmHg in women and 110 mmHg in men not due to medical or orthostatic conditions. Associated symptoms are fatigue, dizziness, sleep inertia, and cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate sleepiness and cardiovascular activity during sleep in chronic hypotension comparing a group of hypotensives with normotensives. Each participant spent a night of sleep in the lab, during which the following measures were collected and averaged by hour: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), time-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Sleepiness was assessed by Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Both groups showed a gradual decrease in SDB, DBP and MBP during the first half of the night, followed by a progressive increase approaching morning. PEP and time-domain measures of HRV increased while SVand CO decreased during sleep in both groups. Nevertheless, blood pressure and HR values were constantly reduced in hypotensive group. Moreover, LVET and HRV indexes of vagal activity were more elevated in hypotensives during all night. No group difference was found in sleepiness level. Our results suggest a global high parasympathetic outflow matched to reduce sympathetic drive in hypotensives during sleep. These findings may account for the reduced cardiovascular risk observed in hypotensives.

Poster 45

PREOPERATIVE AND INTRAOPERATIVE HAEMODYNAMIC RISK FACTORS FOR COGNITIVE DECLINE AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY

Simone Messerotti Benvenuti1, Paolo Zanatta2, Carlo Valfre2, & Daniela Palomba1 'University of Padova, 2Treviso Regional Hospital

Descriptors: cardiac surgery, cognition, transcranial doppler

Adverse cognitive outcomes are commonly observed after cardiac surgery, mostly in relation to cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery. The main aims of the present study were to investigate whether preoperative cerebral hypoperfusion was associated with postoperative cognitive decline (POCD), and whether lateralized hypoperfusion would differentially affect POCD in cardiac surgery patients. Moreover, the lateralized effects of intraoperative microembolization in POCD were also investigated. Transcranial Doppler sonography in the left and right middle cerebral arteries was used in order to detect preoperative hypoperfusion and intraoperative microembolization. A neuropsychological evaluation (i.e., Trail Making Test part A andB, Digit Span Test, Memory with 10 and 30 s interference and Phonemic Fluency) in order to assess memory, attention and executive functions was performed preoperatively, at discharge and three months after surgery. Preoperative hypoperfusion in the left but not right middle cerebral artery was associated with cognitive decline after cardiac surgery. Moreover, intraoperative microembolization in the left but not right middle cerebral artery significantly correlated with early and late POCD. Taken together, the present results provide evidence for the haemodynamic mechanisms underlying POCD in cardiac surgery patients. Preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of cerebral blood flow velocity is recommended in order to detect patients at high risk for POCD and to support them with intraoperative brain monitoring.

Poster 46

THE EMOTIONAL ROLE IN A VISUO-SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY

Ana Garcia, Maria Clotilde Tavares, & Carlos Tomaz University of Brasilia

Descriptors: working memory, visuo-spatial task, autonomic response Working memory (WM) is a temporary storage of information and its use in response to a situation. Central executive (CE) handles activities of subsystems responsible for retention of visuo and/or spatial information in WM tasks. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) may be involved due to emotional factors. In order to assess the participation of ANS in visuo-spatial WM tasks, galvanic skin response (GSR) was obtained in 55 participants during a spatial-delayed recognition span task with IAPS pictures and geometric figures as stimuli. They had to pick novelty element after short delay appearance in variable pictures set (VT) or in a unique picture set (UT) in different

positions. The results showed a significant difference between the tasks related to number of corrects choices (VT>UT; p<0.001) and, about category of stimuli, VT didn't verify difference between the elements, unlike UT, among the categories, mostly between the emotional ones (Neg>Pos; p<0.001). About GSR, difference was found between the tasks (VT> UT; p 5 0.032). The visual aspect of different pictures works as a mnemonic element for later recall, facilitating the identification ofnew picture in a new position. The UT results indicate that, in absence of stimuli variation, performance declines. The effect of negative stimuli at UT showed that the emotional factor promoted a better performance previous reported as benefice of memory by negative information. Physiological measures were major when the participants saw more emotional content, consistent with the promotion of ANS by means of emotional factor.

Poster 47

RESTING FRONTAL CORTICAL ACTIVITY AND IMPULSIVE AGGRESSION

Sarah L. Lake & Matthew S. Stanford Baylor University

Descriptors: bilateral asymmetry, impulsive aggression

Resting frontal cortical activity has shown to be indicative of affective style in terms of general approach or withdrawal tendencies. Previous asymmetry research has focused on less ecologically valid measures, such as lab-induced anger or aggression. The present study attempts to further the literature by studying individuals who display impulsive aggressive outbursts. Impulsive aggression (IA) is described as a reactive or emotionally charged aggressive response characterized by a loss of behavioral control. Previous physiological studies have found IA individuals to have sensory and informational processing deficits. Although research has demonstrated lab-induced aggressive tendencies result in left frontal activation, no study has examined IA in regards to resting frontal bilateral asymmetry. Undergraduate volunteers were recruited for an 8 min resting EEG with 1 min blocks of eyes open or closed. Participants were selected such that IA participants identified several episodes of IA in the past 6 months, two in the previous 30 days, and a score of 8 or higher on the BDHI Irritability subscale. Age- and gender-matched controls reported no aggressive outbursts and a score below 4 on the BDHI. Average alpha power was compared using t-tests at four electrode sites (F3/F4; F7/F8) after a natural log transformation. As anticipated, IA participants showed increased left frontal activation compared to controls in a resting state. This supports previous research that suggest IAs have a biological predisposition to aggression.

Poster 48

EMOTIONAL FRAMING: CAN OLDER ADULTS RESIST THE POSITIVITY EFFECT IN THE LATE POSITIVE POTENTIAL (LPP)?

Andrea E. Naftz & Michael A. Kisley University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Descriptors: negativity bias, late positive potential, cognitive reappraisal Older adults have consistently demonstrated an avoidance of negative information presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoiding negative information is a motivated choice or an automatic response will be important to differentiate. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated if older adults' could consciously alter attention toward negative information. Component ERP waves known as late-positive potentials (LPP) of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults were recorded while valenced images were categorized in one of two framing conditions. If older adult participants typically voluntarily avoid negative information, in a negative frame they should be able overcome their tendency to do so. Two 3 x 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in LPP wave amplitudes and behavioral response times. For LPP wave amplitudes, results demonstrated a main effect for age and image type and an interaction between image type and frame [F(2, 192) 5 7.43, p<.001], image type and age [F(2, 192) 5 18.40, p<.001], and a three-way interaction between image, frame and age [F(2, 192) 5 5.70, p< .01]. For response times, there was a main effect of age [F(1, 88) 5 22.68, p<.001] and image type [F(1.73, 152.48) 5 12.12, p< .001]. Overall, younger adults significantly altered their attention allocation to emotional stimuli whereas older did not. This pattern of results will be considered in the context of the emotion regulation strategy of reappraisal.

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging, #R15AG037393.

Poster 49

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO LATERALIZED HAND COLD

PRESSOR

Jared J. McGinley, Anarkali Morrill, Jessica Worthen, Derek Spangler, Reed Powles, &

Bruce Friedman Virginia Tech

Descriptors: lateralization, cardiovascular, cold pressor

Lateralization of autonomic (ANS) control has been examined through various methods, but the nature of this laterality has been debated. A leading model of ANS

laterality posits right hemisphere dominance of both sympathetic and vagal cardiovascular (CV) control. An alternate model depicts right hemisphere dominance in sympathetic regulation, and left hemisphere superiority in parasympathetic control. This issue was investigated via a lateralized hand cold pressor task. Male undergraduates (n 5 29) submerged each hand in cold water for three minutes, preceded by a three-minute baseline. ECG and BP were collected during these periods; time-domain vagal measures of heart rate variability were derived from the ECG. Greater changes in systolic BP were observed in left hand immersion (t 5 2.563, p< .05), suggestive of right sympathetic lateralization. HRV changes were not significant, although they were in the direction of decreases from baseline to task, and were slightly greater for the left hand. In contrast to BP, cardiac responsiveness to the hand cold pressor may not be sufficiently robust to reveal lateralized ANS patterns through HRV indices. Facial cooling, which elicits a strong vagal response, may be an alternate method to assess lateralized parasympathetic control. In sum, the results support right hemisphere dominance in sympathetic control, but are inconclusive in regard to vagal laterality.

Poster 50

THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT TMS PROTOCOLS ON COMPLEXITY IN EEGS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

Yang Wang1, Yingjie Li1, Hui Li2, & Jijun Wang2 1Shanghai University, 2Shanghai Mental Health Center

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, TMS, schizophrenia

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been successfully used in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, it is still unclear that if various protocols, 10 Hz rTMS and theta burst stimulation (TBS) have distinct effects and what the underlying neural mechanism is. Patients' description or traditional adjustment scales could not tell us more. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been proven to be sensitive to TMS. A nonlinear dynamic method, Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) measure was more sensitive to the brain activity than the spectrum analysis. This study combined TMS and LZC analysis of EEG to indicate the different effects of 10HZ rTMS, TMS and sham (placebo) TMS. We hypothesized that 10 Hz rTMS and TBS would change the LZC of EEG more than sham rTMS. Seven schizophrenic patients (3 male, 4 female, mean 30+ 0.1 yrs) were given 10 Hz rTMS, TBS treatment and sham TMS on the left do-rsolateral prefrontal cortex in three days respectively. Before and after a TMS, we recorded EEG while subjects performed audio oddball task and calculated the LZC of event related EEG. Our results showed that EEG LZC increased significantly (p 5 0.021) after real TMS, but not for the sham. Although no significant LZC difference between TBS and rTMS was observed, we found that the TBS affected more areas than the rTMS. Furthermore, sham TMS has effect only on the channel under the coil. This study provides electrophysiological support for the idea that both rTMS and TBS produced intervention to brain activity. Specially, we propose that 10 Hz rTMS and TBS have different degree of influence on brain.

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (No.60871090).

Poster 51

INFORMATION FLOW OF GAMMA OSCILLATION IN EEG DURING EMOTION PROCESSING

Yingjie Li1, Ning Wang1, Wenqi Mao1, Yingying Tang2, & Jijun Wang2 1Shanghai University, 2Shanghai Mental Health Center

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, emotion network, pdc analysis

Studying the functional network during emotion processing is an important way to reveal the underlying neural connections in the brain. In this study, partial directed coherence (PDC) analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to assess the topographic patterns. Here a face-in-the-crowd task with crowds of neutral and emotionally biased faces was performed by 13 normal subjects (7 male, 6 female, 23.1+2.5 yrs from 21 to 30 yrs). In particular, subjects were asked to watch a horrible video clip in order to induce their emotional states of fear during the experiment. Stimuli consist of three expressions: happy, fearful and neutral. Brain electrical activity was recorded from 64 channel EEG system before and after the video display. Using short-window PDC, we evaluated directed interdependencies between cortical regions by analyzing gamma oscillation of the event-related EEGs. Although no significant main effect of emotional expressions on reaction time and accuracy of behavior were found in this study, gamma PDC analysis showed more results. Relative to happy faces, fearful faces elicited enhanced PDC value, especially in early stage(< 200 ms) and late stage (> 400 ms) after stimuli onset. We found more information flow from occipital into frontal area within 0-100 ms. After 400 ms, the routine changed from frontal sites to other areas. Furthermore, the main effect of emotion state was also found in the statistical analysis. Within 100 ms, right hemisphere dominance was demonstrated. Fearful state induced more information flow into right prefrontal area than happy state did.

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (60871090).

IT'S ALL ABOUT YOU: AN ERP STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF SELF-RELEVANCE AND EMOTIONAL VALENCE IN DISCOURSE

Eric C. Fields1,2, Wonja M. Fairbrother1, & Gina R. Kuperberg1,2 1Tufts University, 2Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: emotion, self-relevance, language

Accurately communicating self-relevant and emotional information is a vital function of language, but we have little idea about how these factors impact normal discourse comprehension. In an event related potential (ERP) study, we fully crossed self-relevance and emotional valence in a discourse context. Two-sentence scenarios were presented either in the 2rd or 3rd person (previous work has shown that this influences the perspective from which mental models are built). ERPs were time-locked to critical word toward the end of the second sentence which was pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant, e.g. ''A man knocks on Sandra's/your hotel room door. She/You see that he has a gift/tray/gun in his hand.'' A larger P2 was evoked to critical words in self-relevant than non-self-relevant scenarios, suggesting that, regardless of emotional valence, self-relevant discourse can enhance attention to words during early stages of processing. Unpleasant words evoked a larger Late Positivity than pleasant words, which evoked a larger positivity than neutral words, indicating that, regardless of self-relevance, emotionally valenced words are assessed as motivationally significant, triggering additional evaluation at post-lexical stages of processing. Finally, self-relevance and valence interacted on the Late Positivity: whereas a larger Late Positivity was evoked by neutral words in self-relevant than non-self-relevant scenarios, no effect of self-relevance was seen on pleasant or unpleasant words. This suggests that, in a self-relevant context, neutral stimuli are also assessed as motivational. NIMH R01 MH071635 to GRK and NARSAD Independent Investigator Award to GRK.

Poster 53

EFFECT OF RECALL FACILITATION ON P300-BASED CONCEALED INFORMATION TEST FOR REPEATED OFFENDERS

Yuki Hamamoto1, Motohiro Kimura2, Shinji Hira3, & Ohira Hideki1 1Nagoya University, 2The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 3Fukuyama University

Descriptors: concealed information test (cit), P300, recall facilitation (rf) The present study was designed to test whether Recall Facilitation (RF) about crime could enhance sensitivity ofthe P300-based CIT for repeated offenders. Specifically, we examined effects of the RF on P300 amplitudes to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in 2 types of the CIT. Participants were required to enact mock crimes twice. The second mock crime was 2 weeks later from first mock crime. Two weeks after the second mock crime, participants were subjected to the CIT. Before the CIT, participants in the RF1 group were shown a movie that depicted the room used for the first mock crime, while participants in the RF2 group were shown a movie that depicted the room used for the second mock crime. All participants could recognize stolen items accurately. When the RF and the CIT were congruent, that is, a movie that depicted the room, which was related to the crime tested in the CIT was presented, the relevant stimulus elicited the larger P300 amplitude than the irrelevant stimulus. However, when the RF and the CIT were incongruent, that is, a movie that depicted the room which was related to the crime untested in the CIT was shown, no difference between P300 amplitudes to the relevant and irrelevant stimulus was observed. These results suggest that a memory context given by the congruent RF enhanced sensitivity of on the CIT. Importantly, this implies that the CIT is a test depending on context of experienced events but not only on recognition of relevant information as sometimes indicated by previous arguments. Therefore, the RF would be an effective for repeated offenders.

Poster 54

THE EFFECT OF PITCH VARIATIONS ON THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO MUSIC

Lucas Jaquet, Brigitta Danuser, & Patrick Gomez Institute for Work and Health, Lausanne, Switzerland

Descriptors: music, cardiovascular, skin conductance

Pitch is a fundamental feature of music. However, its contribution to the elicitation of emotions is poorly understood. The main purpose of this work was to assess the effect of systematic pitch variations on self-reports of felt valence and arousal, skin conductance and cardiovascular measures. Forty-nine subjects listened to four one-minute classical piano excerpts, each presented at three different pitch levels (i.e., the original version, one octave lower and one octave higher than the original version). After each of the 12 excerpts subjects indicated their subjective felt valence and arousal. Physiological measures were recorded throughout the music presentation. The original four excerpts were each expected to induce emotions falling into one of the four quadrants of the bi-dimensional affective space defined by valence and arousal. Increasing pitch was associated with a linear decrease in arousal and with a linear and quadratic increase in valence, mainly reflecting reduced pleasantness for the lower-pitched version compared to the other two versions. These pitch

effects on the subjective response were not paralleled by effects on the physiological measures. This is the first study showing how pitch level impacts the psychophysiological response to music adopting a dimensional model of emotion. Pitch influences both the valence and the degree of arousal subjectively experienced. In contrast, it shows no clear effects on the electrodermal and cardiovascular responses.

Poster 55

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO AFFECTIVE PICTURES IN YOUNGER AND OLDER ADULTS

Patrick Gomez1, Armin Von Gunten2, & Brigitta Danuser1 institute for Work and Health, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Service of Old Age Psychiatry, Lausanne, Switzerland

Descriptors: aging, emotion, cardiovascular

Despite the central role that emotional reactivity plays in adaptation, few studies have examined age differences in this capacity under well-controlled laboratory conditions, on the basis of standardized emotion-evoking stimuli and assessing experiential, expressive, and physiological measures. 212 adults ranging in age from 20 to 81 years were exposed to 14 picture series, each lasting 60s and of a different valence and arousal. We assessed valence and arousal ratings, cardiovascular, respiratory and electrodermal measures, facial muscle activity and gaze activity. Here, we present findings for 22 younger (mean age 5 24.0) and 22 older (mean age 5 72.1) adults for valence and arousal ratings, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR). Compared to younger adults, older adults rated unpleasant series more negatively and showed a smaller range in arousal for pleasant series. SBP linearly increased with increasing appetitive activation. HR showed the expected deceleration from the pleasant to the unpleasant series. However, this effect was clearer for the younger adults than the older adults. For older adults, if something is pleasant, it is also judged to be generally lower in arousal, whereas, ifsomething is unpleasant, it is also judged to be generally higher in arousal. The results for SBP indicate that the association between arousal and sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system might be similar in younger and older adults. The results for HR suggest that the parasympathetic activation might be attenuated in older adults as compared to younger adults. Opo-Stiftung, Zurich, Switzerland.

Poster 56

THE LATERALIZATION OF TRIGEMINAL PAIN PROCESSING IN THE BRAIN

Annie Zhujiang1, Eric A. Moulton2, Donald B. Giddon1, Lino Becerra2, & David

Borsook2

1Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 2McLean Hospital Descriptors: fmri, trigeminal pain, laterality

The overall objective of the project is to determine whether cortical processing of facial pain is lateralized during stimulation of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (V2). Experiments in healthy subjects have demonstrated higher thresholds to induced pain on the right side. Facial chronic pain conditions, particularly in depressed patients, have been shown to occur more often on the left side. Thus, understanding hemispheric lateralization of somatosensory processing has potential clinical significance for understanding the underlying neurobiology of pain perception and interactions with co-morbid conditions. This project evaluates the lateralization of orofacial nociception in V2 using a 3 Telsa functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Heat stimuli of 44, 46, or 48 degrees Celsius was applied the V2 sensory region to the left, right, or both sides of the body. Subjects rated each stimulus's pain intensity and unpleasantness on a computerized visual analog scale (VAS). Preliminary data analysis of five right-handed subjects (3 male: 2 females, mean 22.6 yr, SD 1.29) indicates greater overall cortical activation with 48 degrees Celsius stimuli to the right side of the face compared to the left side, including in contralateral sensorimotor cortex. During bilateral stimulation at the same temperature, the amygdala and insula in the right hemisphere showed greater activation relative to the left hemisphere. Long-term goals of this project include comparing these results of healthy subjects with patients suffering from chronic oral and facial pain.

Poster 57

STIMULUS DRIVEN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES OF RESPONSE INHIBITION

Christina Hong, Austin Katona, Zachary Zimko, Steven B. Most, & Robert F. Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: response inhibition, SSRT, P300

A number of psychopathologies are characterized by deficiencies in executive control. An important component of executive control is the ability to make on-the-fly adjustments like those required when interference is encountered or when a prepotent response needs to be interrupted (Barch et al., 2009). The inhibition of an ongoing response is frequently studied using the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) task. An SSRT task is normally a choice reaction time task with embedded trials in which a 'Stop' signal appears and requires that the subject completely inhibit a response initiated to one of the 'Go' signals. The time required to stop is computed and ERPs associated with the stop signal can be

recorded (deJong et al., 2000). While this task is widely employed, little attention has been paid to the nature of the Go signal and to the possible influence that Go-signal content may have on behavioral inhibition. The present experiment was designed to address this issue. ERPs were recorded while forty-one undergraduates performed an SSRT task in which Go signals were either neutral pictures or highly appetitive positive pictures including high calorie, high fat foods. Results indicated that the SSRT was significantly slowed when the food pictures were Go signals. Successful stop trials were characterized by large NoGo P300 s that also varied with Go-signal content; the P300 was smallest on food-picture trials. These results suggest that, as predicted, inhibitory control can vary with the nature of the Go signal. Implications for research in obesity will be discussed. NIH grant number 2 P20 RR016472-10 from the NCRR.

Poster 58

RESPONSE MONITORING IN INDIVIDUALS WITH TRAUMA-RELATED STRESS SYMPTOMATOLOGY

Kathryn T. Roberts, Damion J. Grasso, Jason W. Krompinger, Hannah I. Volpert, Adam R. Dombrowski, & Robert F. Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: ERP, ERN, PTSD

While diagnoses of anxiety disorders are accomplished by self-report and behavioral observation, theories assume that the underlying constructs of fear and anxiety reflect distressing hyperarousal. Converging evidence suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is hyperactive across many anxiety disorders; however, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reveal that the ACC is hypoactive and smaller in volume. The present study examined response monitoring in trauma-exposed individuals with the aim of better informing the taxonomical placement of PTSD among anxiety disorders. Thirty-three trauma-exposed and 19 control participants were selected and performed a modified version of the Flankers task. Their event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were examined for between-group differences in error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). Questionnaire measures were also administered to assess for trauma-related stress symptomology, depression, and anxiety. Results indicate that trauma-exposed subjects have nonsignificantly larger ERN than controls and no difference in Pe. The between-group similarities in error-related brain activity suggest that ACC hyperarousal does not persist across all anxiety disorders but rather show a specificity that is not accounted for in the current taxonomy of anxiety disorders. The study also has theoretical implications regarding the role that psychophysiological measures should play in decisions about taxonomy.

Poster 59

CHANGES IN HEART RATE AND NON-SPECIFIC SKIN CONDUCTANCE RESPONSES OVER THE COURSE OF EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR CHILDHOOD PTSD

Damion J. Grasso, Adele Hayes, & Robert F. Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: PTSD, treatment, arousal

The current study examined changes in heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) over the course of exposure therapy for childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Treatment is delivered in three phases: Skills building, exposure, and safety awareness. According to Foa and Kozak's (1986) Emotional Processing Theory, modifying fear associations requires activation ofthe emotional, physiological, and cognitive components of the fear network, and the introduction of corrective information. This is associated with a transient period of affective arousal thought to facilitate processing of the trauma and symptom reduction. HR and NS-SCRs were recorded during sessions from each treatment phase. Average baseline HR and frequency of NS-SCRs were subtracted from insession recordings to reflect change relative to baseline. We hypothesized that the exposure phase would be associated with elevations in HR and NS-SCRs relative to the other two phases. We also hypothesized that greater arousal during exposure would predict reductions in symptoms at post-treatment. Eight children completed the study so far. Seven are underway. As predicted, in-session HR change was greater during exposure than during the other phases, and the effect size was large, op2 5 .35. In-session change in NS-SCRs was greater during exposure than the other phases (op2 5 .11). Increased HR during exposure predicted greater reductions in symptoms, r 5 .88, p 5 .004. This was not true of NS-SCRs. Findings have implications for understanding of mechanisms of therapeutic change.

Poster 60

ALTERED BRAIN ACTIVATION AND CONNECTIVITY IN PAIN PATIENTS DURING OBSERVATION OF ANGER EXPRESSIONS

Ignacio Cifre, Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Miguel A. Mufioz, Mercedes Martinez-Jauand, Carolina Sitges, & Pedro Montoya University of Balearic Islands

Descriptors: chronic pain, emotion, functional connectivity

Perception of others' emotional states can result in spontaneous emotional empathy in the observer. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in healthy vol-

unteers, little is known about the perception of others' feelings in chronic pain patients. The present study examines changes in brain activation elicited by viewing facial expressions of anger and neutral faces in fibromyalgia patients, a syndrome characterized by widespread pain sensations and affective symptoms. For this purpose, 10 fib-romyalgia patients (mean 5 47.5 SD 5 12.9) and 11 controls (mean 5 53 SD 5 8.45) were asked to watch dynamic expressions of anger and neutral faces during a fMRI session. Activation analyses showed that patients displayed higher BOLD activation in several areas, including lateral occipital cortex, superior and middle frontal gyri, pre-cuneus cortex and paracingulate gyrus than controls, but more reduced activation in regions like anterior cingulate gyrus, intracalcarine cortex and lingual gyrus. In addition, connectivity analyses were performed using those brain areas with significant differences in activation as seeds. The connectivity analyses showed that the precuneus cortex was overconnected with the rest of the brain only in pain patients. No differences were observed in the connectivities of other seeds. Our findings indicate that the persistent experience of pain might influence activation and connectivity in precuneus cortex elicited by the perception of others' emotional states, suggesting a possible alteration of the empathy phenomenon in fibromyalgia patients.

Research was supported by La Marato de TV3 (Spain) and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia (JCI-2008-3074).

Poster 61

BRAIN ACTIVITY TO FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF PAIN, ANGER, AND HAPPINESS IN CHRONIC PAIN PATIENTS

Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Miguel A. Mufioz, Mercedes Martinez-Jauand, Ignacio Cifre, Carolina Sitges, & Pedro Montoya University of Balearic Islands

Descriptors: chronic pain, emotion, EEG

Facial expression is one of the most relevant components of pain experience. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain processing of pain and other emotional facial expressions in chronic pain patients. We investigated affective processing of positive and negative faces in 20 patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and 20 healthy controls (HC). EEG activity (visual evoked potentials and event-related oscillations) and heart rate were obtained while participants passively viewed pained, angry, happy, and neutral faces. Results indicated that FM displayed greater N100 amplitudes and theta activity (250 -500 ms) to pain and anger than to neutral and happy faces, while HC did not show this differential processing between faces. In fact, HC exhibited lower theta power in response to pain and anger faces as compared with FM. In addition, a significant reduction of alpha power (50-250 ms) in FM in comparison with HC was found to all faces. On the other hand, HC showed enhanced mean amplitudes in the time window 200 - 300 ms to happy than to pain, anger and neutral faces, whereas no differences were yielded in FM. Finally, differences in heart rate were also found, indicating that FM displayed greater deceleration in response to anger than HC. These results confirm previous findings of altered cortical processing of pain-related information in chronic pain patients and, furthermore, extend these alterations to other negative and positive stimuli.

Research was supported by the FPU (grants AP2008-04020 and AP2008-03742) and La Marato de TV3.

Poster 62

ACTIVATION OF PAIN-RELATED BRAIN AREAS DURING THE PROCESSING OF DYNAMIC PAIN FACES IN FIBROMYALGIA

Miguel A. Mufioz, Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Ignacio Cifre, Carolina Sitges, Francisca Rossello-Muntaner, Mercedes Martinez, & Pedro Montoya University of Balearic Islands

Descriptors: chronic pain, emotion, fmri

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic pain disorder associated with widespread musculoskeletal pain and affective abnormalities. Several studies have demonstrated that FM patients are characterized by depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as by an altered processing of affective information. However, no data exists about how FM patients process facial expressions of emotions in others. The present study was aimed to examine brain activation during the processing of dynamic emotional faces using fMRI. BOLD signals from 10 FM patients and 11 healthy controls (HC) were compared when subjects were viewing movies of people displaying faces of pain, anger, happy and neutral. Only data concerning facial expressions of pain, after subtracting the effects of neutral faces, are reported in this study. The results showed that FM displayed higher BOLD activation in Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex and Superior Temporal Sulcus when they were viewing facial expressions of pain as compared to HC. In addition, FM showed lower activation in Supplementary Motor Area, M1 and Somatosensory Cortices (SI and SII) than HC. These preliminary data indicate that abnormal affective processing in FM patients includes the processing of facial expression of pain, suggesting that pain-related brain areas involved in the experience of ongoing and persistent pain might be also activated in the absence of pain stimulation. Research was supported by La Marato de TV3 (Spain)and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia (JCI-2008-3074).

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN FLANKER EFFECT

Shulan Hsieh & Weihan Fang National Cheng Kung University

Descriptors: flanker task, congruent, lateralized readiness potential Objectives: The present study examined age-related changes in the flanker effect and the extent to which age interacts with the flanker-induced differences in perceptual processing that contribute to the flanker effect. Methods: We adopted a modified flanker-task paradigm that incorporates PRO (i.e., hand response corresponding to a target arrow) and ANTI (i.e., hand response not corresponding to a target arrow) conditions. Participants from two age groups searched for a centrally presented target flanked on each side by stimuli that were associated with the same response as the target (congruent), the opposite response (incongruent) or neutral. Event-related potentials (ERPs), lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) and behavioral performance were measured. Results: The behavioral-data results showed that a typical flanker effect was present in both age groups in PRO and ANTI conditions, suggesting that flanker-induced differences in perceptual processing contributed to the flanker effect in a similar manner for both age groups. Furthermore, no increase in flanker interference was observed in older adults. LRP profiles also provided convergent evidence showing that perceptually based flanker effects were similar for both age groups. Conclusions: The present study suggests that aging does not increase flanker interference, nor does it alter perceptually based flanker interference.

Poster 64

INITIAL HEART RATE REACTIVITY TO EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE PREDICTS HEALTH OUTCOMES FOR THOSE WITH RESPONSE TRAINING

Andrea Konig1, Alison M. Eonta1, Stephanie R. Pitts2, Therese K. Verkerke1, & Scott

R. Vrana1

1Virginia Commonwealth University, 2University of Southern California Descriptors: heart rate, writing, health

Initial physiological reactivity when writing about a personal traumatic event can produce long-term psychological and physical health benefits. In this study, subjects wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions about a personal traumatic event (n 5 113) or a trivial topic (n 5 133) and received response imagery training (n 5 79), stimulus imagery training (n 5 84), or no training (n 5 83). Heart rate (HR) was recorded in sessions one and three throughout a ten-minute baseline, writing, and a ten-minute recovery period. One month after completing the three sessions, subjects completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Among response trained trauma writers, greater HR reactivity in session one was associated with greater reductions in PTSD symptom severity, depression, and physical health symptoms at the follow-up. These findings provide support for the assumption that writing is similar to traditional imagery exposure in that greater physiological reactivity at the beginning of writing was associated with good treatment outcomes. These findings further suggest that for some individuals, response training may be a beneficial adjunct to trauma writing.

Poster 65

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PREDICTS MFN IN NEGATIVE EMOTIONS UNDER UNFAIR ULTIMATUM GAME

Yu Wang, Liang Huang, Bo Yuan, Zhen Zhang, Xueying Chen, & Yiwen Wang

Descriptors: ERP, conscientiousness, MFN

Event-related potentials (ERPs) technique was used to investigate that whether personality can predict the difference of medial frontal negativity (MFN) in positive and negative emotions under ultimatum game (UG). Participants first watched an affective picture to arouse positive or negative emotions, then played the UG as a responder. After the procedure, they completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R). The UG task was played with real money and the proposer made an offer of how to split ¥100 (participants were proposed from ¥1 to ¥50), these offers varied in different relatively fairness levels, including relatively fair offers (¥31 -¥50) and relatively highly unfair offers (¥1 -¥20). ERPs results showed that: 1) relative to negative emotion and fair offers, the MFN amplitude in the positive emotion and unfair situation was significantly larger; 2) Compared to positive emotion and fair offers, in the negative emotion and unfair situations, the higher scores of conscientiousness, the more positive of MFN amplitude. These results indicated that the MFN reflected the cognitive evaluation of decision-making, and positive emotion hastened the awareness of decision-making situations. Conscientiousness suppressed the sensitivity of decision-making situations by weakening the cognition of adverse situations. This study provides evidence of how the MFN can change in a real social interaction task.

Funding provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 30807780].

EMOTIONAL FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION IN AUTISM AND ADHD

Guela E. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, Estate M. Sokhadze, Lonnie Sears, & Manuel F.

Casanova University of Louisville

Descriptors: autism, ADHD, ERP

Disturbances of affective reactivity and innate inability to perceive and respond to the social and emotional signals in a typical and appropriate manner are the hallmark deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Children with ADHD are characterized by persistent deficits in attention, impulse and motor control, but often present emotion regulation deficits as well. The study used ERP in facial emotional expression recognition to test emotional responsiveness in autism and ADHD. In a forced-choice ERP test subjects were instructed in 2 blocks to differentiate gender of faces with emotional expressions, and then in the following 2 blocks differentiate facial emotional expressions (e.g., fear vs. sadness; anger vs. disgust). ERP were recorded using 128 channel EGI system. ERP responses at the frontal, temporal, centro-parietal, parietal and occipital sites of EEG recording were analyzed and compared across 3 groups (ASD, ADHD, controls, N 5 9/group). Both ASD and ADHD groups showed higher error rates as compared to controls. ANOVA revealed group differences in amplitudes at the frontal (N200), parietal (P3b) and occipital (N170) sites. Difference waves between gender recognition and emotion prosody recognition tasks.at the fronto and parieto-occipital sites showed significant differences between ASD and ADHD group. Results are discussed using the ''theory-of-mind'' (ToM) construct. Thus we investigated the neural substrate of mentalizing both in ASD and ADHD. The study provides additional support for usefulness of emotional reactivity and ToM tests using ERP biomarkers. Undergraduate Research Incentive grant of University of Louisville.

Poster 67

DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF EEG GAMMA COHERENCE IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM ENROLLED IN TMS TREATMENT

Marie K. Hensley, Estate M. Sokhadze, Manuel F. Casanova, Eric Gross, & Ayman S.

El-Baz University of Louisville

Descriptors: autism, gamma, eeg coherence

The gamma frequency EEG oscillations evoked by complex perceptual stimuli reflect various sensory and cognitive processes. Analysis of coherence of functionally connected primary sensory and integrative cortical areas provides useful information about information-processing effectiveness. Patients with autism present abnormalities of gamma coherence during tests. A neuromodulation protocol that uses repetitive TMS is now being tested as a treatment of some core symptoms in autism. An analysis protocol to quantify coherence of gamma during cognitive tests is needed as functional outcome tool. We collected EEG data (N 5 25 in autism TMS group, N 5 20 in waitlist) during a visual oddball task using illusory figures. BESA Coherence Module software produces bitmap images displaying coherence of gamma frequency recorded at each electrode for specific conditions (target and non-target illusory figures) but lacks a function for calculation of coherence within task-defined windows. Therefore, we created a program in MATLAB that uploads the images and allows the user to restrict coherence calculations to a defined frequency (35-45 Hz) and time interval (40- 180 ms). Our custom application computes the scale of each individual pixel within the user-defined window by comparing the pixel to a matrix of color intensity values. Thus, the combination of BESA and MATLAB provides a method for analyzing coherence data before and after TMS treatment. Our pilot data support the prediction that post-TMS treatment, patients with autism show enhanced gamma coherence between frontal and parietal sites. Supported by NIH R01MH086784 grant

Poster 68

EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY OF VISUAL PERCEPTION AND ATTENTION IN ADHD, AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, AND TYPICAL CHILDREN

Estate M. Sokhadze, Lonnie Sears, Guela E. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, Marie K. Hensley, Allan Tasman, & Manuel F. Casanova University of Louisville

Descriptors: autism, ADHD, ERP

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD are common developmental disorders which share some similar symptoms of attention deficits. Although ASD and ADHD seem very distinct, there is growing consensus that behavioral characteristics of ADHD are often observed in ASD. This study is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities of these disorders, and to determine whether both share the same underlying pathophysiology. We compared the ERP profiles of ADHD, ASD, and typical control subjects in a shape recognition task in order to investigate effectiveness of differentiation

of target and non-target stimuli. Our hypothesis was that children with ASD will show less pronounced differences in ERPs to target and non-target stimuli, as compared to typical and ADHD children. We also predicted that ADHD group will exhibit less reactivity to non-target cues. Data was collected from 48 participants (N 5 16/per group) via 128 channel EGI system. Our results show significant differences both in behavioral and ERP responses between ASD, ADHD, and typical controls during performance on the illusory figure test. When presented with visual stimuli, the ASD group demonstrated enhanced and less differentiated responses in the fronto-central P200, N200, and P300 components. The same components were featured by more prolonged latencies in ADHD as compared to ASD and controls. These findings are interpreted according to the ''minicolumnar'' hypothesis, which proposes the existence of neuropathological differences in ASD and ADHD based on minicolumnar number/ width/morphometry differences.

The study was partially funded by NIH R01MH086784 grant to MFC and EMS.

Poster 69

EEG GAMMA CUE REACTIVITY IN DUAL DIAGNOSIS

Estate M. Sokhadze, Christopher M. Stewart, Ayman S. El-Baz, Allan Tasman, Marie Hensley, & Eric Gross

Descriptors: addiction, PTSD, eeg gamma

The goal of study was to investigate EEG gamma cue reactivity in outpatients with cocaine use disorder (CUD) and those with CUD and PTSD comorbidity (DUAL group). We examined EEG cue reactivity to pictorial neutral, drug- and trauma-associated stimuli in a three-category oddball task. Twenty-three subjects (mean 38.2yrs) participated: 8 subjects in control group (CNT); 8 patients in DUAL group (), and 7 patients in CUD group. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed using clinical interview. CUD was confirmed by clinical evaluation and urine drug screening. We analyzed single trial induced EEG gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) for 30 trials in each of 6 conditions (target-drug, non-target drug, target-neutral, non-target neutral, target-trauma, non-target trauma cues) using wavelet analysis at 14 EEG sites. CUD group showed higher gamma response to target drug cues at the frontal site (F7, p 5 0.04). At the lateral frontal sites we found Stimulus (target, nontarget) X Cue (drug, neutral, trauma) X Group (CNT, CUD) interaction (F5 5.03, p 5 0.02) that can be described as a higher gamma density to non-target drug cues, a lower response to neutral stimuli, and a lower gamma density to non-target stress cues in the addicts as compared to controls. The DUAL group showed higher bilateral gamma density to non-target trauma cues as compared to CUD and CNT (F7,F8 p< 0.01). Therefore, gamma demonstrated excessive reactivity to both target and non-target drug cues in CUD,probably due to activation of drug-related memory representations. Patients with dual diagnosis showed over-reactivity to stress cues. Supported by the NIH-NIDA R03DA021821

Poster 70

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND NEUROBIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF FOSTER MOTHER INFANT BONDING

Johanna R. Bick, Mary Dozier, Damion Grasso, & Robert F. Simons Descriptors: oxytocin, p3 activity

The current study examined biological correlates of foster parent-infant bonding among forty-three foster mother-infant dyads. Foster mothers' peripheral oxytocin levels were assessed prior to and following a 30-minute ''cuddle'' interaction. Foster mothers' P3 activity was assessed while foster mothers passively viewed digital images of their foster infant, a familiar infant, and an unfamiliar infant. Oxytocin production and ERP (P3) activity were assessed in the first 60 days of the foster mother-infant relationship (Time 1) among the 43 foster mother infant dyads and three months later (Time 2) among the remaining 33 dyads. Foster mothers' peripheral oxytocin production was significantly associated with the ''average'' P3 magnitude to all infant faces (i.e., to their own foster infant, a familiar infant, and an unfamiliar infant) at Time 1. At Time 2, foster mothers' oxytocin production was still associated with ''average'' P3 activity but was now also associated with the increment in P3 in response to their ''own'' infant. These findings have implications for understanding the multiple biological processes that underlie bond formation in non-biological parent/infant relationships, and have implications for identifying at-risk foster parent infant dyads that may benefit from preventative services.

Poster 71

RESPIRATORY VARIABILITY DURING EMOTIONAL IMAGERY Elke Vlemincx, Ilse Van Diest, & Omer Van den Bergh Descriptors: respiratory variability, emotions, imagery

Most research in respiratory psychophysiology investigating the effect of emotions on respiration has focused on mean respiratory time and volume parameters. Nevertheless, respiratory variability may be a more important marker of respiratory regulation, as a healthy respiratory system is characterized by complex variability consisting of substantial correlated variability and some random variability. The present study aimed to

investigate the effect of script-driven emotional imagery on respiratory variability. Within subjects, four randomized trials were presented, each consisting of a 60-s baseline followed by a 60-s listening phase, a 90-s imagery phase and a 60-s recovery. Baseline and recovery consisted of relaxing music. During the listening phase, scripts varying in valence and arousal were read to the participants, after which they were asked to imagine the script as vividly as possible during the imagery phase. Respiration was measured using the LifeShirt. The coefficient of variation and autocorrelation of minute ventilation were calculated as measures of, respectively, total and correlated respiratory variability during imagery. Total respiratory variability was significantly higher during high arousal emotions compared to low arousal emotions. A valence x arousal interaction was found for correlated respiratory variability showing reduced correlated variability during negative low arousal emotions. These results suggest that high arousal emotions induce more complex variability, whereas negative low arousal emotions evoke less correlated breathing variability. Research Foundation-Flanders.

Poster 72

TRAIT- AND STATE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN NICOTINE-ALTERED ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL IN HALLUCINATING PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

Crystal Villeneuve1, Dylan Smith2, Bryan Grant2, Derek Fisher3, Joe Borracci4,

Alain Labelle4, & Verner Knott1 institute of Mental Health Research, 2University of Ottawa, 3Carleton University, 4Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre

Descriptors: schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations, EEG

Objectives: Brain activation indexed with electroencephalography (EEG) has shown aberrant arousal patterns in SZ. This has been characterized by abundant activity in slow frequency (delta, theta) and high frequency (beta) bands, as well as diminished alpha. Acute smoking/nicotine appears to reduce slow wave and increase fast wave activity, but these actions have not been investigated in SZ. The purpose of this study to a) examine in SZ the effects of a single dose of nicotine on EEG, and b) assess the relationship between nicotine altered EEG arousal to nicotine-induced changes in trait-and state-related assessments of psychopathology. Method:16 SZ patients were recruited into the study. Patients were assessed within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, with nicotine (6 mg) and placebo gum. Placebo and nicotine values for each band were then correlated with clinical symptoms and trait/state hallucinatory ratings. Results: Nicotine increased beta3 and gamma band power. In the placebo condition, lower alpha band values were associated with greater negative and trait-related hallucinatory symptoms, while greater state-related hallucinatory ratings were associated with reductions in slow and fast-wave activity. In the nicotine condition, increases in slow and fast wave activity was positively correlated with hallucinatory ratings. Conclusions: Increased fast-wave activity may reflect a nicotine-induced increase in arousal/attention. State and trait dependent changes in nicotine-altered EEG may reflect differential neural networks associated with each.

Poster 73

VERBAL HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE PROCESSING OF AUDITORY STIMULI

Dylan M. Smith1, Bryan Grant1, Derek J. Fisher2, Joe Borracci3, Alain Labelle4, &

Verner Knott5

1University of Ottawa, 2Carleton University, 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, 4Royal Ottawa Hospital, 5University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research

Descriptors: schizophrenia, hallucinations, P50

Introduction: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AHVs) are a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that AVHs result from an elementary neural dysfunction in ''gating in'' and ''gating out'' of auditory stimuli. This study sought to examine the relationship between trait severity of AVHs as measured by the Psychotic Symptoms Ratings Scale (PSYRATS) and the auditory P50, an event related potential measure of early automatic auditory processing. Methods: 18 hallucinating schizophrenia (SZ) patients were selected based on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale's (PANSS) hallucinatory rating. Each patient completed the PSYRATS questionnaire prior to testing. 11 healthy controls were used as comparison. The classic P50 ''paired-clicks'' gating paradigm was presented through headphones. P50 amplitudes and latencies were recorded from mid-line central (Cz) site and processed using Brain-Vision® software. Results: Healthy controls (HC) showed a significantly larger S1 amplitude (p 5 .036) compared to SZ. Furthermore, there was a significant (p< .001) reduction in S2 amplitude relative to S1 whereas no such difference existed for SZ. One-tailed Spearman's rho analysis revealed global PSYRATS scores to be negatively correlated with S1 amplitude (p 5 — .36, p 5 .008), most notably scores of negative content and disruption to life.Discussion: This data suggests more severe hallucinatory traits in SZ is associated with deficient ''gating in'' of auditory stimuli. The auditory system in SZ may be overburdened with hallucinatory events, causing impaired acoustic processing.

TRAIT MINDFULNESS MODERATES THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE-TRAINING ON HEART RATE DURING EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE

Therese K. Verkerke, Andrea Konig, Alison M. Eonta, Stephanie R. Pitts, & Scott R. Vrana Virginia Commonwealth University

Descriptors: mindfulness, response training, heart rate

Mindfulness, a disposition characterized by increased attention and awareness of the present moment, is associated with reduced physiological response to stress; however, increased awareness of internal states during instructed emotional processing may result in increased physiological response. In this study, subjects wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions about a personal traumatic event (n 5 113) or a trivial topic (n 5 133) and received response imagery training (n 5 79), in which subjects are taught to focus on bodily responses, stimulus imagery training (n 5 84), in which subjects are taught to focus on stimulus elements in the imagined narrative, or no training (n 5 83). Previous studies show that response training results in greater physiological reactivity during emotional processing. Heart rate (HR) was recorded in sessions one and three throughout a ten-minute baseline, writing, and a ten-minute recovery period, and was analyzed as change from baseline during writing. For trauma writers, mindfulness was related to initial HR differently for response-trained and non-response-trained individuals. Among low-mindfulness subjects who wrote about trauma, response-training resulted in higher HR than stimulus training or no training. However, among individuals high in mindfulness, HR did not differ between response-trained and the other two groups. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and response training both accentuate the physiological effects of emotional processing, but response training may be effective only among people low in mindfulness.

Poster 75

EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES SCENTS ON PAIN THRESHOLD AND TOLERANCE

Andrea Bova, Andrew Groves, Michael Seals, Bryan Raudenbush, & Roger Moses Wheeling Jesuit University

Descriptors: pain, scent, controlled substances

The present study investigated the effects of controlled substances scents on pain threshold and tolerance. Participants completed a cold pressor test under three scent conditions (no scent, beer scent, and marijuana scent) by placing their hand in 3 °C water until it was intolerable but no longer than five minutes. Researchers asked for a pain rating of 0-10 (0 5 no pain and 10 5 intolerable) every 30 seconds with pre/post blood pressure and heart rate as pain indicators. After the final test, participants answered a questionnaire based on controlled substances use and experience. Results indicate that males experience increased tolerance in the marijuana condition, whereas females experience decreased tolerance in both beer and marijuana conditions. Those participants who consumed alcohol ''sometimes'' or ''often'' showed increased pain tolerance when presented with beer scent. These results suggest that past experience with a controlled substance may mediate the pain response.

Poster 76

NEURAL SUBSTRATES UNDERLYING BACKGROUND-ORIENTATION AND TARGET-LOCATION SPECIFICITY IN TEXTURE DISCRIMINATION LEARNING

Wang You, Chen Congdong, Qu Zhe, & Ding Yulong Sun Yat-Sen University

Descriptors: perceptual learning, specificity, ERP

The present study aims to investigate the neural mechanism underlying specificity of visual perceptual learning using event-related potentials (ERPs). Two groups of human adults were trained with a texture discrimination task for a single session. Their EEGs were recorded when they were performing the same task on the following day. ERPs of one group were compared between the trained and untrained background orientations (Orientation Group). ERPs of the other group were compared between the trained and untrained target locations (Location Group). Both groups showed significant behavioral improvement after training as measured by threshold. In the Orientation Group, the N2pc component at posterior electrode sites was larger in amplitude for the trained background orientation relative to the untrained one. In the Location Group, however, the amplitudes of N2pc showed no difference between two target locations. Instead, N2pc for the trained target location was about 30 ms earlier and showed more posterior scalp distribution than for the untrained one. Besides, a reduction of the anterior P2 component was observed for the trained versus the untrained target location. Although previous psychophysical studies of texture discrimination learning assumed that background-orientation specificity and target-location specificity together indicate the involvement of early visual areas, the results here suggest that these two kinds of specificity may involve different neural substrates. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China grants(31070983 and 30570605).

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF INHIBITORY CONTROL IN PREADOLESCENT BOYS

Amanda Ng, Tamara L. Vanderwal, Michael J. Crowley, Jia Wu, & Linda C. Mayes Yale Child Study Center

Descriptors: inhibitory control, N200, developmental

Preadolescence (ages 8 -11) is a dynamic but largely understudied developmental period. This study examines changes in inhibitory control and associated event-related potentials (ERPs) in this age group using a modified Simon-effect paradigm called the Dots task. This study aims to (i) determine the test-retest reliability of the N200 ERP signature over 4-6 weeks of time, (ii) establish age effects on accuracy and response latency of the Dots task, and (iii) determine whether urinary epinephrine levels correlate with performance measures during the Dots task. We recruited typically developing boys, ages 8-11 from the community. Currently, 14 boys (n 5 14) have completed 2 sessions with approximately 1 month between sessions. Dense-array (128 channels) electroencephalography was used to record ERPs while subjects performed a task that uses sidedness to induce a Stroop-like effect. Urine samples were also collected at each session. Age and accuracy on the dots task were positively correlated (r 5 0.87). Age and reaction time were negatively correlated (r 5 — 0.84). Epinephine levels were not correlated with accuracy or response time. Preliminary data confirm the test-retest reliability of the N200 wave. The results of this study suggest that significant changes in inhibitory control occur during preadolescence. If replicated, this shift should be considered when designing age cohorts in future studies. Delineating the underlying brain changes that facilitate this shift might also improve our understanding of the high number of children who come to clinical attention at this age.

Poster 78

OSTRACISM AMIDST FRIENDSHIP: A DENSE ARRAY EEG ANALYSIS OF INFERRED REJECTION BY A CHILDHOOD BEST FRIEND DURING CYBERBALL

Jessica L. Crawford, Jia Wu, Max Greger-Moser, Linda C. Mayes, & Michael J. Crowley Yale Child Study Center

Descriptors: ostracism, middle childhood, friendship

This study examined the effect of friend-driven ostracism on the neural correlates of social exclusion with event-related potentials (ERPs) during a computer-simulated ball toss game, Cyberball. Forty children (ages 8-14) who played Cyberball with their best friend and an unfamiliar peer experienced fair play initially and then were left out during an exclusion period. A slow wave was evident in the conditions (favor, ''not my turn,'' and rejection) 484-900 ms poststimulus, with rejection events having a more negative amplitude in the right frontal cortical region. In contrast to our previous social exclusion in middle childhood ERP research and fMRI-based similar exclusion studies, we did not find a correlation between ostracism distress on the Need Threat Scale and the amplitude of the rejection-related slow wave or other neural activity. However, results revealed a positive correlation between the rejection-related slow wave in the right frontal cortical region and relationship stress as measured on the Friendship Distress Questionnaire (FDQ), a scale designed for this study to account for differences in reacting to ostracism driven by a friend versus a stranger. Findings suggest that constructs beyond the four assessed on the Need Threat scale, such as the effect of exclusion exhibited by a friend, could be relevant when studying the neuroresponse to rejection, as well as illustrate the importance of considering ostracism's context. This study builds upon the social exclusion literature and is the first, to our knowledge, to examine exclusion by a friend. Bial Foundation Bursaries for Scientific Research.

Poster 79

TRAIT FEARLESSNESS AND DISINHIBITION IN A SIMULATED GAMBLING TASK: SEPARATING DISTINCT PROCESSES USING TIME-FREQUENCY ERP ANALYSIS

Aisha L. Howard1, Jason R. Hall1, Edward M. Bernat2, Noah C. Venables2, Eva R. Kimonis1, Norman G. Poythress1, & Christopher J. Patrick2 1University of South Florida, 2Florida State University

Descriptors: time-frequency, fearlessness, disinhibition

Dispositional fearlessness and weak inhibitory control are associated with varying types of impulse control problems, including drug and alcohol dependence, antisocial behavior, and psychopathy. This study examined event-related potential correlates of trait fearlessness and disinhibition in a sample of adult male offenders at a residential substance abuse treatment facility (N 5 65). Time-frequency analysis was used to disentangle overlapping delta and theta response to feedback cues signaling gain vs. loss outcomes in the context of a simulated gambling task. Specifically, the overall feedback-locked potential was parsed into distinctive delta (<3 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) time-frequency components. Consistent with prior research the delta and theta components were differentially sensitive to gain and loss feedback, respectively. Trait fearlessness was associated with reduced feedback-locked theta amplitude in the loss condition, which coincides with prior research linking fearlessness and diminished sensitivity to exogenous cues signaling danger or risk. Trait dis-

inhibition, on the other hand, was unrelated to theta in the loss condition, and nominally reduced for delta across conditions. This finding is consistent with previous research indicating that individuals prone to disinhibitory psychopathology exhibit reduced P3/delta response across a broad array of task conditions, but relatively intact brain response to exogenous negative feedback cues. Overall, these findings highlight the distinctive cognitive processes reflected in these two trait-dispositional constructs.

Poster 80

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES IN ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER

Ana Calzada1, Alfredo Alvarez2, Mitchell Valdees2, & Lidice GalÉin2 Neurophysiology Department, Legal Medicine Institute, Havana City, Cuba, 2Cuban Neuroscience Center

Descriptors: QEEG, LORETA

Resting EEG activity and Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) for slow bands of spectral EEG were evaluated in 84 violent offenders, 50 with and 34 without psychiatry diagnosis according to the DSM-IV-R criteria. The characteristics of EEG visual inspection and the use of frequency domain quantitative analysis techniques (Narrow band spectral parameters) are described. The main findings were the presence of more severe electrogenesis alterations in the antisocial group as well as the different topographical excess pattern of theta-delta activities and the decrease of the alpha band at the right frontal-temporal and left temporal-parietal regions when comparing the groups. These differences appeared to depend on the magnitude of the antisocial behavior. LORETA specified that increases of slow activity in antisocial offenders affected the left temporal and parietal regions participating in behavior regulation. These findings indicate the usefulness of EEG and LORETA as a diagnostic tool for the antisocial offenders' samples and specially the QEEG techniques in the differentiation of antisocial groups.

Poster 81

WHEN PERCEIVING THE MELODY OF SPEECH IS ABNORMAL: ERP INSIGHTS INTO EMOTIONAL PROSODY PROCESSING IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME

Ana P. Pinheiro1, Andreia Rauber1, Santiago Galdo-Alvarez2, Adriana Sampaio1, Margaret Niznikiewicz3, & (Oscar F. Gonçalves1 1University of Minho, 2University of Santiago de Compostela, 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: Williams syndrome, language, event-related potentials Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, is characterized by language and communication abnormalities, which include deficits in the perception of emotional prosody. Notably, no event-related potentials (ERP) studies of prosody processing have been conducted in WS. This study aimed at (a) characterizing the ERP correlates of three emotional intonation patterns in WS (N 5 10) and in a group of typically developing individuals matched for chronological age, gender, and handed-ness; and (b) at examining whether the emotional prosody processing is modulated by the semantic content of the utterance, as indexed by ERP responses. Stimuli were 228 auditory sentences presented in two conditions. 114 sentences with neutral semantic content were generated by a female speaker with training in theatre techniques (38 with happy, 38 with angry, and 38 with neutral intonation - condition of normal speech-NS). The same 114 sentences were used in the pure prosody speech condition where semantic content was removed from sentences, by using Praat software. Subjects were instructed to make judgments about the emotional tone of sentences. In WS, reduced N100 amplitude was observed for NS; more positive P200 for NS, in particular happy and angry intonations; and reduced N300 for both types of sentence conditions. These findings suggest sensory abnormalities, indicating a bottom-up contribution to the impairment of emotional prosody processing. Also, at least for N100 and P200, they suggest a top-down (semantic) modulation of sensory-level processing of prosodic information. This work was supported by a Doctoral Grant (SFRH/BD/35882/2007) from FCT (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia - Portugal) awarded to APP.

Poster 82

INHIBITORY DEVALUATION IN ADOLESCENCE: A BEHAVIORAL AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL EXPERIMENT

Anne E. Ferrey1, Helena J.V. Rutherford2, Michael J. Crowley2, Mark J. Fenske1, & Linda C. Mayes2 1University of Guelph, 2Yale University

Descriptors: inhibition, adolescence, EEG/ERP

Affective evaluations of previously ignored visual stimuli, or those from which a motor response has been withheld, are more negative than those of novel items or prior targets of attention/response. This ''inhibitory devaluation" effect reflects mediation between emotion and cognitive control systems that serve to guide adaptive behavior. Prefrontal cortical mechanisms subserving inhibitory control may be developmentally sensitive, with protracted prefrontal cortex development occurring during adolescence. While devaluation effects have been studied in adults, the interaction of cognitive and emotion systems is less

well understood in adolescence. Prior research has demonstrated that the magnitude of the Nogo N2 event-related potential component correlates with devaluation effects (Kiss et al., 2008). We report the first examination of inhibitory devaluation in adolescence at both a behavioral and neural level. Adolescents (n 5 9; collection ongoing) were presented with pre-rated mildly affectively positive and negative faces in a Go-Nogo task. Participants rated positive faces higher than negative faces (partial eta-squared 5 .87) and Nogo faces were devalued compared to Go faces (partial eta-squared 5 .26). We anticipate this will be reflected in the N2 component as previously reported. Our finding evidence of inhibitory devaluation in adolescence suggests that the putative mechanisms underlying the effect may be present relatively early in development and may reflect a more basic level of behavioral control than previously thought.

Poster 83

DEALING WITH UNFAIR DEMANDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC CORRELATES OF DECISIONS IN A HOLD-UP SITUATION

Astrid Steffen, Gerald Schneider, & Brigitte Rockstroh Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz

Descriptors: decision-making, magnetoencephalography, decision strategy Social context features like framing or fairness influence decision strategies and related brain activity. The present study examined decision strategies and electromagnetic activity to decision-relevant stimuli as a function of experimental conditions resembling non-cooperative decision-making (so-called hold-up) situation: Across 360 trials, 22 subjects had to defend an initial balance against a virtual opponent, introduced as more or less aggressive, who demanded on each trial a share of 50 or 90 percent of the Euro at stake. Upon accepting the demand, visual feedback informed about the remainder, upon rejection, whether the Euro was retained (on one third) or lost (on two thirds of trials). Larger demands were more often rejected than accepted and vice versa, indicating subjects' preference of loss-minimizing or 'rational' over loss-maximizing, 'irrational' strategy. Demand-and outcome-related stimuli evoked neuromagnetic activity in bilateral temporo-parietal to frontal regions between 70 and 370 ms that distinguished between decision (reject smaller demand prompting larger activity than accept), decision strategies (irrational prompting larger activity than rational) and outcome (retain after rejection prompting larger frontal activity than loss), while framing the opponent as more or less aggressive did not affect processing. Results suggest that 'rational' decision strategies predominate under unfair conditions. Brain activity patterns resemble those found without social context, suggesting context-independent activation of a decision-related neural network. Research was supported by the Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft and the University of Konstanz.

Poster 84

VAGALLY MEDIATED BEAT-TO-BEAT FLUCTUATIONS IN HEART RATE IMPROVE PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE EFFICIENCY

Ben Allen, Reed Powles, & Bruce H. Friedman Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pulmonary gas exchange efficiency Hayano et al., (1996) have suggested that one function of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is to improve pulmonary gas exchange efficiency through the matching of perfusion to ventilation during respiratory cycles via vagal modulation of heart rate. Conversely, Sin et al., (2010) demonstrated that both healthy controls and patients with cardiac pacemakers exhibit similar improvements in pulmonary gas exchange efficiency during slow deep breathing, despite RSA only increasing in healthy controls. These studies raise the question of whether vagally mediated beat-to-beat fluctuations in heart rate increase pulmonary gas exchange efficiency beyond the contributions of pulmonary mechanics. An experiment was conducted (n 5 67; mean age 5 20.11 years; 36 men) in which respiration was paced at six breaths per minute (0.1 Hz) while arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), tidal volume, minute ventilation, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were recorded. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that vagally mediated beat-to-beat fluctuations in heart rate are related to increased pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, while statistically controlling for changes in tidal volume, minute ventilation, and body mass index. Indeed, increases in RMSSD accounted for an additional 5.4% of the variance of changes in SpO2 during slow paced breathing (p 5 .026). These findings indicate that increased pulmonary gas exchange efficiency can be partially explained by between-subject differences in the vagal modulation of heart rate.

Poster 85

TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DLPFC INVOLVEMENT IN ANTISACCADE ERRORS - A PILOT STUDY USING NEURONAVIGATED TMS

Benedikt Reuter, Thomas Riemer, Paul Muhle-Karbe, Christian Kaufmann, & Norbert Kathmann Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin

Descriptors: antisaccades, TMS, DLPFC

Evidence from lesion studies, neuroimaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest that the ability to make correct antisaccades depends on normal func-

tioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during task preparation. However, there is some debate on the cognitive correlates (e.g., task set activation or response inhibition). Moreover, it is unclear whether there is a critical time period where DLPFC functioning is crucial for correct antisaccades. The present pilot study explored whether neuronavigated single pulse TMS is capable of inducing antisaccade errors and sought to provide information on when TMS interference in the DLPFC is critical. For ten volunteers we first determined individual blood-oxygenation level depended responses during antisaccade performance using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Peak activations within an anatomically defined region of interest were used as targets for subsequent TMS application during antisaccade performance. TMS pulses were applied in one third of 540 trials, either simultaneously with the onset of a peripheral stimulus or between 100 and 400 ms before. Error rates were enhanced if TMS was applied at 300 ms. This was not found in a control experiment with comparable TMS application over somatosensory cortex. The results confirmed that disruption of DLPFC functioning during task preparation entails errors in the antisaccade task. Moreover, single-pulse TMS appears to be suitable for fine-grained analyses of temporal, anatomical and cognitive aspects of DLPFC involvement in antisaccade preparation.

Poster 86

SHARED AND DISTINCT NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF ATTENTION AND INHIBITION IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD AND

Charlotte Tye, Philip Asherson, Karen L. Ashwood, Bahare Azadi, Patrick Bolton, & Grainne McLoughlin Kings College London

Descriptors: ERP, ADHD, autism spectrum disorder

Both children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate inhibitory control deficits as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs), yet these have not been directly compared. Nineteen children with ADHD, 11 children with ASD, 26 children with comorbid ASD 1 ADHD and 19 typically developing (TD) children were compared on performance and underlying brain responses during a cued continuous performance task (CPT- OX), with the aim of discovering distinct markers of attention and inhibition. The study evaluated ERPs indexing response execution (Go-P3), conflict monitoring (Nogo-N2) and response inhibition (Nogo-P3). Performance deficits were found only for the ADHD group, who demonstrated greater reaction-time variability. Inhibitory control was reduced in all clinical groups as indexed by attenuated Nogo-P3. An attenuated Nogo-N2 was present only in ADHD and ASD 1 ADHD subjects, indicative of reduced conflict processing as a distinct marker of these clinical groups compared to ASD. ASD1ADHD subjects demonstrated attenuated Go-N2 and Go-P3 compared to TD children and pure clinical cases, suggesting decreased levels of alertness to significant events. These findings indicate that the response inhibition deficit may not be specific to ADHD, and further that children with ADHD in occurrence with ASD might show a distinct pattern of information processing, providing new insights into the pathophysiology of these two disorders. The Waterloo Foundation.

Poster 87

TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES AND THE IMPACT OF DELIBERATIVE STRATEGY DISSOCIATE THE FEEDBACK ERN AND THE ODDBALL

Christopher M. Warren & Clay B. Holroyd University of Victoria

Descriptors: cognitive control, reinforcement learning, neural conflict Holroyd (2004) noted the similarity in topology and latency between the oddball N2 and the fERN and pointed out that they could be manifestations of a common underlying mechanism that is affected by both stimulus probability and valence. Previously we suggested the oddball N2 is a manifestation of noradrenergic modulation, and demonstrated that the topology of the oddball-N2 changes across tasks in a manner predicted by our position (Warren, Tanaka, & Holroyd, 2010). We also hold that the fERN is a manifestation of reinforcement learning signals being processed in the ACC, and thus should consistently be maximal over frontal-central regions. In three experiments, subjects were rewarded according to feedback consisting of male and female faces, tinted either yellow or blue. Between blocks, either the color or the sex of the faces indicated reward, and rewards were either frequent or infrequent. We created difference waves by subtracting frequent from infrequent trials to isolate the oddball-N2, and by subtracting reward from no-reward trials to isolate the fERN. When subjects attended to color, the oddball-N2 was maximal at frontal-central sites, and when they attended to sex it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas. The topology of the fERN was frontal-central in both task conditions. Across experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex decision tasks. This manipulation increased the fERN but simultaneously decreased the oddball-N2. We conclude the ERN and oddball-N2 are produced by distinct mechanisms. National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

FINDING THE MISSING STIMULUS MMN

Dean F. Salisbury, Elizabeth Ronan, Abby Laufer, & Maya Libben McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: MMN

In the auditory system, deviations from a repetitive train in pitch, duration, intensity, and other stimulus parameters evoke an enhanced negative deflection between 100 and 200 ms, the mismatch negativity (MMN). Surprisingly, omissions of stimuli do not evoke MMN, unless tone pairs are presented very close together, likely reflecting fusion of the pairs. Recently, patterns that require relational analysis of the stimuli and rule extraction have been shown to evoke MMN. Here we developed an auditory gestalt task using one stimulus. Pips were presented every 330 ms in groups of 6 (450 trials), with an ITIof 1 sec, while subjects (n 5 17) watched a silent video. Deviant groups had a missing 4th (50 trials) or a missing 6th tone (50 trials). Amplitude at Fz between 150 and 200 msec was compared between the final tone of groups (standard) and the two deviants. Missing stimuli evoked a MMN (F2,32 5 3.6, p 5 .046, e 5 0.87). The missing 4th (-0.9 uV, t16 5 3.1, p 5 .008) and the missing 6th stimuli (-0.9 uV, t16 5 2.4, p 5 .03) were significantly more negative than the standard stimuli (0.2 uV). These results show that a MMN can be elicited by a missing stimulus at long ISIs by violation of a gestalt grouping rule. Further, the lack of a missing stimulus MMN in trains of regularly presented trains, but its presence to violation of a more complex rule-based pattern, suggest that ISI is a parameter that receives relatively little weighting in detection of deviance unless a superordinate pattern is extracted. NIH R01 MH58704.

Poster 89

EXPECTING THE UNEXPECTED: REVERSAL OF THE N400 EFFECT ON A NEELY-TYPE TASK

Dean F. Salisbury, Abby Laufer, & Elizabeth Ronan McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: n400 effect, associative priming, expectancy priming Neely's iconic report (1977) demonstrated that at longer stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) top-down expectancy priming worked to inhibit automatic semantic priming based on semantic distance within associative networks. Because N400 is an index of priming, and is sensitive to both automatic and expectancy priming effects, it should indicate whether expectancy for non-related words can ''trump'' associative priming. Thirty participants were trained to expect non-category exemplars following specific category primes on a lexical decision task. Following 10 training trials, 4 types of test trials were presented: 5 trained category associates (unexpected); 5 trained category non-associates (expected); 5 untrained category associates (related); and 5 untrained non-associates (unrelated). Eight blocks with different categories were run. N400 was measured from 375 to 475 ms. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed on Cz N400 with training and association as factors. Training significantly interacted with association (F1,29 5 5.6, p 5 .025), indicating that expectancy modulated the usual unrelated-related N400 effect. Untrained categories showed the typical semantic priming N400 effect; unrelated words were more negative (0.5 uV) than related words (1.4 uV). By contrast, expected non-associates were more positive (1.5 uV) than semantic associates (1.1 uV). The reversal of the N400 effect by expectancy provides neurophysiological support for trumping of automatic semantic activation by top down mechanisms at longer SOAs when associative priming and expectancy priming are in opposition. NIH R01 MH58704.

Poster 90

FUNCTIONAL MEANING OF ASYMMETRIES OF OSCILLATING PROCESSES IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Dmitry M. Davydov P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, RAMS

Descriptors: heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, baroreflex Previous studies have shown that the processes of heart rate (HR) acceleration and deceleration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase and decrease can be asymmetric, i.e. show different contributions to the total variance ofHR and ofSBP. I examined this phenomenon in the structure of HR variability (HRV) indexed by rMSSD partitioned into HR accelerations (HRVa) and decelerations (HRVd) and of SBP variability (BPV) partitioned into SBP increases (BPVi) and decreases (BPVd). Hormones and HR and SBP variances were quantified at 20-min rest, and HR, SBP, and mood levels were obtained from 24-hour recordings of 213 healthy volunteers. Asymmetry in favor of HRVa compared to the opposite was associated with lower total HRV and lower baro-reflex sensitivity (BRS) but with higher normalized respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The asymmetry of HRV was associated with BRS asymmetry: persons with asymmetry in favor of HRVa had higher BRS to SBP decreases compared to SBP increases. Asymmetry in favor of BPVi was associated with lower respiration rate, SBP range, and norepinephrine. Both HRV asymmetries, in favor of HRVa and in favor of HRVd,

predicted higher physiological arousal level during waking hours compared to balanced HRV (HRVa 5 HRVd). For the former asymmetry, high arousal level was associated with higher waking HR and self-ratings of fatigue, but for the latter asymmetry, high arousal level was associated with higher waking SBP level. The asymmetries of oscillating processes in the cardiovascular system reflect different mechanisms balancing physiological arousal.

Poster 91

MISCLASSIFICATION OF INFORMED INNOCENT PARTICIPANTS IN THE CONCEALED INFORMATION TEST: THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION

Eitan Elaad Ariel University Center

Descriptors: concealed information test, polygraph, SCR

The efficiency of the Concealed Information Test in correct classification of motivated and less motivated informed innocent participants was assessed when participants were required to respond truthfully to critical items. Participants were either motivated to prove innocence (goal-oriented motivation) or to be cooperative (task oriented motivation). For these purposes, a mock crime procedure was employed and informed innocent participants were randomly assigned to four motivation conditions, formed by the combination of orientation (goal oriented, task oriented), and motivation level (with and without monetary reward). A fifth group of uninformed innocent participants served for control purposes. Results indicated that orientation and level of motivation interacted. Thus, motivated goal oriented innocents were most often classified as guilty. Motivated task oriented innocents were accurately classified as innocent. Theoretical and practical aspects of the results are discussed.

Poster 92

PERCEPTION OF AVERSIVE BODILY SENSATIONS: EXAMINING THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE CONTEXT AND ATTENTIONAL DIRECTION IN HIGH VS. LOW SYMPTOM REPORTERS

Elena Constantinou, Katleen Bogaerts, Ilse Van Diest, & Omer Van den Bergh University of Leuven

Descriptors: attentional focus, affective context, dyspnea perception It has been shown that perceived dyspnea is influenced by affective context (von Le-upoldt et al., 2006) and attentional direction (von Leupoldt et al., 2007). The present study aimed to examine the perception of dyspnea-related sensations under varied at-tentional direction conditions and affective contexts in high and low habitual symptom reporters (selected via the Checklist for Symptoms in Daily Life; Wientjes & Grossman, 1994). Forty-eight female participants (18 high symptom reporters, Mage 5 20.4 years) underwent CO2 enriched air (7.5%) inhalation under two odor-induced affective contexts (pleasant, unpleasant). Half of the participants had to focus on their bodily sensations (internal) and the rest on concurrently presented abstract shapes (external). Respiratory parameters (respiratory rate, volume, minute ventilation) and skin conductance were recorded and intensity and unpleasantness of sensations were rated after each CO2 trial. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significantly lower respiratory volume and higher respiratory rate in high habitual symptom reporters during CO2 inhalation, but no effects ofaffective context or attentional direction on respiration. An internal attentional focus was associated in both symptom groups with lower intensity ratings and, in the pleasant context only, also with lower unpleasantness. The findings suggest that directing one's attention to dyspneic sensations can have beneficial effects, but only in certain affective contexts, documenting the importance of the interaction among attentional and affective processes.

Poster 93

IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT RECOGNITION OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS IN HEALTHY PEOPLE AND PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION: HIGH-DENSITY ERP STUDY

Elena V. Mnatsakanian1, Olga S. Antipova2, Vadim V. Krukov2, & Valery N. Krasnov2 institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, 2Moscow Institute of

Psychiatry

Descriptors: ERP, emotion, implicit

We aimed at studying individual differences in brain electrical activity underlying recognition of negative vs. neutral facial expressions in patients with depression and in healthy volunteers. Healthy volunteers (44 female and 47 male) and patients (14 female and 7 male) performed visual categorization tasks. The stimuli were monochrome photographs of human and animal faces. Half of the images in either group were neutral and half were showing aggressive people or animals. The instruction for the Implicit task was to press button 1 for a human and button 2 for an animal face, and in the Explicit task recognition of emotions was required for the same stimuli. Also, pictures in the Implicit task were preceded by the cues (4 types, one for each condition), which meaning was not explained to the participants. 128-channel EEG was recorded with 500 Hz digitization

rate. The evoked activity was averaged for 4 conditions: HN - human neutral, HE -human emotional, AN - animal neutral, AE- animal emotional. We analyzed ERPs to pictures in both tasks and CNV recorded in the Implicit task between cue and picture (duration was 2 s). Unlike the healthy control, our patients showed very strong differences in the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to aggressive faces compared to neutral in the Explicit task. The HN-HE differences in the Implicit task were comparable for volunteers and patients. However, during the stimulus anticipation period (the CNV), our patients showed stronger negativity for the HE condition than for HN in the rPFC, which was not observed in the control group.

Poster 94

AUDITORY NOVELTY AND ODDBALL IN FIRST EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA

Elisabetta C. del Re, Danbee Kim, Beril Yaffe, Larry Seidman, Robert W. McCarley, & Margaret Niznikiewicz Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: schizophrenia, first episode, ERP

Auditory novelty P300 (P3a) and oddball P300b (P3b) event related potentials (ERP), were analyzed at baseline and after one year in first episode schizophrenic patients (FE) and healthy volunteers (HC). P3a and P3b, subcomponents of the P300 positive waveform elicited by a single-stimulus paradigm, distinguish, respectively, attention resources allocation and updating of working memory. P3b has repeatedly been found attenuated in chronic and in first episode schizophrenia while P3a has rarely been assessed in first episode schizophrenia (FE). Baseline ERP data were collected on 16 FE and 14 HC for the novel paradigm and 16 FE and 16 HC for the auditory oddball one. Subjects were all right-handed and group matched on age and gender, and data for both paradigms were available on 11 of the 16 FE assessed. Novel auditory P3a consisted of novel distractors (environmental sounds, 15%), silently counted targets (15%, 1.5 kHz) and standards (70%, 1 kHz); compared with the HC, the FE at baseline showed highly significant reductions at midline electrodes (Fz, Cz, Pz). Ten FE retested one year later showed a strong trend for additional progression of P3a amplitude reduction at midline electrodes. The two-stimulus auditory oddball paradigm consisted of silently counted targets (15%, 1.5 kHz) and standards (1 kHz). As expected, highly significant reductions were found in FE compared with HC at midline electrodes with possibly a further reduction on 11 FE reassessed one year later.

Poster 95

WAS HE MAD AT ME? MASKED EMOTIONAL FACES MODULATE ATTENTION

Elizabeth R. Duval1, Christopher T. Lovelace1, Lisa R. Hale2, Karly Schleicher1, & Diane L. Filion1

1University of Missouri - Kansas City, 2University of Kansas Medical Center Descriptors: emotional faces, attention, startle

Functional neuroimaging studies report amygdala activation to emotional, especially threatening images (e.g., negative facial expressions), even when rendered subliminal by masking. This activity is stronger in anxious, compared to non-anxious individuals. It is believed that the increased amygdala response leads to hypervigilance, allowing attent-ional resources to be directed toward the stimulus of interest. However, few studies have directly investigated the modulation of attention by subliminal images. The current study is one of the first to examine attention allocation to subliminally presented emotional faces, indexed by startle response inhibition at short lead intervals, in people with high and low levels of social anxiety (SA). Thirty-four healthy undergraduates were selected from top/bottom 10% of scores (17 each) on a self-report measure of SA symptoms. Each viewed male and female faces expressing emotions for 17 ms, followed by a neutral facemask. Acoustic startle probes (50 ms, 105 dB SPL(A) white noise) were presented at lead intervals of 300 or 800 ms to examine the time course of attention allocation during face viewing. There was a significant face gender by expression interaction at 300 ms indicating that some subliminally presented faces (happy females, angry males) engage more attention than other types of faces. There were no significant effects at 800 ms, and no main effect or interaction involving SA group. Overall, the findings suggest that subliminal emotional faces modulate attention similarly in people with high and low levels of SA.

Poster 96

TRAIT MINDFULNESS PREDICTS ATTENTIONAL AND AUTONOMIC REGULATION OF ALCOHOL CUE-REACTIVITY

Eric L. Garland Florida State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, alcohol attentional bias, mindfulness Background: The trait of mindfulness varies among meditation-naive individuals and is associated with attentional and autonomic regulation, two neurocognitive functions

that are impaired in addiction. We hypothesized that recovering alcohol dependent inpatients with comparatively high levels of trait mindfulness would exhibit adaptive autonomic responses to alcohol cues mediated by greater attentional disengagement from such cues. Methods: 58 alcohol dependent inpatients participated in affect-modulated psychophysiological cue-reactivity protocol and a spatial cueing task designed to assess alcohol attentional bias (AB). Associations between trait mindfulness, alcohol AB, and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) were examined via multivariate path analysis. Results:Higher trait mindfulness was inversely associated with perceived difficulty resisting the urge to drink (r 5 .36, p< .01) and greater HRV recovery from stress-primed alcohol cues (r 5 .36, p<.01). After controlling for the correlation of mindfulness and perceived difficulty resisting drinking urges, the association between mindfulness and HRV recovery was partially mediated by attentional disengagement from alcohol cues (model R-squared 5 .30). Discussion:Recovering alcohol dependent individuals higher in mindfulness are better able to disengage attention from alcohol cues, which in turn predicts the degree of HRV recovery from such cues. Trait mind-fulness may index cognitive control over appetitive responses reflected in superior at-tentional and autonomic regulation of alcohol cue-reactivity.

Poster 97

COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION

Sergio Garrido1, Angeles Pulgar1, Elisabeth Ruiz-Padial1, Stefan Duschek2, & Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso1 1University of Jaen, 2University of Munich

Descriptors: fibromyalgia syndrome, cognitive performance, blood pressure This study investigated cognitive performance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and its association with clinical and cardiovascular parameters. Thirty-five patients with FMS and 29 matched healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test for attention and arithmetic processing. As possible factors underlying the expected cognitive impairment, cardiovascular parameters as well as clinical pain intensity and co-morbid emotional disorders were investigated. The patients) test performance was substantially reduced, particularly in terms of lower speed of cognitive processing and restricted improvement of performance in the course of the task. While the extent of depression, anxiety and fatigue was unrelated to test performance, better performance was observed in patients showing lower pain ratings and those using analgesic medication. In the control group, but not the patient group, blood pressure was inversely associated with mental performance. The data corroborate the presence of substantial cognitive impairment in FMS. While the experience of chronic pain is crucial in mediating the deficits, co-morbid depression, anxiety and fatigue play only a subordinate role. The inverse association between blood pressure and performance in the control group is in line with the well-known cognitive impairment in hypertension. The lack of this association in FMS confirms previous research showing aberrances in the interaction between blood pressure and central nervous function in the affected patients.

This research was supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project PSI2009-09812).

Poster 98

SELF-ESTEEM PREDICTS GAZE BUT WMC PREDICTS EGO-THREAT RESILIENCE

Joseph S. Weaver & Heath A. Demaree Case Western Reserve University

Descriptors: working memory, emotion regulation, eye tracking

Working memory capacity (WMC) has been implicated as an important factor in the successful use oftwo emotion regulation strategies - reappraisal and suppression. In the current study, we examined the role of WMC in another form of antecedent-focused regulation strategy: selective attention. 70 undergraduates participated in session one and 55 returned for session two. Participants completed several questionnaires that assessed self-esteem, positive and negative affect, behavioral activation and inhibition, and use of emotion regulation strategies. They also completed a measure of WMC and viewed positively and negatively valenced images in an eye-tracking task. During the second session, half of the participants received negative feedback following a bogus personality inventory (experimental condition) whereas the other half received no feedback (control condition). It was hypothesized that WMC would predict increased positive gaze behavior and decreased change in trait negative affect among participants who received negative feedback. It was further hypothesized that persons with higher WMC would experience attenuated increases in negative affect following negative feedback. Contrary to expectations, gaze behavior was not predicted by WMC but by trait self-esteem (r 5 .509, p< .05). Gaze behavior did not predict change in negative affect, also contrary to hypotheses. However, one hypothesis was supported. Simple slope analysis revealed that participants with low WMC had an increase in state negative affect (p<.05) following negative feedback whereas those high WMC had no increase (p 5 .94).

WHAT ABOUT THE EMPRESS OF RACNOSS? EYE TRACKING AND ATTENTION TO PICTURES OF SPIDERS AND DR. WHO

Helena M. Purkis1, Samuel B. Hutton2, Zoe C. Nightingale2, & Andy P. Field2 1University of Queensland, 2University of Sussex

Descriptors: attention, eyetracking, dr who

It is believed that our attentional systems are hard-wired to attend to threat; however, an alternative explanation is simply that attention is quickly drawn to the stimulus of most personal relevance in the environment. We used an eye tracker to monitor attention to threat stimuli (spiders) and to positive stimuli with no biological or evolutionary relevance (pictures from the television program Dr. Who) during a target search task. We found that distracter pictures from Dr. Who were fixated on more quickly and were allocated more attention in terms of overall dwell time than were pictures of spiders by participants who had a strong interest in Dr. Who. As such, allocation of attention was guided by the personal relevance of the images, rather than their threat content per se. The attentional system believed to have a causal role in anxiety disorders may therefore be a general system that responds to stimulus relevance rather than being specific to threat; hence, non-evolutionary images, such as those from Dr Who, are allocated attention in a similar manner as are fear relevant, spider, images. For people with an interest in Dr. Who and a fear of spiders therefore, the Empress of Racnoss (a spider-like creature who features in the program) might be the ultimate attention-grabbing stimulus.

Poster 100

AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF DURATION IN CHILDREN WITH

Adrianne L. Flores1, Hilary Gomes2, Martin Duff2, & Jeffrey M. Halperin1 1Queens College, 2City College

Descriptors: ADHD, MMN, children

Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often exhibit deficits in processing information about time. Most studies, however, have required participants to perform active tasks and consequently it is unclear if performance deficits are due to impaired processing of temporal information, attentional deficits, or to impairments at a later stage of decision-making. This study used mismatch negativity (MMN) to examine automatic processing of temporal information in children with ADHD. Nine children with typical development (TD) [Mean age 5 9.21 years (.65 SD)] and 10 with ADHD [Mean age 5 8.93 years (.89 SD)] were recruited from the Queens College Preschool Project, a longitudinal study of children identified as TD or at risk for ADHD when they were 3-4 years old. Using the MMN paradigm, responses to standards (1000 Hz, 250 ms) and 4 deviants (easy/hard pitch [1200 and 1400 Hz], easy/hard duration [350 and 450 ms]) were elicited during the same sequence. The children's ability to actively discriminate each of the deviants was also assessed. Both groups evidenced MMNs to all deviants. Further, peak, onset and amplitude measures were comparable. No group differences were seen on the active discrimination task, but performance was worse for the duration (19%) than for the pitch deviants (64%). Notably, these results suggest that children with ADHD are able to automatically process temporal information, so deficits reported in active discrimination paradigms are likely due to deficits in attention, decision-making, or responding.

Poster 101

INFLUENCE OF STIMULUS COMPLEXITY AND VARIABILITY TO THE ERP RESPONSE EVOKED BY TASK IRRELEVANT STIMULI

Ireen Barkaszi, Istvain Czigler, & LIszIo Balaizs Institute for Psychology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: task irrelevant stimuli, p3a, complexity

New, unexpected or unpredictable events elicit the orienting response, which is an involuntary shift of attention serving to prepare the organism for sudden changes in the environment. If the event is deemed significant, this could lead to appropriate behavioral action. We investigated this response by using the method of event related potentials (ERP) of the brain. The P3a component can be regarded as the brain-electrical correlate of the orienting response. This component is typically obtained in response to task irrelevant stimuli that is of maximum amplitude over the frontal/central areas with a peak latency of about 300 400 milliseconds. In our experiments participants were asked to perform auditory and visual discrimination tasks. All subjects were given 3 task conditions in each modality. In conditions 1 and 2 simple standards (80%) and targets (10%) were presented together with more complex task irrelevant stimuli. In condition 1 complex stimuli were identical, however in condition 2 they were different each time. In contrast in condition 3 the standards and targets were more complex and the task irrelevant infrequent stimuli were more simple and identical. The irrelevant infrequent stimuli elicited P3a component in 1 and 2 but not in conditions 3. In the auditory modality variable irrelevant stimuli evoked larger P3a compared to similar tones. In contrast in the visual tasks the identical irrelevant stimuli evoked bigger P3a. Our results show that infrequency and irrelevance is not enough to elicit orienting response per se, complexity also has a significant role.

Withdrawn

Poster 103

EFFECTS OF INTENTION TO CONCEAL ON CENTRAL AND AUTONOMIC RESPONSES IN A CONCEALED INFORMATION TEST

Izumi Matsuda1, Hiroshi Nittono2, & Tokihiro Ogawa1 1National Research Institute of Police Science, 2Hiroshima University

Descriptors: concealed information test, memory, intention to conceal In a concealed information test (CIT), an examinee's memory of a crime-relevant item is inferred from differential physiological responses between crime-relevant and irrelevant items. However, it remains inconclusive whether crime-relevant memory is a sufficient condition to elicit the distinctive responses. Given that a guilty examinee wants to conceal relevant information from an examiner, this intention may affect the responses. In this study, we investigated how the intention to conceal modulates central and autonomic responses in the CIT. Eighteen participants were asked to conduct a mock theft of two items. After that, an examiner asked them to reveal one of the stolen items, and then conducted two CITs. One was a usual CIT regarding the stolen item that they tried to conceal. The other was a CIT about the stolen item that they had already shown to the examiner and did not have to conceal. In each CIT, five items were vocally presented 12 times (ISI 5 22 s). Event-related potentials (ERPs), electrodermal response, respiration, and heart rate were measured. In the usual CIT, ERPs (N2 and positive slow wave) and all autonomic measures differed significantly between crime-relevant and irrelevant items. In contrast, when a participant had no intention to conceal, the difference was observed only for N2 and heart rate. The results suggest that central and autonomic responses in the usual CIT reflect not only memory-related processes but also processes related to the intention to conceal, which are reflected in positive slow wave, electrodermal response, and respiration.

Poster 104

ORIENTING ATTENTION TO EXTERNAL VERSUS INTERNAL REGIONS OF "SPACE": BEHAVIORAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF ATTENDING IN ADVANCE VERSUS AFTER THE FACT

James M. Broadway, Matthew R. Hilimire, & Paul M. Corballis Georgia Institute of Technology

Descriptors: attention, working memory

We report an ERP experiment comparing effects of knowing where to attend to-be-remembered information in advance versus knowing afterward. Participants performed a visual-spatial short-term recognition task, with centrally presented and bilaterally symmetrical orienting cues appearing either before or after four items in a bilateral memory display. Participants reported whether a probe item had appeared on the cued side of the memory display. Recognition accuracy was higher, and RTs were faster, in pre-cued versus post-cued conditions. ERPs to central orienting cues and to peripheral memory displays were systematically lateralized in relation to the direction of attention, in pre- but not post-cue conditions. ERPs to central recognition probes were also lateralized, but here this effect did not differ statistically between pre- and post-cue conditions. Results are consistent with a contralateral organization for visual-spatial short-term memory and attention and clarify previous reports of lateralized ERP responses that occur when orienting attention "outwardly" to external events versus "inwardly" to remembered ones.

Poster 105

DIFFERENTIAL NEURAL ACTIVATION PATTERNS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING DIFFERENCES FOR MEN AND WOMEN WHILE SOLVING SUDOKU PUZZLES WITH DIFFERENT

STIMULI

Ashley L. Strong, Maranda D. Conner, Kinsey L. Hall, Jaydee L. Brewer, & James E. Horton The University of Virginia's College at Wise

Descriptors: cognition, deductive logic, insight

Researchers investigated cognition differences in males and females while solving Sudoku type puzzles. The puzzles consisted of numbers, letters or symbols in three difficulty levels. Analyses of 17 (7 male) participants revealed a significant main effect of puzzle difficulty level F(2,48) 5 15.816, p< .0001 with the longer latencies from stimulus to response correlated with difficulty. There was also a strong tendency toward differences in latency from stimulus to response due to an interaction of puzzle type and sex (p 5 .055). ERP's derived from EEG data were analyzed for pre-response neural activity associated with decisions involving deductive logic and different types of Sudoku puzzles. Electrodes F5 and F6 showed a main effect of sex, F(1,46) 5 5.832, p 5 .020 and F(1,46) 5 8.822, p 5 .006 respectively and F6 showed a main effect of puzzle type F(2,45) 5 4.196, p 5 .021. Source analyses of pre-response contingencies reveal very different neural patterns of activity indicating different problem-solving and informa-

tion-processing strategies in male and female participants. Based on literature and results for deductive logic and insight research, the different patterns of neural activity observed in subjects solving the Sudoku puzzles indicated that female participants used deductive logic to solve the Sudoku puzzles while male participants used insight.

Poster 106

THETA/BETA RATIO IS RELATED TO APPROACH MOTIVATION IN HEALTHY CONTROLS BUT NOT IN ADULTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

Jan R. Wiersema & Inez Buyck Ghent University

Descriptors: EEG, ADHD, approach motivation

Objectives: Several studies have found increased electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave/ fast wave ratios in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). More specifically, an increased theta/beta ratio during rest has consistently been reported, which recently has been suggested to reflect reduced cortical control over subcortically driven approach motivation. Therefore, in the current study, the relationship between theta/beta ratio during rest and approach motivation was evaluated both in healthy controls and in adults with ADHD. Methods: Eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded in 22 adults with ADHD and 27 healthy controls, matched for age, IQ, and sex. Theta/beta ratio was calculated for frontal, central and parietal sites. Approach motivation was measured by the Behavioural Activation System (BAS) Drive scale. Repeated measures analyses of variance and correlation analyses were used. Results: Groups did not differ for theta/beta ratio. Theta/beta ratio was found to be significantly and positively related (most strongly at frontal sites) to approach motivation as indexed by scores on the BAS Drive scale. However, this was only the case for healthy controls, but not for adults with ADHD. Conclusions: In contrast to earlier reports, theta/beta ratio was not found to be increased in adults with ADHD. Theta/ beta ratio may reflect approach motivation in healthy controls, however results are not supportive for this link in adults with ADHD. Further research is needed on the functional significance of slow wave/fast wave EEG ratios in healthy controls and adults with ADHD.

Poster 107

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF IDEOMOTOR LEARNING

Jeffery G. Bednark1, John N.J. Reynolds1, Tom Stafford2, Peter Redgrave2, & Elizabeth A. Franz1 1University of Otago, 2University of Sheffield

Descriptors: novelty p3, fcrp, motor learning

Performance of voluntary behavior requires the selection of appropriate movements to attain a desired goal. We propose that the selection of voluntary movements is contingent on the formation of a movement heuristic or set of internal rules governing movement selection. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the electrophysiological correlates of the formation of movement heuristics during ideomotor learning. In two experiments, ERPs in a movement-learning task (in which a movement heuristic had to be formed) were compared to ERPs in non-learning control tasks. We hypothesized that novelty P3 amplitude would be negatively correlated with improved performance in the movement-learning task, and this was strongly supported. Furthermore, the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) was only elicited by sensory effects following intentional movements, and its amplitude was enhanced when the sensory effect was the only source of performance feedback. These findings highlight an integrative role of the fCRP and the novelty P3 in the acquisition of movement heuristics. Whereas the fCRP indicates that the goal of intentional movements has been attained, the novelty P3 engages stimulus-driven attentional mechanisms to determine the primary aspects of movement and context required to elicit the sensory effect.

Poster 108

EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE TRAINING ON SPEED OF PROCESSING AND ATTENTION ALLOCATION IN OLDER ADULTS

Jennifer L. O'Brien, Jerri E. Edwards, Nathan D. Maxfield, Victoria Williams, Carol L. Peronto, & Jennifer J. Lister University of South Florida

Descriptors: aging, cognitive training, ERP

It is well established that humans experience declines in cognition with age, including a slowing in the speed of cognitive processing and in shifts of attention (Madden et al., 2005; Salthouse, 1996). Speed of processing (SOP) training is a behavioral cognitive intervention involving computerized attention and memory tasks designed to enhance perceptual processing and processing speed of visual and auditory stimuli. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of speed of processing (SOP) training in improving older adults' processing speed and attentional allocation in a visual search task, evidenced by changes in the P3 and N2pc components after training. Both P3 and N2pc components are useful in understanding the relationship between cognitive decline and aging, as both are known to decrease in amplitude and increase in latency with age, reflecting age-related slowing of stimulus evaluation processes and a reduction of attentional resource

allocation. Before and after 20 hours of SOP training, ERPs were recorded while older adults searched for a singleton feature target defined by an orientation difference to the distractors. Preliminary results indicate that SOP training increases the amplitudes of both the P3 and N2pcand decreases the latency of theP3 in response to a target pop-out. Results suggest that SOP training enhances both visual processing speed and the allocation of attention to relevant stimuli in older adults. Behavioral performance and ERP differences in relation to older controls (without training) will also be discussed.

Poster 109

DAMAGE TO VENTROMEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX AFFECTS THE ATTENTIONAL AND EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF THE STARTLE REFLEX: THE INFLUENCE OF AGE OF LESION ONSET

Juan P. Sanchez-Navarro1, David Driscoll2, Tony W. Buchanan3, Antoine Bechara4, Steven W. Anderson2, & Daniel Tranel2 1University of Murcia, Spain, 2University of Iowa, United States 3Saint Louis University, United States, 4University of Southern California, United States

Descriptors: startle reflex, prepulse inhibition, emotion

The aim ofthis work was to study the involvement ofthe ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in both inhibitory and emotional processing, as well as the severity of dysfunction of these processes depending on the lesion onset. For this purpose, we studied both the attentional and emotional modulation of the startle reflex. Our sample was composed of 6 patients with adult-onset VMPFC damage, 4 patients with childhood-onset VMPFC damage, and 10 healthy comparison subjects. Participants viewed 54 affective pictures, and an acoustic startle probe appeared at 300 ms after picture onset in 18 pictures (as an index of prepulse inhibition), and at 3,800 ms after picture onset in 18 pictures (as an index of emotional modulation). Results showed that childhood-onset VMPFC patients did not show prepulse inhibition, attentional inhibition, or emotion-modulated startle. Adult-onset VMPFC patients, however, showed preserved prepulse inhibition and emotion-modulated startle, whereas the attentional inhibition was impaired. Childhood-onset VMPFC damage leads, therefore, to a disruption of the pre-pulse inhibition. Adult-onset VMPFC damage does not disrupt this function, but the ability to more deeply process the more salient stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant). Regarding the later stages of processing, childhood-onset VMPFC patients did not show the emotional modulation of startle, in contrast to adult-onset VMPFC and comparison subjects. Overall, early onset damage to the VMPFC results in more severe dysfunction of emotional and attentional processing compared to adult-onset lesions.

Poster 110

AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY IN BLOOD-INJURY-INJECTION FEARFUL SUBJECTS: SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION AND DEFENSE RESPONSE

Juan P. Sanchez-Navarro, Jose M. Martinez-Selva, Ginesa Torrente, Sara Pineda, & Maria J. Murcia University of Murcia, Spain

Descriptors: emotion, phobia

This research was aimed at studying the autonomic responses of blood-injury-injection (BII) fearful subjects to non-consciously perceived emotional pictures and its relationship with the defense response. We selected 21 BII fearful and 25 non-fearful women from an initial sample of 128 subjects on the basis of their scores on the FSS damage subscale. First, subjects were exposed to an intense burst of white noise to promote a cardiac defense response (CDR), and then to a set of 48 pictures selected from the IAPS, depicting mutilations, human attack, phobic animals, and erotic couples, displayed through a backward masking procedure. Each target picture lasted for 20 ms, and was immediately followed by a mask (neutral picture) displayed for 60 ms. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance responses (SCR) were continuously recorded during the task. BII fearful subjects showed a greater first HR deceleration promoted by the acoustic stimulus (p 5 .025) than non-fearful subjects, which might be related to a heightened vigilance, orienting and attention towards threatening stimuli. BII fearful subjects did not show increased HR and SCRs promoted by mutilation pictures. This result might be related to a low sympathetic reactivity when confronted with their feared stimuli. Lastly, the fearful group showed a significant correlation between the first HR deceleration of the CDR and the HR deceleration promoted by the mutilation pictures (r 5 .762), which could be pointing to a greater hypervigilance, and might be related to a higher sensitivity to detect threatening stimuli.

Poster 111

EEG POWER DIFFERENCES DURING VERBAL AND SPATIAL PROCESSING

Julia A. Boytsova1, Sergey G. Danko1, George A. Ivanitsky2, Maria L. Solovjeva1, & Anastasia O. Roik2

1N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain RAS, 2Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of Russian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: EEG, verbal processing, spatial processing

It has been demonstrated (Ivanitsky et al., 2007, 2008) that verbal and spatial task-solving was accompanied by different patterns of brain rhythms, which allowed auto-

matic recognition of related mental activity by corresponding algorithms. However, the algorithms had to be individual for any given person. The goal of the present study was to find if group EEG-correlates are different for verbal and spatial processing. The tests included verbal and spatial tasks previously used (Ivanitsky et al., 2007, 2008). But here a subset of the tasks was applied matched for subjective complexity and time of problem solving between verbal and spatial tasks. The verbal tasks included anagrams and ''insert two letters - get two words'' tasks. The spatial tasks included ''cube section'' and ''figure match'' tasks. 25 healthy volunteers participated in the research. EEG power was evaluated in frequency bands from theta to low gamma (30 - 40 Hz). Statistical significance of EEG power differences between situations of verbal and spatial task-solving were tested on a base of within-subjects design. The obtained data revealed statistically significant verbal-spatial differences in alpha1 and alpha2, but not in other frequency ranges. So there are not only intra-individual, but also generic EEG power specifics in situations of verbal and spatial task-solving. The differences can be interpreted as reflecting contributions of semantic memory in verbal processing and distinction of outward and inward attention balance for verbal and spatial task-solving.

Poster 112

IMPACT OF COMT VAL158MET POLYMORPHISM ON NEURONAL CORRELATES OF EMOTIONAL PROCESSING

Kathrin M. Gschwendtner, Yvonne Waning, Andreas Reif, & Martin J. Herrmann University Hospital Wuerzburg

Descriptors: spatial disengagement, COMT, eyetracking

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme, which degrades dopamine, epi-nephrine and norepinephrine. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMTgene has been described which causes a valine (val) to methione (met) substitution at codon 158 (Val158Met). The substitution by met is associated with a more thermolabile enzyme and therefore, dopamine degradation is reduced. Neural correlates vary as on the one hand, met allele carriers have an advantage in solving cognitive tasks like the N-Back-Task while on the other hand they display a higher reactivity to negative stimuli. FMRI studies revealed a higher activation of prefrontal and limbic areas in met allele carriers while viewing negative pictures. These results are supported by an increased Early Posterior Negativity and startle reaction. In this EEG study, participants stratified for Val158Met were instructed to either passively view emotional pictures or to count pictures of a specific valence in order to draw their attention to this emotional category. In the passive viewing condition the genotype interacted with the valence of the pictures regarding the Late Positive Potential (LPP). For homozygote met allele carriers the LPP was increased for negative compared to positive pictures. Once the attention was focused on one valence category, this effect disappeared. Unexpectedly, genotype had no impact on the cognitive aspects of the task. Therefore, we reason that the increased reactivity of met allele carriers to negative stimuli is a bottom-up process and can be counteracted by volitional allocation of attention.

Poster 113

THE EFFECT OF MOCK CRIMES ON EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS IN THE CONCEALED INFORMATION TEST

Kazumi Watari1, Takuro Otsuka2, Hiroshi Nittono1, & Jun'ichi Katayama2 1Hiroshima University, 2Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: concealed information test, event-related potential, memory The concealed information test (CIT) has been used to examine a person's knowledge about crime-related items that only the culprit is expected to know. Not only autonomic responses, but also late positive components (P300 and positive slow waves) of the event-related potential (ERP) show different responses between crime-relevant and crime-irrelevant items. In laboratory studies, mock crimes have often been used for simulating real cases. However, it remains unclear whether the execution of a mock crime modulates the responses to the CIT, as compared to the mere possession ofrelevant knowledge. In this study, we administered an ERP-based CIT to two groups. Participants in the execution group (n 5 10) were asked to do a mock theft of an accessory, whereas those in the non-execution group (n 5 10) were asked to read and memorize the procedure of the mock theft. Both groups took an identical CIT: Pictures of5 items (1 relevant, 3 irrelevant, and 1 target) were presented in a random order, and participants were asked to press a button only when the target picture appeared on a screen. Results showed that the late positive components were larger for the relevant item than for the irrelevant items, regardless ofgroup. The finding that executing a mock crime had no discernible effects on ERPs agrees with a recent autonomic-based CIT study that suggests that guilty participants and informed innocents cannot be differentiated when crime-related knowledge is deeply encoded and participants are motivated to pass the test (Gamer, M., Int J Psychophysiol, 2010, 76, 19-24).

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INTENSITY AND AMOUNT OF DAILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HEALTHY OLDER PEOPLE

Ken Kimura1, Akitomo Yasunaga2, & Wang Li-Qun1 1Tokyo Denki University, 2Bunka Women's University

Descriptors: cognitive function, older people, exercise

Recent epidemiological studies have reported that moderate physical activity, as opposed to light physical activity, in daily life contributes to maintaining a proper state of cognitive function in the elderly. The present study investigated the validity of correlations between moderate physical activity and cognitive function using more objective and detailed assessments of both physical activity and neurocognitive function than previous studies. 78 people aged 60-79 years participated. They wore an electronic accelerometer throughout their waking hours for 3 months to assess the amount and intensity of daily physical activity. This recorded the number of steps per day and the duration per day of each of six intensity levels. Executive function was evaluated with a task-switching reaction time (RT) test measuring percent RT increase in the switching task, correct response rate, and intra-individual coefficient of variation (ICV). In 49 consenting participants, fMRI during the task-switching RT trial was analyzed to assess differences in neuro-cognitive patterns as a function of daily physical activity. Daily duration of moderate physical activity was negatively correlated with and significantly predicted ICV. Moreover, fMRI analysis confirmed that the moderate physical activity group showed effective activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of default mode network during the tasks. Thus the present study's data strongly suggests that moderate physical activity in daily life maintains proper neuro-cognitive function.

This study was supported in part by a grant of Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology, Japan (MEXT), 2007-2011 (07H012).

Poster 115

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISPARITIES HAVE EFFECTS ON EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS OF ATTENTIONAL PROCESSES IN CHILDREN

Kerstin H. Kipp, Matthias W. Kraemer, & Axel Mecklinger University of the Saarland

Descriptors: socio-economic status, development, attention

Social inequalities have effects on cognitive abilities in children. However, the influence of the socio-economic status (SES) on brain mechanisms is unknown. In our study we investigated the relationship between SES and event-related potentials (ERP) of attentional processes. We tested 36 children (7-9 years old) that we split into a low- and a high-SES group. Subjects performed an auditory oddball task with EEG recording. The task included a frequent standard pure tone, an infrequent target pure tone (targets) and infrequent environmental sounds (novels). Both child groups did not differ with respect to intellectual functioning and working memory, according to standardized neuropsychological tests. However, the high-SES group showed smaller amplitudes relative to the low-SES group with respect to (1) the target-P3 that is associated with the updating of working memory contents, and (2) the novelty-P3 that is associated with bottom-up aspects of attention. In addition, SES correlated negatively with the target-P3. A negative correlation between SES and novelty-P3 was marginally significant. Our results provide neuropsychological evidence that socio-economic status is indeed associated with differences in attentional processing within the neural system. There are a number of factors associated with high SES that could have contributed to these effects such as faster brain development and functioning due to better access to cognitively stimulating materials and experiences. These and other explanations will be discussed.

This work was supported by Grant DFG KI 1399/1-1.

Poster 116

MU SUPPRESSION IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

Leigh C. Gayle, Diana E. Gal, & Paul D. Kieffaber College of William and Mary

Descriptors: autism spectrum disorder, mu rhythm

Mirror neurons constitute a subset of sensorimotor neurons that respond to both the execution and observation of goal-directed behavior. The Mu rhythm (oscillations between 8 and 13 Hz) is observed to be suppressed during the perception of movement as a result of the desynchronization of sensorimotor neurons. Decreased Mu suppression has been observed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Because the activity of mirror neurons is thought to facilitate an understanding

of the actions of others, feelings of empathy, and imitation, this dysfunction of mirror neurons in ASD is thought to contribute to abnormalities of verbal and nonverbal behavior,communication difficulties, and slowed or stunted social development. The primary goals of this research were to (1) investigate the relationship between the integrity of mirror neuron functioning and personality traits associated with ASD and (2) determine if behavioral mimicry would lead subsequent Mu suppression when the same behaviors were merely observed. Participants (1) mimicked a finger-tapping behavior, (2) viewed finger-tapping by another person, and (3) viewed a metronome. The results indicate that higher scores on the Autism Quotient (AQ) Scale are associated with decreased Mu suppression. Participants who mimicked the finger-tapping behavior before viewing another person completing the finger-tapping task exhibited greater Mu suppression, indicating that treatments like role-playing may have a quantifiable benefit in terms of how individuals with Autism respond to social stimuli.

Poster 117

Withdrawn

Poster 118

EFFECTS OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE ON ELECTROCUTANEOUS PAIN-RELATED EVOKED POTENTIALS

Mary Wilkinson1, David McIntyre2, & Louisa Edwards1 1Loughborough University, 2University of Birmingham

Descriptors: pain-related evoked potentials, cardiac cycle, blood pressure Natural variations in blood pressure (BP) across the cardiac cycle have been shown to modulate pain. A recent study reported dampened N2 and N2-P2 laser evoked potential amplitudes at Cz during systole compared to diastole in men. The current study examined the effects of natural variations in BP across the cardiac cycle on electrocu-taneous pain-related evoked potentials (PREPs) using multi-channel recordings in 10 men and 10 women. Following determination of pain thresholds using an up-down staircase method, PREPs were elicited at 7 cardiac cycle intervals (R-wave plus 50, 150, 250, 350, 450, 550, 650ms). Electrocutaneous stimuli equal to twice individual pain threshold were pseudorandomly delivered to the right index finger in 7 blocks of 21 trials. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed no variation in N2, P2 or N2-P2 amplitudes across the cardiac cycle at Cz (all p>.05) or C3, a recording site considered to cover the contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (all p> .05). Median BP splits were used to examine tonic BP effects on the cardiac cycle-related modulation of PREPs. Separate 2 Group (low-normal BP, high-normal BP) by 7 Interval repeated-measures ANOVAs for systolic and diastolic BP revealed no Group or Interaction effects for N2, P2 or N2-P2 amplitudes at Cz or C3 (all p> .05). Similar 2 Sex by 7 Interval ANOVAs revealed no Group or Interaction effects for N2, P2 or N2-P2 amplitudes at Cz or C3 (all p> .05). These data suggest the modality ofpain stimulation may influence the cardiac cycle-related modulation ofpain processing.

Poster 119

ELECTROCUTANEOUS PAIN THRESHOLDS ARE HIGHER DURING SYSTOLE THAN DIASTOLE

Mary Wilkinson1, David McIntyre2, & Edwards Louisa1

1Loughborough University, 2University of Birmingham

Descriptors: pain threshold, cardiac cycle, blood pressure

The nociceptive flexion reflex and pain-related evoked potentials have been shown to be dampened during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle compared to diastole. The impact of the cardiac cycle on pain perception is less clear. The current study examined the effects of natural variations in blood pressure (BP) across the cardiac cycle on pain thresholds in 49 healthy adults. Pain thresholds were determined concurrently at 7 cardiac cycle intervals (R-wave plus 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ms) using an interleaved up-down staircase procedure. Electrocutaneous stimuli were delivered to the back of the hand using a concentric planar electrode. After each stimulation participants indicated the presence or absence of pain using a response box. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed variations in pain thresholds across the cardiac cycle (p 5 .002); pain thresholds were higher mid-cycle compared to early and late cycle. Further analyses, using BP median splits, revealed that only participants with low-normal systolic BP (p 5 .002), diastolic BP (p 5 .0005) and mean arterial pressure (p 5 .004) displayed this cardiac cycle-related pain modulation. The present study provides preliminary evidence that pain perception, at least at threshold levels, is attenuated during systole compared to diastole. Further, these data suggest that tonic BP may have a moderating effect on cardiac cycle-related pain modulation. The current findings provide further support for the hypothesis that natural variations in arterial baroreceptor activity across the cardiac cycle influence pain.

BEHAVIORAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO DECISION-MAKING AND FRUSTRATION DURING AN IOWA GAMBLING TASK AND SIMULATED DRIVING IN ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT ADHD

Michele L. Oliver1, Joel T. Nigg2, Nicholas D. Cassavaugh1, & Richard W. Backs1 1Central Michigan University, 2Oregon Health and Science University

Descriptors: attention, ANS, cardiovascular

Previous research has shown that the relationship between ADHD and poor driving performance is associated with the presence of negative emotions and poor emotion control ability. The present study examined the role of negative emotions in a gambling task and during simulated driving performance relative to ADHD, by comparing clinically diagnosed participants with ADHD with a control group. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, the Iowa Gambling Task, and simulated driving tasks. Participants with ADHD made significantly less advantageous selections and lost more points than controls on the gambling task. For the driving task, groups did not differ in operational driving skills (steering, lane deviation). However participants with ADHD reported more frustration and exhibited more impairment at the tactical level of driving performance than controls (multiple collisions, running a red light). Cardiovascular and skin conductance measures were also examined to assess if negative emotions were expressed physiologically. During both tasks, participants with ADHD had significantly higher systolic blood pressure and significantly lower respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance levels than controls. Overall, the results were consistent with previous research showing that individuals with ADHD experience more negative emotions and commit significantly more hazardous driving errors than controls. We propose that remedial driver training for ADHD populations should focus more on the emotional state of the individual rather than on their fundamental driving skills.

Poster 121

SUBJECTIVE AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO STRESS FOLLOWING ALCOHOL INTAKE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HAZARDOUS ALCOHOL USE

Motohiro Nakajima1, Mustafa al'Absi1, Santosh Kumar2, Emre Ertin3, Angela K.

George4, Nancy Dold1, & Lorentz Wittmers1 1University of Minnesota Medical School, 2University of Memphis, 3Ohio State University, 4University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy

Descriptors: cortisol, alcohol, stress

This study examined whether hazardous drinkers (i.e., drinking behavior that may be associated with harmful consequences as defined by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; AUDIT) exhibit different patterns of biobehavioral responses to stress following moderate alcohol intake relative to social drinkers. Forty-six (17 high risk and 29 low risk) participants completed 2 laboratory stress sessions, one in which they consumed a drink with alcohol to achieve a blood level of 0.05mg/dL and one without alcohol. Subjective measures and salivary cortisol were obtained before and after stressors, with and without alcohol intake. A series of 2 (high and low risk groups) x 2 (alcohol, no-alcohol sessions) x 4 (baseline, absorption, stress, recovery periods) repeated measures analysis revealed a significant group x session x time interaction in stimulation and sedation sub-scales of Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES; ps<.05). Analysis of change scores indicated that the high risk group reported greater levels of stimulation following alcohol consumption (p< .05) and greater levels of sedation post-stress period (p< .01). A significant group x session x time effect (p< .05) was also found in salivary cortisol levels showing that low risk group exhibited increased cortisol response to stress on the no-alcohol day, while high risk group showed elevated cortisol response on the alcohol day (p< .05). These results indicate that consumption of alcohol produced enhanced subjective and hormonal responses to stress in individuals at high risk for alcohol dependence. This project was supported by NIH(DA023812).

Poster 122

DICHOTIC TONAL PROCESSING IN MUSICIANS

Onur Bayazit1, Adile Oniz1, Ciler Akinci2, Firat Kutluk3, & Murat Ozgoren1 1Dokuz Eylul University, Dept. of Biophysics, Izmir, Turkey, 2''Dokuz Eylul University, School of State Conservatory, Izmir, Turkey, 3Dokuz Eylul University, Dept. of Musicology, Izmir, Turkey

Descriptors: musicians, dichotic tone, N1P2

There are anatomical and physiological asymmetries in human brain, one of which is sound processing (SP). Dichotic listening test has been used to study functional laterality of SP in which the ear preference is called ear advantage (EA). The purpose of the study was to examine the dichotic tonal processing of musicians (M) compared with nonmusicians (NM) using early AERP responses. 18 subjects (9 NM) have participated in this study. A 64 channel EEG and a stimulus unit (EMISU) were used. The dichotic tones (783.99/880/ 1046.50 Hz; 60 dBSPL) were presented via headphones. Left/Right central locations were analyzed for each subject's LEA/REA. In M, the amplitude of N1P2 was found to be 14.85 mVat FC3,15.27 mVat FC4 in LEA group. In NM, N1P2 amplitude was found to be

17.14 mVat FC3, 19.88 mVat FC4 in LEA. Furthermore, musicians' N1P2 amplitude was found to be 14.52 mVatFC3, 16.49 mVat FC4 in REA group. The NM, N1P2 amplitude was found to be 19.87 mVat FC3, 19.18 mVat FC4 in REA. At FC3 location, NM's N1P2 amplitude was higher than of M ones in REA group (p< .05). The results indicate higher tonal processing in M in the right hemisphere. Additionally, as the performance already incorporated the same distribution of similar behavioral responses, amplitude differences may have a profound meaning toward the expert capacity (EC). In this context, the decreased electrophysiological responses of M may be speculated to be related to their EC to use fewer resources for the same task than NM. DEU research funds 2010.KB.SAG.026 and 2011.KB.SAG.002.

Poster 123

LAUGH AT A FUNERAL: DISTINCT ROLES OF VALENCE CONGRUITY AND SEMANTIC CONGRUITY IN DISCOURSE

Nathaniel Delaney-Busch1 & Gina Kuperberg1,2 1Tufts University, 2Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: discourse, N400, emotion

Though the neural mechanisms engaged in computing semantic congruity have been extensively studied, we know very little about how emotional meaning is integrated into linguistic context. The N400 event-related potential (ERP) component is attenuated to words that are semantically congruous (versus incongruous) with their preceding discourse context, reflecting a facilitation of lexico-semantic processing. We asked whether an analogous N400 facilitation would be observed to words that were valence congruous (versus incongruous) with their preceding context. ERPs were measured as 24 participants read two-sentence scenarios with critical words that varied by emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) and congruence (e.g., ''Peggy smiled/gagged as she walked into the basement. Something in that room was emanating a wonderful smell.'') Congruous critical words were matched on cloze, and all incongruous critical words had zero cloze. Though the neutral incongruous (vs. congruous) scenarios elicited a large N400 effect, no N400 congruity effect was observed for either pleasant or unpleasant critical words, despite the unpredictability of these words. These findings suggest that valence congruity and semantic congruity are treated differently by the brain during online discourse processing. Congruity of emotional salience appears to facilitate lexico-semantic processing. This work was supported by NIMH (R01 MH071635) and NARSAD (with the Sidney Baer Trust).

Poster 124

EFFECTS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION ON PROCESSING PITCH IN THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM

Orsolya Szalardy1, Tamias Bohm1, Alexandra Bendixen2, Gaabor Haaden1, & Istvian

Winkler1

1Institude for Psychology of the HAS, 2University of Leipzig

Descriptors: auditory scene analysis, acoustic n1, percept dependent frequency resolution We tested whether the way sounds are grouped in perception affects the processing of spectral pitch. A sequence of regularly repeating ABA_ triplets was delivered to participants with a uniform 150 ms onset-to-onset interval, where 'A' and 'B' denote pure tones differing in frequency by 4 semitones [ST] and'_' stands for a silent period equal to the common 75 ms tone duration. Occasionally, the second 'A' tone of the triplet was exchanged for a slightly (0.5 ST) or moderately (1.5 ST) lower tone (5%, each). In a pilot study, the parameters were set up so that a) most subjects experienced the sound sequence in equal proportion of the time as a single stream (integrated percept) or as two separate streams (A-A... and B—By; segregated percept) and b) deviants did not significantly affect the perceived sound organization. Subjects continuously marked their perception of the sound sequences while EEG was recorded from their scalp. We found that the amplitude of the N1 and N2 components elicited by the rare lower tones varied as a function of the perceived sound organization. While participants perceived the sequence as a single stream, the moderately lower tones elicited an N1 of larger frontal amplitude than the same sounds encountered while perceiving two separate streams. Furthermore, the N2 amplitude for both types of lower tones was larger when one than when two streams were perceived. These results suggest that the evaluation of the same auditory event is dependent on the currently perceived sound organization. EU FP7-ICT-231168-SCANDLE.

Poster 125

BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY AND RECOVERY IN RESPONSE TO A SOCIAL EXCLUSION TASK

Patrick R. Steffen, Mikle South, Oliver Johnston, & Jason Anderson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: blood pressure, social exclusion

Social exclusion has been shown to be related to the activation of areas in the brain involved in the perception ofphysical pain, and pain has been related to blood pressure. It is not known, however, if perception of social exclusion affects blood pressure reactivity and recovery. It was hypothesized that increased perceptions of social exclusion and re-

jection would be related to increased BP reactivity and delayed BP recovery. A sample of 106 participants ages 18 to 51 and 60% male participated in the study. The Cyberball task was used with participants being told that they would be playing an online game of catch with 2 other participants. In reality, the other participants were controlled by the computer. Three games were played: 1) the participant watched, 2) the participant played and received an equal amount of throws, 3) the participant was excluded after the first 3 three throws. Contrary to expectations, participants with increased perceptions of exclusion and rejection had higher SBP reactivity to the initial task of watching others play and then their BP returned to normal levels for the exclusion task (F5 5.74, p< .05). Also contrary to expectations, those higher in perception of exclusion and rejection showed increased SBP recovery with their SBP levels returning to baseline levels at the 10 minute follow up (F5 3.39, p 5 .06). It appears that those who reported higher levels of exclusion and rejection approached the overall experimental situation with increased tension but then relaxed after the experiment began.

Poster 126

THE INFLUENCE OF BASEWORD FREQUENCY ON PSEUDOHOMOPHONE EFFECTS: EVIDENCE FROM EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS

Randy L. Newman & Erin Cramm Acadia University

Descriptors: pseudohomophones, phonology, spell-chek

The question of whether baseword frequency modulates the size of the pseudohomphone (PsH) effect in visual word recognition tasks has been a topic of debate for years. The current study used event-related potentials in the context of a semantic categorization task to determine if the size of the PsH effect is modulated by baseword frequency (i.e., the frequency of the word that the PsH is derived from). Participants decided if a target stimulus was a member of a specified category (e.g., Natural/Manmade). Low or high frequency (LF/HF) exemplars (e.g., toad) were replaced on some trials by PsHs (e.g., tode) or spelling controls (SC, e.g., tord). Our results focused on the N400, with the rationale being that a smaller N400 to PsHs relative to SCs would indicate that phonology activated the baseword's meaning. While a PsH effect was apparent in the behavioural data, there was no analogous effect in the N400 data suggesting that skilled readers activated the meanings of basewords using the orthographic-semantic route regardless of frequency. Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Poster 127

MISMATCH NEGATIVITY IN TWO-MONTH-OLD INFANTS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULI WITH DEVIANT INTER-STIMULUS INTERVALS

Reneee A. Otte1, Marijke A.K.A. Braeken1, Jeroen J. Stekelenburg1, Odin van der Stelt1, Istvan Winkler2, & Bea R.H. Van den Bergh1 1Tilburg University, 2Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: infants, ERP, MMN

Research on the development of the auditory system has revealed that temporal processes, such as rhythm detection, may develop very early in human life. The mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP), a cortical response elicited by contextually deviant or novel sound events, has been used to study these questions. The present study employed MMN to examine whether detecting deviations of the pre-stimulus interval in an isochronous sound sequence develops early in life. ERPs were recorded from healthy 2-month-olds (n 5 62) in a passive auditory oddball paradigm delivering 4 types of sounds of 200 ms duration at a uniform 300 ms pre-stimulus interval: frequent standard complex tones (500Hz; p 5 70%), tones with 100ms pre-stimulus ('SOA', p 5 10%), white noise segments ('noise', p 5 10%), and various environmental sounds ('novel', p 5 10%). For the SOA deviant, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA (controlling for infants' state of alertness) with electrode (f3,fz,f4,c3,cz,c4,p3,pz,p4) x stimulus (standard vs. SOA) revealed a significant interaction effect (F(3.9,26.0) 5 58.343, p<.001), showing that the infant brain detects 200 ms inter-stimulus deviations of the pre-stimulus interval. These findings may indicate that the temporal window, in which elements occurring closely together are integrated as a whole, may be smaller at an earlier age than was previously thought. Further research is needed, however, to replicate these findings. Funded by: NWO

Poster 128

N300 INDEXES DEFICIENT INTEGRATION BETWEEN PHONOLOGICAL AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL LEXICONS IN CHILDREN WITH DYSLEXIA

Sandra Kimmel, Jennifer Bruder, Jürgen Bartling, & Gerd Schulte-Korne University Hospital Munich

Descriptors: developmental dyslexia, N300

The main characteristic of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) in transparent orthographies, like German, is a reading speed deficit, which might be attributed to a deficient integration between orthographic and phonological representations. We in-

vestigated the electrophysiological correlate associated to the integration between orthographic and phonological representations in children with DD (n 5 18) and age-matched controls (n 5 20). All children performed a phonological (P)-orthographic (O) matching task (P-O task), which tapped the integration between the orthographic and the phonological lexicons and a control task that did not require the conversion between orthographic and phonological lexicons and consisted only oforthographic information (O-O task). Both groups revealed a bilateral fronto-temporal N300 in the O-O task. In the P-O task the control group was marked by a left fronto-temporal N300, whereas the group with DD revealed a bilateral fronto-temporal N300. These findings suggest deficient integration between the orthographic and phonological lexicons in DD, which might be related to a reading speed deficit as indexed by significant correlations between reading speed and N300 amplitude and latency. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (sLORETA) revealed that children with DD have more activity in right temporo-parietal brain areas compared to children without DD. The results are discussed within the framework of the dual-route model of reading and suggest a specific deficit associated to the lexical reading pathway.

Poster 129

WHAT GOES UP, MUST COME DOWN: MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-ITEM ERPS REVEALS YOKED OSCILLATION OF ORTHOGRAPHIC AND SEMANTIC PROCESSING

Sarah Laszlo State University of New York, Binghamton

Descriptors: visual word recognition, erps, multiple regression

A considerable amount of attention has been paid in the visual word recognition literature to the question of whether and to what degree early, orthographic processing of visual word forms has to be complete before semantic processing can begin. In investigation of this issue, we examined the degree to which multiple regressions using either semantic (e.g., concreteness, imageability) or orthographic (e.g., length, bigram frequency) predictors explained ERP amplitude in the single-item ERP corpus—which enables items multiple regression as it includes stable ERPs representing the response to 300 single orthographic items. Rigorous correction for multiple comparisons using the permutation test technique allowed us to conduct the orthographic and semantic items multiple regressions in consecutive 10 millisecond bins throughout our ERP sweeps. These analyses provide a temporally fine-grained picture ofthe degree to which semantic and orthographic factors collectively influence ERP amplitude. Results indicate that degrees of influence of semantic and orthographic factors oscillate throughout word recognition, and that these oscillations are strongly yoked out of phase (i.e., when semantic factors are high in influence, orthographic factors are low and vice versa). The continuously trading nature of the time courses of influence of semantic and orthographic factors constitutes evidence against models of word recognition which require an orthographic ''stage'' to be complete before semantic processing begins, and are instead suggestive of more interactive models. NICHD F32 HD062043.

Poster 130

MULTI-BAND CHARACTERISTICS OF EEG COHERENCE UNDERLYING MENTAL SPECIFICS OF SUSTAINED GOAL-DIRECTED ATTENTION OF SUSTAINED GOAL-DIRECTED ATTENTION

Sergei G. Danko1, Larisa M. Kachalova2, & Maria L. Solovjeva1 1Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain, RAS, 2Institute of Cognitive Neurology,

Descriptors: oscillatory eeg, sustained attention, memory

In our previous EEG studies (Danko et al., 2008a,b; 2010) it was demonstrated that active use of memory during verbal learning in a group of 88 subjects caused significant differences of mass EEG coherence (SDC) in the theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma frequency bands throughout the entire cortex. Here we present results of an attempt to reveal cortical zones mostly involved in brain networks that are implicated in regulatory mechanisms of specific states of sustained attention directed either to memorization or to retrieval from memory. The assumption was: the greater incidence of SDC in the aggregate bandwidths for a certain pair of derivations in a particular contrast, the more important the role of interaction between the respective zones. Accordingly only SDC were taken into account that occurred in at least five frequency bands. The patterns of such SDC appeared to be clearly differentiated (i.e., they had no common elements) upon comparison of each mnestic state with the state of rest. The respective pattern for the state of memorization is formed mainly in the anterior cortical areas by decreases of coherence; for the state of retrieval from memory, it is formed by elements in the posterior cortical areas (coherence increases) and between the anterior and posterior areas (both coherence increases and decreases in different frequency bands for the same pair of zones). These patterns are in a good agreement with prevailing concepts of attention, memory, cognitive control and support the effectiveness of the proposed approach to mass coherence data. Supported with grant NSh-3318.2010.4.

EEG-CORRELATES OF DIFFERENT MEMORY ENCODING METHODS

Sergii A. Kryzhanovskyi, Igor G. Zyma, Andrii O. Cherninskyi, & Mykola J.

Makarchuk Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Descriptors: EEG, working memory

Differences between processing of spoken numerals, concrete and abstract nouns which were remembered were shown by means of EEG analysis. We compared two groups of volunteers (students aged 16-24 years) who have used different memory strategies: the inner speech (n 5 18) and the internal visualization (n 5 27). EEG was registered over a period of 3 minutes during the baseline condition state and 9 minutes during the short-term memory tasks performing. The Mann-Witney criterion was used to compare the independent samples data. Results indicated that only the internal visualization leads to a decrease of power of the theta-1 and theta-2 EEG-bands, and the alpha-3 and beta-1 desynchronization was more generalized in this group. In other hand, the inner speech accompanied by an alpha-1 band power decrease in the frontal cortex. Choosing a type of memory strategy was related to the baseline functional state of the brain: we found less spectral power of the low-frequency theta EEG-band in the participants, who used the inner speech.

Poster 132

OSCILLATORY CORRELATES OF FACE GESTALT PROCESSING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

Shahab Ghorashi & Kevin M. Spencer VA Boston Healthcare System/Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: EEG, schizophrenia

One of the characteristic deficits in schizophrenia is impairment in face processing, which involves the integration of visual features into coherent percepts. We have previously shown that response-locked oscillations (RLOs) may be closely related to visual feature-binding processes, and that these oscillations are abnormal in schizophrenia patients (SZ). Here we examined whether similar oscillation abnormalities would be found in a Gestalt perception task utilizing face stimuli. Subjects (16 healthy controls [HC], 15 SZ) discriminated between upright (Face) and inverted (No-Face) ''Mooney'' faces (ambiguous two-tone images) during EEG recording. EEG time-frequency decomposition was performed with the Morlet wavelet on stimulus- and response-locked epochs. Statistical non-parametric mapping was used to identify effects on oscillatory activity. RTs were shorter for Face than No-Face stimuli in both HC and SZ. HC and SZ did not differ in error rate or RT. Stimulus-locked oscillations (SLOs) showed Group difference in the gamma and theta range; RLOs showed it in the beta/theta range. Also, the pattern of the Stimulus (Face/No-Face) effect was different in HC and SZ: beta and theta band oscillations in HC but beta and gamma band (and more diversity in topographies) in SZ. Both SLOs and RLOs were abnormal in SZ. Specific SZ deficits in the theta, beta, and gamma bands at frontal, parietal, and occipital electrodes may reflect impaired feature integration processes in schizophrenia. This could explain some mechanisms underlying the deficits in face processing in these patients. This study was funded through VA Merit CX000154 and NIH R01 MH080187 awarded to KMS.

Poster 133

TRANSIENT MODULATION OF WORD PROCESSING FOLLOWING EYE MOVEMENTS

Simona Temereanca1, Emery N. Brown2, & Matti S. Hamalainen1 1Martinos Center, MGH/Harvard Medical School, 2MGH/HMS/MIT

Descriptors: word processing, eye movements, magnetoencephalography Reading is an active process that requires coordination between frequent eye movements (saccades) and short fixations on the visual target. Yet, the impact of saccades on word processing remains unknown, as previous neuroimaging data were collected typically during constant eye fixation. Here, we investigate the effects of saccades on word processing in 7 healthy individuals that perform a one-back word recognition task, using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG), psychophysical measurements and eye movement detection in real time. Word recognition is slower and brain responses are reduced to words presented early vs. late after saccades. Response reductions occur in early visual as well as language-specific regions, where they are co-localized with repetition priming effects implicated in semantic processing. Similar effects occur when words are presented early vs. late after background motion that mimics saccades, suggesting a pronounced contribution to postsaccadic suppression from the visual effect associated with retinal image motion. At the same time, significant differences in the degree of postsaccadic and background movement modulation are consistent with additional influences of extraretinal origin after saccades, possibly mediated by brain regions that control eye movements and attention. Together, these results support an overall transient suppression of word recognition following saccades

and further suggest complex visual and extraretinal postsaccadic influences on word processing that alter perception and reading performance.

Poster 134

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMICS AND CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW DURING ATTENTIONAL PROCESSING

Stefan Duschek & Natalie S. Werner University of Munich

Descriptors: cerebral blood flow, attention, heart rate

The study explored interactions between systemic hemodynamics and cerebral blood flow during attentional processing. Using transcranial Doppler sonography, blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of both hemispheres were recorded while 50 subjects performed a cued reaction time task. Finger arterial pressure and heart rate were also continuously monitored. Doppler sonography revealed a right dominant blood flow response. The extent of the increase measured in second two of the interstimulus interval showed a clear positive association with reaction speed. Task related changes in blood pressure and heart rate proved predictive of changes in MCA flow velocities in limited time windows of the response. Besides an association between cerebral blood flow and attentional performance, the results suggest a marked impact of systemic hemodynamics on the blood flow response. All observed interactions are highly dynamic in time.

Poster 135

PROGRAM RUNNING VERSUS PROBLEM SOLVING: SYMPATHETIC OR PARASYMPATHETIC MEDIATION?

Tytus Sosnowski, Aleksandra Sobota, & Andrzej Rynkiewicz University of Warsaw

Descriptors: mental tasks, cardiovascular response patterns

Our previous research showed that mental tasks that involve program running (RUN tasks), e.g. performing arithmetic operations, cause a greater tonic HR increase than tasks that require the search for problem solutions (EDIT tasks), e.g. logical completion of a series of digits. Interestingly, an EDIT task evokes a response pattern similar to a simple RT task. Research by Allen and co-workers suggests that RT tasks primarily involve beta-adrenergic responsiveness, while mental arithmetic reflects a more mixed autonomic pattern, i.e., both an increase in beta-adrenergic activity as well as vagal withdrawal. The problem is to what degree the difference in cardiac reaction to RUN and EDIT tasks can be explained by different degrees of vagal withdrawal. The aim of the experiment was to compare cardiac response patterns while solving three mental tasks matched for their duration and level of difficulty: a simple RT task and two numerical tasks: RUN and EDIT. Forty-eight males, university students, divided randomly into three groups (n 5 16), participated in the experiment. Each group performed a different task. The results showed a higher tonic HR increase during a RUN task than the two other tasks, while no between-task difference was found in stroke volume, cardiac output, or preejection period. The results seem to support the hypothesis that bigger vagal withdrawal during the RUN task rather than the two other tasks is, at least partially, responsible for the difference in cardiac reactions to the analyzed tasks.

Poster 136

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT OF HOT FLASHES: EFFECTS OF AFFECT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

William I. Fisher, Aimee K. Johnson, & Gary R. Elkins Baylor University

Descriptors: hot flash, vasomotor, hot flush

The current gold-standard measure of hot flashes involves the use of recordings of sternal skin conductance. However, the accuracy of this method is not fully known. One concern is that affect and physical activity may result in the over-report of hot flashes. In this study, the effects of affect and normal physical activity were investigated. Asymptomatic women, (n 5 6, age 19-23) were recruited to wear hot flash monitors. Participants wore the monitors for 24 hours and completed a daily diary of activity and affective state every fifteen minutes during waking hours. A mean of 16.17 hot flashes were recorded from a total of 98 indications of hot flash events, (range 5 6-34, SD 5 10.93) as determined by the hot flashmonitor software using the default settings of 2 mmho/30s increase from baseline with a 15 minute lock-out period to indicate a hot flash event. Changes in affect were not significant in this study; this may be in part due to a very small sample size. Activity diaries were coded into 11 categories (driving, non-kinetic leisure, eating, attaching electrodes, resting/sleeping, waking/dressing, work, household duties, social interactions, exercise and bathing). Of these, the greatest percentage of 'hot flashes' came from work (23.5%), resting/sleeping (20.4%), exercise (15.3%) and driving (12.2%). These results warrant replication in a larger sample and have implications for the measurement of hot flashes in research using sternal skin conductance.

SKIN CONDUCTANCE MEASUREMENT OF HOT FLASHES: INFLUENCE OF BMI IN POST- MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Gary R. Elkins, William I. Fisher, Kathy Amador, & Aimee Johnson Baylor University

Descriptors: hot flash, BMI, skin conductance

The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and frequency of hot flashes (HF) relationship is not well understood. Some researchers posit that as BMI increases the frequency and intensity of HFs also increases. An alternate theory suggests that higher BMI increases the storage of estrogen, and thus, deceasing HFs. We investigated the relationship between BMI and HFs using the gold-standard objective, (sternal skin conductance, SC; Biolog© Ambulatory Hot Flash Monitor) and subjective (Daily Diary and Daily Hot Flash Daily Interference Scale) measures. Post-menopausal women (n 5 89, ages 40-70, mean 5 54) who were currently experiencing HFs were recruited to complete demographic questionnaires as part ofa larger study investigating HFs. BMI was calculated using height and weight. In this sample, BMI was not a predictor of HFs in subjective measures of frequency (p< .261), intensity (p< .470), or daily hassles (p<.950) associated with HFs. BMI was, however, a predictor of true positive HFs (physiologically verified subject-report of hot flash) (r 5 .274, p< .011). BMI also predicted total magnitude of SSC measurements (b 5 — .209, r 5 .209, p< .049), with lower BMI equating to higher levels skin conductance. This finding suggests that BMI may be a predictor ofobjectively measured HFs, however the lack of subjective concordance and BMIs influence on total SC suggests that BMIs relationship to HFs may lay more in its relationship to SC than HF expression.

Poster 138

SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY LEARNING: A LONGITUDINAL ERP STUDY

Yen Na Yum, Katherine J. Midgley, & Phillip J. Holcomb Tufts University

Descriptors: second language learning, lexical processing

In the initial stage of learning a second language (L2), the visual configuration and meanings ofwords are acquired, often in relation to the first language (L1). While this is usually accomplished efficiently, the substantial variability in L2 classroom learners might be problematic, especially when the two languages have visually distinct orthographic units. To overcome these limitations, the current study examined adult native English speakers as they learned a rudimentary vocabulary of 200 Chinese words under highly controlled laboratory conditions. The initially naive learners performed L1-L2 word association and semantic categorization tasks while ERPs were recorded in 4 sessions spanning 5 weeks of learning. Results showed rapid and systematic changes in behavioral performance, indicating successful acquisition of orthographic and semantic knowledge of a new L2 vocabulary. An ERP marker of learning was observed in an N400-like component at frontal and central sites for L2 items in the L1-L2 association task - this component was attenuated as learning progressed, consistent with an emerging priming effect. This suggests that the N400 tracks the formation of new semantic links as early as the first few encounters with words in a new language. There was also a systematic reduction of positivity at right occipital sites between 200 - 500 ms over the four recordings, which suggests that lower level visual processes are initially engaged in learning the orthography of the new language. Implications of these results for theories of L2 acquisition will be discussed.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, 2011 POSTER SESSION II

Poster 1

EXPOSURE TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES DECREASES NEURAL MEASURES OF COGNITIVE CONTROL FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH BEHAVIOR REGULATION PROBLEMS

Christopher R. Engelhardt, J. S. Saults, & Bruce D. Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: aggression, cognitive control, ERP

The causal link between violent video game exposure and increases in aggression is well established (e.g., Anderson et al., 2010), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to play a nonviolent or violent video game for 20 min prior to completing a go/no-go spatial Stroop task while even-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded, and an impulsive aggression task (task order was manipulated between subjects). Results showed significant interactions between Game condition (violent, nonviolent) and self-reported problems with behavior regulation on the extent to which ''no-go'' (but not incompatible ''go'') Stroop trials elicited evaluative control (N2 amplitude) and regulatory control (NSW amplitude). Specifically, participants with behavior regulation problems showed diminished evaluative and regulatory control on inhibition trials (less conflict), but only if the Stroop task was completed

immediately following exposure to a violent video game. Behavioral results indicated that participants with behavior regulation problems were the most aggressive, but only if they played a violent game. These findings underscore the importance of individual differences in cognitive functioning in understanding the acute effects of violent media on neurocognitive function and aggressive behavior.

Poster 2

NEURAL RESPONSES TO EROTIC PICTURES AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH SEXUAL MOTIVATION

Sina Wehrum, Sabine Kagerer, Tim Klucken, Bertram Walter, Dieter Vaitl, & Rudolf Stark Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus Liebig University Giessen

Descriptors: fmri, sexual motivation, reward

Many studies have demonstrated that erotic stimuli activate the brain's reward system. Studies investigating the associations between neural responses to erotic stimuli and subjective measures of sexuality remain scarce. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated 98 subjects (50 female) while passively viewing erotic, other positive, negative, and neutral pictures (30 pictures per category). Pictures were presented in blocks of five stimuli. After each block, participants rated the presented pictures on three dimensions: valence, arousal, and sexual arousal. In order to explore the relations between neural responses to erotic stimuli and subjective measures ofsexuality, participants filled out questionnaires assessing sexual motivation. In response to viewing erotic stimuli, participants showed significant activation in structures playing a key role in reward (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, orbitofrontal cortex) and sexual behaviour (e.g., hypothalamus). In female as well as in male participants, subjective measures of sexual motivation were positively correlated with activation of the nucleus accumbens. Our results implicate that reactivity of the nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli reflects individual differences in sexual motivation.

Poster 3

RESPONSE MODULATION DEFICITS IN IMPULSIVE ANTISOCIALITY: EVIDENCE FROM THE ERN AND N1

Allan J. Heritage & Stephen D. Benning Vanderbilt University

Descriptors: response modulation, error monitoring, impulsive antisociality Research has shown that disorders of behavioral disinhibition are related to reduced self monitoring as indicated by reduced error related negativity (ERN) amplitude following the commission of errors. Reduced self monitoring and deficits in response modulation have also been used to explain psychopaths' failure to respond to peripheral cues and learn from errors to adapt their behavior. This study examined the relationship between ERN, response modulation, and the impulsive antisociality (IA) factor of psychopathy in a community sample. A lexical decision stop signal task was used in which lexical categorization and stop-signal inhibition errors were examined. Participants were asked to indicate if the text presented was a word or a non-word. On 20% of trials an auditory stop signal (SS) followed the word, signaling participants to withhold their response. Participants high in IA showed reduced ERN amplitude after lexical decision and SS errors indicating a deficit in their ability to recognize when errors were made. They also showed reduced N1 amplitude (a measure of auditory processing) to SS and had significantly lower SS accuracy, indicating that they were not fully processing the SS and in turn failing to inhibit their dominant response. Bootstrapped mediational analyses indicated that participants' N1 amplitude mediated the relationship between IA and ERN. Thus, those high in IA show a deficit in processing stimuli that signal the need to change behavior. The associated response modulation deficits may be responsible for deficient self-monitoring.

Poster 4

EMOTION MODULATION OF THE POSTAURICULAR AND BLINK REFLEXES IN RESPONSE TO NOISE PROBES AND LOW INTENSITY

CLICKS

Rachel V. Aaron, Lauren A. Marks, & Stephen D. Benning Vanderbilt University

Descriptors: postauricular reflex, startle reflex, prepulse inhibition The postauricular (PA) reflex is an emotionally modulated muscle response: It is potentiated during pleasant vs. neutral and aversive stimuli and is therefore used to index positive emotionality. The blink reflex, which indexes negative emotionality, is also elicited by the loud noise probe that is typically used to elicit PA reflexes. However, in the audiology literature, PA reflexes are collected using clicks near hearing threshold. It is unclear whether PA or blink reflexes elicited this way have the same emotional modulation as those elicited with startling probes. The current study presented participants with a series of pleasant, neutral, and aversive images. Each image was presented for 6 seconds, during which 100 microsecond, 60 dB white noise clicks were presented at 100 ms intervals. Additionally, a single 50 ms, 105 dB white noise probe was presented at 3, 4, or 5 seconds after picture onset. Participants showed greater PA reflexes during pleasant vs. neutral and aversive images, whether they were elicited with clicks or noise probes. In contrast, blinks were potentiated for aversive vs. neutral and pleasant images when elicited with noise probes, but

they were potentiated for pleasant vs. neutral and aversive pictures when elicited by clicks. However, the probes gave rise to much stronger prepulse inhibition of subsequent click responses for blink than PA reflexes. These results suggest that experimenters can use a low intensity click to collect PA reflex data, which facilitates its collection in populations to whom a loud probe is particularly aversive.

Poster 5

FEARLESS DOMINANCE, IMPULSIVE ANTISOCIALITY, AND ERPS TO EMOTIONAL PICTURES AND SOUNDS

Stephen D. Benning, Evan W. McClure, & Lauren A. Marks Vanderbilt University

Descriptors: fearless dominance, impulsive antisociality, emotion

In this study, 78 individuals who screened from a pool of more than 1,200 emergency room patients and oversampled to include the top, middle, and bottom 10% in fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality were invited to the lab to participate in an emotional picture viewing-sound listening task. Fearless dominance was related to reduced early frontal LPP activity for all pictures but not sounds, indicating that this factor of psychopathy was related to reduced processing of all pictures. Fearless dominance was also negatively related to N1 magnitude to the startle probe (particularly during emotional pictures), suggesting that those high in fearless dominance process this aversive interrupting stimulus less strongly. In contrast, impulsive antisociality was related to greater P3 amplitude to startle probes during emotional vs. neutral sounds but not pictures, suggesting that those high in impulsive antisociality disengage from processing emotional sounds by the time the startle probe occurs. Thus, it may be the case that fearless dominance is related more strongly to reduced reactivity involving emotional pictures, whereas impulsive an-tisociality is related to reduced processing of emotional sounds. Discovery Grant from Vanderbilt University.

Poster 6

THREAT APPRAISALS MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUBJECTIVE SOCIAL STATUS AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO ACUTE PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

Alexander S. Fiksdal, June A. He, Ashley Geiger, Nia Fogelman, John Fonte, Myriam V. Thoma, & Nicolas Rohleder Brandeis University

Descriptors: social status, stress, cortisol

Recent research has demonstrated robust relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and general health. Physiological stress responses, particularly hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, may help explain these relationships. Previous research indicates that SSS may be positively associated with HPA reactivity, but no studies have addressed exposure to repeated stress. We set out in the current study to test cognitive appraisal and SSS as predictors of cortisol reactivity to repeated psychosocial stress. Twenty-six participants (11 women, 15 men; mean age 5 21.96 yrs.) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice on consecutive days. Primary and secondary appraisal processes were assessed immediately prior to each TSST. Salivary cortisol was measured 1 minute prior, and 1,10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes post TSST. SSS relative to US and community was assessed using McArthur ladders. Both TSSTs induced marked HPA activation (p<.001), with lower responses to second exposure (p 5 .002). Community SSS was inversely related to HPA stress responses (TSST1: trend, r 5 — .35, p 5 .08; TSST2: r 5 — .59, p 5 .002). Further regression analyses revealed a significant interaction of threat appraisals and SSS predicting HPA responses to TSST2 (Beta 5 — 1.302; p 5 .011). In low but not high SSS individuals, threat appraisals were positively related with cortisol reactivity. These findings indicate that low-SSS individuals may be more vulnerable to stress. Future research should investigate possible long-term health consequences associated with these relationships. American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR)

Poster 7

PHASE RESET VARIABLES ARE DIFFERENTIALLY ASSOCIATED WITH ANXIETY AND AGGRESSION IN A TYPICALLY DEVELOPING ADOLESCENT SAMPLE

Christine L. Lackner1, William Marshall2, Diane L. Santesso1, & Sidney J. Segalowitz1 'Brock University, 2University of Waterloo

Descriptors: phase reset, anxiety, aggression

Cortical activity is maintained by neural networks working in tandem. EEG signals across two sites are said to be coherent with one another when they show consistent phase relations. However, periods of desynchrony with shifting of phase relations are a necessary aspect of information processing. The components of EEG phase reset ('locking' when two regions remain in sync, and 'shifting' when the two regions desyn-chronize momentarily) show dramatic changes across development (Thatcher et al., 2009). Individual differences in phase shifting and locking assessed at frontal sites have been linked to IQ, such that longer shift durations and shorter locking durations are associated with higher scores (Thatcher et al., 2005). We collected resting EEG data

from 82 typically developing 12-15-year-olds and calculated phase shift and locking values across 14 pairs of electrodes varying in inter-electrode distance. A composite measure of participants' aggression levels was positively associated with phase shifting, particularly in the low alpha (8-10 Hz) frequency range, most strongly over left hemisphere electrode pairs, consistent with relatively greater left-prefrontal activity in aggressive adults (Harmon-Jones & Sigelman, 2001). A composite measure of anxiety levels was positively associated with theta (4-7 Hz) phase locking at sites over both hemispheres, consistent with an increase in this activity during emotional processing (Aftanas et al., 2001). These findings suggest that phase shifting and locking might also be associated with clinically problematic behaviors.

Poster 8

TIME COURSE AND ROBUSTNESS OF THE N170 FACE EFFECT AT THE SCALP AND IN INDEPENDENT COMPONENTS: SEPARATING THE N170 AND P100 FACE EFFECTS

James A. Desjardins & Sidney J. Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: ICA, N170, P100

The initial timing of face-specific effects in event-related potentials is controversial. Effects during the time of the P100, although not consistently found, challenge the interpretation of the N170 as being the earliest face-specific ERP effect. Such early P100 effects are often attributed to low-level differences between face stimuli and other images. Research using sophisticated controls for low-level stimulus characteristics report that the initial robust face effect starts at about 130 ms following stimulus onset. The present study examines the independent components (ICs) of the P100 and N170 in the context of more usual stimuli that minimally control for low-level characteristics and that produce a clear P100 effect for faces versus houses at the scalp. Results indicate that four ICs account for the ERPs to faces and houses in the first 200 ms following stimulus onset. The IC that accounts for the majority ofthe scalp N170 begins separating stimuli at about 130 ms, closely replicating the studies using low-level stimulus controls. The scalp effects at the time of the P100 are accounted for by two ICs, one lingering longer for faces than houses, and the second expressing a larger voltage for houses over faces but projecting negatively at medial occipital scalp sites overlapping and cancelling the field potential ofthe first IC. Thus, we found a P100 face effect that may reflect low level processing totally separately from the N170, and showed that the IC expressing the robust N170 face effect does not differentiate at the timing of the P100.

Poster 9

THE N170 FACE INVERSION EFFECT IS BOTH FACE-SPECIFIC AND DOMAIN-GENERAL: SEPARATE AMPLITUDE AND LATENCY EFFECTS

Xin Zheng, Mondloch J. Catherine, & Sidney J. Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: N170, inversion, face

When faces are inverted, the N170 ERP component is enhanced and delayed; in contrast, such effects due to inversion are often not found for non-face objects. Several explanations have been proposed to account for face inversion effect (FIE) on the N170 at a neural level. In the present study, we explored this issue by comparing faces of real people with simple schematic faces that perceptually share similarities with both faces and objects. Fourteen subjects participated in the study, for which they were required to press a button whenever they saw an inverted real or schematic face. Examining the N170 in relation to the type and the orientation of the face stimuli, we found different patterns of results in the amplitude and latency. While an inversion enhancement of N170 was found for both real (p< .001) and schematic faces (p< .001), it was significantly smaller for schematic faces, as indicated by the face type by face orientation interaction (p 5 .001), and due mostly to a larger N170 of upright schematic compared to real faces. The N170 latency was increased by inversion (p< .001) and by schematic faces compared to real faces (p< .001); the face type and the face orientation, however, did not interact (p 5 .389). Because schematic faces are also ''object like,'' the reduction of FIE on the N170 amplitude for schematic faces is consistent with the interpretation that N170 enhancement due to inversion is face specific, whereas latency may relate to processing difficulty in general.

Poster 10

ATTENTION TOWARD FEARFUL AND NEUTRAL FACES PRESENTED UNDER HIGH AND LOW WORKING MEMORY LOAD: A COMBINED ERP AND EYE-TRACKING STUDY

Annmarie MacNamara, Joseph Schmidt, Gregory J. Zelinsky, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: late positive potential, eye-tracking, working memory load Emotion regulation decreases the processing of emotional stimuli, as indexed by reductions in picture-elicited amygdala activity and the late positive potential (LPP). Emotion regulation also increases activity in prefrontal regions, including the OFC, VLPFC, DMPFC and DLPFC. Prior work found that the LPP elicited by threatening and neutral IAPS

pictures was smaller on high- compared to low-load working memory trials, suggesting that functional activation of the DLPFC may modulate the processing of task-irrelevant pictures. However, prior work also indicates 1) that the LPP is smaller when participants look at less arousing compared to more arousing picture regions and 2) that participants avoid looking at arousing facial regions (i.e., the eyes) when performing a demanding cognitive task. The present study simultaneously recorded eye-tracking and EEG to determine 1) whether working memory load modulates the LPP elicited by fearful and neutral faces and 2) whether visual avoidance of arousing facial regions might explain the effect of working memory load on the LPP. The LPP was larger for fearful compared to neutral faces, and smaller on high load compared to low load trials, in line with prior work that used IAPS. Eye-gaze toward the eyes, nose and mouth regions of pictures varied by face type; however, working memory load did not induce visual avoidance of arousing regions. Thus, working memory load modulates the LPP elicited by task-irrelevant faces, and this effect does not seem to be driven by visual attention away from arousing picture regions.

Poster 11

DON'T CHOKE! ELECTROCORTICAL MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING AMONG ATHLETES HIGH IN PERFORMANCE ANXIETY

Hiroaki Masaki1 & Greg Hajcak2 1Waseda University, 2Stony Brook University

Descriptors: ERN, performance monitoring, sport anxiety

We investigated the relationship between performance-related anxiety and neural response to errors. Using the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2) (Smith et al., 2006), we screened both university athletes who often suffer from choking under pressure, and university athletes who exhibit low competitive anxiety. We tested two tasks: a spatial Stroop task, in which participants responded to the pointing direction of an arrow that was presented above or below the fixation, and a time estimation task, in which they estimated the duration of one second following a tone, and received about 50% negative feedback. They performed these tasks both while their performance was being evaluated and during a control (no evaluation) condition. In the spatial Stroop task, no behavioral differences between conditions were evident in either group. The error-related negativity (ERN) was significantly larger during evaluation for the higher anxiety group, reflecting increased sensitivity to the significance of errors. However, for the lower anxiety group, the ERN did not differ between conditions. In the time estimation task, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) did not differ between groups or as a function of performance evaluation. These results suggest that only internal performance monitoring is enhanced under evaluation for athletes exhibiting high levels of anxiety about failure, and that increased ERN under performance evaluation may characterize performance anxiety more broadly. Supported by the JSPS (C) 21530774

Poster 12

DECREASED REWARD RESPONSIVENESS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

Jennifer N. Bress, Ezra Smith, Dan Foti, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: reward, development, depression

Depression is a costly and widespread illness characterized by anhedonia, a decreased ability to feel pleasure that has been tied to a lack of responsiveness to rewards. In adults, depression is associated with a decrease in the feedback negativity (FN), an ERP component elicited by feedback about financial rewards and losses. Adolescence is a critical time in the development ofdepression. In the current study, we recorded EEG from healthy 8- to 13-year-olds as they participated in a gambling task. We hypothesized that increased self- and parent-rated depressive symptoms would be associated with a reduction in the FN, and that the FN would increase as a function of pubertal development. As expected, we found that higher self-rated depression correlated with a blunted FN; parent-rated depression showed a similar trend. When separated further into responses to wins and losses, self-rated depression was correlated only with response to wins. Degree of pubertal development was not correlated with FN, possibly because of the unexpectedly restricted range of pubertal development within our sample. Our results extend research from the adult literature, suggesting that the same dopamine-driven responses in the ACC and basal ganglia may be involved in reward processing in children and that depressive symptoms are associated with a deficit in such processing. This deficit appears to reflect decreased responsiveness specifically to feedback indicating reward and not to feedback indicating loss.

Poster 13

ELECTROCORTICAL MEASURES OF MOTIVATION ASSOCIATED WITH CHILD DEPRESSION

Jill Malik1, Greg Hajcak1, Ezra Smith1, & Eddie Harmon-Jones2 1Stony Brook University, 2Texas A&M University

Descriptors: asymmetrical frontal cortical activity, late positive potential, child depression Previous research suggests that increased left frontal activity is associated with approach motivation, and decreased left frontal activity is linked to depression. Additionally,

research has found a decreased late positive potential (LPP) in response to threatening faces among depressed compared to healthy adults. The present study sought to extend this work in children, by simultaneously examining both EEG and ERP measures of motivation in response to emotional and neutral stimuli. To this end, EEG data was recorded from 66 children (M age 5 10.66; SD 5 1.58; 30 girls) while they viewed 30 pleasant (i.e., desserts) and 30 neutral (i.e., rocks) pictures presented twice for three seconds each, with a three second fixation between presentation. Self- and parent-reports of child depression were also collected. Linear regression analyses were calculated with alpha asymmetry and the LPP as predicting variables, and depression as the dependent variable. Analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. Results indicated that decreased left frontal asymmetry (F3/4) and increased LPP to desserts predicted self-reported depression for girls, controlling for asymmetry and LPP to rocks. As expected, decreased left-frontal activity was related to greater depression; a larger LPP also related to increased depression. Results suggest decreased left frontal activity in response to appetitive stimuli as a function of depression in girls. Contrary to expectations, increased depressive symptoms in girls was also related to an increased LPP to desserts.

Poster 14

GRADIENTS OF FEAR POTENTIATED STARTLE DURING GENERALIZATION, EXTINCTION, AND EXTINCTION RECALL

Jonathan P. Dunning1, Shmuel Lissek2, Molly Gromatsky1, & Greg Hajcak1 1Stony Brook University, 2University of Minnesota

Descriptors: startle, fear generalization, fear extinction

Studies have begun to examine human fear generalization, and find potentiated startle magnitudes to a CS+and reduced startle magnitudes to stimuli as they decrease in perceptual similarity to the CS+. However, no study to date has examined extinction or extinction recall using a generalization task. In the present study, participants were shocked following a CS+and were also presented with stimuli that ranged in perceptual similarity to the CS+(i.e., 20, 40, or 60% smaller or larger than the CS+) during a fear acquisition phase. Participants were also presented with the same stimuli during an extinction period, and an extinction recall phase one week later; no shocks were presented during extinction or extinction recall. In line with existing work, startle magnitude in the acquisition phase was characterized by both linear and quadratic effects, such that startle was potentiated most to the CS+, and decreased dramatically as a function of perceptual dissimilarity. Ratings of shock likelihood to each stimulus mimicked this pattern. Fear gradients were still present in both the extinction and extinction recall phases, but were less steep, as evidenced by a linear, but not quadratic, trend in startle magnitude. Following extinction and extinction recall phases, subjects reported no expectation of shock. Results suggest that gradients of fear are steepest during acquisition, yet seem to persist, albeit to a lesser degree, during extinction. Fear may be more resistant to extinction in generalization paradigms, where there is ambiguity regarding the CS+ .

Poster 15

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND THE ERROR-RELATED NEGATIVITY (ERN) IN CHILDREN

Alexandria M. Meyer, Anna Weinberg, Daniel N. Klein, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: error related negativity, anxiety, children

Several studies have linked enhanced error-related brain activity, as measured by the error-related negativity (ERN), to increased anxiety in adults. Since anxiety disorders follow developmental trajectories that likely begin early in life, studying the neurodevelopmental relationship between ERN and anxiety might shed light on the emergence of a specific pathophysiological process. Relatively few studies have assessed anxiety and the ERN in children—and no studies have assessed this relationship as a function of age. To further explore these issues, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while 55 children aged 8 to 13 performed an arrow version of the flankers task. Both parents and children reported on children's anxiety. Errors elicited an adult-like ERN, in terms of both timing and scalp distribution. Moreover, results indicate that the relationship between the ERN and anxiety is moderated by age. Among older children, anxiety was significantly related to a larger (i.e., more negative) ERN. Although the relationship was not as robust, in younger children this relationship was opposite: increasing anxiety was related to a smaller (i.e., less negative) ERN. We propose that these observed changes in the relationship between ERN and anxiety may be due to developmental changes in: a shift in focus from external to internal sources of threat, a shift from fear (i.e., arousal) to more cognitive forms of anxiety (i.e., anxious apprehension), or a shift in the relative balance of rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation associated with anxiety.

Poster 16

ENHANCED ERROR MONITORING IN GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER IS ATTENUATED BY COMORBID DEPRESSION

Anna Weinberg, Roman Kotov, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a pervasive and often chronic disorder affecting between 4 and 7% of the population. Despite its significant public health impact, the

pathophysiology of the disorder is relatively understudied. Progress in this area has been complicated by its significant comorbidity with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Individuals with GAD, like other anxiety disorders, experience excessive concern over errors, and demonstrate an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) relative to healthy controls. However, findings regarding the ERN and depression have been mixed; moderate levels of depressive symptoms have been related to an enhanced ERN, whereas severe depressive symptoms have been related to an attenuated ERN. No studies to date have examined the interacting influence of anxiety and depression on error-related brain activity. To examine the impact of depression on the relationship between anxiety and the ERN, 123 individuals (35 healthy controls, 35 with current MDD, 25 with current GAD, and 28 with comorbid GAD and MDD) engaged in a modified flankers task. Results indicate that the ERN was enhanced in the GAD group relative to controls; however, in the MDD and Comorbid groups, the magnitude of the ERN did not differ from healthy controls; further, a smaller ERN was related to greater severity of depression across the clinical groups, suggesting an interesting dissociation between GAD and MDD, despite recent hierarchical models which subsume them both under the distress disorders, and recent movements to combine them into a single diagnosis.

Poster 17

THE LATE POSITIVE POTENTIAL: DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES FROM MIDDLE TO LATE CHILDHOOD AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH RISK FOR ANXIETY

Autumn J. Kujawa, Daniel N. Klein, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: development, anxiety, late positive potential

Little is known about the development of the late positive potential (LPP) across childhood. In addition, though risk for anxiety has been associated with biased processing of negative emotional stimuli, associations between the LPP and anxiety risk remain unclear. Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral IAPS images were presented to 53 youth between the ages of 8 -13, who were asked to respond to an arrow presented after each image. LPPs were scored as the mean activity 400-1000 ms following picture presentation at parietal (P3, P4, and Pz) and occipital (O1, O2 and Oz) sites. Associations with age, child symptoms of anxiety, and parental symptoms of anxiety were examined. Results showed an interaction between electrode site and age, with younger children showing greater differentiation between emotional and neutral images at occipital sites than older children. Both age groups showed differentiation at parietal sites. A positive association was found between parental anxiety and children's LPPs to unpleasant compared to neutral images. Parental anxiety was also positively associated with child reaction time on unpleasant trials, indicating that children of parents high in anxiety show increased LPPs and greater behavioral interference following unpleasant images. No significant associations were found between child anxiety and LPP or behavioral responses following pleasant or unpleasant stimuli. Results suggest that distribution of the LPP across the scalp changes from middle to late childhood, and increased reactivity to unpleasant images may be indicative of risk for anxiety.

Poster 18

BRIDGING THE FEEDBACK NEGATIVITY AND THE REWARD POSITIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM TIME-FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION AND SOURCE LOCALIZATION

Dan Foti1, Edward M. Bernat2, & Greg Hajcak1 1Stony Brook University, 2Florida State University

Descriptors: feedback negativity, time-frequency, source localization The feedback negativity (FN) is often interpreted as a response to unfavorable outcomes, reflecting increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for monetary loss. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that the FN may be better understood as a response to favorable outcomes, reflecting gain-related activity in the striatum. Potentially reconciling these two perspectives, a recent application of time-frequency analysis decomposed the FN into two distinct responses: increased theta activity to losses, and increased delta activity to gains. We previously recorded the FN from 85 individuals during a gambling task, and we found that the FN was blunted among individuals with current depressive symptoms. In the current study, we applied time-frequency analysis to this data and replicated the dissociation ofthe FN into loss-related theta and gain-related delta activity. As previously shown, these two responses each uniquely predicted variance in the FN and were only moderately correlated with one another. Among more depressed individuals, gain-related delta was blunted but loss-related theta remained intact. Notably, source localization identified that loss-related theta and gain-related delta are likely generated within the ACC and striatum, respectively. These results suggest that the both prior conceptualizations of the FN may be accurate, with the FN representing a composite of loss-related ACC and gain-related striatal activity. Only the latter, though, appears to be related to individual differences in reward sensitivity, particularly with regard to depression.

THE IMPACT OF FACES ON THE VPP AND THE LPP IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPLEX EMOTIONAL STIMULI

Jamie Ferri, Anna Weinberg, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: late positive potential, human faces, emotion

Both human faces and emotional images are particularly salient compared to other categories of visual stimuli. The vertex positive potential (VPP) is an ERP component that appears uniquely sensitive to faces, with additional modulation observed for emotional compared to neutral faces. The late positive potential (LPP) is larger for emotional compared to neutral images, and some evidence suggests that the LPP is further enhanced for images containing people. Studies of emotion frequently compare pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures to neutral, without an explicit understanding of how the presence of faces in these images may affect attentional allocation and psychophysi-ological response. The present experiment examined the effect of faces in the context of neutral and threatening IAPS images on the VPP and the LPP. Sixty participants passively viewed neutral images (20 with faces and 20 without) and threatening images (20 with faces and 20 without) for 1500 ms each. The VPP was only larger in response to faces in the neutral category and not in response to faces in the threatening category. The LPP was larger in response to both images containing faces and threatening images. Further, this effect was qualified by an interaction, such that the LPP was only enhanced for neutral pictures containing faces while threatening pictures with or without faces did not differ from one another. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of faces in IAPS images significantly impacts both the LPP and the VPP - and that this effect is unique to neutral images.

Poster 20

FACILITATION VS. COMPETITION: EFFECTS OF COLOR CUES IN COMPLEX VISUAL SCENES

E. Menton McGinnis & Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: eeg/ssvep, attention, emotion

Affectively relevant objects attract attention and enhance perception. What remains unclear is what features in emotional stimuli attract resources and how. Here, we examined facilitation versus competition effects of color cues embedded in naturalistic picture stimuli. Effects of affective color cues on cortical processing of a concurrent color stimulus were examined by means of frequency tagging as afforded by steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs). Participants viewed a series of images from the International Affective Picture System, modified such that the top 5% of the red pixels in the mutilation images were standardized across all images, and were replaced by red or green pixel values in otherwise gray-scale images. Cueing effects were examined by an embedded 14 Hz central foveal probe flickering in either red or green, which was either a match or mismatch with the color cue. Evidence of color competition effects was seen in matching cue/probe conditions, resulting in decreased ssVEP amplitude. In a three-way interaction (Cue x Probe x Arousal), neutral images produced the highest levels of color competition effects between cue and probe conditions. Additionally, mutilation images with a red flicker probe showed an overall suppression of the ssVEP amplitude in comparison to images with a green flicker probe. Such results suggest that matching color cue/probe conditions hinder the distribution of resources in visual image processing, and that affective stimuli embedded with an emotionally relevant probe color detract from perceptual resource allocation.

Poster 21

EMOTIONAL FACILITATION OF ELECTROCORTICAL RESPONSES TO ATTENDED STIMULI DURING A SUBSEQUENT PERCEPTUAL

Inkyung Song & Andreas Keil University of Florida

Descriptors: steady-state potentials, emotion-cognition

Greater allocation of attention to affectively arousing stimuli has been demonstrated by enhanced amplitudes of steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs). The present study examines if viewing affective stimuli alters subsequent perceptual sensitivity as indexed by ssVEP amplitude and behavioral performance in an orientation discrimination task. Participants viewed task-irrelevant affective pictures (1 s) followed by a stream of tilted, low spatial-frequency Gabor patches (2 cpd), presented in a 14-Hz flickering mode. Luminance contrast of the patch gradually increased for the first half and decreased for the second half of the total duration, resulting in a waxing-waning pattern of stimulus contrast. In addition to response times and accuracy, the amplitude of the 14-Hz ssVEPs elicited by the contrast-varying stimuli was examined as a continuous index of visual cortical engagement over time. Analyses focused on the medium-contrast time segment during the waxing phase of the Gabor patch stream (cf. contrast gain), as a function of the emotional content (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) of the

preceding pictures. The higher ssVEP amplitude, but no difference in accuracy, was observed for Gabor patches presented after affectively arousing pictures, compared to neutral pictures. The response times were faster for the patches following pleasant pictures, but slower for those following unpleasant pictures. Together, these findings using affective picture cues are consistent with attention and perceptual sensitivity to target stimuli facilitated by fearful face cues.

Poster 22

DETECTING EMOTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE: THE LATE POSITIVE POTENTIAL IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Jenna B. Dietz, Jacob Jones, William M. Perlstein, Michael S. Okun, & Dawn Bowers University of Florida

Descriptors: parkinson's disease, late positive potential, emotion

Previous literature has suggested that Parkinson's patients have a deficit in emotional processing when measured by their ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion. A recent study examined electrophysiological correlates of early (200-300 ms) visual discrimination of emotional pictures in Parkinson's disease and found that the early posterior negativity (EPN) did not differ between groups (Wieser et al., 2006). The goal of the current study was to investigate a later (420 - 720 ms) ERP component, the late positive potential, which is more related to basic activation of motivational systems and the detection of stimulus significance (Bradley, 2009). Participants included 14 nonde-mented PD patients, tested on dopaminergic medication, and 8 healthy controls. EEG was recorded while participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images (N images 5 72; N trials 5 144) from the International Affective Picture System. Across both groups, emotional images (pleasant, unpleasant) prompted larger LPP's, F(3,18) 5 7.53, p<.01, zp2 5 .56. These differences were significant at Cpz and Pz. There was no significant Group x Valence interaction. These results indicate that, in addition to normal early perceptual components of emotional processing (200 - 300 ms), PD patients show normal enhancement of the late positive potential (420 - 720 ms) in response to emotional pictures, suggesting intact detection of emotional significance in the brain. National Parkinson Foundation Center of Excellence

Poster 23

CONTINUOUS ELECTROCORTICAL DYNAMICS IN FACE PERCEPTION: IS PREFERENTIAL PROCESSING OF SOCIAL CUES SPECIFIC TO SOCIAL PHOBIA?

Hailey W. Bulls1, Joshua R. Shumen2, Lisa M. McTeague1, Marie-Claude Laplante1, Peter J. Lang1, & Andreas Keil1 1University of Florida, 2University of Alabama at Birmingham

Descriptors: SSVEP, faces, social anxiety

Heightened perception of facial cues is at the core of many theories of social behavior and its disorders. In the present study, we continuously measured electrocortical dynamics in human visual cortex, as evoked by happy, neutral, fearful, and angry faces. Thirty-seven treatment-seeking patients with a principal diagnosis of social phobia as well as 21 individuals with principal panic disorder with agoraphobia (without additional social phobia) viewed naturalistic faces flickering at 17.5 Hz to evoke steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs), recorded from 129 scalp electrodes. Electrophysi-ological data were evaluated in the time-frequency domain. Source estimation indicated an early visual cortical origin of the face-evoked ssVEP, which showed amplitude enhancement for emotional expressions specifically in patients with pervasive social phobia. Pertinent to expectations regarding vigilance and avoidance in social anxiety, this heightened perceptual sensitivity emerged later in the 3500 ms viewing epoch and was most pronounced for angry expressions. Interestingly, the panic disorder patients, despite ubiquitous, explicit concerns of interpersonal scrutiny secondary to experiencing panic attacks in public, did not show any evidence of similar visual sensitivities to facial cues, even those connoting disapproval. Rather, disorder-specific effects were observed suggesting that heightened perceptual bias towards affective facial cues may reflect processes specific to social anxiety pathology.

Poster 24

ANTICIPATORY ANXIETY AND EMOTIONAL MEMORY

Mathias Weymar1, Margaret M. Bradley1, Alfons O. Hamm2, & Peter J. Lang1 University of Florida, 2University of Greifswald

Descriptors: anticipatory anxiety, emotion, memory

In the present study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether instructed fear influences memory for words encoded under threat and safety. In a threat of shock paradigm, participants read a serious of emotional and neutral words presented in either a yellow or blue color. Color cued periods in which either a painful shock was possible or there was no possibility of receiving an electric shock ("safe"). Threat and safety periods varied from 12 s to 36 s. Immediately after encoding, a recognition mem-

ory task was performed, in which old and new words were presented. Behavioral results showed significantly better recognition ofemotional, compared to neutral words, but no difference in memory for words presented in threat, compared to safety. Enhanced ERP amplitudes were found for remembered old words relative to correctly rejected new words (ERP old/new effect) in a time window starting 550 ms after word onset. Interestingly, words previously presented in the context of threat showed an enhanced frontal positivity in a late time window (800 - 1100 ms), compared to words encoded during safety. Thus, ERPs were sensitive to differences in the stressful context at encoding, which could assist in understanding effects of anxiety and stress on memory processes.

This study was supported by the German Research Society (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG, WE 4801/1-1).

Poster 25

THE PUPIL AND AFFECTIVE PICTURE VIEWING: BRIGHTNESS & BEYOND

Margaret M. Bradley, Robert R. Henderson, & Peter J. Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: emotion, eye, pupil

When viewing natural scenes, an initial light reflex responsive to stimulus brightness is followed by pupil dilation that is modulated by emotional arousal (Bradley et al., 2008). The present study investigated both the initial light reflex and later pupil dilation as it varies with differences in the brightness and emotionality of IAPS pictures. Emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) and neutral pictures were selected so that they were matched across a wide range of brightness, from very low in brightness to very high in brightness. Each picture was then presented in an intact version, as well as in a scrambled version, in which brightness was identical, but emotional content was absent. Pupil diameter was continuously monitored while participants viewed a 6 s presentation of the intact and scrambled version of each picture, randomly intermixed. Results indicated significantly greater pupil dilation when viewing intact emotionally arousing pictures, compared to when viewing neutral pictures, replicating our previous study. Larger pupil dilation was found when viewing emotional, compared to neutral, pictures regardless of whether pictures were low or high in brightness. As expected, the initial light reflex significantly varied with picture brightness. Comparing pupillary changes when viewing scrambled and intact versions of the same picture provides a control for brightness that facilitates analysis of the effects of emotion on pupillary responses.

Poster 26

LOOKING AT FACES AND SCENES: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL ANXIETY

Bethany C. Wangelin, Anna Kastner, Margaret M. Bradley, & Peter J. Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: startle, faces, social phobia

Emotional facial expressions and naturalistic scenes have been shown to prompt heightened attention and activation of affective brain networks across varied paradigms and measures. This study examined the extent to which multiple response systems might be similarly or differentially engaged by these stimulus types when viewed intermixed in one paradigm. We comprehensively assessed affective modulation across the time-course of picture processing and investigated how self-reported social anxiety may influence reactivity. Sixty students viewed threatening, neutral, and happy facial expressions, and violent, neutral, and pleasant scenes, each presented for 3 sec. Acoustic startle probes occurred at 250, 750, and 2500 ms after picture onset and electrocortical responses (LPP, probe P3), startle, skin conductance, and reaction time to the probe were measured. Participants were grouped according to their scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Overall, viewing emotional scenes evoked strong somatic and autonomic activity and evidence ofheightened attention. Such robust engagement ofreflex systems was not generally evident for faces. High and low social anxiety groups both showed similar, reliable responses for affective scenes. However, whereas the low-anxious group showed no differences in reactivity for face contents, the high-anxious group showed some evidence of greater attention and physiological reactivity to emotional expressions, consistent with the view that affective face stimuli are more salient for socially anxious individuals.

Poster 27

ANTICIPATION, AFFECT, AND ATTENTION: CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL PROCESSES

Christopher T. Sege, Margaret M. Bradley, & Peter J. Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: emotion, EEG, startle

Anticipation and perception of emotional stimuli were investigated using a dense-array 129-channel sensor net. Affective and attentional processes were also measured using

skin conductance, heart rate, and the startle blink. On each trial, a 6 s anticipatory period preceded the 3 s presentation of an IAPS (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) picture. During anticipation, the hedonic content of the upcoming picture (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) was indicated by a color cue (e.g., red, blue, green). Startle probes were delivered during the anticipation period, picture viewing period, or inter-trial interval of each trial, while heart rate, skin conductance, and EEG were recorded continuously. RESULTS: Heart rate deceleration and increased skin conductance level were apparent prior to picture onset, and these changes were greater when viewing cues signaling the presentation of pleasant or unpleasant pictures than for those signaling neutral pictures. Of particular note, startle blinks during anticipation were significantly larger during pleasant or unpleasant cues, (F(1,25) 5 9.72, p< .01), than during neutral cues, whereas responses during pleasant and unpleasant cues did not differ from each other. Analyses of dense array data indicated both qualitative and quantitative differences in electrocortical potential and oscillatory activity during anticipation and perception, consistent with an interpretation that processing ofinternal and external events are associated with different attentional and motivational mechanisms.

Poster 28

DELTA-BAND REWARD PROCESSING OCCURRING DURING THE FEEDBACK-RELATED NEGATIVITY (FRN)

Jeremy B. Harper, Lacy A. Olson, Lindsay D. Nelson, & Edward M. Bernat Florida State University

Descriptors: time-frequency, ERP, FRN

Recent work identified separable gain and loss sensitive neurophysiological processes in a gambling feedback task, indexed by delta and theta activity occurring during the FRN, respectively (Bernat et al., in press). Specifically, theta (3-7Hz) increased for losses, consistent with previous work (e.g., Gehring and Willoughby, 2004), but newly, delta (0 - 3 Hz) was increased for gains. Further, gain-loss differences in theta and delta were uncorrelated, indicating that they were distinct processes. The current study was designed to further test the idea that delta represents an independent index of reward processing by manipulating reward context. This involved presenting outcomes representing greater versus smaller gains in one condition, gains versus losses in another, and greater versus smaller losses in a third. The analysis design was thus a 2 (good/bad) X 3 (reward context: gain/even/loss). The primary aims were to assess whether delta was positively related to reward context and evaluate whether the previously observed gain-loss differences in an even condition would generalize across contexts. Results indicated that delta responses to gain feedback did scale in a positive linear manner from loss to gain context, whereas responses to loss feedback showed no differences for context. Theta, on the other hand, showed similar gain-loss differences in the even and gain contexts, although no difference in the loss context. Findings support the view that delta occurring during the FRN in feedback tasks may index a separable gain-sensitive ne-urophysiological process. MH080239

Poster 29

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEEDBACK-RELATED NEGATIVITY IN EARLY ADOLESENCE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF TIME-FREQUENCY THETA AND DELTA COMPONENTS

Lacy A. Olson1, Jeremy Harper1, Semyon Golosheykin2, Edward M. Bernat1, & Andrey Anokhin2 1Florida State University, 2Washington University

Descriptors: ERP, time frequency, adolescents

Recent work (Bernat et al., in press) has shown that feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potential component elicited by negative outcomes, is largely composed of separable time-frequency (TF) processes, theta (3-7 Hz) and delta (0-3 Hz). Specifically, theta-band activity was increased by loss feedback and delta-band responses were independently increased to gain feedback. In the current study, we investigated developmental changes in these theta and delta components in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (N 5 213) using a simulated gambling task administered at ages 12, 14, and 16. Using TF decomposition of EEG responses to monetary gains and losses, we replicated gain-loss differences in theta and delta processes across age groups (cf. Bernat et al., in press). Next, significant main effects of age were also observed (across conditions), such that overall theta was greater for the 12 y.o.'s, relative to the 16 y.o.'s, and overall delta was significantly smaller for the 12 y.o.'s relative to the 16 y.o.'s. Importantly, a condition by age interaction for theta indicated that gain-loss differences were significantly smaller for 12 y.o.'s relative to 16 y.o.'s, while delta evidenced no interaction. Because theta and FRN have been implicated in cognitive control processes, theta increases may represent developmental maturation ofcognitive control functions during adolescence. Delta, on the other hand, was stable across age, suggesting that reward processing indexed by delta may be largely developed by age 12, with little subsequent gains over adolescence. MH080239

WHO'S CONTROLLING THE BRAKES? PULSED INHIBITORY ALPHA EEG CORRELATES WITH PREPARATORY ACTIVITY IN THE FRONTO-PARIETAL NETWORK MEASURED CONCURRENTLY WITH THE EVENT-RELATED OPTICAL SIGNAL

(EROS)

Kyle E. Mathewson1, Edward L. Maclin1, Kathy A. Low1, Alejandro Lleras1, Diane

M. Beck1, Tony Ro2, Monica Fabiani1, & Gabriele Gratton1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2The City College of the City University

of New York

Descriptors: alpha eeg, event related optical signal (eros), visual awareness Alpha oscillations have an inhibitory influence on visual processing, which varies with sustained and directed attention. Given that alpha's inhibitory influence varies as a function of its phase, we have proposed that its role is to provide pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical activity. Here we investigate whether top-down signals from executive and attention areas modulate alpha activity. We tested this prediction by monitoring preparatory neural activity in the fronto-parietal network using the event-related optical signal (EROS), affording high temporal and spatial resolution, while at concurrently measuring oscillations in EEG alpha activity, on subjects performing a visual masking task. Extending our previous findings, both phase and power ofalpha oscillations at target onset measured with EEG and EROS in parietal areas predicted subsequent target detection. Preceding EROS activity in right pre-frontal and parietal areas also predicted subsequent target detection. Crucially, the increased differences in EROS activity between detected and undetected targets correlated negatively with EEG alpha power across subjects. Furthermore, comparison of data sorted based on single trials EEG alpha power revealed that preparatory EROS frontal activity was associated with decreased alpha power, whereas slightly later EROS parietal activity was associated with increased alpha power. These results indicate that alpha oscillations represent pulsed inhibition of ongoing activity, and suggest that alpha may be regulated by top-down control exerted by frontal areas. This work was supported by a Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada fellowship to KEM and an NIMH grant R01MH080182 to GG.

Poster 31

SHEDDING LIGHT ON FRONTOPARIETAL NETWORK DYNAMICS DURING RESPONSE MODE PREPARATION: AN EVENT-RELATED OPTICAL SIGNAL (EROS) STUDY

Pauline L. Baniqued, Kathy A. Low, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: frontoparietal network, optical imaging, task switching Reconfiguring attention in response to changing demands is an everyday task. Control of attention has been shown to involve preparatory activity linked to frontoparietal regions, but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of this network. We use the event-related optical signal (EROS) to investigate preparatory activity during a switching task. EROS measures changes in optical scattering due to activity in neural tissue and offers good spatial and temporal resolution. In a choice-response task, we manipulate the response mode on each trial. Subjects received an audio-visual precue indicating whether to respond vocally or manually. They then saw or heard an L or R, indicating a left or right response to be implemented with the appropriate response modality. Around 200 ms after the precue, we found switching-related activity in right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) and right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) that oscillated throughout the preparatory period. We performed a forward seeded cross-correlational analysis in order to determine the propagation of activity. We found functional coupling of rPFC and rPPC for both switching to manual and vocal responses, with the seed rPFC region also predicting later reactivation of rPFC and rPPC. Moreover, activity in rPFC predicted motor cortex activity for switching to manual responses, and temporal cortex activity for switching to vocal responses. These results elaborate on the interactions of common and modality-specific preparatory processes that underlie switching between tasks.

This project was supported by a DARPA grant to G. Gratton & M. Fabiani.

Poster 32

SEX DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN STRUCTURE IN OPPOSITE SEX TWIN

Anouk den Braber1, Dennis van't Ent1, Dorret I. Boomsma1, Danielle C. Cath2, & Eco

J.C. de Geus1 1VU University Amsterdam, 2Utrecht University

Descriptors: MRI, sex differences, twin study

In studies on sex differences in the human brain there have been considerable inconsistencies with regard to the anatomical structures involved. The lack of systematic matching for age, family environment, and genetic background may be partly blamed for the variable findings. In this study we re-evaluated brain sex differences using opposite sex twins (24 pairs in total), which are very well matched both for early environment, and part oftheir genetic make-up. We applied paired voxelwise comparisons of

gray matter segmentations, obtained from MRI after warping to a study specific template. After adjusting for overall brain volume, males exhibited relatively increased gray matter for the hypothalamus, while females showed increased gray matter for parahippocampal, dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal regions. Sex differences for the same brain areas have been reported earlier, and our findings therefore provide further support for their involvement. On the other hand, for other brain areas reported previously, such as the amygdala and caudate nucleus, we could not confirm significant sex effects. Our results underline the importance of using carefully matched subjects when studying sex differences of the brain. Brain sex differences are a rich source of information for understanding the behavioural differences that exist between males and females and are also highly important to consider in studies on the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those that differ in prevalence or symptoms between men and women.

Poster 33

POSITIVE VERSUS DETACHED REAPPRAISAL: GAZE PATTERNS AND MOOD CHANGE

Christine M. Platzek & Derek M. Isaacowitz Brandeis University

Descriptors: emotion regulation, gaze

In this study, we investigated to what extent different types of reappraisal were associated with different gaze and mood patterns. Thirty-two participants (Mage 5 20) each viewed three sets of negative images, which were accompanied by a set of viewing instructions. In the first condition, just view, participants were instructed to view the images naturally. Positive reappraisal (focusing on positive aspects) and detached reappraisal (objectively reframing) instructions were counterbalanced in the second and third conditions. An eye tracker was used to obtain visual fixations. A potentiometer slider was used to record changes in mood (0 5 most unpleasant, 100 5 most pleasant). We expected that some forms of reappraisal would be associated with increases in fixation toward negative images as participants gathered information to facilitate their reappraisal. We also predicted that both reappraisal strategies would positively influence mood when compared to the natural viewing condition. Interestingly, participants using detached reappraisal fixated more on the most negative highly arousing areas of interest as compared with positive reappraisal, p< .01. There were no significant differences in visual fixations between the reappraisal conditions and the just view condition. Participants using reappraisal reported less mood drop compared to just view. No significant differences emerged between reappraisal conditions for mood change, suggesting that they may be associated with distinct looking patterns but these patterns do not clearly map on to differences in mood outcomes.

Poster 34

THE EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL PROCESSING ON THE LATE POSITIVE POTENTIAL IN CHILDREN

Amy Medina, Beylul Solomon, & Tracy A. Dennis Hunter College, City University of New York

Descriptors: late positive potential, children, emotional processing The late positive potential (LPP) reflects increased attention to emotional versus neutral stimuli in adults. Only a few studies have examined the LPP in children; showing the same patterns as found in adults, although timing and scalp distribution differ. The LPP is also sensitive to affective individual differences like anxiety. Few studies have focused on the LPP in a developmental context and its links with affective characteristics like fear and anxiety. The present study examined the LPP in 20 typically developing children at two time points (Time 1 ages 5 - 6 & Time 2 ages 7 - 9) in which they passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Measures of temperamental fear and anxiety were obtained via maternal report and fearful behavior was observed during a novel task. At Time 1, LPP amplitudes were larger to pleasant (t(19) 5 3.79, p 5 .001) and unpleasant (t(19) 5 3.06, p 5.006) versus neutral pictures (posterior region) (F(2,36) 5 7.04, p 5 .003). Larger LPP amplitudes to negative versus neutral pictures were associated with greater observed fear (r 5 .53 p 5 .02) and anxiety (r 5 — .59 p 5 .006). In Time 2, LPP amplitudes in response to emotional pictures followed the same pattern as in Time 1 (F(2,36) 5 4.88,p 5 .01, unpleasant t(19) 5 3.58, p 5 .002, pleasant t(19) 5 2.31, p 5 .03). However, correlations between the LPP and measures of fear and anxiety did not reach significance at Time 2. Results suggest that like adults, the LPP reflects increased processing of emotional versus neutral stimuli, but may show developmental shifts in its links to affective individual differences.

Poster 35

NEURAL CORRELATES OF REAPPRAISAL IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN: AN ERP STUDY

Jennifer M. DeCicco1, Helene Ramirez2, Samantha Berthod1, & Tracy A. Dennis2 1The Graduate Center, CUNY'', 2Hunter College, CUNY

Descriptors: late positive potential, emotion regulation, children

The late positive potential (LPP) reflects increased attention to emotional versus neutral stimuli. LPP amplitudes are reduced when adults use cognitive emotion regulation

(CER) strategies to decrease attention to emotion, like reappraisal. Although the LPP has been systematically studied in adults, only two studies have examined the LPP during reappraisal in children, and provide mixed support for the sensitivity of the LPP to reappraisal. For example, older (8-9), but not younger (5 - 6) children appear to use reappraisal to modulate the LPP in similar ways as adults. To further explore developmental patterns, the present study examined the LPP during reappraisal in 7 to 9-year-olds (N 5 23). EEG was recorded as reappraisal or negative stories were presented prior to unpleasant stimuli and neutral stories prior to neutral stimuli. We predicted that LPP amplitudes would be reduced for the reappraisal versus negative condition. Results showed that the LPP was larger in the reappraisal and negative conditions versus the neutral condition, F(2,42) 5 13.51, p<.001, (all ps<.01). However, in older children (8-9; N 5 17), the predicted LPP effect emerged: LPPs were reduced in the reappraisal versus negative condition, F(2,30) 5 14.06, p< .001. The present study is an important addition to the small body of research on the LPP in children. Findings suggest an important developmental shift in the ability to use reappraisal around age 8. Future studies will examine the LPP in relation to a broader range of CER strategies and the boundary conditions under which children can use reappraisal.

Poster 36

CONFLICT MONITORING AND ATTENTION PERFORMANCE: A CHILD ERP STUDY

Jennifer M. DeCicco1, Helene Ramirez2, Samantha Berthod1, & Tracy A. Dennis2 1The Graduate Center, CUNY, 2Hunter College, CUNY

Descriptors: children, n2 erp component, attention performance

The N2 is an ERP component that reflects the recruitment of cognitive control in contexts that present conflict, such as incongruent response options. Few studies have examined the N2 in children. This longitudinal study examined whether N2 amplitudes in children, like adults, are larger for incongruent versus congruent flankers (N2 effect) following the presentation of emotional distracters, and whether larger N2 amplitudes predict subsequent attention performance. Participants (Time 1: N 5 32, ages 5-6; Time 2: N 5 29; ages 7-9) completed a modified version of the Attention Network Test, which yields alerting, orienting, and executive attention scores. We conducted a 3(Electrode: Fz, FCz, Cz) X 3(Emotion: Angry, Happy, Neutral) x 2(Flanker: Congruent, Incongruent) repeated measures ANOVA for T1 and T2 separately. At T1, the main effect of Flanker, (F(1,31) 5 4.04, p 5 .05, c2 5 .12), showed that N2 amplitudes were larger for incongruent versus congruent flankers (p 5 .05). This N2 effect was not present at T2. Correlational analyses between N2 amplitudes and attention performance, showed that at T1, larger N2 amplitudes to incongruent flankers were related to greater conflict interference following happy faces (p< .05). However, at T2 larger N2 amplitudes to congruent flankers were associated with better orienting efficiency following neutral faces (p 5 .02). Results document developmental shifts in the N2 effect and in links between the N2 and attention performance. The impact of emotional distracters on the N2 is discussed.

Poster 37

AMYGDALA DEACTIVATION AND ABNORMAL AMYGDALA PREFRONTAL COUPLING DURING SECOND ORDER CONDITIONING WITH TRAUMA RELEVANT CUES IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Herta Flor1, Slawomira Diener2, Michele Wessa2, Gustav Wirtz3, Ulrich Frommberger4, Tina Penga2, Michaela Ruttorf5, Matthias Ruf2, & Christian Schmahl2 1Central Institute of Mental Health/University Heidelberg, 2Central Institute of Mental Health, 3SRH Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach GmbH, 4MediClin Klinik an der Lindenhohe, 5Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

Descriptors: PTSD,fmri, conditioning

Pavlovian fear conditioning is regarded as crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The assumed development of a fear network during the traumatic event is thought to increase with time by processes such as higher order conditioning. In this study the brain correlates of higher order fear conditioning were investigated in traumatized persons with and without PTSD and non-traumatized healthy controls by using a trauma reminder as unconditioned stimulus. Fourteen subjects with PTSD, fourteen traumatized persons without PTSD and thirteen healthy non-traumatized controls underwent a higher order conditioning paradigm with two graphic symbols as conditioned and two pictures reminding of the individual trauma as unconditioned stimuli. During habituation, acquisition and extinction neural activity was recorded via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ratings of emotional valence, arousal and contingency were obtained after each scanning phase. All groups learned the CS+/US contingency, but PTSD-patients failed to extinguish. Only PTSD-patients displayed higher arousal ratings for CS+as compared with CS- during acquisition. During CS+presentation PTSD-patients showed amygdala deactivation, which correlated inversely with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, while both control groups displayed negative interactions between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. Amygdala deactivation during early acquisition may represent maladaptive anticipatory coping behavior in PTSD-patients.

Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 636/C1).

RHINAL CORTEX DYSFUNCTIONALITY DETECTED BY MEANS OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

Michael Hoppstaedter, Patric Meyer, Andrea V. King, Michele Wessa, Lutz Froelich,

& Herta Flor

Central Institute of Mental Health/University Heidelberg

Descriptors: ERP, MCI, memory

Early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by neuropathological changes within the medial temporal lobes that affect memory processing. The first region to degenerate is the rhinal cortex, which is comparatively unaffected by natural age-related decline. Currently, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which shows similar histological findings, is discussed as a putative prodromal stage of AD. Hence, the examination of rhinally mediated processes might provide a relatively specific marker of developing AD. We examined rhinal functionality in a sample of aMCI patients contrasted with healthy age-matched controls using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a semantic priming paradigm and a recognition memory test. Both, the N400 indicating semantic integration and the early frontal old/new-effect, which represents a correlate of familiarity-based memory retrieval, are assumed to arise from processing in the rhinal cortex. Both groups showed a reliable N400 effect but this was of substantially smaller magnitude in the patients. Moreover, patients did not exhibit a familiarity correlate at all whereas analysis of the ERP data in the controls featured a significant early frontal old/new effect. These results indicate impaired rhinal functionality and indirectly suggest a beginning neurode-generative process. To allow for inspection of this assumption, structural MRI data of grey and white matter integrity are taken into account. Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 636/C6).

Poster 39

THE N400 REFLECTS ACTIVITY IN THE ANTERIOR MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE (AMTL): SIMULTANEOUS EEG-FMRI REVEALS THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF SEMANTIC PRIMING

Patrie Meyer, Michael Hoppstaedter, Christian Baeuchl, Maria Zangl, Carsten Diener,

& Herta Flor

Central Institute of Mental Health/University Heidelberg Descriptors: N400, AMTL, eeg-fmri

The N400, a negative event-related potential (ERP) peaking around 400 ms after stimulus onset, has been shown to vary systematically with the processing of semantic information. It is considered to represent neural activity associated with the access of conceptual information. While scalp recordings have contributed to the analysis of the psychological processes represented by the N400, they have not been equally successful in identifying its neural substrate. However, intracranial ERPs show that at least parts of the N400 generating network reside in the AMTL. Also functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed a critical role of the AMTL in accessing semantic information. These data suggest that the N400 is at least in part a volume-conducted representation of activity in the AMTL structures. However, so far ERP and fMRI data have not been recorded simultaneously during a semantic priming task. In order to investigate the association between the N400 effect and the semantic priming effect in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal we employed ERP and event-related fMRI in 16 subjects. They were presented related and unrelated word-pairs and had to indicate their fit by button-press. Independent component analysis supported ERP determination revealed a N400 effect at centro-parietal electrodes. In the fMRI results the loci of the global maxima were found bilaterally in the AMTL. Finally, EEG-informed fMRI analysis relating single-trial N400 amplitudes to the BOLD signal were analyzed to address trial-to-trial fluctuations in semantic processing. Supported by the Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (BCCN/C6).

Poster 40

NEUROVISCERAL CONNECTIVITY AND BRAIN ACTIVITY FOLLOWING NEGATIVE FEEDBACK - TWO COMT VAL158MET DEPENDENT INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPES FOR TRAIT ANXIETY

Erik M. Mueller1, Isabella Mayer1, Gerhard Stemmler1, Juergen Hennig2, & Jan Wacker1 1Marburg University, 2Giessen University

Descriptors: intermediate phenotype, dopamine, anxiety

The link between the dopamine-related COMT Val158Met polymorphism and trait anxiety (ANX) has been heavily studied although reliable associations could not always be replicated. It has been suggested that candidate genes are more robustly linked to biological intermediate phenotypes (IP) than questionnaire-based measures. Neurovisceral (brain-body) coupling plays an important role in the psychophysiology of ANX. Cardio-electro-encephalographic covariance tracing (CECT; [Mueller, E.M., Stemmler, G., Wacker, J. Single-trial electroencephalogram predicts cardiac acceleration: a time-lagged P-correlation approach for studying neurovisceral connectivity. Neuroscience 166, 491-500]) provides with the N300_4 component an indicator for the magnitude of corticovisceral coupling and

may therefore serve as an IP for ANX. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) ERP-component has previously been linked to ANX and may serve as a further IP. Here we show in N 5 180 participants who performed a time-estimation task, that both, N300_4 and FRN amplitude after a negative feedback stimulus are (a) significantly modulated by COMT genotype and (b) significantly predict self-reported ANX. Moreover, a linear regression analysis revealed that both IPs independently explain significant proportions of COMT and ANX variance. These findings provide strong evidence for the involvement of neurovisceral coupling and feedback processing in ANX and indicate that dopamine may play an important role for interindividual differences in these IPs.

Poster 41

ELECTRIC IRRELEVANT PROBE TECHNIQUE: SOMATOSENSORY N140 REFLECTS A VIEWER'S INTEREST IN VIDEO CLIPS

Hiroshi Nittono, Hiroki Moriya, & Hanayo Shigeto Hiroshima University

Descriptors: event-related potential, attention, mental workload

In event-related brain potential research, probe stimulus techniques have been used to assess the amount of attention a person allocates to an ongoing task. Although it is preferable in terms of application that responses be recorded while participants ignore the probe stimuli, this kind of ''irrelevant'' probe technique is usually insensitive to small differences in at-tentional states. To find a better candidate, we used weak electric stimulation as irrelevant probes. Thirteen university students were asked to watch 12 movie trailers (M 5 146 s) with sound tracks. Meanwhile, a painless electric pulse (0.2 ms) was given to the left middle finger once per 5 to 7 s (M 5 6 s). Participants were told to ignore the pulses and rate their interest in each trailer on a visual analog scale after viewing it. The 12 trailers were sorted in descending order of the interest rating scores of each participant and grouped into 3 categories: most interesting (1st to 4th), fairly interesting (5th to 8th), and least interesting (9th to 12th). The amplitude of N140 (mean voltage of 100 -150 ms at Cz) varied as a function of interest level (p 5 .002); it was significantly smaller (less negative) when participants were watching most interesting trailers (1.17 uV) than when they were watching fairly and least interesting trailers (0.48 and 0.05 uV, respectively). The electric irrelevant probe technique would be practicable in real-world settings, not only because it reveals differences in attentional states but also because it does not mask audiovisual information of the ongoing task. This work was supported by KAKENHI 20730476.

Poster 42

DISTRACTIVE EFFECTS OF A TASK-IRRELEVANT BABY FACE ON BEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS IN A TARGET DETECTION TASK

Hiroki Moriya, Akihiro Yano, & Nittono Hiroshi Hiroshima University

Descriptors: event-related potential, visual attention, baby schema Previous studies have shown that baby schema facial features capture attention. To examine whether this effect occurs at early visual processing stages, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a target detection task in which a task-relevant stimulus (a Tor an inverted T surrounded by 8 distractor crosses) and a task-irrelevant schematic face (a drawing consisting of contours, eyes, and a mouth) were presented simultaneously to the left and right visual fields. Three types of schematic faces that contained different degrees of baby schema features were used: eyes positioned low on a round face (augmented), eyes positioned high on a long face (reduced), and the intermediate (neutral). A pilot survey showed that cuteness and infantility ratings differed gradually across the three faces. Thirteen female university students participated in the experiment. The mean reaction time in response to target stimuli tended to be longer in the presence of the augmented baby face than in the presence of the neutral face. The task-relevant stimulus and task-irrelevant face evoked a P1 (80- 130 ms poststimulus) that was dominant at occipitotemporal electrodes. The P1 amplitude was larger when the augmented baby face was presented than when the face with reduced baby schema features was presented. Results suggest that the attentional capture effect of baby schema features occurs at early visual processing stages.

Poster 43

CONTROLLED AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION OF LEXICAL TONES IN CHINESE: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY

Jie Xi1, Linjun Zhang2, & Hua Shu3 laboratory for Higher Brain Function, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2College of Chinese Studies, Beijing Language and Culture University, 3State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University

Descriptors: categorical perception, lexical tones, attention

Categorical perception refers to the ability that human listeners perceive continuous acoustic signals as discrete linguistic representations. Our previous study provides neuro-physiological evidence in support of categorical perception of lexical tones in Chinese. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of attention to the categorical perception

of lexical tones. ERPs were recorded in 18 healthy native speakers as they participated in both a passive and an active oddball tasks in which across- (10%) and within-category deviants (10%) with equal physical distance to the repeated standard stimuli (80%) were binaurally presented. In the passive oddball condition, participants were instructed to watch a self-select silent captioned movie and ignore the sounds. In the attend condition, participants were required to respond as quickly as possible to the infrequent events targets with a button press. Consistent with our previous study, the MMN showed a right-hemisphere lateralization in the passive condition. At the same time, relative to the within-category deviants, the across-category deviants elicited larger MMN in the left recording sites. In the attend condition, the amplitude ofP3b elicited by the across-category deviants in the left hemisphere was significantly greater than the right hemisphere. The distinct, asymmetric P3b and MMN topographies for the across- and within-category deviants presumably reflect differential involvement of cortical structures in controlled and automatic discrimination of categorical perception of lexical tones.

Poster 44

WHICH PART OF THE FACE IS THE MOST FEARFUL? EVIDENCE FROM ERPS RECORDED IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL AND MODIFIED FEARFUL FACES

Wioleta Walentowska & Eligiusz Wronka Jagiellonian University, Psychophysiology Laboratory

Descriptors: facial emotion, erps

Emotional expression recognition depends on the detection of dynamic changes in face features. It was previously suggested that some parts of the face (eyes) are more expressive in comparison to the other face elements (mouth). We tested this hypothesis recording ERPs to faces with natural (neutral & fearful) or modified expressions. Modified pictures offaces were prepared by combining upper part of fearful face with lower part of neutral face (or vice versa) of the same individuals. We found differences in early emotional expression effect reflected in the negative shift between 150 - 230 ms poststimulus at occipito-temporal sites. This effect was evident for natural fearful expression and comparable for faces with fearful lower part. This effect was diminished for faces with fearful upper part. Simultaneously, enhanced frontal positivity was observed for similar latency window in response to all types of fearful faces. Once again, frontal positivity was more evident for natural fearful pictures and faces with fearful lower part when compared to faces with fearful upper part. These effects were followed by posterior positivity starting 250 ms poststimulus and lasting for 200 ms. At the same time, negative shift specific for emotional expression was observed at fronto-central locations. These later effects were not differentiated by the type of fearful stimulus.

Poster 45

AFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO DIFFERENTIAL THREAT PROBABILITIES IS UNAFFECTED BY NICOTINE DEPRIVATION

Jesse T. Kaye, Craig W. Williams, Laura Y. Hachiya, Daniel E. Bradford, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin - Madison

Descriptors: nicotine deprivation, fear-potentiated startle, addiction Smokers consistently report increased negative affect following nicotine deprivation, which may be due to dysregulated response to particular types of stressful events. Threats that are certain vs. uncertain in nature tend to elicit distinct affective responses of fear vs. anxiety, respectively. Nicotine deprivation has been demonstrated to elevate anxiety to unpredictable (uncertain) threat of shock, but not fear to predictable threat, as indexed by startle potentiation. The current study examined the specificity of nicotine deprivation effects during manipulations of threat uncertainty by using a novel manipulation of threat probability. Participants were non-smokers or daily cigarette smokers who either abstained from nicotine for 24-hours or continued ad libitum smoking prior to the experiment. Participants viewed 3 distinct visual cues that were paired with an electric shock on 100% (certain), 60%, or 20% (uncertain) of trials. Startle was potentiated during all shock cues compared to no-shock cues. Lower probability shock cues (20% & 60%) elicited greater potentiation than 100% shock cues. However, nicotine deprivation did not increase startle potentiation overall or selectively during low probability (uncertain) shock cues. Simply reducing the probability that a threat will occur during a relatively short cue period (5s) may not be sufficient to selectively increase anxiety. Nicotine deprivation may selectively exacerbate anxious responses to threats that elicit a prolonged and sustained negative affective response, rather than to all uncertain threats.

Poster 46

AN EMPIRICAL COMPARISON OF COMMONLY USED METHODS OF QUANTIFYING STARTLE POTENTIATION

Mark J. Starr, Daniel E. Bradford, Alexander J. Shackman, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin - Madison

Descriptors: startle

Two common methods to calculate startle potentiation during threat use either difference scores (threat - neutral) or percent change ((threat - neutral)/neutral). These two methods can produce divergent conclusions when study groups and/or conditions differ in startle response in the neutral condition. The current study systematically compared conclusions from these two startle potentiation calculation methods about affective response

during threat of shock in four scenarios where neutral startle response differs: 1) alcohol intoxicated vs. non-intoxicated participants, 2) 95dB vs. 100dB vs. 105dB startle probes, 3) first vs. second half of experiment and 4) across participants with low vs. high baseline startle response. Conclusions from these two methods were also compared to an additional criterion affect measure, Corrugator EMG. Corrugator EMG confirmed that threat of shock increased fear and alcohol reduced fear to shock threat. Preliminary analyses of startle potentiation yielded different conclusions across calculation methods. Conclusions from startle potentiation were most similar to the criterion measure when difference scores rather than percent change were used. Difference scores were also more stable than percent change across varied startle probe intensities. These results suggest potentiated startle is best represented as a difference score rather than percent change score.

Poster 47

ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON AFFECTIVE RESPONSE DURING VARIABLE AND FIXED DURATION THREAT

Kathryn R. Hefner, Christine A. Moberg, Laura Y. Hachiya, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin - Madison

Descriptors: alcohol, anxiety, startle response

Fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Predictable vs. unpredictable shock administration procedures have been used to elicit fear vs. anxiety, respectively, and we have recently demonstrated that alcohol reduces anxiety but not fear. However previous manipulations of predictability have varied both the probability and temporal precision of threat, leaving looming questions as to which stimulus characteristics are central to both the elicitation of anxiety and anxiolytic effects of alcohol. We developed a novel paradigm to systematically vary temporal presentation of threat, while holding probability of threat constant. Intoxicated (0.08% BAC), non-intoxicated, and placebo participants viewed a series of visual cues. Fixed 5s cue presentations were equivalent to predictable shock cues eliciting fear in earlier research. Variable duration cues (5, 20, 50 or 80s) were designed to elicit anxiety due to the temporal uncertainty of threat. Startle potentiation (SP) relative to matched cue periods in no-shock blocks provided the primary measure of affective response. All shock cues produced robust SP. Alcohol reduced SP during the first 4s of cue presentation in variable but not fixed duration threat cues. Alcohol also reduced SP during later time points in the longer variable duration cues, suggesting that these alcohol effects persist over time. This work indicates that temporal uncertainty as well as probabilistic presentation of threat can elicit anxiety, and has implications for comorbidity between anxiety disorders and alcoholism.

Poster 48

RSA SUPPRESSION IN TODDLERHOOD PREDICTS EFFECTIVE USE OF COGNITIVE EMOTION REGULATION STRATEGIES IN CHILDHOOD

Elizabeth L. Davis & Kristin A. Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: emotion regulation, early childhood, discrete emotions Discrete emotions arise as a result of changes in the status of one's goals. The specific emotion regulation strategies (ERS) that effectively alleviate distress will thus vary by discrete emotion. Children use cognitive ERS more in response to sad- or fear-eliciting (a goal is lost or threatened and there is no clear action to take) events than anger-eliciting (a goal has been blocked but could be reinstated with action) events. This pattern has been identified in 5-year-olds, but likely has its roots much earlier in childhood. Our goals were (1) to determine whether 4-year-olds also used cognitive ERS more often to deal with sadness and fear than anger, and (2) to determine whether children's pattern of cardiac physiology (an index ofemotion regulation) during a social stressor at age 2 related to their strategy use across emotion contexts later in childhood. 125 2-year-olds (initial subsample n 5 46; 25 boys) and their parents participated in a lab visit. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during tasks including a baseline and a male stranger approach (SA). At age 4, parents reported on children's use of cognitive ERS when sad, scared, and angry. Overall, children used cognitive ERS more often to deal with sadness and fear than anger, ts(45)>2.66, ps< 0.01. But, children who did not suppress RSA in SA (relative to baseline) did not use cognitive strategies differently across emotion, suggesting that cardiac physiology in toddlerhood may serve as an early marker of emotion dysregulation. Other analyses will examine the role of specific cognitive ERS.

Poster 49

ERP INFORMATIVE FINDINGS: DISPREFERRED ADJECTIVE ORDERS ELICIT BRAIN RESPONSES ASSOCIATED WITH LEXICO-SEMANTIC RATHER THAN SYNTACTIC PROCESSING

Hsu-Wen Huang & Kara D. Federmeier University of Illinois

Descriptors: N400, language

Speakers have strong intuitions about how to sequence series of adjectives that modify a noun. For example, in English the phrase "heavy hardback encyclopedia" sounds natural but "hardback heavy encyclopedia" sounds odd. Linguistic accounts of adjective ordering preferences have postulated a number of grammatical/semantic factors (e.g., informative-

ness, definiteness, etc.) that may play a role in determining how adjectives are sequenced. One additional factor that has not been widely considered is the concreteness of the adjectives being combined. The current study examined this question by systematically crossing order preference and concreteness in phrases consisting of two adjectives and a noun. Thus, we used phrases like those in prior studies in which the preferred order has a concrete adjective second (''exhaustive hardback encyclopedia''), but also phrases in which the preferred order has a more concrete first adjective (''heavy informative encyclopedia''). We find that con-creteness-related modulations of the ERP waveform were likely responsible for prior reports of increased positivity to dispreferred orders (interpreted as a P600 - and thus syntactic -effect). When concreteness is controlled, instead, we find that dispreferred orders are associated with increased N400s to the second adjective and following noun. This suggests that the processing of adjectives in dispreferred orders impacts lexico-semantic predictability but does not elicit brain responses associated with syntactic processing difficulties. Supported by NIA grant AG2630 and a James S. McDonnell Foundation Scholar Award to KDF.

Poster 50

EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS REVEAL HOW VOTERS EVALUATE POLITICAL CANDIDATES

Jason Coronel, Brian D. Gonsalves, & Kara D. Federmeier University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: political, ERP, memory

In a typical political campaign, voters are exposed to various types of information about the candidates running for office. To date, political scientists have used only questionnaire-based methods, including surveys and simple experiments, to determine how voters encode and recall information about candidates. As a result, remarkably little is known about how voters acquire and use information concerning, for example, candidate's issue positions and about whether more versus less knowledgeable voters use similar or different psychological processes to encode and retrieve that information. In this study, in order to examine the mechanisms underlying candidate evaluation, we used event-related potentials in a study-recognition test paradigm wherein participants learned about fictitious political candidates and their issue positions. Results show both differences and similarities in how knowledgeable and less knowledgeable voters encode and recall candidate information. More specifically, ERPs during encoding suggest that knowledgeable voters tend to pay more attention to negative information whereas less knowledgeable voters pay more attention to positive information. ERP Old/New effects at retrieval reveal that both types of voters make schema-based misattributions of issues to candidates.

Poster 51

GET TO/THE POINT: HOW OLDER ADULTS RESOLVE AMBIGUITY OF NOUN/VERB HOMOGRAPHS

Mallory C. Stites, Chia-lin Lee, Kara D. Federmeier, & Elizabeth A.L. Stine-Morrow University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: nv homographs, erps, eye-tracking

Prior work using eye-tracking and behavioral measures has suggested that while both syntactic and semantic information can facilitate the disambiguation of noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g., park), these two sources are used differently, and neither can completely eliminate the ambiguity. In an event-related potential study, Lee and Federmeier (2009) found that, when only syntactic information was available (syntactic prose condition), NV-homographs elicited a sustained frontal negativity relative to unambiguous words. The presence of coherent semantic information (congruent condition) eliminates this effect. Our previous eye-tracking work using the same sentences showed inflated first fixation durations to NV homographs in the syntactic prose condition. These parallel effects have been posited to reflect processes involved in effortful meaning selection in the absence of coherent semantics. Findings from older adults show markedly different patterns from the younger adults. Older adults (60+) do not show the frontal negativity effect, suggesting they do not perform the on-line meaning selection associated with that activity (Lee and Federmeier, in press). The current study shows that older adults also do not exhibit the first fixation effect, but rather spend more time rereading the NV homographs in the syntactic prose condition. These results suggest that older adults employ a different ambiguity resolution strategy, using later and more deliberate rereading tactics, possibly to compensate for their inability to initially suppress the word's context-inappropriate meaning.

Poster 52

SENSORY GATING IMPAIRMENT IN CANNABIS USERS AND ITS ALTERATION WITH ACUTE NICOTINE: A BRAIN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP) STUDY

Joelle Choueiry1, Andrea Parks2, Nicole El Marg2, Danielle Impey2, Derek Fisher3, &

Verner Knott1

1University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, 2University of Ottawa, 3Carleton University

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, schizophrenia, cannabis use

Background: Long-term cannabis use has been associated with the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments. Objectives: To deter-

mine if previously observed cannabis associated deficits in sensory memory would be observed in cannabis users with no history of tobacco use. Given the increased smoking in schizophrenia and the procognitive effects of nicotine, a secondary objective was to examine the effects of acute nicotine administration on cannabis users with no tobacco history. This study examined the P50 event-related potential (ERP), an early pre-attentive index of sensory gating, which has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia and is negatively influenced with acute and long-term cannabis use and augmented with acute nicotine. Hypothesis: a) cannabis users (CU) will have reduced P50 amplitude and gating compared to non-users (NU) and b) administration ofacute nicotine will restore the P50 amplitude and gating in CU to the approximate level of NU. Methods: Brain electrical activity was recorded (15 min.) during the administration of the P50 task on a total of 34 healthy non-smoking male volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind procedure, CU (n 5 17) received nicotine gum (6 mg) in one session and placebo gum in the second session. NU (n 5 17) attended one session and did not receive nicotine. Results: A trend of P50 amplitude reduction in cannabis users compared to non-users was observed. Smaller P50 amplitude was observed for S2 compared to S1 under placebo condition, which was not evidenced when cannabis users received nicotine. NSERC

Poster 53

AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN A FORENSIC PTSD POPULATION: AN AVOIDANCE TO THREAT

Dhrasti K. Shah1, Colin Cameron2, Dylan Smith1, Natalia Jaworska1, Crystal

Villeneuve3, Derek Fisher3, & Verner Knott4 1University of Ottawa, 2Brockville Mental Health Centre, 3Carleton University, 4University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research

Descriptors: ERP, attention bias, post-traumatic stress disorder

Evidence relying on probe detection tasks suggests that anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced selective attentional bias to threat related stimuli. Attentional bias to threat has been characterized by (1) facilitated attention to threat (vigilance), (2) difficulty disengaging attention away from threat, or (3) attentional avoidance of threat. This study utilized event-related potential (ERPs) and behavioural probes to elucidate the effects of attentional bias towards ecologically threatening stimuli in 18 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 18 healthy controls (HC) during a dot probe task. Early (P100, N100) ERP components to neutral-neutral, angry-neutral and fear-neutral face pairs, and field congruent and incongruent target probes following these face pairs were evaluated. Performance measures and P300 amplitude and latency were evaluated for field congruent and incongruent target probes. In the PTSD group, angry-neutral face pairs elicited slower P100 latency compared to neutral-neutral face pairs. Angry-neutral face pairs resulted in avoidance as reflected by increased P100 and P300 processing of target probes incongruent to the angry faces. As indexed by P100 latency, PTSD patients exhibited a faster response of target-probes incongruent to fear faces. Performance measures in PTSD patients revealed greater percentage response oftarget-probes incongruent to angry and fear faces. Based on the performance and ERP findings, the results suggest that emotional processing of threat related faces in PTSD patients reflects avoidance more than hypervigilance.

Poster 54

TEMPORAL STABILITY OF THE ERROR RELATED NEGATIVITY SIGNAL AS A MARKER OF DEVELOPMENTAL IMMATURITY

David DuPuis, Lisa M. Gatzke-Kopp, & Peter C.M. Molenaar Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: event related negativity, developmental, woody filter The error related negativity (ERN) signal reflects an early indicator of awareness that an incorrect response was made. Developmental research suggests that robust and consistent negative deflections are not seen until around age 13. One hypothesis is that at younger ages, children vary in the extent to which they exhibit an ERN signal, resulting in a muted amplitude for group averages. However, data do not demonstrate corresponding variability in the ability to evidence behavioral adaptations to errors, considered to be indicative of response monitoring. Therefore a second hypothesis is that variability in ERN signal may in fact be higher within individuals during early childhood than simply between individuals. Variability in latency would result in reduced amplitude of a participant's average ERN signal, thus failing to appropriately reflect ERN amplitude on any given trial. ERP data from 114 children ages 5-6 collected during a Go/No-go task were examined for the presence of an ERN signal. Results indicate that an ERN component was identifiable in the group average. Consistent with previous findings, this peak occurred earlier than typically reported in adults. The data were then subjected to Woody Filtering to temporally align ERN peaks correcting for potential latency jitter. Preliminary results showed ERN signal extraction was improved by an average of 104% when using the Woody Filter. Future analyses will examine the relationship between individual temporal variability of the ERN signal and behavioral measures of developmental immaturity. Pennsylvania Department of Health

CARDIOVASCULAR HYPOACTIVATION DURING SLEEP IN ESSENTIAL HYPOTENSION

Nicola Cellini, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Naima Covassin, Michela Sarlo, Mariella Lauriola, Alexander Kluge, & Luciano Stegagno University of Padova

Descriptors: hypotension, blood pressure, hypoactivation

Hypertension is a well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, whereas only few studies have been focused on the opposite condition, the essential hypotension, a chronic condition of lowered blood pressure (BP), with a systolic BP less than 100mmHg in women and 110mmHg in men, independent of the presence of any other pathological factors. Considering that an elevated nocturnal BP is a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk, to our knowledge no study has been focused on the cardiovascular nocturnal pattern in hy-potensives. Our purpose was to investigate cardiovascular activity during sleep stages in 15 hypotensives compared to 15 normotensives by means of Polysomnography, Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, Impedance Cardiography and frequency-domain analysis of Heart Rate Variability. Hypotensives, compared to normotensives, showed a constant lowered BP and a reduced myocardial contractility (i.e. decreases of heart rate associated with increases ofleftventricular ejection time and total ejection period) during all night. No group difference was observed neither in sleep architecture nor in HRV variables and in the pre-ejection period (an index inversely related to the sympathetic beta-adrenergic activity), that have showed a decreased sympathetic and increased parasympathetic involvement from wake to sleep in both groups. In conclusion, the lowered BP and the reduced myocardial contractility in hypotensives, compared to normotensives, suggest a nighttime hypoactiva-tion of cardiovascular system that may be related to a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Poster 56

DECREASED SPOUSAL STRESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSISTENT RESPONDING TO POSITIVE STIMULI

Regina C. Lapate1, Carien M. van Reekum1,2, Stacey M. Schaefer1, Catherine J.

Norris1,3, Lawrence L. Greischar1, & Richard J. Davidson1 1University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2University of Reading, 3Dartmouth College

Descriptors: affective chronometry, relationship quality, corrugator emg Our social relationships have a big impact on wellbeing. For married adults, their spouse is often considered their primary social partner. Accordingly, spousal relationship quality influences major outcomes such as depressive symptoms, blood pressure, and recovery from injury (e.g., Robles & Kiecolt-Glaser, 2003). In this study, we examined whether levels of stress experienced with a spouse, measured twice over a ~ 10-year period, predicted the intensity and persistence of emotional responding in the laboratory. As part of the MIDUS study, individuals (N 5 116) of a wide age range (39-84 yrs; M 5 56.82) who had been married for a considerable time (9-60 yrs; M 5 31.33 yrs) watched positive, neutral, and negative slides while corrugator EMG (COR) was continuously recorded. We examined COR activity during initial reactivity, while pictures were on the screen, as well as following picture offset. We replicated the well-known modulation of COR by valence, F(2,114) 5 38.83, p< .01, where COR activity was potentiated by negative and attenuated by positive pictures. We found that decreased levels of experienced spousal stress were associated with more persistent responding to positive pictures following picture offset, r(116) 5 — .29, in a relationship that was independent of initial levels of reactivity to the pictures, gender, or mood. This association was particularly strong for older adults. We conclude that despite being understudied, an important way social stress may affect well-being is by altering the time course of responding to positive events.

Poster 57

EFFECTS OF AN IMPLICIT FRAMING TASK ON EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS EVOKED BY EMOTIONAL IMAGES

Jesse T. Regnier1, Alana M. Campbell2, Deana B. Davalos2, & Michael A. Kisley1 1University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, 2Colorado State University

Descriptors: emotional framing, late positive potential, negativity bias Researchers have found that emotional stimuli require more processing resources than neutral stimuli, but this effect can be modulated by voluntary mechanisms. For example, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to decrease emotional responses to stimuli by allowing reinterpretation of the meaning attributed to emotional stimuli. Here, 108 adult participants (ages 17 to 44) used an implicit reappraisal technique in which they completed an evaluative categorization task with either a ''negative frame'' in which images were categorized as negative or not, or a ''positive frame'' in which the same images were categorized as positive or not. The late positive potential (LPP), which has been shown to exhibit larger amplitudes in response to emotionally valanced images compared to neutral images was measured in response to neutral, positive, and negative images for participants in each frame. A 2 x 3 mixed ANOVA was performed with framing condition (negative or positive) as the between-subjects factor and image valence (neutral, positive, negative) as the within-subjects factor. There was a main effect for valence, F(2, 105) 5 51.84, p< .001,

in which the negative images elicited the largest LPP, followed by positive and then neutral images. The interaction was also significant F(2, 72) 5 3.96, p< .05, which was driven by a significant reduction in LPP amplitude to negative images from the negative frame to the positive frame. The results suggest that adopting a more positive appraisal frame can modulate brain activity elicited by negative stimuli.

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging, #R15AG037393.

Poster 58

DO WE REALLY CARE? PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND APATHY IN DEPRESSION

Ann Clawson, Dustin M. Logan, & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, major depressive disorder

Several researchers have used electroencephalogram technology to examine performance monitoring in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, results are varied. These differences may be related to affective symptoms such as apathy that may decrease motivation to monitor and correct errors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of performance monitoring in individuals with MDD as measured by the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP). High-density ERPs were obtained from 42 individuals with MDD and 87 psychiatrically healthy controls. Individuals with MDD did not differ from controls in behavioral measures or electrophysiological measures of ERN and Pe amplitudes. In addition, ERP amplitudes were unrelated to levels of apathy; no main effects or interactions were present in separate analyses using median splits on apathy for individuals with depression alone or for all participants regardless of group. Pearson's correlations between ERPs and apathy levels, irrespective of group, were not significant. These results indicate that apathy does not relate to differences in ERN or Pe amplitudes between individuals with MDD and controls in this sample. Further, levels of apathy are unrelated to ERN and Pe amplitudes regardless of diagnostic group. Future research with non-depressed individuals or individuals with disorders high in apathy is necessary to clarify these findings.

Poster 59

PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOLLOWING CONFLICT: INTERNAL ADJUSTMENTS IN COGNITIVE CONTROL

Michael J. Larson & Peter E. Clayson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: cognitive control, conflict adaption, error-related negativity The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of post-conflict strategic adjustments in selective attention on electrophysiological indices of performance monitoring. Previous research has examined the effects of parametric manipulations to bias attention to errors; however, the present study sought to elucidate the effects of internal adjustments in attention mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex on error processing. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 124 healthy individuals (68 female, 66 male) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, response times [RTs]) and N2 amplitudes showed reliable conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). For error trials, the error-related negativity (ERN) was more negative for high-conflict trials following high-conflict trials relative to high-conflict trials following low-conflict trials. Amplitude of the correct-related negativity (CRN) did not vary as a function of previous-trial congruency. Amplitude of the post-error positivity (Pe) on correct and error trials was more positive for high-conflict trials following high-conflict trials relative to high-conflict trials following low-conflict trials. These findings indicate that internal adjustments in cognitive control bias attention to target-stimulus processing, resulting in enhanced error-trial conflict monitoring.

Poster 60

CONFLICT ADAPTATION: EFFECTS OF REPETITION PRIMING ON NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF COGNITIVE CONTROL

Peter E. Clayson & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: conflict adaptation, repetition priming, event-related potentials Previous research indicates that conflict adaptation effects (i.e., previous-trial congru-encies influencing current-trial measures) may primarily be the result of the facilitative effects of repetition priming. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of facilitative repetition priming on neuroelectric indices of cognitive control involved in conflict adaptation. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 210 healthy individuals (111 female, 99 male) during completion of a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, response times [RTs]) and N2 and P3 amplitudes showed reliable conflict adaptation. After omitting trials with stimulus-response (S-R) repetitions, RTs did not reliably index conflict adaptation effects; error rates and N2 and P3 amplitudes, however, remained sensitive to conflict adaptation.

When examining only trials with S-R repetitions, RTs, error rates, and N2 amplitudes remained sensitive to conflict adaptation. P3 amplitudes were positively correlated with RTs. N2 amplitudes were only correlated with RTs on incongruent trials following congruent trials after excluding repetitions. The flanker task may insufficiently elicit RT conflict adaptation effects after excluding stimulus-response repetitions; future research should use larger stimulus-response sets when examining conflict adaptation. Results indicate that neural indices of conflict monitoring remain reliably associated with conflict adaptation effects in the absence of RT adjustments upon omission of repetition priming effects.

Poster 61

THE IMPACT OF PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY ON PERFORMANCE MONITORING IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DEPRESSION

Tracy Brown, Ann Clawson, & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: performance monitoring, depression, psychiatric comorbidity Research involving performance monitoring in individuals with depression reports inconsistent results related to the error related negativity (ERN) component of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP). Some studies report increased ERN amplitudes whereas others studies report decreased amplitudes. A possible variable that may affect performance monitoring in depression is comorbid diagnoses. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with depression and one or more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses would show decreased-amplitude ERN and Pe relative to individuals with depression alone. High-density ERPs were acquired while 22 individuals with depression alone and 10 individuals with depression and one or more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses completed an Eriksen flanker task. Mixed model ANOVAs with group (with, without comorbid-ity) as a between-subjects factor and congruency (congruent, incongruent) or accuracy (correct, error) as within subjects factors were conducted. Behaviorally, groups did not differ in response times or error rates. There was a significant Group x Accuracy interaction for ERN amplitudes. Individuals with depression and a comorbid diagnosis showed significantly smaller ERN amplitudes than those with depression alone. Correct-response amplitudes and Pe error and correct amplitudes did not differ between groups. Findings suggest that individuals with depression and psychiatric comorbidities show decreased indices of performance monitoring—potentially indicating that more psychopathology is associated with worse early processing of errors.

Poster 62

EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON ATTENTIONAL ORIENTING AND PROCESSING: P3A AND P3B

Chien-Ting Wu1, Keita Kamijo1, Robert G. Foreman1, David T. Grider1, John Polich2, & Charles H. Hillman1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2The Scripps Research Institute

Descriptors: attention, P3, acute exercise

The effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on event-related brain potential measures of attentional orienting and processing were assessed using a three-stimulus visual oddball discrimination task. Target and standard stimuli were 5.5 cm and 4.7 cm diameter white circles and occurred randomly on a black background with a probability of 0.12 and 0.76, respectively; participants were instructed to respond only to the target. The distracter stimulus was a checkerboard pattern made of 2.5 x 3.3 cm black/white rectangles covering the entire screen (30 x 37.5 cm) and presented with a probability of 0.12. Task performance and ERPs were assessed in 29 young adults (19 females) following 30 min of aerobic exercise (70% of maximum heart rate) or seated rest performed in a counterbalanced order on separate days. Response time and accuracy did not differ between exercise conditions. Distracter P3a was unaffected by exercise relative to the control conditions. Target P3b amplitude was larger following exercise than seated rest. The target ERP also evinced a prominent slow wave that was larger following exercise than seated rest. The findings suggest that the P3a attentional orientation was not influenced by the exercise bout, whereas the P3b attentional resource allocation was increased following aerobic exercise. The increased slow wave amplitude after exercise may indicate increased effort and/or sustained attention to the task. Taken together, the transient benefit of acute exercise may be selective for aspects of attentional processing.

Poster 63

BODY MASS AND INHIBITORY CONTROL IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

Keita Kamijo1, Matthew B. Pontifex1, Mark R. Scudder1, Eric S. Drollette1, Naiman A. Khan1, Darla M. Castelli2, Ellen M. Evans3, & Charles H. Hillman1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2University of Texas at Austin, 3University of Georgia

Descriptors: body mass, inhibitory control, nogo p3

This study examined the relationship between body mass and inhibitory control in preadolescent children. 68 children between 7 and 9 years were classified into healthy

weight, overweight, and obese group according to body mass index. Participants performed a Go task, which required them to respond to a rare target (20% probability) among a train of frequent non-target stimuli (80% probability). Next, participants completed a NoGo task, which had them respond to frequent stimuli, and withhold their response to rare stimuli. Results indicated that response accuracy for the healthy weight group was greater than the obese group during the NoGo task, whereas no such difference was observed during the Go task. Further, the healthy weight group exhibited a more frontal distribution for the NoGo P3 relative to the Go P3 (i.e., NoGo anteriorization), whereas the other two groups exhibited similar topographic distributions between tasks. These data indicate that obesity may be selectively associated with poorer performance during tasks requiring greater amounts of inhibitory control. The neuroelectric data support the behavioral finding, suggesting that the similar topographic distribution between the Go and NoGo P3 for the overweight and obese groups may indicate inferior or immature frontal inhibitory control. This study presents evidence for an inverse relationship between body mass and inhibitory aspects of cognitive control, and suggests that an increase in body mass may be a marker for poor cognitive performance during maturation.

Supported by NICHD (HD055352).

Poster 64

NEUROELECTRIC INDICES OF GOAL MAINTENANCE FOLLOWING MODERATE AEROBIC EXERCISE

Mark R. Scudder, Eric S. Drollette, Matthew B. Pontifex, Francesca N. Paras, & Charles H. Hillman University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: physical activity, event-related brain potentials (erps), goal maintenance Previous event-related brain potential (ERP) investigations have demonstrated that single bouts of physical activity result in transient benefits to aspects of cognitive control. Goal maintenance, which influences response selection and drives planning and behavior, is one such aspect that has yet to be examined within this context. As such, ERPs were collected using a within-participants design amongst a group of young-adults following 30 minutes of both moderate walking and seated rest. Participants completed three conditions of an AX- continuous performance task (AX-CPT ), which were designed to modulate global and local stimulus context. Specifically, these conditions targeted goal maintenance processes, which were placed under greater cognitive demand when contexts were conflicting (e.g., participants expect to respond, but no response is required). Results demonstrated that the three versions of the AX-CPT successfully manipulated goal maintenance demands, as indexed by modulations of the N2 and P3 components. Further, P3 amplitude increased following exercise at midline-parietal sites for both target trials and non-target trials requiring inhibition of a prepotent response. These results suggest that following exercise, individuals are more capable of inhibiting extraneous neural activity to facilitate the allocation of attentional resources towards the updating and revision of goal representations. These findings support and extend previous literature indicating that single bouts of moderate aerobic exercise are beneficial to attentional aspects of cognitive control.

Poster 65

THE LONG-TERM INFLUENCE OF CONCUSSION ON ATTENTION AND CONFLICT MONITORING

Robert D. Moore, Steven P. Broglio, Brander M. Kelly, Wu F. Vita, & Charles H.

Hillman University of Illinois

Descriptors: concussion, P3, ERN

Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the deleterious effects of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI/concussion) on cognitive health and function. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the influence of mTBI incurred during early life on young adults' (mean age 5 23.1, ct 5 2 at time of testing) cognitive function. Forty young adults were bifurcated into groups according to concussive history (0, 1 + ). Participants incurred all injuries during sport and recreation prior to the age of 18 and were an average of 6.1 years from last injury. All participants completed a 3 stimulus visual odd-ball task, a numerical switch task, and a modified flanker task during which ERP and behavioral measures were taken. There were no behavioral differences observed between the groups for all cognitive tasks. However, participants with a history of concussion exhibited decreased P3b and ERN amplitudes compared to control participants. No differences in P3a were observed. The current findings suggest that individuals with a concussive history may demonstrate persistent decrements in cognitive function, including the allocation of attentional resources, and perceiving and evaluating conflict. The current differences in neuroelectric function exist in the absence of behavioral differences, suggesting that the neuroelectric system may be more sensitive to persistent and selective cognitive decrements resulting from concussion.

STARTLE INHIBITION AT LONG LEAD INTERVALS IN A SPATIAL CUEING TASK

Sakinah S.J. Alhadad & Ottmar V. Lipp University of Queensland

Descriptors: startle eyeblink reflex, attention, spatial cueing

Blink startle is said to be inhibited at short lead intervals; an effect that decreases with increasing lead interval. Experiment 1 assessed startle modulation in a modified spatial cueing task with directional or neutral cues. Directional cues were valid on 80% of the trials. Acoustic startle was elicited 120 and 800 ms after the onset of the 1 s cues. Startle inhibition did not differ between cues and neutral stimuli. Unexpectedly, startle inhibition was larger at the 800 ms lead interval than at the 120 ms lead interval. Maximal inhibition of acoustic startle during visual stimuli has been shown to occur later (180 ms) than during acoustic stimuli (120 ms), though no evidence of enhanced inhibition has been shown to occur as late as 800 ms. Experiment 2 assessed whether this pattern of results reflected two distinct inhibitory processes, prepulse inhibition and target anticipation, or a unitary extended inhibition and whether it covaries with task demands. Startles were elicited at 120, 600, and 800 ms after stimulus onset during directional and neutral cues and during ''NoGo'' cues that did not require a response. Startle magnitude decreased linearly across lead intervals during directional and neutral cues, but remained unchanged across the lead intervals during the ''NoGo'' cues. These results indicate that target anticipation in a demanding task can result in extended blink startle inhibition that extends well beyond the time window in which prepulse inhibition is usually observed. Grant DP0770844 from the Australian Research Council supported this work.

Poster 67

EMOTION MODULATION EFFECT IN RESPONSE INHIBITION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR I DISORDER

Jinsoo Chun1,2, Lisa O'Donnell1, Melvin McInnis1, Theo C. Manschreck2,3, & Patricia

J. Deldin1

1University of Michigan, 2Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: response inhibition, emotion modulation, schizophrenia bipolar disorder Selecting socially appropriate behaviors requires successful inhibitory control and affective information processing that have been deficient in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD). This study investigated the influence of emotion on response inhibition in SZ, BD, and in healthy controls (HC). 33 BD, 20 SZ and 26 HC participants performed an emotional version of Go/NoGo task with faces using four categories of emotions (happy, angry, sad, and neutral) while event-related brain potentials were collected. P300 and N200 amplitude and latencies that are sensitive to response inhibition were examined. Across all 3 groups, enhanced P300 and N200 amplitudes were found in response to emotional as compared with neutral faces during response execution (Go trials) but not in response inhibition (NoGo trials) where both SZ and BD groups showed deficits in early facial structure encoding (reduced N170 amplitude) but relatively intact in early facial affect decoding compared to HC in N250 component. Discriminant function analyses suggested that the three groups can be discriminated with high accuracy based on their ERP component amplitude (P300: 100%, N250:92%). These results suggest that emotion facilitated executing responses in all three groups, while emotion may have interrupted suppressing motor responses by restricting attentional resources for inhibition processing in patients. Distinct patterns in P300 ERP component for emotional response inhibition task have excellent potential as biomarkers of each psychiatric disorder.

Poster 68

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL'S CHALLENGE AND THREAT PATTERNS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY: A META-ANALYSIS OF TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE VARIATION

Kaleena D. Burgess, Kristen Salomon, & Michael Brannick University of South Florida

Descriptors: cardiovascular reactivity, meta-analysis, challenge and threat Challenge and threat patterns of cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to motivated performance situations include changes in heart rate, cardiac output, pre-ejection period, and total peripheral resistance (TPR). The pattern is most marked by TPR, exhibiting decreases during challenge and increases during threat (Blasovich & Mendes, 2000). The current meta-analysis investigates the robust effects of these patterns, focusing on TPR reactivity. Moderators including blood pressure measurements (continuous or intermittent), publication type (published or dissertation), and authorship (original theorist or other) were examined. Ten articles were used for this analysis, with 17 studies total. Moderator analysis revealed that authorship had a significant effect. Thus, three studies from the original theorist's group were removed as outliers from further analyses. Using a random-effects model with the remaining studies (k 5 14), a small but seemingly reliable effect size (d 5 0.34, SE5 0.10) emerged for the challenge-threat reactivity

difference for TPR comparison alone. The use of continuous versus intermittent blood pressure measures did not yield a significant difference in effect sizes (p 5 0.93). Publication type yielded a difference between published work (k 5 8) and dissertation work (k 5 6), with greater effect sizes for published work. This may indicate a file-drawer effect that could negate the small effect size of this CV pattern. Additional studies are continuing to be included in this meta-analysis. Limitations of meta-analysis are discussed.

Poster 69

CARDIOVASCULAR, ENDOCRINE, AND IMMUNE REACTIVITY AMONG LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS EXPOSED TO SIMULATED CRITICAL INCIDENT SCENARIOS

Kristi E. White1, Kristen Salomon1, Randall L. Murphy2, William Bunnell2, Maureen Groer1, Jeanne Van Eepoel1, BlakeRankin1, Cathy A. Bykowski1, Michael H. Hazlett3, & Darrell L. Ross3

1University of South Florida, 2Meggitt Training Systems, 3Western Illinois University

Descriptors: cardiovascular reactivity, immune reactivity, endocrine reactivity The present study utilized a relatively severe, ecologically valid stressor to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors and cardiovascular, immune and endocrine reactivity among law enforcement officers during critical incident lethal force scenarios. Law enforcement officers (90 Males, 20 Females) engaged in an active baseline and one of two simulated critical incident scenarios; a motorcycle stop ending in a shoot-out, and apprehending an armed suspect in a workplace environment. EKG, forearm temperature (FT), skin conductance and salivary markers of cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulins, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected. Demographic and psychosocial information was obtained, including the Perceived Stress Scale, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression scale. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity was positively related to perceived stress and negatively related to social support. IL-6 change 10 minutes post scenario was negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to social support. Depression was also negatively related to IL-6 change. IL-6 change was negatively related to FT reactivity and positively related to heart rate reactivity. All analyses controlled for pre-scenario physiological level, age, gender, BMI and scenario type. While laboratory stress reactivity studies typically involve tasks akin to daily hassles and utilize samples of convenience, the present study illustrates the utility of examining lab reactivity to ecologically valid, severe stress. Meggitt Training Systems, Suwanee, GA.

Poster 70

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO MASCULINITY THREATS AND GENDER-RELEVANT STRESSORS

T. Andrew Caswell, Kristen Salomon, Joseph A. Vandello, & Jennifer K. Bosson University of South Florida

Descriptors: cardiovascular, reactivity, gender

Research on gender and stress has shown that individuals experience greater stress reactivity to stressors framed as relevant to their gender than neutrally framed stressors. Framing presumably increases appraisals of task demands, but no research to date has looked whether gender-relevant resource influence stress appraisals and reactivity. The current study aims were to examine the effects ofgender threat and relevance on appraisals and reactivity among men. Seventy-six exclusively heterosexual males were given positive or negative false feedback about their performance on a gender identity test. Next, they completed a serial subtraction task framed in gender-relevant or gender-neutral terms. Men in the gender threat condition were told that they scored below average in masculinity, while men in the gender affirm condition were told that the scored above average in masculinity. EKG, blood pressure and impedance cardiography were collected throughout. Pre-task appraisals exhibited no differences in perceived coping resources, but men who received gender relevant instructions perceived the math task as more demanding than men who received gender neutral instructions. During math, HR increased from baseline for all participants, but was significantly higher for gender threatened men who received the gender relevant task instructions. No significant differences were between men in the remaining three conditions. These results suggest that men are more vulnerable to stress when their manhood status is questioned.

Poster 71

PERSEVERATIVE COGNITION, COGNITIVE LOAD, AND DISTRACTION IN RECOVERY FROM STRESS

Alvin B. Jin1, Kaleena Burgess1, Mardis S. Karlsdottir2, & Kristen Salomon1 1University of South Florida, 2University of Iceland

Descriptors: cardiovascular, recovery, perseverative cognition

Perseverative cognition is the repetitive cognitive representation of a stressor, which includes the concepts of worry and rumination. These thoughts delay post-stress car-

diovascular recovery, which may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This may be due to the negative emotional content of perseverative cognition or because it involves cognitive effort. The aim of this study was to identify the unique influences of negative emotional content and cognitive effort during recovery. Participants (N 5 120) were given a demanding task purportedly as a measure of intelligence and then given false negative feedback. Immediately following, participants engaged in one of four recovery instruction conditions: think about task performance, perform a cognitive load task, watch a distracting video, or remain quietly seated. EKG, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were recorded throughout. Perseverative cognition and cognitive load both resulted in significantly less heart rate recovery compared to the distracting video. Higher test motivation and anxiety were related to more blunted reactivity and delayed recovery of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Reduced recovery during perseverative cognition and cognitive effort indicate that the cognitive load produced by perseveration is the pernicious component that explains its link to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, the relationship between motivation/anxiety and blunted reactivity and recovery suggest effort may be important in the link between perseverative cognition and cardiovascular disease.

Poster 72

DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER AND EMOTION: AN EEG STUDY

Kai Monde1, Beylul Solomon2, Daphne Simeon3, Lauren Saunders2, & Tracy A.

Dennis2

1The Graduate Center, City University of New York, 2Hunter College, City University of New York, 3Albert Einstein Medical Center

Descriptors: eeg asymmetry, depersonalization, anxiety

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a DSM-IV dissociative disorder characterized by feelings of detachment from one's self or body. DPD patients report subjective feelings of hypoemotionality and higher levels of anxiety. Very few studies have examined DPD in relation to neural measures of emotionality. Right anterior EEG asymmetry has been thought to reflect trait-like differences in emotional reactivity, specifically withdrawal-related emotions like anxiety, whereas greater left anterior asymmetry has been linked to positive emotionality. The present study investigated differences in hemispheric activity between DPD patients and a control group and associations between measures of affect and anxiety. EEG asymmetry was measured at baseline at frontal regions for 14 DPD patients and 10 controls. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale to assess anxiety and mood, respectively and also rated positive, negative and neutral pictures to assess subjective perceptions of emotional stimuli. Controls showed greater left frontal activity in anterior regions (p 5 .03) whereas DPD patients showed no clear pattern of EEG asymmetry. For the sample as a whole, greater right anterior asymmetry was associated with higher levels of negative mood (p 5 .02) and with increased state and trait anxiety (p's<.10). DPD patients versus controls rated pleasant pictures as less positive (p 5 .07). Results add to previous research by using neural and behavioral measures to document that DPD is characterized by blunted positive emotionality.

Poster 73

THE N170 DURING EMOTIONAL FACE PROCESSING AND ATTENTION: A DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

Samantha Berthod1, Laura O'Toole1, Jennifer DeCiccio1, & Tracy A. Dennis1,2 1The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 2Hunter College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: N170, attention, children

The N170 is a neural response emerging when adults view faces, and may be enhanced to emotional versus neutral faces. Relatively few studies have examined if the N170 functions similarly in children. The present study examined the N170 in 28 5 to 6 year olds (T1) and 30 7 to 9 year olds (T2) during an attention task. We predicted that the N170 would be detectable in both age groups and larger to emotional versus neutral faces. We also explored whether larger N170 amplitudes to emotional versus neutral faces would facilitate or interfere with attention performance. EEG was recorded during a modified version of The Attention Network Task; angry, happy, or neutral faces were presented prior to each trial. Three attention scores (altering, orienting, and executive attention) were generated. At T1, N170 amplitudes did not differ between face types, F(1.38,37.25) 5 0.35, p> .05 and were not correlated with attention performance. In contrast, at T2, N170 amplitudes were larger to happy (p 5 .002) and neutral (p 5 .01) as compared to angry faces, F(2,58) 5 6.86, p 5 .002, but did not differ between happy and neutral faces (p 5 .50). Larger N170 amplitudes to angry and happy faces were associated with greater orienting and alerting efficiency (respectively; r 5 — .43, p 5 .01; r 5 — .38, p 5 .04). Results suggest that the presence of emotional stimuli may bolster attention performance in older, but not younger children. Future studies should investigate N170 sensitivity to other faces types (e.g. sad, fearful) from a longitudinal perspective.

ATTENTION TRAINING TO REDUCE THE THREAT BIAS: AN ERP

Laura J. O'Toole1 & Tracy A. Dennis2 1The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 2Hunter College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: attention bias modification, anxiety, erps

Current research suggests that exaggerated attention to threat plays a causal role in the development of anxiety. Using the dot probe task, several studies have shown that attention bias modification (ABM) reduces this threat bias and other anxiety symptoms. However, it is still unclear how ABM changes attention to threat. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are ideal for addressing this question due to their temporal precision and sensitivity to a range ofattentional processes that behavioral measures may miss. For example, the P2 reflects early emotional evaluation whereas the N2 reflects more top-down control of attention. EEG was continuously recorded while high trait anxious participants completed a dot probe task designed to train attention away from threat. Behavioral bias scores and ERPs (P2 and N2) were generated from responses to threatening versus non-threatening cues before and after ABM. Greater trait anxiety was associated with reductions in behavioral threat bias following ABM, r 5 — 90, p 5 .04. Additionally, reduced N2 to threat versus non-threat after training was associated with reduced behavioral threat bias after ABM, r 5 — 90, p 5 .04. The results of this study suggest a role for top-down control of attention in the reduction of the threat bias due to ABM. By tracking changes in cognitive processes underlying the threat bias, the present study contributes to the understanding of attentional mechanisms underlying effects of ABM on the threat bias, and will set the stage for future bio-behavioral research examining the efficacy of such attention training.

Poster 75

ATTENUATED CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO STRESS AND ENHANCED PAIN PERCEPTION DURING NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL IN DEPENDENT SMOKERS

Mustafa al'Absi, Motohiro Nakajima, Elizabeth Ford, Koji Fujiwara, & Lorentz

Wittmers University of Minnesota

Descriptors: pain, stress, addiction

Neurobiological systems involved in regulating pain and stress response functions may be altered by chronic exposure to nicotine. We examined whether nicotine dependence alters cardiovascular stress response and pain perception during ad libitum smoking and during withdrawal. Smokers interested in cessation (N 5 37) and nonsmokers (N 5 15) attended two laboratory sessions that took place approximately two weeks apart. For smokers the first session took place while they were smoking at their regular rate, and the second session took place after 48-hour abstinence. During each lab session participants completed the hand cold pressor test twice, once after acute stress and the other after rest. Measures included tolerance time, McGill Pain Questionnaire, systolic and diastolic BP and HR. While both smokers and nonsmokers exhibited significant cardiovascular responses to stress (ps< .01), smokers exhibited blunted BP recovery relative to nonsmokers (ps< .05). During the second session, nonsmokers showed enhanced pain tolerance after stress than after rest, but this was not observed in abstinent smokers (p<.05). During the second session, nonsmokers' tolerance time post-stress was longer than that of smokers (p< .05), suggesting absence of stress-induced analgesia in abstinent smokers. Reduced pain tolerance among smokers during abstinence may represent another manifestation of altered stress response systems. This heightened pain sensitivity may contribute to increased sensitivity to withdrawal symptoms and may increase risk for early smoking relapse. This study was supported by an NIH/NIDA grant #DA016351

Poster 76

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF COMPLEX TRAUMA AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PSYCHOTHERAPY PROCESS

Jennifer Doran1, Ashley Doukas1, Wendy D'Andrea1, & Pole Nnamdi2 1The New School, 2Smith College

Descriptors: working alliance, complex trauma, parasympathetic activity Research has documented associations between psychophysiology and trauma, with most studies focusing on patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from single-incident traumas. Patients with complex trauma histories (e.g., repeated incidents of early abuse) have higher rates of comorbid diagnoses, resulting in exclusion from studies and a dearth of knowledge on the correlates of complex trauma. In another vein, research has established that strong working alliance (e.g., strong interpersonal connection, trust, and shared goals) with trauma survivors predicts their capacity to develop emotion regulation skills. However, client's poor self-regulation (hyper- or hypo-arousal) may interfere with forming an alliance. As the alliance is especially critical in trauma-focused therapy it may be useful to examine how patient's self-regulation capacities and arousal predict treatment alliance. The study examined 27 women with severe interpersonal violence histories in 12-session therapy. All participants met criteria for PTSD and reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and dissociation. Patients were assessed before and after treatment on measures psychiatric symptomatology and after treatment

on working alliance. Laboratory assessment included measures of skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA). Results suggest that higher working alliance at session 12 was predicted by pre-therapy lower skin conductance. A trend in the data also suggests that patients with pre-therapy RSA were less able to form an alliance over time.

Poster 77

Withdrawn

Poster 78

THE IMPACT OF PARENTAL STATUS AND INDIVIDUAL'S

DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS ON EARLY PERCEPTUAL CODING OF INFANT FACES: AN ERP STUDY

Laura K. Noll, Linda C. Mayes, & Helena J.V. Rutherford Yale University

Descriptors: parenting, depression, individual differences

Prior to developing language and mobility in toddlerhood, infants possess a limited repertoire of facial expressions and vocalizations with which to elicit care from adults. Accordingly, a parent's perceptual sensitivity to these so-called ''infant cues'' may have important consequences for the child's psychosocial development. In a non-clinical sample of30 adult women, we used the event related potential technique to (1) examine impact of parental status (mother, non-mother) on early visual processing of infant faces of varied expression (contentment, distress, and pleasure) and (2) explore the relationship between this coding and individual differences on a self-report measure of depression symptoms. As early visual processing of faces is thought be relatively insensitive to emotional expression, we hypothesized that no significant effects would be observed for infant expressions. In keeping with the extant literature on the neurobiological changes accompanying parenthood, we hypothesized that mothers and participants with low depression scores would exhibit larger N170 amplitudes when passively viewing infant faces than non-mothers and participants with higher depression scores. As expected, infant expression did not modulate early visual response. Surprisingly, null effects were also observed for parental status. A significant relationship was observed between depression symptom severity and N170 amplitude, but in the opposite direction than expected. These results suggest that depression may modulate early neurological responsiveness to infant cues, even at mild levels.

Poster 79

SENSOR TECHNOLOGY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Andrea K. Webb1, Daniel F. Traviglia1, Suzanne M. Wendelken1, & Mark H. Pollack2 1The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 2Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: PTSD, emotion

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern to both military and civilian medical professionals, particularly as veterans are returning from the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom conflicts. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder is critical to ensuring the best treatment outcomes. Diagnoses currently are made via a clinical interview between a patient and clinician. An accurate, objective tool to assist clinicians in making a diagnosis is needed. Prior work has shown that there are physiological differences among people with and without PTSD. The present study was conducted to replicate and extend those findings. The goal was to determine if objective physiological measures can be used to distinguish among people with PTSD, people who have experienced trauma but do not have PTSD, and age and gender matched controls. Physiological measurements included electrodermal activity, respiration, electrocardiogram, and finger pulse. These data were collected from participants during a baseline rest period, during presentation of audio startle stimuli with varying inter-stimulus intervals, during presentation of emotionally evocative images and sounds, and while viewing virtual reality videos of a combat environment in which stimuli of increasing intensity were presented. Results indicate that there are differences in physiological reactivity among the three groups in response to the various stimuli, particularly for the virtual reality segment. Implications for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD are discussed.

Poster 80

EMPATHIC CROSS-PATHS: SCR AND EMG RESPONSES TO EMOTION IN APE AND HUMAN FACES: DOES SPECIES MATTER?

Augusta D. Gaspar & Francisco G. Esteves ISCTE-IUL, CIS-IUL

Descriptors: facial behavior, EMG, homology

In recent years amounting evidence shows that human and ape faces share not only the same expressive muscles but also emotional facial action configurations. This cross species similitude might mean that common ancestors had already in place these key facial signals and perhaps similar decoding rules. As several studies demonstrate that the activity of Zygomaticus major increases after perceiving happy faces and that of Corrugator supercilli increases after perceiving angry faces, we examined whether this mirror effect extended across species' faces, testing EMG responses to the exact same facial action configurations in human adult, human child and ape faces, obtained from naturalistic video recordings of

happy and angry emotional events. Participants were exposed to randomized sets of still pictures (grabbed from video) whilst having EMG and SCR measured. Mean Zygomaticus activity after exposure to angry faces indicates that it tended to decrease whereas Corru-gator's tended to increase. When there was a skin conductance response (SCR), a t-test comparison of Zygomatic and Corrugator's activity revealed that EMG activity changed significantly after angry but not happy faces. Anova further showed that neither Zygomatic nor Corrugator discriminated among ape, human adult, or child faces. These results add to the impressive number of studies highlighting the prevalence of accurate discrimination of angry faces when compared to other facial signals due to its crucial survival value. Decoding does not seem to be affected significantly by physiognomic clues of age or species. FCT grant #SFRH/BPD/26387/2005 to first author.

Poster 81

THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX VERBAL STIMULI ON EMOTION PROCESSING IN YOUNGER AND OLDER ADULTS INVESTIGATED BY A CROSS-MODAL PRIMING TASK - AN ERP STUDY

Beate Czerwon1, Annette Hohlfeld2, Heike Wiese2, & Katja Werheid1 1Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, 2University of Potsdam

Descriptors: ERP, emotion, priming

The effect of verbal stimuli, including structural parallelisms, on the processing of emotional information was investigated in younger and older adults. Structural parallelisms are a main characteristic of emotional texts and typically involve repetitions of syntactic features. In social sciences, it has been shown that structurally parallel behaviour facilitates the synchronisation of emotion. In older adults, behavioral routines positively influence their emotions and daily living. However, so far there is no experimental evidence on the emotion effects of structural parallelisms. In the present study, we examined the impact of verbal structural parallelisms on the processing of emotional facial expressions in a cross-modal priming task. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while n 5 25 younger and n 5 24 older participants classified positive, negative or neutral facial expressions as emotional or non-emotional. The faces were preceded by verbal stimuli, which were either parallel or non-parallel in structure. Valence and arousal of the auditory primes had been previously determined in pilot studies. Analysis of ERP data revealed, in both age groups, a decrease in the amplitude of the late positive potential on positive faces preceded by structural parallel primes. The rating data showed a higher arousal of parallel primes in both age groups. In contrast, only the older adults rated the structural parallel primes as more positive. Our findings suggest that structural parallelisms facilitate the processing of positive emotional information. Funded by Cluster of Excellence Languages of Emotion. First author was supported by Sonnenfeld-Stiftung.

Poster 82

RELATION BETWEEN PERCEIVED BLOOD LOSS AND VASOVAGAL SYMPTOMS IN BLOOD DONORS

Saharnaz Balegh, Philippe Gilchrist, Crystal Holly, & Blaine Ditto McGill University

Descriptors: vasovagal reaction, fear, blood loss

The physiological and psychological mechanisms of emotion-related vasovagal reactions remain murky. Reactions have been attributed to a variety of states such as anticipation of severe physical injury, feigning death, and a conflict between processes promoting vigorous physical action and energy conservation. A recent perspective (Diehl, 2005) proposes that vasovagal syncope originated as an adaptive response to severe injury and blood loss, increasing the likelihood of survival by decreasing blood pressure, facilitating coagulation, and reducing hemorrhage. It is possible that similar responses are elicited by the anticipation of blood loss. As part of a larger study, 88 blood donors rated their perceived blood loss (e.g., ''a lot''). The question was embedded in a questionnaire about different aspects of the blood donation experience. Despite equivalent objective blood loss (450ml), perceived blood loss was negatively associated with post-donation diastolic blood pressure (p 5 .041) and positively associated with nurse-initiated treatment for symptoms (p 5 .002). It was also positively associated with Blood Donation Reactions Inventory score (BDRI; p 5 .020) even controlling for treatment, pre- and post-donation anxiety. Medical fears predicted BDRI score but addition of perceived blood loss to the equation eliminated the effect while perceived blood loss remained significant. The perception, expectation, or fear of blood loss may mediate emotion-related vasovagal reactions to some degree.

Poster 83

HIGHER CARDIAC VAGAL CONTROL IS ASSOCIATED WITH BETTER PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH UNDER CONDITIONS OF GREATER SOCIAL SUPPORT: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

Brett Q. Ford1, Henrik Hopp1, Amanda J. Shallcross1, Allison S. Troy1, Frank H. Wilhelm2, & Iris B. Mauss1 1University of Denver, 2University of Salzburg

Descriptors: cardiac vagal control, social support, psychological health

Higher resting heart rate variability related to respiration (cardiac vagal control) is related

to better psychological health. However, it is not yet clear why this is so. Recent theories

suggest that vagal control is related to greater efficiency in responding to environmental changes, with some theories specifically emphasizing greater efficiency in responding to social resources in the environment. These considerations suggest that vagal control should be related to improved psychological health but only in environments with available social resources (e.g., socially supportive ones). Very little research has directly examined this hypothesis; hence, the present study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. To do so, we measured the cardiac vagal control of 146 adults. To enhance variance in psychological health, we recruited participants who had recently experienced a stressful life event. Participants reported on their social support and depressive symptoms. Six months later, they again reported on their depressive symptoms. As expected, individuals with higher vagal control reported fewer depressive symptoms six months later, but only when they had stronger social support. Importantly, this effect held when controlling for initial levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a prospective effect. These results support a model in which higher vagal control leads to better psychological health when social resources are available. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of interactions between physiological and environmental factors for psychological health. R21AG031967 (National Institute on Aging)

Poster 84

PROCESSING SOCIAL EXCLUSION -MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF FRONTO-TEMPORAL INVOLVEMENT

Christine Naegele, Christian Wienbruch, Patrick Berg, & Brigitte S. Rockstroh Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany

Descriptors: social exclusion, magnetoencephalography

Neural correlates of experimentally induced social exclusion are studied to understand processing of emotional distress. Neuromagnetic (MEG) activity was measured in 78 subjects (40 healthy, 18 patients with major depressive disorder, 15 with borderline personality disorders), while they engaged in a virtual ball-tossing game. Across a total 270 trials exclusion probability increased from 33 in the first to 90 percent in the second half of trials. In response to the inclusion (ball tossed back to subject) compared to the exclusion signal (ball not returned) neuromagnetic activity around 200 ms analysed in the source space was larger in occipital regions in all subjects, effects being larger in healthy subjects than in patients. Larger activity following exclusion compared to inclusion signals occurred at later intervals in frontal (around 300 ms) and temporal (420 -500 ms) regions, while differential (exclusion > inclusion) occipital activity was more pronounced in subjects with trait-rejection sensitivity. Across exclusion experience ofthe second half of trials fronto-temporal activity (though smaller than during the first part) showed no further decrease, while early occipital activity even increased in subjects, who reported mood change in post-experimental ratings. Exclusion experience prompts frontotemporal activity mainly if combined with inclusion experience. Effects of rejection sensitivity as personality trait, exclusion-induced mood change or psychiatric disorder on brain processes related the experimentally induced social exclusion seem to be discrete.

Research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) FOR751,B%.

Poster 85

SEX AND STRESS HORMONES INFLUENCE HUMAN FEAR CONDITIONING

Christian J. Merz1, Katharina Tabbert1, Dieter Vaitl1, Rudolf Stark1, & Oliver T. Wolf2 1University of Giessen, 2Ruhr-University Bochum

Descriptors: fear conditioning, sex hormones, cortisol

In classical conditioning, sex differences, effects of the stress hormone cortisol, and an interaction of these two variables were often observed. The sex hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) vary over the menstrual cycle and can influence learning and memory processes. In the current fMRI experiment, we tested four groups with different sex hormone status: 32 men, 30 women in the luteal phase (LU, highE2+P4), 30 women in the follicular phase (FO, low E2+P4), and 30 women taking oral contraceptives (OC, low E2+P4 because of suppression by pill intake). All participants received either 30 mg cortisol or placebo prior to differential fear conditioning consisting of an electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and pictures of geometric figures as conditioned stimuli (CS). One figure (CS+) was always paired with the UCS, the other figure (CS-) never. Only those participants, who did not recognize the CS-UCS contingencies, were included. In the contrast CS+minus CS-, men and LU women displayed higher neuronal activation, e.g., in the orbitofrontal cortex under placebo compared to cortisol. However, OC women showed higher differentiation in the cortisol in comparison to the placebo group. Results of the FO women ought to indicate if these effects are due to a direct effect of OC (if FO women are comparable to LU women) or due to low endogenous sex steroids (if FO women are comparable to OC women). Changes in fear learning depending on the current sex hormone milieu might foster our understanding of the neuronal basis of various psychiatric disorders. This research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [German Research Foundation; STA 475/7-1 to Rudolf Stark, WO 733/8-1 to Oliver T. Wolf].

NEGATION AND SUPPRESSION ARE NOT THE SAME

Cornelia Herbert1, Roland Deutsch2, Petra Platte1, & Alexandra Dittmann1 1University of Würzburg, 2Technische Universitat Dresden

Descriptors: emotion regulation, language

Not thinking about vs. suppressing one's emotional reaction can lead to paradoxical increases in emotional processing and affective responding. In this EEG study, we investigated if negating one's emotion results in similar paradoxical effects as suppression or leads to effective emotional down-regulation. Healthy participants were asked to down-regulate their emotional reactions to happy and fearful faces by using negated emotional cue words (e.g., no fun, no fear), that were presented prior to each face. Stimuli were presented in blocks ofhappy and fearful faces and blocks ofpassive stimulus viewing served as control condition. Amplitudes of early ERPs (EPN-N2, but not N170) and particularly the late positive potential (LPP) were reduced for fearful faces during active regulation compared to passive viewing. A frontal negativity peaking at about 250 ms post target face onset, possibly reflecting enhanced activation of fronto-parietal attention and control networks, showed larger amplitude modulations during down-regulation of both, fearful and happy faces. Our results suggest that effects associated with emotion negation and suppression are not the same. Compared to suppression, negation might be quite effective in emotional down-regulation, although effects of negation might differ with regard to the type of the negated emotion (pleasant vs. unpleasant). Research is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

Poster 87

RUMINATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHER COMPENSATION DEFICIT: A POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTOR TO PROLONGED CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY

Cristina Ottaviani1 & David Shapiro2 1Sapienza University of Rome, 2University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: rumination, hemodynamic profile, cardiovascular recovery Given that stress-induced recovery has been demonstrated to be essentially vascular, our aim was to test ifrumination is associated with specific hemodynamic characteristics that might interfere with spontaneous cardiovascular recovery. ECG, Impedance Cardiog-raphy and continuous blood pressure (BP) were collected for 27 men and 33 women (age 33.4 (9.5)) during a 10-min baseline, a 5-min Anger Recall Interview, and a 10-min recovery period, during which rumination continued. Just prior to recovery, half the sample was distracted by a phone call to the experimenter. Hemodynamic profile (HP) and compensation deficit (CD) during rumination were computed by considering the physiological relationship between cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) in the homeostatic regulation of BP. Both distracted and non-distracted subjects showed a vascular HP (p 5 .74), confirming the hemodynamic nature of recovery. However, the extent to which TPR and CO compensate for each other differed between the two subsamples, indicating a stronger failure to compensate in subjects who continued to ruminate (t 5 2.06; p 5 .04). CD but not HP predicted systolic (beta 5 .29; p 5 .03) and diastolic BP (beta 5 .31; p 5 .02) recovery. A higher increase in the subjective feeling of anger after rumination was associated with a higher CD (r 5 .29; p 5 .02). CD may play a role in the prolonged cardiovascular reactivity that makes rumination a health risk factor. It remains unclear if this potentially pathogenetic mechanism is specific for anger rumination or extends to other emotions.

Poster 88

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RESTING RESPIRATORY SINUS ARRHYTHMIA (RSA) AND USE OF THOUGHT SUPPRESSION AMONG VETERANS WITH UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION

Daniel J. Lee1, Laina E. Rosebrock2, Teresa Marino-Carper2, Kimberly A. Arditte3,

Denise M. Sloan1, Barbara W. Kamholz2, & Gabrielle I. Liverant2 1National Center for PTSD, 2VA Boston Healthcare System, 3University of Miami

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion regulation, depression Introduction: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a potential biomarker of emotion regulation (ER; Porges, 2007) associated with poorer recovery in depression (Rottenberg et al., 2002). In addition, RSA has been associated with hypervigilance in PTSD (Cohen et al., 1998). However, few studies have examined the relationship between RSA, symptom severity, and use of ER strategies in depressed samples. Use of mal-adaptive ER strategies (e.g., suppression) is associated with the frequency and duration of depressive episodes (e.g., Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000). This study examined relationships among RSA, psychiatric symptoms, and use of maladaptive ER strategies in a sample of clinically depressed veterans. Methods: Fifty-seven veterans with unipolar depression completed the White Bear Suppression Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, PTSD Checklist (PCL), and a five-minute resting period, from which mean RSA was calculated. Results: RSA was correlated with the PCL hypervigilance subscale (r 5 .265, p< .05), withno other relationships to depression or PTSD. RSA was positively related to thought suppression (r 5 .381, p< .01). A multiple regression analysis examined the

relationship between RSA and suppression, while controlling for hypervigilance. This regression was significant, R2 5 .15, f(2, 54) 5 4.89, p< .05, with only use of suppression related to RSA (b 5 .33, p< .05). Discussion: Results support a positive relationship between resting RSA and use of maladaptive ER strategies in depression, which may contribute to observed relations between RSA and the course of depression.

Poster 89

WHEN NOISE IS GOOD: THE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BRAIN NOISE AS A PREDICTOR OF IQ IN CHILDREN

Dirk J.A. Smit, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Dorret I. Boomsma, & Eco J.C. de Geus VU University Amsterdam

Descriptors: intelligence, one-over-f noise, criticality

Empirical evidence increasingly points to critical-state dynamics in resting-state brain activity. This is reflected in ''one-over-f' spectra (P 5 fA(-b), where b 5 power-law exponent) of the amplitude variation ofalpha, beta, and theta oscillations. Humans show stable and heritable individual differences in b, with low exponents reflecting less stable, "noisier" brains. The functional implications of this variation in resting-state brain activity are unknown. We hypothesized that b reflects the flexibility of the brain to process and acquire information. We extracted anterior, posterior, and central brain exponents b for 176 MZ and 236 DZ twins at 2 ages (~ 5 and ~ 7 yrs) and IQ scores at 4 ages (RAKIT: ~ 5, ~ 7, ~10; WISC: ~12yrs). Brain exponents and IQ scores were summarized with factor scores. Sex corrected correlations were modest but significant between posterior b and the IQ factor for theta (r 5 — .19), alpha (r 5 — .16), and beta (r 5 — .19) oscillations. These correlations reflected for 95% genetic overlap for alpha oscillations, and for ~87% the twins' shared rearing environment for theta and beta oscillations. Verbal IQ showed additional correlations with anterior b for alpha (r 5 — .19, 99% genetic) and theta oscillations (r 5 — .16, 74% shared environment). Concluding, a noisier brain (low b) may result better intellectual performance in children. The results suggest that the critical brain model has promise as a biomarker for processing capacities if it is extended to allow for individual differences in the power-law exponent b.

Poster 90

EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING ABILITY PREDICTS EMOTIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACUTE STRESS REACTIVITY

Donny Hendrawan1, Kaori Yamakawa1, Kimura Motohiro2, Hiroki Murakami3, &

Hideki Ohira1

1Nagoya University, 2University of Leipzig, 3National Center of Neurology and

Psychiatry

Descriptors: executive functioning, acute stressor exposure, stress reactivity Several studies have examined the role of executive functioning (EF) on regulating stress. Larsson et al., 2007 highlighted an interesting finding concerning this issue and asserted that individual differences in baseline EF capacity, measured by letter fluency test, could predict the experienced state anxiety during threatening situation. However, little is known about the predictive power of baseline EF capacity in relation to the physiological stress reactivity during acute stressor exposure. Our study investigated several well-known EF tests (i.e., letter fluency test, Stroop color-word test, and Wisconsin card sorting test) in predicting acute stress reactivity. A total of 32 healthy participants were recruited to join an experimental session scheduled within a month of their EF being assessed. The session was consisted ofbaseline, acute stress, and recovery period, within each of which periods the questionnaire data (i.e., STAI-S, visual analog scale, and mood measurement inventory) and the indexes of physiological stress reactivity (i.e., heart rate, skin conductance level, and salivary cortisol) were collected. Results showed that the letter fluency provided the best predictor of stress reactivity for both behavioral and physiological indices. Specifically, the higher scores of letter fluency declined the state anxiety, negative mood, cortisol, and skin conductance level. Thus, EF reflected by letter fluency might dampen stress response which suggests that EF processes are directly associated with the aspects of emotion regulation.

Poster 91

EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT PROCESSING OF FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HIGH-DENSITY

Elena V. Mnatsakanian Institute of Higher Nervous Activity & Neurophysiology, RAS

Descriptors: implicit, ERP, face

We aimed at studying individual differences in brain electrical activity underlying the assessment of facial attractiveness in healthy adult volunteers. 128-channel EEG was recorded while our participants (36 female, 42 male) performed visual tasks. In the Implicit task (always first task in this study) the stimuli were monochrome photographs of female faces, butterflies and flowers. The instruction was to press button 1 for a face and button 2 for an non-face object. In the Explicit task the stimuli were faces from the first task. The instruction was to press button 1 for an attractive face and button 2 for a non-attractive

face. The evoked activity was averaged for conditions WB (attractive face) and WU (non-attractive face) in both tasks. In both tasks, the ERP components peaking at 70 - 80 ms and 120- 130 ms were larger for the female than for the male group, and gender differences were also seen for the latencies longer than 200 ms. The WB vs. WU differences in the Explicit task for both groups were after 300 ms widespread on the scalp except for the right anterior area. For shorter latencies, they were seen in components at 120 ms and even at 70-80 ms. The locations of the WB vs. WU differences in the Implicit task (where the implicit assessment of facial attractiveness was implied) were left frontal, central and right posterior for the latencies later than 200 ms, robust and significant for the female group. In the male group, the differences were more pronounced in N400 component in the central region. Also, for both groups earlier differences were observed.

Poster 92

FMRI EFFECTS OF MASKED SEMANTIC PRIMING

Ellen F. Lau, Scott Burns, & Gina Kuperberg Massachusetts General Hospital/Tufts

Descriptors: language, semantic, fmri

Recent fMRI studies show that the presentation of a target stimulus following an identical, masked prime stimulus leads to an enhancement of the BOLD response. This BOLD enhancement contrasts with the shorter reaction times and reduced electrophysiological response seen to targets following identical (versus non-identical) primes. One explanation may be that the BOLD response captures an initial stage of overlap between activated prime and target representations, while RTs and ERPs are more likely to capture the later facilitation of target processing. We aimed to see whether there is a similar dissociation in masked semantic priming. Directly related, indirectly related, and unrelated pairs were visually presented across one fMRI and one EEG-MEG session. Pairs were presented with 100 ms SOA and included both forward and backward masking of the prime. Participants performed a semantic probe task in which they were asked to press the button when they perceived a probe from a given semantic category. Here we focus on the fMRI results (n 5 18). Consistent with previous fMRI studies of masked repetition priming, we observed greater activity for directly related compared to unrelated pairs in right superior temporal and right inferior frontal cortex, in addition to left inferior frontal and bilateral parietal areas. These results indicate that an initial phase of highly automatic associative processing occurs and can be detected using fMRI during masked priming conditions. NIH 1F32HD063221-01A1 to EL and R01MH071635 to GK

Poster 93

INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN INHIBITORY CONTROL PREDICT EXTINCTION OF INTEROCEPTIVE FEAR

Elyn Smets1, Meike Pappens1, Julian F. Thayer2, Omer Van den Bergh1, & Ilse Van Diest1 'University of Leuven, 2The Ohio State University

Descriptors: interoceptive fear conditioning, heart rate variability, inhibitory control The present study aimed to investigate whether interindividual differences in cognitive and autonomic inhibition predict the acquisition and extinction of interoceptive fear. Performance on the parametric go/no-go task (GNG) and heart rate variability in the high-frequency band during rest (HF-HRV) served as an indices of cognitive and autonomic inhibitory capacity, respectively. Healthy participants (N 5 44) went through an interoceptive fear conditioning procedure. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a flow resistor (load), the unconditioned stimulus (US) was a breathing occlusion. During acquisition, the experimental group received 6 paired CS-US presentations; the control group received 6 unpaired CS-US presentations. In the extinction phase, both groups were exposed to 6 CS-only presentations. Measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance responses (SCR) and US-expectancy ratings. Responses in all three measurement channels increased across acquisition blocks and decreased across extinction blocks in the experimental group only. Both HF-HRV and GNG significantly predicted the magnitude of the learning effects in the paired group. Higher GNG scores were associated with stronger acquisition and extinction for SCR, and with enhanced extinction for startle. Also HF-HRV was positively associated with stronger fear learning in SCR and with better extinction in startle. Our findings suggest that interindividual differences in cognitive and autonomic inhibitory capacity importantly modulate the acquisition and extinction ofinteroceptive fear.

Poster 94

DISSOCIATIVE SYMPTOMS MODULATE AFFECTIVE STARTLE IN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER: LESS IS MORE

Erin A. Hazlett1,2 & Kim E. Goldstein1 1Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2JJP VA Medical Center

Descriptors: borderline personality disorder, affective startle, emotion Stress-induced dissociative states are a common feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior work from our group showed potentiation of the startle response to

borderline-salient words but not neutral words in BPD. Others have recently shown that BPD patients with current PTSD exhibit attenuated startle potentiation during aversive imagery relative to BPD patients without PTSD. Our aim was to investigate the role of dissociative symptoms and emotion processing in BPD. We examined startle eyeblink amplitude during the viewing of an intermixed series of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS in three age- and sex-matched groups: Healthy controls (HCs; n 5 30), unmedicated BPD patients scoring lower (<22) on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; n 5 24), and unmedicated BPD patients with higher scores on the DES (X23; n 5 11). Compared with HCs, the BPD patients with lower dissociative symptoms showed significantly larger startle amplitude during unpleasant pictures and particularly during the later trial block. In contrast, BPD patients with higher dissociative symptoms did not differ from the HC group (Group x Picture valence interaction, F[4,122] 5 4.17, p 5 0.003, Group x Picture valence x Block interaction, F[4,122] 5 3.21, p 5 0.015). These findings suggest: (a) it is important to consider individual differences in emotional processing among patients with BPD and (b) emotional hyperreactivity is enhanced in BPD patients with fewer dissociative symptoms which underscores the need for individualized treatment interventions in BPD.

This research was supported by R01MH073911 to EAH.

Poster 95

SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MODULATION OF PAIN BY PAIN: THE ROLE OF EXPECTANCIES AND STRESS

Espen Bj0rkedal & Magne A. Flaten University of Troms0

Descriptors: pain modulation, expectancies, HRV

Background: Nociceptive reflexes and sensation of pain can be inhibited by applying a second noxious stimulus elsewhere on the body - a procedure termed heterotopic nociceptive conditioning stimulation (HNCS). This procedure is believed to activate an endogenous pain inhibitory mechanism termed diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). The present study investigated sex differences in effects of HNCS and the modulation of these effects by expectancies. Method: 72 subjects (36 women) received six noxious heat stimuli to the underarm. During three of these stimuli HNCS (cold pressor test) was applied in order to activate DNIC. One third of the subjects were told that this would reduce heat pain (analgesia group), one third that it would increase heat pain (hyperalgesia group), and one third were given no info about its effect (no info group). ECG was measured continuously during the experiment. Outcome measures were verbal reports of pain, subjective stress, and physiological stress as indexed by heart rate and heart rate variability.Results: There was an interaction between HNCS, information and sex. An inhibitory effect of HNCS was observed in females in the analgesia group. This effect was blocked when no info or hyperalgesia information was given. An inhibitory effect ofHNCS also occurred in men in the hyperalgesia group. Subjective stress increased during the HNCS compared to heat pain alone. Subjective stress increased significantly more for women in the hyperalgesia group compared to women and men in the other groups. ECG data will be presented.

Poster 96

BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF AFFECTIVE REACTIONS IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

Gilberto Galindo, Carlos A. Murillo, Perla V. Flores, Tania Delgadillo, & Javier F. Galarza Autonomous University of Baja California

Descriptors: autonomic response, affective analysis

The pass from age to age depends on multiple cognitive and neurological developmental changes. Adolescence has proven to be a critical age for development social cognition and self regulation of affective reactions. The objective of the study was to compare affective response in adolescents (n 5 19, 8 male, 11 female, 13.7, SD 5 .22yr) and young adults (n 5 18, 9 male, 9 female, 19.8, SD 5 .19 yr).Materials and Method: We used 54 pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) divided in 3 session of 18 items (6 pleasant, 6 neutral, and 6 unpleasant), each picture was presented for 6 s. Different standardized sets of IAPS were used for adults and adolescents. Subjects estimated their affective reactions (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) with Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) nonverbal 5-point scales. Different au-tonomic reactions (heart rate, skin conductance, temperature, and EMG) were measured during emotional stimuli presentation. Results: RM ANOVA statistics showed that behavioral responses depended on emotional valence: unpleasant pictures were recognized like most exciting and less controlled comparing with other types of pictures. Physiological parameters also demonstrated the dependence on emotional valence: the temperature had highest value in reaction to unpleasant pictures, EMG value was higher for pleasant pictures than for unpleasant and neutral, and other physiological parameters did not demonstrate emotional-related differences. No age-related differences were found neither for behavioral nor for physiological parameters of emotional reactions.

NEURAL CORRELATES OF EMOTION REGULATION IN PARENTING

Helena J.V. Rutherford1, Michael J. Crowley1, Max Greger-Moser1, Eamon

McCrory2, Alice M. Proverbio3, & Linda C. Mayes1 1Yale University, 2University College London, 3University of Milano-Bicocca

Descriptors: parenting, EEG/ERP, emotion regulation

During pregnancy and the postpartum period important neurobiological and psychological changes occur that facilitate the transition to parenthood. The ability of a mother to successfully regulate her emotions in the presence of a distressed infant is necessary to meet the demands of caring for an infant in an adaptive, caretaking way. Using the event-related potential technique, we explored the late positive potential (LPP) as a marker of emotion regulation in mothers and non-mothers while they viewed photographs of infant faces that varied in their expression of affect (distress, pleasure, comfort). In addition to passively viewing these images, women were also asked to increase and decrease their emotional response across four counterbalanced blocks of trials (increase to distress, decrease to distress, increase to pleasure, decrease to pleasure). In non-mothers we found the LPP was modulated by regulation instructions to increase and decrease emotional responding relative to passive viewing, consistent with existing emotion regulation and LPP studies. In contrast, mothers showed no difference in the LPP elicited between passive viewing and regulation conditions. This null effect appeared to be driven by an increased magnitude of the LPP in the passive viewing conditions present in mothers but not non-mothers. Taken together, these findings suggest rapid recruitment of emotion regulation strategies in mothers, even when passively viewing infant stimuli. These results also highlight emotion regulation more broadly as an important construct to explore in parenting research.

Poster 98

SUPPLEMENTARY MOTOR AREA (SMA) ACTIVATION AS A FUNCTION OF ANXIETY TRAIT DURING THE DISCRIMINATION OF AVERSIVE PICTURES

Izabela Mocaiber1, Tiago Arruda-Sanchez2, Mirtes G. Pereira1, Fatima S. Erthal2, Mateus Joffily3, Draulio B. de Araujo4, Eliane Volchan2, & Leticia Oliveira1 1Fluminense Federal University, 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 3University of Trento, 4Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

Descriptors: mutilation pictures, fmri, reaction time

Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior, pointing to the direct link between emotions and movement. Specifically, the activation of an emotional network including amygdala, insula, midcingulate and supplementary motor area (SMA) has been demonstrated, especially for aversive stimuli. Given the pattern of its anatomical connections, the SMA could provide a pathway by which unpleasant emotions interact with motor planning. In the present study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the activation of SMA as a function of anxiety trait differences. 22 participants performed an emotion discrimination task during viewing of neutral or mutilation pictures. Volunteers had to respond to the stimuli, pressing one of two keys if they judged the stimuli as unpleasant or neutral. We performed a whole brain voxelwise regression analysis on the mutilation vs. neutral contrast, using trait anxiety (STAI) as a regressor. This analysis showed a positive correlation (r 5 0.75) between anxiety trait and SMA activity (p<0.001, uncorrected). Also, we observed a negative correlation (r 5 — 0.51, p<0.03) between this anxiety-related SMA cluster activation and reaction time (RT) to mutilation pictures. Thus, SMA activation was associated to anxiety trait and faster responses to discriminate aversive pictures. Collectively, the present results suggest that SMA may be a critical node for the integration of anxiety level and behavioral performance to discriminate aversive pictures. CAPES, PRONEX-FAPERJ, MCT-CNPq, IBN-Net

Poster 99

APPRAISAL-DRIVEN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE PATTERNING: TESTING THE PREDICTED COHERENCE BETWEEN CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL EFFECTS OF NOVELTY AND INTRINSIC PLEASANTNESS EVALUATION.

Jacobien M. van Peer, Didier M. Grandjean, & Klaus R. Scherer University of Geneva

Descriptors: appraisal, emotion, EEG/ANS

Componential appraisal theory of emotion, especially Scherer's Component Process Model, suggests a concrete mechanism underlying the elicitation and differentiation of emotions based on individuals' subjective appraisals of events. Two fundamental assumptions of the Component Process Model are that the appraisal results (i.e., the outcomes of successive evaluation checks) 1) occur in a fixed sequence, and 2) directly drive response patterning of efferent systems (e.g., hormonal and autonomic reactions, motor expression, and action preparation) in order to support adaptive reactions in line with the appraisal results. We empirically tested these assumptions for the early appraisals of novelty and intrinsic pleasantness, using a multimodal approach. Novelty and intrinsic pleasantness were manipulated using an oddball paradigm with affective pictures, while central (i.e., electroencephalograph^ brain activity (EEG)) and periph-

eral (skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and pupil dilation) physiological effects were simultaneously measured. For the first time, our results show effects of novelty and intrinsic pleasantness on combined EEG and peripheral measures, in line with Component Process Model predictions. We argue that directly relating peripheral physiological measures to EEG markers of specific appraisal results can help to identify consistent efferent response patterns associated with emotional experiences and, conversely, provide support for the affective nature of the EEG patterns.

Poster 100

SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS STIMULATION ABOLISHES MEDIOFRONTAL INFLUENCE OVER DECISION THRESHOLD

James F. Cavanagh1, MichaelX. Cohen2, Thomas V. Wiecki1, Christina M. Figueroa1, Johan Samanta3, Scott J. Sherman4, & Michael J. Frank1 1Brown University, 2University of Amsterdam, 3Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, 4University of Arizona

Descriptors: conflict, cognitive control, theta

It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. While medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to act as a brake on cortico-striatal function, buying time until the right decision can be made. Here, we demonstrate that deep brain stimulation (DBS) ofthe STN in Parkinson's patients alters the direct relationship between mPFC function and behavioral adaptation during conflict. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model of drift diffusion decision making, we show that DBS abolishes the relationship between mPFC activity (EEG theta power: 3.5-8 Hz) and increased threshold for evidence accumulation (decision threshold) during conflict, thereby resulting in impulsive choice. Additionally, intracranial recordings of the STN area show increased activity (3-8 Hz) during these same high conflict decisions. Activity in these slow frequency bands may reflect a neural substrate for cortico-basal ganglia communication regulating decision processes.

Poster 101

LIVING (AND DYING) IN THE MOMENT: AN EXAMINATION OF ONGOING NEURAL ACTIVITY DURING SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Jason R. Themanson, Stephanie M. Khatcherian, & Aaron B. Ball Illinois Wesleyan University

Descriptors: exclusion, conflict

Recent research has made great strides in developing a better understanding of the consequences of social exclusion. However, the ongoing dynamics of exclusion remain unknown as social interactions have been characterized as generally inclusive or exclusive without examining the specific events within the interactions. To address these limitations, the current study utilized the Cyberball paradigm to assess participants' event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during three social interactions (inclusion, exclusion, re-inclusion). Results showed larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes during throws where participants were excluded (did not receive the ball) compared to when they were included (received the ball), regardless of the interaction's overall context (inclusion, exclusion, re-inclusion), suggesting the conflict-driven ''neural alarm'' and the allocation of attention are determined more by specific events within the interaction rather than the larger context of the social exchange. Further, during the exclusionary interaction, both the N2 and P3 showed larger amplitudes in the earlier stages of exclusion compared to the later stages, suggesting heightened early sensitivity for both components, and P3 amplitude was larger to exclusionary events compared to the two inclusionary interactions, indicating a contextual influence of exclusion. These findings suggest that discrete events occurring during a social interaction may provide additional insights into social exclusion compared to more global ''inclusionary'' or ''exclusionary'' classifications of social interactions. Funded by a grant from Illinois Wesleyan University.

Poster 102

ERP DATA ANALYSIS, TRADITIONAL, PCA, AND FDR

Jia Wu, Michael J. Crowley, & Linda C. Mayes Yale University

Descriptors: EEG, PCA, FDR

EEG has rapidly changed from using only a few channels to hundreds in recent years. To be conservative, many researchers still focus their analysis on a few well-characterized channels (Fz, Cz, Pz etc), without taking advantage of the multi-channel net. New research also tends to analyze time periods that have been used by previous literature, even though it might not be the most appropriate for their data set. Some works have recognized these issues and attempt to solve them through new methods, all of which introduce new problems to consider. Dennis Molfese (Molfese, et al, 2003) addressed these issues by using pre-defined channel clusters and temporal PCA. Joe Dien (Dien, 2007) developed spatial/temporal PCA to blindly cluster the data. False Discovery Rate (FDR) utilized multiple comparisons in all the spatial/temporal dimensions and uses a statistical way of correcting it. These different approaches address the traditional issues in different ways and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In my current study (a simple passive viewing task of food and non-food), I have compared the results yielded from traditional methods, PCA, and FDR through condition difference and EEG

brainwave correlation with behavioral data. In addition to these direct comparisons, I have discussed the pros and cons of each strategy in detail, providing a roadmap for selecting the right method depending on the context of a given study.

Poster 103

HABITUATION OF PUPIL RESPONSES IN OCULOMOTOR DETECTION OF DECEPTION

Brian B. Kuhlman1, Andrea K. Webb2, Pooja Patnaik1, Anne E. Cook1, Dan J. Woltz1, Doug J. Hacker 1, & John C. Kircher1 1University of Utah, 2Draper Lab

Descriptors: habituation, pupil dilation, deception

An oculomotor test for deception uses pupil enlargement to discriminate between truthful and deceptive individuals, but it is unknown if the effects on the pupil are related to cognitive load or emotion. In previous studies with purely cognitive tasks, pupil responses did not habituate over trials. The present study tested for habituation of pupil responses that might be mediated by emotional responses to item content. Fifty-six subjects were guilty of committing a mock crime, and 56 subjects were innocent. Subjects read and responded to True-False statements concerning their involvement in the crime. The statements were presented individually on a single line on a computer monitor. Subjects answered the same set of 48 statements in different orders on each of five occasions separated by brief intervening tasks. Pupil diameter was recorded by an eye-tracker at 30 Hz.For each subject and each repetition, peak amplitude for each item was regressed onto its ordinal position in the sequence. The mean slope of regression lines was significantly less than zero for the first three repetitions of test items and did not differ from zero in the last two repetitions. Despite evidence ofhabituation and a role for emotion in this test for deception, there was no effect of repetition on the diagnostic validity of pupil changes for detecting deception. The results suggest that the observed effects on pupil size are mediated by both mental effort and emotional arousal, but the emotional component does not contribute to the discrimination between truthful and deceptive individuals.

Poster 104

EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS DIFFER FOR SOCIAL AND NONSOCIAL SOUNDS

Katherine K. Meltzoff1, Leslie J. Carver1, & John Polich2 1University of California, San Diego, 2Scripps Research Institute

Descriptors: P300, auditory, social

Although the P300 event-related potential (ERP) is sensitive to auditory stimulus parameters, the social implications of this sensitivity are unknown. ERP differences between auditory social and nonsocial stimuli presented in an oddball discrimination task (.20 vs. .80) were assessed in normal young adults (N equals 56). STUDY 1 used social (clapping, laughing, humming, female saying ''hi'') and nonsocial (telephone ringing, whistle blowing, car horn, timer beeping) sounds, such that one half the participants responded to a social sound as the target and one half responded to a nonsocial sound as the target. No differences in P300 peak amplitude were found between groups. P300 latency was longer for the social sounds regardless ofcondition group. However, two ofthe four social sounds evinced longer P300 latencies than the other sounds. STUDY 2 employed these two social sounds paired with two nonsocial sounds and assessed a different sample (N equals 24) using the same oddball procedure, with half the participants responding to a social sound as the target, and the other half responding to a nonsocial sound as the target. Social sounds demonstrated significantly longer peak latencies irrespective of assigned stimulus category. Taken together, the findings suggest that social sounds take longer to categorize than nonsocial sounds and have important implications for assessing typically developing and developmentally delayed populations. John Polich was supported by RO1 AA006420-02

Poster 105

ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY TO WIN EVENTS DURING GAMBLING DIFFERENTIATES PROBLEM AND NON-PROBLEM GAMBLERS: A FIELD STUDY

Craig J. Gonsalvez1, Lisa Lole1, Amrit Grewal1, & Alex Blaszczynski2 1University of Wollongong, 2University of Sydney

Descriptors: gambling, skin conductance response, heart rate

Current psychological conceptualizations posit that physiological arousal is a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors. Specifically, it has been suggested that problem gamblers may have a hypersensitivity to rewards and/or a hyposensitivity to losses. Although considerable research has been conducted within laboratories, these predictions have not been examined systematically in real gambling situations. The current study reports the results from two experiments conducted in clubs where patrons gambled on electronic gaming (slot) machines (EGM). EGMs administer a series of rapid bet-outcome trials (3-6 seconds) with each trial resulting in a loss, win, or feature (signaling a series ofwins). In Experiment 1, electrodermal activity to losses, wins, and features was recorded in a sample of non-problem gamblers (n 5 22) during

EGM play. Features produced large SCRs whereas losses did not. In Experiment 2, electrodermal activity was recorded from both problem (n 5 21) and non-problem gamblers (PG; n-21). For non-PGs, large SCRs to wins but not to losses were observed. Unlike non-PGs, PGs manifested a blunted psychophysiological profile, with no evidence of significant changes to any of the three events. Thus, these results indicate support for an autonomic hyposensitivity to win events, not the reverse, for PGs. This project was supported by an Australian Research Council Linkage grant, LP0776836.

Poster 106

EEG RESPONSES TO OBSERVED GESTURES VARY WITH SOMATOSENSORY EXPECTATIONS

Lorna C. Quandt, Peter J. Marshall, & Thomas F. Shipley Temple University

Descriptors: alpha rhythm, action perception, gesture

There is increasing interest in how the mu rhythm in the electroencephalogram (EEG) relates to action perception and production. The mu rhythm originates in somatosensory cortex and desynchronizes in response to observed and executed movement. In the current study we addressed two questions about the mu rhythm response to action observation: 1) Whether observation of gestures is associated with mu desynchronization; 2) Whether the mu rhythm is sensitive to somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) information. We examined whether mu rhythm amplitude during the observation of gestured grasping and lifting actions varies with differing expectations regarding the weight of the target object. Two pairs ofobjects were created, with the objects in each pair being the same size and shape but different weights (80 g vs 1200 g) and colors (yellow/blue). Participants (N 5 25) were given experience grasping and lifting the objects from one pair. EEG was recorded while participants viewed videos showing a person either gesturing toward or pointing toward the yellow and blue objects. We performed a 3 (Hemisphere) x 3 (Region) x 2 (Motion: gesture vs. pointing) x 2 (Weight) repeated-measures ANOVA on upper and lower alpha-range power. There was a significant main effect of Hemisphere and significant interactions involving Hemisphere, Region, Motion, and Weight. The results suggest that gesturing toward an object is associated with a distinctive mu rhythm response. Additionally, the mu rhythm may be sensitive to the imagined somatosensory outcome of a gestured action.

Poster 107

WORK-RELATED STRESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER VAGAL MODULATION OF HEART RATE IN LATE PREGNANCY

Marijke A.K.A. Braeken, Renee A. Otte, & Bea R.H.M. Van den Bergh Tilburg University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, work stress, pregnancy

Pregnancy is associated with substantial changes in the cardiovascular system. These changes are controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). The ANS plays a key role in the adaptation of the maternal body in nurturing the fetus. Maladaptation may have negative effects on the child's cognitive, emotional and behavioral development. A malfunctioning of the ANS can be caused by increased levels of arousal and stress; this can be detected by a lower heart rate variability (HRV). In the past work stress has been associated to autonomic arousal. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between work stress and HRV to assess its potential influence on the offspring's development. During the third trimester of pregnancy (week 31-37 of gestation) 110 women filled out the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Additionally, the women's HRV was recorded, continuously for 25 minutes, while they completed a stress-inducing task. The task consisted of watching relaxing pictures and listening to calming music (3 x 5') alternated twice with an arithmetic task (2 x 5'). Repeated measures analysis, controlled for age, parity and body mass index, reveal a significant negative relation (p < .05) between work stress and several time (RMSSD, pNN50, SDSD) and frequency domain (HF power) measures of HRV throughout the task. These results indicate that autonomic nervous activity shows a lower vagal modulation in the third trimester as the imbalance between effort and reward at work increased. This suggests that work stress should be minimized in the third trimester ofpregnancy.

Poster 108

SOCIAL SAFENESS IS LINKED TO PSYCHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND EXPRESSIVE FLEXIBILITY

Megan C. Barnsley, Guy A. Mizon, Roelie J. Hempel, & Thomas R. Lynch University of Exeter

Descriptors: HRV, social safeness, expressive flexibility

Being flexible (i.e., the ability to match one's responses to the environment) is relevant to a range of domains including emotion regulation, coping and psychological health (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Porges (2001) has suggested that perceived safety is related to people's ability to flexibly respond to environmental demands. Although research on the importance ofpsychological, physiological and expressive flexibility is now emerging, these have not yet been linked to social safeness. In this study, 49 students (11 male, mean age 5 20.1 years, SD 5 4.7) completed self-report measures of Psychological Flexibility (Bond et al., 2009) and Social Safeness (Gilbert et al., 2009), while Expressive Flexibility (i.e., the ability to flexibly enhance or suppress emotional expression in accord with sit-uational demands) was measured using Bonanno et al.'s (2004) Expressive Regulation

paradigm. Continuous measurements of heart rate and breathing rate were taken throughout. High frequency heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an objective index of Physiological Flexibility (Thayer & Lane, 2000). Separate regressions revealed that higher self-reported Social Safeness was significantly related to increased Physiological (HRV; p 5 .029) and Psychological Flexibility (p< .001). Although no significant relationship was found between Expressive and Physiological Flexibility, increased Expressive Flexibility was associated with greater Psychological Flexibility (p 5 .047). The present findings are in line with Porges' (2001) claims regarding perceived safety and flexibility.

Poster 109

AUTONOMIC AND STRESS RESPONSES IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM) BASED SUBGROUPS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) PATIENTS

Megan Chang, David Shapiro, Aditi Joshi, Suzanne Smith, Steven Tan, Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran A. Mayer, & Bruce D. Naliboff University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: autonomic stress response, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and depression IBS is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. In TCM, IBS symptoms result from "patterns of dysregulation,'' the most common being Excess, Deficiency, and Overlap [Excess and Deficiency]). Our aim was to determine ifTCM subgroups differ in autonomic stress response. 59 female IBS patients were diagnosed by 2 TCM practitioners as showing primarily Excess or Overlap patterns. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded during a 10-min baseline and the Trier Social Stress test, which includes 3 5-min periods (Per): speech preparation, speech, and mental arithmetic. The Bowel Symptom and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale questionnaires were administered. Overlap compared to Excess showed significantly greater GI symptoms (p 5 .03), abdominal pain (p 5 .03), and depression (p< .01). The 2 groups did not differ in baseline physiological measures. Mixed-model analysis showed significant 3-way interactions for HR [p(GpnPernAnxiety) 5 .01; p(Gp^Per^Depression) 5 .02] and SC [p(GpnPer^Depression )< .01]. The Excess group showed greater HR reactivity to stress with higher levels of anxiety and depression, whereas the Overlap group showed an opposite pattern. The SC effect is mainly based on the change from baseline. Overlap patients have greater disease severity and co-morbidity than those with Excess alone. Those with Excess showed increased stress response with greater negative affect, whereas those with some Deficiency showed lower arousal at high levels ofnegative affect, perhaps consistent with depletion from greater allostatic load. NCCAM, R21 AT003221

Poster 110

THE INTERPLAY OF RSA SUPPRESSION AND EMOTION SOCIALIZATION IN TODDLERS' PROSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Meghan B. Scrimgeour, Elizabeth L. Davis, & Kristin A. Buss The Pennsylvania State University

Descriptors: rsa suppression, emotion socialization, prosocial development Early prosocial development occurs within the family context, and is linked to emotion regulation (ER) because children must manage their own emotions to help/empathize with others. Parents' emotion socialization (ES) plays a key role in this development (e.g., the ability to recognize, understand, and regulate their own and others' emotions). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological index of ER that may also help explain prosocial development. Children with better ER may be less affected by parental influences than children who are less well-regulated. The current study examines the interplay of RSA and ES to shed light on children's prosocial development. 125 2-year-olds (initial sample n 5 84;43 boys) and their mothers participated in a lab visit. RSA was assessed during baseline and male stranger approach (SA) tasks. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their ES tendencies and children's prosocial development. Overall, change in RSA was not correlated with ES or prosocial behavior. We explored these relations separately among children who did and did not suppress RSA in SA (relative to baseline). For children who suppressed, there was no relation between ES and prosocial variables (rs< .29, ps> .05). For children who did not suppress, supportive ES was related to greater empathy (r 5 .39, p< .05) and non-supportive ES was related to less empathy and prosocial behavior (rs> — .31, ps<.05). In subsequent analyses, we will examine change in RSA as a moderator of the relation between maternal ES practices and toddlers' prosocial development.

Poster 111

THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF GUILT: AN FMRI STUDY EMPLOYING THE IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST

Melike M. Fourie, Ernesta M. Meintjes, George F.R. Ellis, & Kevin G.F. Thomas University of Cape Town

Descriptors: guilt, moral emotions, motivation

Guilt has been described as a quintessential moral emotion with an important regulatory function for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods, because their elicitation is more intricate than that ofthe basic emotions. To study intense real time guilt with fMRI, we devised a social prejudice par-

adigm using a modified version of the Implicit Association Test. The paradigm employed preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Blacks and disabled people to elicit guilt in 22 low-prejudice individuals. fMRI results indicated that the current experience of guilt was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, as well as areas associated with mentalising, including the medial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and pre-cuneus. Significant negative correlations between self-reports of guilt and neural activity were also observed in the pregenual ACC and right posterior insula. These findings may reflect either decreased vagal efference during guilt, given that guilt was associated with increased heart rate, or individual differences in a regulatory response to block affective pain. Finally, prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC provides support for the association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. These findings are consistent with guilt's self-regulatory function, namely to interrupt ongoing action and promote self-reflection before ameliorative actions are initiated.

Poster 112

AVOIDANCE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: ERP RESPONSE TO CUES FOR ESCAPE

Scott McCreary, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes, & Michael Crowley Yale Child Study Center

Descriptors: avoidance, negative reinforcement, ERP

Anxiety disorders are often foreshadowed by an elevated response to aversive stimuli. An individual's action to escape an aversive stimulus is typically called avoidance behavior. This behavior is thought to be sustained by the negatively reinforcing properties of relief from the aversive, a relief that we hypothesize to be greater for anxious individuals. In an EEG study of 34 undergraduates, we measured and classified avoidance ERPs in a task called the Cue Avoidance Task (CAT), where participants had the opportunity to press a button to stop an aversive sound after a duration of 2 seconds, or 10 seconds, compared to a cue requiring a response but not associated with an aversive sound. Upon the button press, we found a clear medial frontal negative deflection in the ERP between 300 and 600 ms. Participants also reported statistically significant differences in degrees of relief associated with the three cue types. With a characteristic ERP and a clear validation of the task, we will target a neural marker of avoidance behavior and correlate differences in ERPs with self-reported measures of anxiety.

Poster 113

MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES PROVIDE WITH A NEW INSIGHT INTO PRE-ATTENTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING CHANGES IN PEDIATRIC INTRACTABLE EPILEPSY

Anca Ralescu1, Ki H. Lee2, & Milena Korostenskaja2 1School ofComputing Sciences and Informatics at University ofCincinnati, 2Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Descriptors: magnetoencephalography, epilepsy, machine learning Introduction: Children with intractable epilepsy possess abnormalities in pre-attentive information processing, as reflected in changes ofmagnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) response (Korostenskaja et al 2010). Machine learning based computational models obtained from the patients' MMNm and clinical data can provide with new and important information about the effect ofepilepsy on information processing. The advantage ofsuch computational approach is that, upon parametrisation, it allows experimentation with various settings of the parameters to generate possible scenarios for different models (Visa and Ralescu 2008). Methods: Data from 10 patients with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, Mean/SD 12.9/2.4 yr) contained their individual characteristics, clinical, and MMNm (recorded with whole-head 275-channels MEG) test results. The dimensionality of data was reduced using principal components analysis. Results: Our approach clearly separated two patients (P2 and P5) into two different classes relatively to all other patients. Patient P2 was farthest away from the rest of the data. Inspection of the P2 individual characteristics revealed that her age at onset of epilepsy (0.5 years) was the earliest among the rest of the patients. The next youngest patient was 2.5 years old at epilepsy onset. When this age difference is considered relative to the age of P2, it is by far the largest in the group. Conclusions: Separate clustering of MMNm parameters in patient with the earliest epilepsy onset can reflect altered cognitive developmental profile in this patient.

Poster 114

IN SEARCHES OF INSIGHT'S MECHANISM: ERP DIFFERENCES IN PROCESSING OF NOUNS FROM REMOTE AND NEARBY SEMANTIC FIELDS

Natalia Shemyakina & Zhanna Nagornova N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain RAS

Descriptors: creative thinking, insight, nearby and remote semantic fields Creative thinking is one of the most complex human brain activities, stages and correlates of which are being widely exploring nowadays. One of the meaningful phenomena for creative thinking is insight that can lead to creative solutions. We focus our study on exploring difference in ERPs during the search for adjectives describing visually presented nouns from remote (model of insight initiating task) and nearby (control task) semantic fields. Thirty-two

subjects (mean age 25) viewed more than 110 pairs of nouns per each type of task with identical physical and time trial parameters and were asked to press the button when they found the binding adjective. Found solution times, as expected, were different for control (mean 2640 ms) and insight (mean 2973 ms) initiating tasks, but ERP differences were observed much earlier, before solutions were found. We obtained significant differences (ANOVA, p< 0.05) at 400 - 600 ms in speech and associative zones of the left hemisphere and frontotemporal zones of right hemisphere, and at 600 - 800 ms in parietooccipital zones of the left hemisphere for explored tasks. We suppose that effects of earlier differences obtained in frontotemporal zones may be related to faster spontaneous speech memory actualization at perception of words from close semantic fields, whereas the differences in parieto-occipital zones of the left hemisphere may reflect the loading of memory and internal mental concentration for remote association search. We hypothesize the last-mentioned zones may play an important role in insight processes and creative solutions.

Supported by St. Petersburg Science and Education Committee grant for young scientists, 2010; RGNF-11-36-00324a2.

Poster 115

INTEROCEPTIVE AWARENESS MODERATES EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Natalie S. Werner, Rudolf Kerschreiter, Nicole K. Kindermann, Stefan Duschek, & Rainer Schandry Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich

Descriptors: interoceptive awareness, emotion, social exclusion

Previous research has yielded inconsistent results concerning emotional reactions to social exclusion. The present study provides evidence that perception of bodily signals, referred to as interoceptive awareness, constitutes an important moderating factor in this context. We compared 28 participants with high and 30 participants with low interoceptive awareness in regard to emotional, cognitive and physiological measures while they were included and excluded in a discussion with confederates. Participants with high interoceptive awareness showed a smaller decrease of positive affect and a smaller increase of negative affect when comparing an inclusion phase with a subsequent exclusion phase. Furthermore, participants with high interoceptive awareness showed a smaller decrease ofperceived acceptance and a smaller increase of perceived rejection. No significant differences in cognitive and physiological measures were observed. We assume that individuals with high interoceptive awareness, to whom physiological signals are more easily accessible, reduce aversive emotions by using somatic information for self-regulation more effectively. Our findings are related to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, which suggests that behavior is optimized by body-related signals in complex situations.

This study was financed by the German Research Foundation (Project-No: SCHA 308/19-2).

Poster 116

VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY DIFFERENTIATION OF EMOTIONAL CONTENT: PSYCHOPATHS EXHIBIT CONDITIONAL AFFECTIVE MODULATION OF ERP COMPONENTS IN A TARGET DETECTION TASK

Nathaniel E. Anderson, Steven Riela, & Matthew S. Stanford Baylor University

Descriptors: psychopathy, emotion, ERP

It is well recognized that psychopaths exhibit abnormalities in processing emotionally relevant information. This has often been demonstrated using fear conditioning, startle modulation, and functional imaging, yet it is not known whether psychopaths' deficiencies lie in the recognition of emotional information, the effective utilization of it, or both. In order to investigate this, a set of novel ERP tasks were developed to elicit several standard ERP components allowing comparisons between those generated by emotionally salient and neutral stimuli. Additionally, these tasks differentiate between conditions where the emotional content of the stimulus is either task relevant or irrelevant. We compared ERP amplitudes on several components between groups of community members selected for high and low psychopathic traits. Psychopaths exhibited smaller differences in amplitude for emotional stimuli very early in the processing stream across several ERP components, and this difference was maximal at the P300 stage. However, under conditions where emotional information was task relevant, psychopaths exhibited larger differentiation between affective and neutral stimulus content, more similar to controls. These data suggest that psychopaths have deficits in automated recognition of emotionally relevant information and subsequent resource allocation responsible for facilitation of attention and neural processing. Furthermore, psychopaths may be capable of compensating for these deficits with effortful control when affective information is relevant in a goal-oriented task.

Poster 117

QUANTIFYING THE ERROR-RELATED NEGATIVITY: ISSUES AND

SOLUTIONS

Olav E. Krigolson Dalhousie University

Descriptors: ERN, methods, ERP

The error-related negativity (ERN) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited by responses errors (Gehring et al., 1993) and error feedback

(Miltner et al., 1997). The ERN appears to have a source in the anterior cingulate cortex (Debener et al., 2005) and is thought to either reflect a conflict monitoring (Botvinik et al., 2004) or a reinforcement learning system within medial-frontal cortex (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). While the ERN is a well studied ERP component, conflicting accounts suggest how the ERN should be measured and quantified. Here, we present the results of analyses of experimental and simulated ERN data that has been quantified using a variety of reported techniques: local and global maxima and minima, base to peak, and mean measures. We address the implications and reasoning behind using a difference wave approach to ERP waveform analysis with regard to the ERN (see Luck, 2005). Further, we take into account the issues of analyzing the ERN when stimulus frequency is a confounding factor (Holroyd & Krigolson, 2007). Finally, we take into account recent findings that suggest that the ERN actually is driven by changes in the correct trial waveforms (Holroyd et al., 2008), and the implications these findings have on analyzing the ERN component. In sum, our results suggest that the analysis of difference waveforms, using global maxima and minima, is the best technique for quantifying the ERN - a finding which hopefully will provide a basis for the adoption of a standard analysis approach for analyzing this ERP component.

NSERC Discovery and RTI Grants

Poster 118

GLOBAL VS. LOCAL VISUAL RECOGNITION IN 7-8-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: AN ERP STUDY

Regina I. Machinskaya, Ekaterina V. Krupskaya, & Andrey V. Kurgansky Institute of Developmental Physiology of Russian Academy of Education

Descriptors: global/local visual recognition, ERP, children

In order to study developmental changes of the brain organization of perception of compound visual stimuli we analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioral parameters in adults and 7-8-year-old children. Participants were asked to recognize a hierarchical letter while attending to either its global (GL) or local level (LL). The recognition level was prompted by a warning signal and varied in pseudo random order. The GL precedence effect, i.e. an increase in a small letter recognition time when this letter is a part of an incongruent stimulus was found only in adults. The main age-related ERP differences were found for anterior N2 component associated with cognitive control: in adults, the N2 amplitude for incongruent hierarchical stimuli was higher in the right frontal cortex during LL than GL recognition, whereas in children, it was higher in the left inferior frontal cortex during GL than LL recognition. The P1 amplitude related to the activation of early sensory processing was higher for LL than GL recognition in both groups, although with different topography: in adults, LL recognition accompanied by higher P1 amplitude in posterior associative zones ofthe right hemisphere, whereas in children, the same ERP differences were found in the left fronto-central regions. In general, GL vs. LL ERP differences were more pronounced in the right hemisphere in adults and in the left hemisphere in 7 -8-year-old children. The results suggest long-lasting development of the brain mechanisms of GL visual recognition.

Poster 119

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUPIL SIZE AND ANTISACCADE PERFORMANCE

Samuel B. Hutton & Alison Gemperle University of Sussex

Descriptors: pupillometry, antisaccade task, cognitive control

Modern eye trackers continuously record pupil size as well as gaze position. Previous research has shown that pupil size increases as a function of mental effort or cognitive load, although these concepts are poorly defined. The antisaccade task requires participants to inhibit the reflexive tendency to look at a sudden onset target and instead direct their gaze to its mirror image location. As such it provides a convenient tool with which to investigate the cognitive and neural systems that support goal-directed behavior. Using a large database of>50,000 antisaccade trials we explored the relationship between pupil size at the start of each trial and standard antisaccade metrics including trial outcome (correct vs incorrect), primary saccade latency, amplitude and velocity. In order to avoid potential confounds, pupil size values were only included in the analysis if they occurred during a fixation within .5 degrees of the screen centre, and in trials without blinks. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear models. Maximum pupil size was significantly larger during the fixation period of trials in which participants went on to make errors compared to trials in which a correct antisaccade was made. Importantly, maximum pupil size during the fixation period of trial N was more strongly related to the outcome of trial N-1. This result suggests that maximum pupil size on trial N may be a consequence of processes involved in error detection (conscious or not) and reflect trial-to-trial dependencies that have previously been documented during the antisaccade task.

TIME COURSE OF ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN DEPRESSION WITH AND WITHOUT COMORBID ANXIETY

Sarah M. Sass1, Wendy Heller2, Joscelyn E. Fisher3, Rebecca L. Silton4, Jennifer L.

Stewart5, Laura D. Crocker2, & Gregory A. Miller2 1University of Texas at Tyler, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3University of Maryland School of Medicine, 4Loyola University Chicago, 5University of California, San Diego

Descriptors: attentional bias, anxiety, depression

Depression and anxiety are both characterized by cognitive biases, including attentional bias to unpleasant stimuli. Accounts differ on the timing of bias in depression, and comorbid anxiety may complicate findings. Nonpatients high in self-reported anhedonic depression and low in anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (pure depression), high in anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression (comorbid), or low in anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression (controls) completed an emotionword Stroop task during ERP recording. Depressed individuals were predicted to show later preferential processing of unpleasant stimuli than individuals with comorbid anxiety. ERP results supported hypotheses. The anhedonic depression group showed later preferential processing of unpleasant than of pleasant stimuli in the absence of early effects. The co-morbid and not the depressed group showed early preferential processing of unpleasant compared to pleasant stimuli in the absence of later effects. The control group showed no early effects in combination with later preferential processing of pleasant compared to unpleasant stimuli. These data reveal a distinct time course of attentional processing in depression with and without comorbid anxiety. Implications for treatment will be discussed.

Poster 121

EEG CONTROL OF EMOTIONAL STATES INDUCED WITH ORAL

READING

Sergei G. Danko1, Larisa V. Gratcheva2, Larisa A. Piotrovskaya3, Julia A. Boytsova1, & Maria L. Solovjeva1 1Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain, RAS, 2State Academy of Theatre Arts, 3State Pedagogical University

Descriptors: emotion induction, oscillatory eeg, gamma oscillations In our previous studies positive and negative human emotional states were induced with silent autobiographical recalls, scenic recalls and imagined situations (Danko et al., 2003a,b, 2004, 2005, 2007). The aim of the present study was to objectively evaluate emotions aroused directly in the process of oral reading in a special way used in actors' training. The main test tasks included reading aloud with the technique ''self-regulative utterance'' (TSU - the author L.V.Gratcheva): a text of neutral emotional- semantic dominant; b) personal texts - recollection with either a positive or a negative emotional-semantic dominant; c) literary texts with similar dominants. EEGs were recorded and processed to evaluate EEG power and coherence in frequency bands from delta to low gamma (30-40Hz). EEG power and coherence in the states of TSU reading of em-otiogenic texts differed with statistical significance from those in the state of TSU reading of a non-emotiogenic text. The differences are most explicit in the frequency ranges of gamma and beta2. States of reading of emotionally positive texts are characterized by an increase in the power in these ranges, as compared to emotionally negative texts. These differences are in many respects similar to the highly reliable and reproducible dynamics of EEG indices, when mentioned silent internal inductions of emotions (less muscle artifact prone) were used. The obtained results provide some confidence to consider the TSU as a way to modulation of mental, at least emotional, states of human subjects. Supported with grants RFH 09-06-00225, NSh-3318.2010.4.

Poster 122

FORMATION OF SYNDROME OF EMOTIONAL BURNOUT IN FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY

Sergii V. Tukaiev1, Natalya G. Piskorska1, & Tatyana V. Vasheka2 1National Tarasa Shevchenko University of Kyiv, 2National Aviation University of Kyiv

The aim of the study was to determine factors that are responsible for burnout development in first-year students. For the determination of stages of burnout we used the test ''Syndrome of emotional burnout'' (Boyko), adapted for students. 122 healthy volunteers (98 women and 24 men) - students aged 17 to 22 years participated in this study. The stage of anxiety tension was detected in 29 students, the stage of resistance - in 96 students, and formation of emotional deficit - in 41 students. Such personal factors as levels of neu-roticism, trait anxiety, emotional response to the influence of environmental factors, and strengths of excitation, inhibition and mobility of nervous processes, were shown to determine the probability of formation and severity of burnout. EEG was registered over a period of 3 minutes during the rest state. The spectral power density (SPD) of all frequencies from 0.2 to 35Hz was estimated. The Speerman rank test was carried out for the correlation analysis. It was shown that the intensity of the stage of anxiety tension in women varies inversely with SPD in b1-subband (O1), and in b2-subband (F7). The intensity of the resistance stage varies inversely with SPD in b1 -subband (O1). The intensity

of the anxiety tension stage in men varies inversely with SPD in 01-subband (C3, P3, P4), in a3-subband (F3, F4). The intensity of the resistance stage varies inversely with SPD in e1-subband (P3). Thus, despite the fact that personal factors contribute equally to the formation of burnout, the mechanisms of it's formation are different in men and women.

Poster 123

FAIRNESS PERCEPTION AND AUTONOMIC RESPONSES: A STUDY USING THE ULTIMATUM GAME

Takahiro Osumi1 & Hideki Ohira2 'Keio University, 2Nagoya University

Descriptors: heart rate, inequity aversion, decision-making

Humans have a uniqueness to percept fairness as being pleasant, and unfairness as being unpleasant. A benchmark test for examining fairness preference is the Ultimatum Game (UG). In the UG, two players have to divide a sum of money in a single trial. If the responder accepts the offer made by the proposer, the deal goes ahead, but if the responder rejects the offer, neither player gets anything. Rejecting unfair offers at a personal cost is considered as an evidence for inequity aversion. The previous study has revealed that heart rate decelerates when responders receive unfair offers that will be rejected, but not when they receive fair offers that will be accepted (Osumi & Ohira, 2009). In the present study, we determined how electrodermal and cardiac activity is modulated by fairness and monetary size. Participants were twenty-eight Japanese undergraduate students. They were told that they would receive monetary offers that had been made by other students in the former experiment and would decide to accept or reject them. Stake sizes are 200-4000 Japanese Yen and 15 fair offers are 50-40%, 15 unfair offers are 30-20%, and 15 most unfair offers are 20-15% of the stake. Thus, none of 45 offers are same and randomly ordered. Results indicated that most unfair offers more triggered heart rate deceleration than fair and unfair offers. Moreover, autonomic response evoked by large offers was more than those by small offers. Our findings suggest that cardiac responses reflect inequity aversion regardless of size of monetary offers.

Poster 124

COMPARISON OF THREE DIFFERENT METHODS FOR BREATHING MEASURE DURING A PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT

Thiago Lopes Cardoso1, Rita Alves Soares2, Mirtes Pereira Garcia2, Frederico Jandre Caetano1, & Antonio Giannella-Neto1 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Fluminense Federal University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, breathing

The heart rate variability (HRV) is a known physiological index in psychophysiology. Also it's been hypothesized that phase-locking between R-peaks (R) and the onset of inspirations (oINS), named cardiorespiratory coupling (CC), conveys information about mental states of subjects. However, breath modulates the HRV, thus its measurement is equally important. This work compared 3 methods for the detection of oINS as well as the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAa) derived from oINS.Methods: 3 subjects performed 5 minutes of rest, then a cardiac awareness task and 6 min of passive visualization of pictures with neutral content. The ECG and breathing were continuously recorded, the last with a facial mask/pneumotachometer (FM) (gold standard but not suitable in psychophysiology), a nasal prong (NP) and a plethysmographic belt (PB). The locations of R (ECG) and oINS (FM, NP and PB) were automatically detected and manually edited by two distinct custom-built programs. The mean temporal differences between the oINS detected from FM with NP and PB (DFM:NP, DFM:PB) were computed. The RSAa for each task was computed as the mean difference between maximum and minimum R-R intervals in consecutive oINS. Results: The PB presented the highest oINS dispersion (DFM:NP 5 16.12710.98ms, DFM:PB 5 29.13 7102.02ms), despite little difference between calculated RSAa (at most 6% between methods) was observed. Conclusion: Although similar RSAa were obtained with all 3 methods, caution should be taken when the PB method is applied for the detection of oINS, in order to evaluate CC.

Poster 125

IT'S NOT THE SIZE OF THE ERN THAT COUNTS, IT'S HOW YOU USE IT: EVIDENCE FOR A SEX-MODERATED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND THE ERN

Tim P. Moran, Jason S. Moser, & Alex Jendrusina Michigan State University

Descriptors: anxiety, gender differences, ERN

Research supports the notion that information processing abnormalities contribute to the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Hyperactive action monitoring may be one such contributory factor. Specifically, anxious individuals evidence an enhanced

error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that peaks approximately 50 ms following the commission of an error in two-choice reaction time tasks. To date, no studies have examined demographic variables that may moderate the relationship between anxiety and the ERN. In light of the fact that much of the research to date on anxiety and the ERN has been conducted in females and anxiety is nearly twice as prevalent in women as in men, it is possible that this relationship is sex specific. However, no studies have directly compared the ERN-anxiety relationship between male and female participants. In the present study, participants completed the Eriksen Flankers Task as well as a measure of maladaptive worry. Results revealed the expected association between worry and enhanced ERN amplitude in female participants. However, this relationship was approximately zero in male participants. These findings suggest that the functional relationship between the ERN and anxiety is specific to females and have important implications for understanding the role of the ERN in the etiology and maintenance of anxious pathology. In particular, linking the ERN-anxiety relationship to other female specific biopsycho-social factors represents an important direction for future research.

Poster 126

P300 RESPONSES TO TASK-IRRELEVANT ALCOHOL CUES IN ALCOHOLICS WITH AND WITHOUT A POSITIVE FAMILY HISTORY OF THE DISORDER

Todd D. Watson1, Elsa Daurignac2, John H. Krystal3, Sussana Fryer4, & Daniel H.

Mathalon4

1Lewis & Clark College, 2University of Buffalo, 3Yale University School of Medicine, 4University of California, San Francisco

Descriptors: P300, cue reactivity, alcoholism

We examined the effects of processing task-irrelevant pictures of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages in healthy adult controls (HC, N 5 18) and alcoholic participants (either current or recovering) with (FH +, N 5 25) and without (FH-, N 5 21) a positive family history of the disorder. We collected EEG data while participants completed an oddball task consisting of standard stimuli (small blue circle, p 5 .8), target stimuli (large blue circle, p 5 .10), and task-irrelevant novel stimuli (p 5 .10). Novel stimuli were pictures of alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages (p 5 .05 for each category). Participants responded with a button press only to target stimuli. We calculated P300 amplitudes at midline (Fz, Cz, Pz) electrodes to the target (P3b) and both categories of novel beverage stimuli (P3a). We found no significant group (HC, FH-, FH+) differences on target P3b amplitude. Averaged across the categories of novel stimuli, HC participants had attenuated frontal P3a responses relative to FH+and FH- alcoholics. Additional analyses revealed that FH+alcoholics had greater P3a amplitude to novel alcohol pictures than nonalcoholic novels, an effect that was not significant for either FH- alcoholics or HC participants. Interestingly, participants also exhibited a P300-like response to standard stimuli that followed novel stimuli. This effect was greater in alcoholics (particularly FH+alcoholics) than HC participants. Overall, these data suggest altered processing of task-irrelevant alcohol related cues in family history positive alcoholics. NIAAA Center for the Translational Neuroscience of Alcoholism Alcoholic Beverage Medical Research Foundation (Mathalon) NIAAA 1 T32 AA015496-01

Poster 127

TRAINING-INDUCED MODIFICATION OF ONGOING OSCILLATORY ACTIVITY DURING THE DOUBLE-CLICK PARADIGM IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

Tzvetan Popov1, Brigitte Rockstroh1, Nathan Weisz1, Thomas Elbert1, & Gregory A. Miller2 1University of Konstanz, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and University

of Delaware

Descriptors: brain oscillations, cognitive training, MEG

A previous study showed that cognitive training accentuating auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory normalizes neuromagnetic M50 gating ratio in schizophrenia patients. Pre-training higher M50 ratio in the paired-stimulus design varied with reduced evoked and induced alpha and gamma band activity, suggesting deficient engagement of distributed cortical networks in processes related to auditory gating. Present analysis addressed whether training effects on M50 ratio are mediated by changes in these oscillatory activities. Evoked and induced oscillatory activity, and M50 ratio were determined before and after a 4-week training from 36 patients, who were randomly assigned to specific exercises (CE) or standard training (CP). Patient data were compared to those of 15 controls, who participated in two MEG measurements. Trainings changed the pre-training pattern towards larger evoked and induced responses, effects being larger after CE than after CP. Only after CE increased alpha desynchronisation varied with normalized M50 ratio and improved verbal memory performance. Results suggest that cognitive trainings affect evoked gamma band activity indexing improved stimulus encoding, while only training of auditory-verbal discrimination accuracy and memory affects induced alpha desynchronisation indicating improved elaborative processing, which is related to auditory gating and cognitive functions. This evidence improves understanding of brain processes indexing processing abnormalities in schizophrenia and should be considered for the advancement of neurorehabilitation.

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN N250 ERP, STIMULUS RELEVANCE AND PERCEPTUAL AWARENESS

Valia Rodriguez1, Yuniel Romero1, & Indira Alvarez2

1Cuban Neuroscience Center, 2University of Montreal

Descriptors: ERP, perceptual awareness, stimulus relevance

In a previous study where we explored the neural basis of conscious face perception we found that besides a modulation of N170, correct face detections, but no correct -distractor- rejections, elicited a second negativity -N2- around 320 ms with similar topographical distribution and neural generators. However we could not define whether this later component was specifically related to face perception or represented an elect-rophysiological correlate of conscious access to information available in short-term memory on the target stimulus -whether a face or not-. Here we carried out a high-density event-related potential -ERP- study using a masking detection task where the target stimulus changed to a distractor from one experimental block to the next one. While in Experiment 1 the target stimulus was a face (block 1) or an object (block 2) in Experiment 2 the target stimulus was a chair (block 1) or a handbag (block 2). Results showed that N2 ERP was associated with correct detection of stimuli but that it was absent or highly reduced during misses or correct rejections. Moreover, corrected detection of stimuli when they were the task target elicited a higher N2 than correct detection of the same stimuli when they were distractors. Target detection was also related with a modulation of P300 amplitude. Our results suggest that besides P300, N2 ERP is also sensitive to stimulus relevance independently of its nature. Both components could reflect two consecutive stages -perceptual and postperceptual stages- during the conscious processing of relevant stimuli.

Poster 129

TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF MISMATCH NEGATIVITY

Vasil Kolev, Yordan Hodzhev, & Juliana Yordanova Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: mismatch negativity, time-frequency analysis

Mismatch negativity (MMN) is obtained by subtracting the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by standard (S) stimuli from ERPs elicited by deviant (D) stimuli. ERPs are conceptualized as reflecting changes in the power and phase-synchronization of oscillatory neural networks during stimulus processing. These changes can be analyzed by decomposing ERPs in the time-frequency (TF) domain. The objective of this study was to explore the neurophysiological origins of MMN by analyzing event-related oscillations. Twelve young adults performed mentally mathematical operations while two types of tones with different probabilities (D, p 5 0.15; S, p 5 0.85) were delivered. Wavelet transform was applied to single-sweep ERPs to compute TF total power and phase-locking factor. Results showed that D and S tones manifested a similar major synchronization of theta oscillations (~6Hz) in twolatencywindows (50-150 ms and 150-250ms), corresponding to N1 and P2 ERP components. Synchronized theta oscillations of D and S stimuli also had a similar frontal-central distribution. However, the total power of TF components during MMN expression was different for D and S tones. In contrast to D tones, S tones elicited increased power of two distinct TF components in the range of ~3Hz and ~7Hz.Delta (~3Hz) activity within the MMN (100 - 200 ms after stimulus) was generated only by stimulus repetition. It is concluded that sensory mismatch suppresses this delta activity, which may contribute to the expression of MMN.

Funding provided by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Poster 130

INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS REFLECTED IN ERPS OF SARCASTIC PROSODY

Victoria A. Kazmerski & Dawn G. Blasko Penn State Erie, The Behrend College

Descriptors: ERP, language

Sarcasm is often used by comedians to express criticism in a humorous fashion. However, in daily conversation it can be viewed as aggressive with the potential to harm relationships. Individuals differ in their use of sarcasm, e.g., males use sarcasm more often than females. In this study we recorded auditory ERPs to words recorded in normal or sarcastic prosody. Participants judged the words as sarcastic or sincere. Participants completed surveys on their personality and sarcasm usage. Participants were accurate in identifying sarcasm from prosodic cues alone. Sarcastic prosody was slightly less accurate and slower than the same word spoken in sincere prosody. However, this difference was moderated by individual difference variables. Women were more accurate in categorizing the stimuli and showed less difference between sarcastic and sincere stimuli in both speed and accuracy. In the ERPs, the effects of prosody were evident as early as the first 100 ms post stimulus onset. Differences in the ERPs were noted in the earliest regions between those who reported using sarcasm infrequently who showed a larger amplitude difference between sarcastic and sincere prosody than in-

frequent users. Topographic difference based on usage in the 400 - 500 ms region of the ERP reflected were evident, but did not differ by word type. These differences did not extend to the LPC, in contrast to differences in self-reported aggression. Clearly sarcasm involves multiple levels of processing each which may be related to different levels of individual characteristics.

Poster 131

CORTICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF VISUAL EMOTIONAL STIMULI: RELATIONSHIP WITH MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND GENDER

Viktoriia Kravchenko, Kateryna Maksymovich, Valentyna Dubovyk, & Mykola

Makarchuk

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Descriptors: IAPS, gender, menstrual cycle

Pictures from the International Affective Picture System were used in a electroenceph-alographic study to assess gender differences in brain activation in 42 male and 32 female volunteers (university students at the age of 18 - 21 years). The affectively positive, negative and neutral pictures were presented for 6 seconds and were carefully matched for arousal, valence and stimulus content. Women took part in research three times in the different phases of menstrual cycle: in a follicle phase (2-4 days); ovulation (12-16 day); in a luteal phase (21 -25 day). In men EEG-correlate of negative picture viewing were growths of theta spectral power in anterior central and occipital neocortical areas with left-hemispheric dominance. Additionally, decrease of alpha-power in right temporal and occipital regions (in comparison to neutral pictures) was observed. In women, the viewing of aversive pictures was accompanied by decreasing of power alpha- and low-frequency beta ranges in the symmetric posterior temporal brain regions, which represents strong visual associative areas activation. Growth of theta-power observed in left frontal and occipital areas only during a follicle phase. These results indicate that there are gender differences in processing of emotional stimuli. Aversive pictures cause rather non-specific brain activation in females, while electrophysiological changes in men reflect also emotional tension (growth of theta-power). The most similar to men pattern of brain activity was observed in women during a follicle phase of menstrual cycle.

Poster 132

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF TIME DISCRIMINATION IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Vincenza Tarantino1, Giovanni Mento1, Vitaliani Roberta2, & Bisiacchi Patrizia1 1University of Padua, 2Hospital of Treviso

Descriptors: time perception, parkinson's disease

Neuropharmacological studies suggested that the processing of time intervals in the milliseconds and second range is strictly related to the dopaminergic circuits. Nevertheless, the presence of interval timing deficits in Parkinson's disease is still a matter of debate. The present study aimed at investigating electrophysiological correlates of interval timing in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and in a control group. A time discrimination task was presented, in which participants were asked to compare the duration of two successively presented pairs of visual stimuli; the first stimulus could last either 500 or 1500 ms, the second stimulus could have duration 30% shorter or longer than the standard one. Although the behavioural performance did not differ between the two groups, ERPs differences were reported in the 1500-ms condition. The control group showed a slow wave (CNV) during the comparison interval in centro-frontal sites, which for intervals longer than the standard, terminated before the end of the stimulus, after a duration equal to the memorized standard one. In the patients' group the CNV did not show the shift in coincidence with the end of a duration equal to the standard, but the potential kept rising sustained till the offset of the duration. ERP results suggest that the on-line comparison process between the two durations, reflected by the CNV trend, was impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease and support the presence of a deficit of memory for time in such clinical population.

The study was partially supported by the grant n. 146/08 of the Bial foundation.

Poster 133

EEG PHOTIC DRIVING COHERENCE, BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND TREATMENT EFFECT IN PARTIAL EPILEPSY

Vladimir V. Lazarev, Maria Alice Genofre, & Leonardo C. deAzevedo Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Descriptors: eeg photic driving, eeg coherence, partial epilepsy

The EEG coherence at the frequencies of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and its harmonics proved to be a fine indicator of the photic driving response topographic generalization showing a pronounced ''coherence peak'' as compared to the much lower coherence scores at the adjacent frequencies. This EEG characteristic has demonstrated a capacity to reveal latent alterations in cerebral functional connections not apparent in the spontaneous EEG. In order to investigate the development of the cerebral electrical activity and its alterations in partial epilepsy, the coherence of the EEG driving re-

sponses to the IPS of 11 fixed frequencies of 3 - 24 Hz were evaluated for 14 scalp leads in 66 normal subjects and 54 patients of both genders aged 5-18 years. In normal subjects, the total number of high coherent connections (with coefficient X 0,65) demonstrated a positive correlation with age probably reflecting the maturation of the anterior cortical areas. In the groups of epileptic patients, treated and non-treated, the same correlation with age was observed, with certain delay in comparison with the control group, resulting in significantly lower reaction indices than those observed in normal subjects of the same age. The level ofthe photic driving coherence proved to be significantly lower in the treated, particularly with Carbamazepine, epileptic patients than in the normal subjects and non-treated patients in the alpha and beta bands, the resting state showing no differences between these groups at the same frequencies.

Poster 134

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF STIMULATING AND RELAXING SCENTS ON AROUSAL, RELAXATION AND DRIVING BEHAVIOR IN CAR DRIVERS

Wolfram Boucsein1, Ralf Sturmer2, & Michele Moessinger3 1University of Wuppertal, Germany, 2Psyrecon Research and Consulting GmbH, Wuppertal, Germany, 3Psychology and Neurophysiology, Renault, Guyancourt, France

Descriptors: scents, car driving, relaxation

Psychophysiological methods have been frequently used for investigating driving behavior. An intriguing new research area examines whether administering either stimulating or relaxing scents influences the driver's arousal level or relaxation and how they act on driving behavior. Applying psychophysiological methodology from our laboratory for cosmetic product evaluation, we determined the psychophysiological response patterns in a study with 60 participants for nine scents that were presented for 2 minutes in a stationary car. EDA, ECG, facial EMG and EEG were continuously recorded and subjected to the same kind of discriminant analysis as used in our past research, together with nine-point Likert scale rated adjectives. Based on the discrimination between centroids, three scents were selected for a study with another 60 participants using the same measures while driving 20 minutes on rural roads in real traffic situations. The same procedure was repeated in two consecutive studies with additional 60 respectively 45 participants for another nine scents. Each of the four studies revealed consistent arousal- and relaxation-related physiological response patterns: Arousing scents increased the SCL; relaxing scents increased EEG alpha activity. Our psycho-physiological approach was not only capable of differentiating among scents but could also identify objectively the drivers' preference for scents. Analyzing recordings from the car's Controller Area Network bus revealed that changes in arousal and relaxation induced by the scents had no adverse influence on driving behavior.

Poster 135

THE PRACTICE EFFECT ON DECEPTION: EVIDENCES FROM BEHAVIORAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

Xiaoqing Hu1, Hao Chen2, & Genyue Fu2 1Northwestern University, 2Zhejiang Normal University

Descriptors: erps, deception, practice

We aimed to investigate the influence of practice on participants' deceptive responses to personal relevant information. Here, the differentiation of deception paradigm (DDP) was employed to elicit participants' deceptive/honest responses to self-/other-referential information. In particular, after participants finished the baseline DDP, they were asked to practice in the deceptive/honest blocks respectively. Participants then were asked to complete the same DDP task for a second time. Behavioral measures were recorded during the baseline, the practice and second DDP sessions. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the baseline and the second DDP tasks. The results: the first DDP replicated previous findings regarding the behavioral and neural activity pattern associated with deceptive/honest responses: deception was associated with longer RT, reduced accuracy, enhanced frontal-central N2 and reduced parietal P3. However, the practice exerted a significant influence on deception, as showed by decreased RT and increased accuracy. Moreover, in the second DDP, the deception-related N2 and P3 activity was not different from the truth-related N2 and P3 activity. The practice influenced deception not only behaviorally but also at a neural level.

Poster 136

SPONTANEOUS EYEBLINK ACTIVITY WHILE APPRECIATING CLASSICAL MUSIC: THE INFLUENCES OF INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING A RELAXING EFFECT

Yasuko Omori1, Yuri Toriyama1, Noriko Chiaki1, & Yukiko Tatsuhira2 Jin-ai University, 2Osaka University

Descriptors: spontaneous eyeblink, classical music, relaxing effect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the spontaneous eyeblink rates during the

appreciation of classical music, showing whether the instruction about the relaxing effect

would be an influential factor. Sixteen university students, seven males and nine females, listened to four pieces composed by Mozart. The two of them in a major key considered as healing music were on various commercial release CDs, and the other two in a minor key were not. The duration of each piece was three minute, heard by the participants through two speakers placed in front of them. There repeated two sessions, in which the participants experienced the stimulus presentation of two pieces consisting one in major and the other in minor, respectively. When given the stimuli, they were instructed that the one pair had a relaxing effect and the other did not. The participants' eyeblink and heart rates were measured with the vertical EOG and ECG recordings. After listening to each piece, the participants rated their own feelings of relaxation. The participants' eyeblink frequency gradually decreased throughout the pieces in a major key suggested as effective as well as the ones in a minor key as ineffective. Furthermore, in the early 90 seconds, heart rates were increased during the piece in a minor key told as effective. It was demonstrated that the participants felt more relaxed when the stimuli were described to have the efficacy of relaxation. These results support the possibility that the spontaneous eyeblinking can be used as a reliable physiological index to exhibit emotion and relaxation.

Poster 137

GENETIC CONTRIBUTION TO THE SYMPATHETIC STRESS RESPONSIVENESS IN CHILDREN

Anett Mueller1, Jana Strahler2, Diana Armbruster3, Klaus-Peter Lesch4, Burkhard Brocke3, & Clemens Kirschbaum5 1Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, United States, 2Clinical Biopsychology, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany, 3Institute of Psychology II, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Germany, 4Molecular Psychiatry, Laboratory of Translational Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Germany, 5Institute of Psychology I, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Germany

Descriptors: stress, sympathetic-adrenal medullary system (sam), genetics In order to link environmental demands to disease outcome, the identification of genetic factors that influence stress reactivity seems highly important. Little effort has been made to investigate the contribution of specific genes to individual differences in the sympathetic stress response. Here, we investigated the influence of two polymorphisms in the respective genes: Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR). Both of these genetic biomarkers appear to be particularly promising candidates as they are implicated in biological systems that have well-specified links to stress. We examined the sympathetic stress response to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for Children, TSST-C) with regard to COMT and 5-HTTLPR in 115 children (51 girls;8 -11 yrs.). Salivary alpha-amylase was obtained prior stressor and at five time points during recovery. Furthermore, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) was monitored continuously. Results show a significant effect of both polymorphisms on the sympathetic stress response. In particular, highest mean increases of alpha-amylase and sharpest recovery values were found for the L variant of 5-HTTLPR. For HR, there was a main effect of COMT showing the highest mean increase and sharpest recovery for the val/val variant. In contrast, the steepest decrease of HRV values in response to the stressor was found for the val/met variant of COMT. Our findings add further evidence for the crucial role of genetic factors in the modulation of differences in the acute stress response stress response.

Poster 138

THE IMPACT OF CORTISOL ON EMOTIONAL PICTURE PROCESSING: AN ERP STUDY

Florian Bublatzky1,2, Tobias Flaisch2, Ralf Schmalzle2, Harald Engler3, & Harald T.

Schupp2

1University of Mannheim, 2University of Konstanz, 3University Hospital Essen Descriptors: Cortisol, emotion, EEG/ERP

The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis leads to the release of Cortisol, which has multifaceted effects on cognitive and behavioral processes. The present study examined in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design the impact of cortisol on emotional picture perception. In two sessions (20 mg hydrocortisone vs. placebo), high density EEG was recorded from 24 participants while 300 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures were presented (1 s) in random order. As a manipulation check, saliva samples were taken before, 30, 60 and 90 min after oral drug intake, showing that saliva cortisol level increased significantly in the cortisol condition. Analyses of the placebo condition replicated previous findings in that the early posterior negativity (200 - 300 ms) and late positive potential (400 - 600 ms) were enlarged when viewing emotional compared to neutral pictures. Interestingly, comparable ERP modulations were observed in the cortisol condition. Rather than affecting specific emotionsensitive ERP components, cortisol effects appeared as sustained positivity over occipital areas (200 - 800 ms), similarly pronounced for emotional and neutral picture contents. Cortisol effects are discussed in the context of stress and motivated attention theory.

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 2011 POSTER SESSION III

Poster 1

TOWARDS THE UNIFICATION OF THE N400 IN LEXICAL ACCESS AND IN SENTENCE PROCESSING

Juliana N. Gomes1, Marije Soto1, Aleria C. Lage1, Aline R. Gesualdi2, & Aniela I. Franca1 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2CEFET- Rio

Descriptors: N400, lexical access, syntactic processing

ERP Studies first appeared in linguistics with the N400, a negative wave whose amplitude increased at 400 ms after frustration of a linguistic expectation during processing: 'I prefer my coffee with socks'. Today, such neurophysiology studies are recognized as a crucial tool in tracking the architecture of language, revealing through precise theoretical hypotheses, a detailed chronology of the computations involved in lexical access and sentence processing. Prime-target studies of lexical access often relate it to two factors: (i) lexical frequency, or (ii) phonological similarity versus morphological identity: spin-spinach versus spin-spinning. In contrast, processing studies propose that the N400 is a measure of syntactic integration, since even for words out of syntactic context there would be a spontaneous underlying structural configuration. Our goal was to re-evaluate these two hypotheses - lexical predictability or syntactic structure - through a design, which maintains the same target in five conditions presented randomly while volunteers were monitored by an EEG: (i) prime and target related by the same semantic field (nose-ear); (ii) prime and target that can easily be put together in a phrase (earring-ear; earring for the ear); (iii) high-predictability of word in sentence (I went to the pharmacy to pierce my ear); (iv) low predictability of word in sentence (I went to the hairdresser to dye my ear); and (v) unrelated prime and target (mat- ear). The N400 findings point to the unification of lexical and syntactic processes around the syntactic hypotheses. The reseach was funded by the National Research Council (CNPq) but there are no resources available to presente at international congresses.

Poster 2

MISLEADING PHONETIC INFORMATION DUE TO STIMULUS CROSS-SPLICING IS PROCESSED AUTOMATICALLY: AN MMN

Johanna Steinberg1,2, Hubert Truckenbrodt3, & Thomas Jacobsen1 1Helmut Schmidt University/University of the Federal Armed Forces, Hamburg, Germany, 2University of Leipzig, Germany, 3Centre for General Linguistics (ZAS), Berlin, Germany

Descriptors: MMN, speech processing, phonetic violations

The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in different stages of speech processing can be investigated using the Mismatch Negativity component (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the methodological need for strict control of the acoustic stimulus properties on the one hand and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the linguistic stimuli on the other hand. Here, we investigate comparatively two alternative methods of preparing speech stimulus material with respect to their applicability in MMN experiments. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German grammar, the Dorsal Fricative Assimilation, two corresponding sets of various well-formed and ill-formed vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the following fricative within the vowels. We found the spliced syllables to elicit significantly larger N2 responses compared to the natural stimuli regardless of their phonotactic well-formedness. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimulation material was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN studies, the splicing technique may lead to barely controllable interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation. This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (Priority Programme 1234 grant JA1009/10-1 to TJ and HT).

Poster 3

DEFENSIVE MOBILIZATION AMIDST PERVASIVE DISTRESS: RESPONSE PROFILES IN GAD

Lisa M. McTeague, Hailey W. Bulls, Bethany C. Wangelin, Marie-Claude Laplante, Margaret M. Bradley, & Peter J. Lang University of Florida

Descriptors: anxiety, startle, depression

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is diagnostically delineated by chronic physiological arousal manifest as restlessness, feeling ''on edge'', and/or muscle tension. As such, the empirically-supported, standard of care for cognitive-behavioral intervention includes relaxation techniques in the initial stages of treatment. Both the nosology and conventional treatment planning are founded upon verbal report. How does the objective measurement of physiological reactivity covary with dimensional self-report in-

dices of somatic complaints? Furthermore, does the extent of somatic compared to cognitive (i.e., worrisome rumination) symptoms differentially predict reactivity? Psychophysiological measures including the startle reflex and responses in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial electromyography were recorded in individuals with a principal diagnosis of GAD (n 5 78) and demographically-matched controls (n 5 76) during imagery of threatening and neutral narratives. Those with GAD compared to controls evinced attenuated defensive reactivity as well as less reliable affective modulation, most pronounced in startle reflex responding. Concerning dimensional symptom severity in GAD, somatic and cognitive symptoms showed similar, inverse relationships with defensive responding. Paralleling epidemiological investigations of anxiety and mood disorder comorbidity, which have characterized GAD as a disorder more akin to anxious-misery than focal fear, this symptom constellation also seems to reflect diminished rather than exaggerated defensive responding.

Poster 4

PROLONGED INHIBITORY PROCESSES IN OLDER ADULTS DURING WORKING MEMORY

Yuji Yi, Julianna Kulik, Timothy Martin, & David Friedman New York State Psychiatric Institute

Descriptors: proactive interference, working memory, ERP

Working memory (WM) performance declines as one gets older. A deficit in inhibiting task-irrelevant information has been suggested as a critical factor in this decline. However, the timing of age-related changes in inhibitory processing is relatively unknown. Hence, the precise temporal information inherent in the ERP was employed using a paradigm in which participants had to resolve proactive interference engendered by a highly familiar but no longer relevant item in WM. Twenty young (ages 20 - 28) and 20 older (ages 65-76) adults participated. A 4-digit display was followed by a selection cue indicating which two of four digits to remember. Three probe types were possible: a positive probe (matching 1 of the task-relevant digits), a non-intrusion probe (not matching any of the prior digits) and an intrusion probe (matching a familiar, but task-irrelevant digit). Participants had to decide whether the digit did or did not match one of the task-relevant items. Proactive interference (PI), the reaction time difference between the intrusion and non-intrusion probes, was reliably larger for older than young adults. Relative to the non-intrusion probe, the intrusion probe was associated with a fronto-central negativity (presumably reflecting inhibitory processes) in both groups, but with longer latency in the older (598 ms) compared to the young (495 ms) adults. The prolonged PI and frontal negativity most likely reflect slowed resolution of PI, and may be consistent with the notion that older adults have a deficit in inhibiting task-irrelevant information.

Poster 5

CORTICAL INDICATION OF DEFICIENT EMOTION REGULATION IN BORDERLINE AND DEPRESSIVE PATIENTS

Christian Pietrek, Astrid Steffen, & Brigitte Rockstroh University of Konstanz

Descriptors: emotion regulation, major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder Emotion regulation is considered crucial in social interactions, and impaired emotion regulation is assumed to characterize personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Magnetoencephalographic responses to aversive and neutral IAPS pictures were studied in 19 BPD, 24 patients with major depressive disorders (MDD), and 18 healthy controls in an emotion regulation design: Across a random series of 180 trials subjects saw either a white cross signaling a neutral or an aversive picture 2 sec later (passive viewing), or a blue cross signaling presentation of an aversive picture, to which responses should be 'down-regulated' by implementing a pre-experimentally trained mental strategy. In controls right-temporal activity (analyzed in the source space) around 400 ms after picture onset was significantly larger after aversive than neutral pictures, this emotion effect being absent in BPD and evident as a trend in MDD patients. The blue cross (down-regulation signal) evoked larger central and right-temporal activity 300 ms after onset of aversive pictures in 2/3 of controls and BPD patients compared to passive viewing, while 2/ 3 of MDD patients exhibited less activity when down-regulating compared to passive viewing. In BPD down-regulation varied with higher self-rating of regulation-by-reappraisal (ERQr). Results suggest that down-regulation prompts may evoke increased effort manifest in augmented brain activity, and that interindividual variability of this cortical sign of emotion regulation may be modified by subjective regulation ability. Research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FOR751, B5).

Poster 6

COGNITIVE RESOURCES PREDICT EMOTION REGULATION SUCCESS IN YOUNGER AND OLDER ADULTS

Philipp C. Opitz1, Heather L. Urry1, & James J. Gross2 1Tufts University, 2Stanford University

Descriptors: age differences, cognitive ability, reappraisal

According to the Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework, emotion regulation success hinges on the availability of relevant

regulatory resources. However, relatively little is known about which specific resources predict successful emotion regulation and for whom. To examine the link between resources and emotion regulation success, we focused on cognitive reappraisal (CR) and asked whether age-related variation in two cognitive resources (fluid and crystallized cognitive ability) would predict reappraisal success. We tested this possibility by assessing fluid and crystallized cognitive ability in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) who also performed a CR task. In the CR task, participants followed instructions to use reappraisal to increase and decrease their emotional response to sad pictures. These conditions were contrasted with a condition in which participants followed the instruction to view the pictures without changing how they felt. Results showed that 1) YA had higher levels of fluid cognitive ability than OA, but comparable levels of crystallized cognitive ability. 2) YA were able to use CR to increase and decrease negative emotion, indexed by corrugator EMG, but OA were only able to increase negative emotion. 3) Fluid cognitive ability predicted CR success for OA but not YA, while crystallized cognitive ability predicted CR success for YA but not OA. Overall, and consistent with SOC-ER, this pattern suggests that available resources may contribute to emotion regulation success.

Poster 7

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATIONAL REACTIVITY INFLUENCES ORIENTING

Bridget E. Rubenking, Rachel L. Bailey, & Annie Lang Indiana University

Descriptors: motivational activation, cardiac orienting, individual differences Research suggests that individual differences in motivational reactivity influence physiological responses to television messages. The Motivational Activation Measure (MAM) measures individual differences in appetitive system reactivity (ASA) and defensive system reactivity (DSA) and has been shown to be predictably related to self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli. This study tested the prediction that individual high in DSA and low in ASA (called risk avoiders) would exhibit more shallow cardiac orienting responses or even some acceleratory responses. Participants MAM scores were measured and then they watched about 45 minutes of television. Heart rate was recorded for 6 s following 23 probes (which subjects were instructed to count) and 23 identified orienting eliciting structural features. Results showed that both probes and structural features elicited significant cardiac orienting (F(12, 792) 5 20.80, p< .00), though ORs to probes were deeper than to structural features (F(12,792) 5 12.17, p< .00). In addition, as predicted, high compared to low DSAs showed shallower ORs with a late acceleratory component (F(12,792) 5 1.88, p< .03). When looking at structural features only in arousing messages, all participants show acceleratory CRC during negative and deceleratory CRC during positive messages (F(12,125) 5 23.06, p< .00). This effect is larger for high DSA (F(1,25) 5 3.24, p< .08).

Poster 8

SEXUAL AROUSAL TO SAME- AND OPPOSITE-SEX STIMULI IN HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL MEN: THE IMPACT OF DIRECTING ATTENTION TO SEXUAL AND NONSEXUAL STIMULUS CONTENT

Lelia Samson & Erick Janssen Indiana University

Descriptors: sexual psychophysiology, visual attention, sexual arousal Psychophysiological studies have consistently found that men's sexual responses are "category-specific." That is, in contrast to women, men only tend to become sexually aroused to stimuli that are congruent with their sexual orientation. The current study tested the hypothesis that category-specific response patterns in men may, at least in part, result from differences in affective and attentional reactions to same- and opposite-sex stimuli. Twenty-five heterosexual and 21 homosexual men participated. Affective responses were assessed through facial electromyography. Genital responses were measured using a RigiScan monitor. The assessment and manipulation of attention was enabled through the use of circular transparent outlines (or 'bubbles') that moved over video content. Participants' attention was either directed to sexual (e.g., genitals) or nonsexual (e.g., environment) content of heterosexual and homosexual stimuli. Participants were instructed to keep a cursor inside the bubble they were viewing. In a third condition, participants could freely choose between sexual or nonsexual content. Men had stronger genital responses to conditions in which attention was directed to sexual vs. nonsexual cues (F(1,48) 5 9.14, p<.0001). Also, the interaction between sexual orientation and stimulus type was significant (F(1,48) 5 26.71, p< .0001), with follow-up tests supporting "category-specificity." Findings on the effects of the attention manipulation on affective and genital responses to erotic stimuli that are not congruent with men's sexual orientation will be presented. The Kinsey Institute Student Research Grant 2010

INVESTIGATING IF REPEATED EXPOSURE TO COMPLEX AUDITORY STRUCTURAL FEATURES LEADS TO HABITUATION OF THE ORIENTING RESPONSE

Matthew A. Falk, Robert F. Potter, & Taylor M. Wells Indiana University

Descriptors: orienting response, habituation, audio

Previous work shows that structural features of audio messages-for example voice changes, jingle onsets, silence onsets, and production effects-cause cardiac orienting in listeners and increase allocation of cognitive resources to momentary message processing. This experiment was designed to see if repetition of these complex auditory features results in habituation of the OR. Subjects (N 5 91) were exposed to approximately 40 minutes of audio stimuli designed to simulate music radio broadcasts. In-between songs, subjects were exposed to 6s of auditory structural features: periods of silence, jingles, and production effects. One structural feature occurred between each song. Each feature was repeated three times during the course of the stimulus. The songs were systematically sequenced across four orders of presentation to account for order effects. Heart rate and skin conductance data were collected during the entire listening period. Results support previous findings of biphasic cardiac orienting to auditory formal features in the aggregate. Subjects did not habituate to onsets of silence. However as predicted, orienting shows signs of habituation over repeated exposure to jingles and production effects. For jingles - musical identification of the station through lyrics - subjects appear to shift from orienting to a defensive response in subsequent exposures. Skin conductance data support this interpretation.

Poster 10

MARIJUANA CESSATION RESULTS IN DECREASE IN EEG SLOW WAVE POWER AND INCREASE IN BETA FREQUENCY POWER ACROSS 10 DAYS OF ABSTINENCE

Herman A. Diggs, Matthew A. Picchietti, James Bender, & David G. Gilbert Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Descriptors: marijuana, withdrawal, EEG

Marijuana withdrawal symptoms closely resemble those of nicotine withdrawal and include symptoms of anxiety, irritability, insomnia, and restlessness that persist across a number of days. Although subjective measures of marijuana withdrawal have been relatively well-characterized, few studies have analyzed the effects of marijuana cessation on brain activity. The current study collected resting eyes closed EEG of 7 heavy marijuana smokers (at least 3 times daily) at a baseline, three days after cessation, and ten days after cessation. A spectral frequency decomposition was performed on the resting EEG such that Delta (2-4 Hz), Theta (4-7.5 Hz), Alpha (7.5-13.5 Hz), Beta1 (13.5-20Hz), and Beta2 (20-30Hz) average frequency band powers were obtained. The results indicated a significant time x brain region (frontal vs. parietal sites) interaction in Delta (F 5 9.44,p 5 .02), Theta (F5 5.98, p 5 .05), Beta1 (F5 15.64,p 5 .01) and Beta2 (F 5 8.00, p 5 .03) frequency bands. Follow-up analyses revealed significantly greater average power at day 10 post-quit compared to baseline at posterior sites for Beta frequencies and significantly lower average power at day 10 post-quit compared to baseline at anterior sites for Delta and Theta frequencies. These changes are consistent with an increase in cortical activation after quitting marijuana use. Office of Research Development and Administration, SIUC

Poster 11

IRRELEVANT PROBE TECHNIQUE WITH THE P300 ELICITED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULI TO THE SHOULDERS

Fumie Sugimoto, Ayumi Nomura, & Jun'ichi Katayama Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: mental workloads, attentional resources, probe technique The present study examined whether an irrelevant probe technique, in which no response was required to probe stimuli, can evaluate the amount of attentional resources allocated to a computer game task. Electrical somatosensory stimuli to participants' shoulders were used as probe stimuli, in order to prevent interference with either input of information or performance (game operation). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by the electrical probe stimuli were recorded while eight undergraduate students preformed a go-kart riding game. We predicted that amplitude of a late positive wave (P300) elicited by the probe stimuli should decrease when the task was difficult, because the operation of the task required more attentional resources. The standard stimuli (80%) were presented to one shoulder and the deviant stimuli (20%) were presented on the other shoulder. Participants were asked to ignore the probe stimuli. The difficulty of the game task was manipulated by the speed of a kart, complexity of courses, and degree of interruption by computer-controlled rivals. As predicted, the amplitude of P300 elicited by the deviant stimuli decreased while participants performed a difficult game task compared to when the task was easy. The present study proposes a useful technique to evaluate mental workloads in complex everyday circumstances without interference with input of information and performance.

THE TEMPORAL FLUCTUATION IN ATTENTION TO DISTRACTORS REFLECTED IN DEVIANT P3

Fumihito Morimoto1, Jun'ichi Katayama2, & Akihiro Yagi2 1Jin-ai University, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: attention, temporal fluctuation, erp p3s

To examine the temporal fluctuation in attention to infrequent deviant events, this research examined event-related brain potential (ERP) P3s elicited by visual stimuli in a three-stimulus oddball task, in which the participants made button-press responses to discriminate target from deviant and standard stimuli. The three-stimulus oddball paradigm consisted of a frequent standard (80%; blue circles), an infrequent deviant (15%; combination of the standard circle and two lateral red squares) and an infrequent target (5%; small blue circles). These stimuli were presented in a random series, once every 1.2 s with 120 ms durations. ERPs were recorded from 14 participants who performed the task for approximately 40min - four blocks of 10min.We examined the P3s elicited by infrequent deviant stimuli as a function of time distance from the previous target. P3 amplitude to deviant stimuli that occurred within 15 sec after the previous target was not influenced by the interval between the target and the eliciting deviant. Whereas, the P3 elicited by the deviant, which occurred after 15 sec from the previous target, became larger as the interval was prolonged. The interval between target and deviant had no effect on behavioral performance or P3 latencies. These results indicate that the attention to the task-irrelevant deviation changed depending on the timing of occurrence between target stimuli, which would reflect expectation and anticipation to target in tasks.

Poster 13

ATTENTIONAL CAPTURE FOR TASK-IRRELEVANT EMOTIONAL PICTURES APPEARING AT SURROUNDING LOCATION

Marisa Muramatsu & Jun'ichi Katayama Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: attentional capture, emotion, P300

Attentional capture for surrounding deviant distractors decreases with an increase in the stimulus discrimination difficulty at the task-relevant central location (Sawaki & Katayama, 2008; Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience). It is also known that emotional stimuli capture attention due to their ecological importance. The present study investigated the relation between task difficulty and attentional capture for task-irrelevant emotional pictures appearing at the surrounding location. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 12 participants during a visual three-stimulus oddball paradigm. The discrimination difficulty was manipulated at the central location by difference in stimulus size (small or large) between frequent standard (70%) and rare target stimuli (15%), to which a button press response was required. Emotionally positive and negative pictures were presented in the surrounding location as rare distractor stimuli (15%). Emotional distractor stimuli elicited large P300 in both the easy and difficult tasks, indicating that task-irrelevant emotional pictures captured attention even when the task was difficult. In addition, negative deviant stimuli elicited more posteriorly distributed P300 than positive stimuli, suggesting that negative stimuli were processed as task-relevant rather than task-irrelevant deviant information. It was revealed that attentional capture for emotional stimuli is not influenced by task difficulty and that the processing of surrounding emotional stimuli depends on its valence.

Poster 14

CARDIAC VAGAL CONTROL DURING HANDHOLDING AND DURATION OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN COLLEGE COUPLES

Anya V. Kogan, & John J.B. Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: cardiac vagal control, RSA, coregulation

Emerging evidence suggests a positive association between cardiac vagal control, measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and quality of intimate relationships. No study has examined whether physiological synchrony between individuals in romantic relationships, indexed by covariation of RSA, is associated with relationship quality. The present study examined the association between quality of romantic relationships and covariation of RSA in 13 college couples. Participants filled out questionnaires on their relationship quality, and four 10-minute electrocardiographic (ECG) recording segments followed. After the 10-minute resting baseline, participants were asked to hold an object (tennis ball) or hold their partner's hand for 10minutes in counterbalanced order. Subsequently, another 10-minute baseline was recorded. RSA was derived for each partner in a series of moving windows, resulting in an RSA series for each partner. Covariation was estimated by the cross correlations of these RSA series. Although there was no association between the covariation of RSA and the average scores of relationship quality reported by each couple, the covariation of RSA during handholding was associated with the length of the relationship. Couples exhibiting higher covariation of RSA were in romantic relationships for a longer period of time. This result suggests that in young couples in the beginning stages of romantic relationships, the duration of the relationship rather than its quality is associated with physiological synchrony as indexed by covariation of partners' RSA.

RESTING POSTERIOR VERSUS ANTERIOR THETA POWER: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP TO APPROACH AND WITHDRAWAL TRAITS

Jamie R. Velo, & John J.B. Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: EEG, theta power, BAS

Resting posterior versus anterior (PZ-FZ) theta band activity has been examined as a putative correlate of the dopaminergic core of extroversion and an indication of theta arising from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of approach motivation and agentic extroversion (aE) have found that more relative posterior theta compared to midline frontal theta is associated with higher levels of aE as well as higher behavioral activation (BAS) scores. The present study thus investigated the BAS-resting theta association in a sample of 48 male participants, screened to ensure no current or past history of DSM-IV Axis I pathology. Using an average reference (64- channel montage) PZ-FZ theta scores were computed from four visits, with each day including two eight-minute resting EEG sessions. Contrary to expectation, individuals scoring higher in BAS showed less relative PZ theta power, not more as had been previously found. Moreover, significant relationships with measures of anxiety and negative affect (behavioral inhibition, worry, trait anxiety and negative affect) revealed participants with higher anxiety or negative affect showed more relative posterior theta compared to those who reported lower anxiety and negative affect. These findings were unexpected given previous findings of BAS and aE's association to relatively greater posterior theta, but suggest the relationship of affective/motivational psychological constructs and resting midfrontal theta activity may be more complex than extant research suggests.

Poster 16

DISSOCIATING PROACTIVE AND REACTIVE CONFLICT IN THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS

Joseph L. Sanguinetti1, James F. Cavanagh2, John J.B. Allen1, & Scott J. Sherman1 1University of Arizona, 2Brown University

Descriptors: intracranial eeg, cognitive control, parkinson's disease Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly common treatment for Parkinson's disease. A major target of DBS is the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a basal ganglia structure implicated in motor and cognitive processes. The STN is thought to contribute to adaptive control by temporarily preventing response execution, buying time for the best response to be selected. This characterization of the STN suggests two separable functions: increased activity to cues signaling potentially conflicting outcomes, and increased activity during motor response conflict. We predicted that these specific functions would be revealed when a cue indicates slowing or inhibition is needed, and when actions compete for execution. Intracranial recordings were obtained from four patients with Parkinson's disease during STN-DBS implantation surgery. Patients performed a cued Simon task with predictive (EASY/HARD) or non-predictive (XXXX) cues, and congruent (right side of screen, right hand) or incongruent (right side of screen, left hand) response demands. This design allowed us to assess these two functions of the STN: (1) non-predictive/predictive cues should elicit cue conflict effects, and (2) incongruent/congruent responses should create action conflict effects. Greater STN activity to both cue conflict and action conflict in the STN was observed. These findings confirm roles of the STN in both cognitive and motor conflict, and suggest the promise of identifying regions that may ideally be targeted (motor) and spared (cognitive) in future DBS protocols for Parkinson's patients.

Poster 17

OBSESSED, WORRIED, OR ANXIOUS ABOUT MISTAKES: AN ERROR-RELATED NEGATIVITY STUDY

Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Amreen Gill, Julia Kamp, Jinyuan Zhang, & John J.B. Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: ERN, OCD, anxiety

Research has found that error-monitoring activity is increased among those with anxiety and negative affect. Individuals with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD), specifically, often show enlarged Error-related Negativity (ERN) amplitudes. OCD is characterized by future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral compensations and anxious arousal. To date, however, research has not investigated whether enhanced ERN in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. Thus, the present study looked at differences in ERN amplitude across three experimental groups: high OC (greater than the clinical cutoff on the Obsessive-compulsive inventory - Revised (OCI-R), below the median on the Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)), high worry (greater than clinical cutoff on PSWQ, below clinical cutoff on TAI and OCI-R), and high worry group (top 10 percentile on TAI, below clinical cutoff on OCI-R or PSWQ). A control group had scores below the median on all three scales. Contrary to predic-

tions, the OC group in fact had the lowest response-locked amplitudes, across both correct and error responses, with other clinical groups showing elevated scores relative to the OC group. Because these high OC participants were screened specifically to be lower on anxiety and worry, these findings suggest that heightened ERN in OCD may reflect anxiety and negative affect as opposed to OC symptoms specifically.

Poster 18

AUDITORY CORTEX NEUROPLASTICITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: AN ERP ASSESSMENT OF STIMULUS-SPECIFIC PLASTICITY

Ryan P. Mears & Kevin M. Spencer VA Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: schizophrenia, neuroplasticity

Disrupted neuroplasticity may be a primary neural substrate of schizophrenia. We used event-related potenials (ERPs) to assay neuroplasticity after tetanic stimulation in healthy control subjects (HC) and chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ). We report evidence that stimulus-specific plasticity in auditory cortex is abnormal in schizophrenia. Subjects (15 HC, 14 SZ) performed an auditory oddball task during EEG recording for two blocks before and two blocks after auditory tetanus. Each oddball block consisted of 1000 Hz and 1500 Hz standards (240 trials each) and 400 Hz targets (48 trials). During tetanic stimulation, 1000 Hz tones were presented at 11 Hz for 2.4min.We analyzed ERPs for the standard trials, comparing the conditioned stimuli (1000 Hz tones: CS+) and unconditioned stimuli (1500 Hz tones: CS-) with ERPs from the baseline blocks. In post-tetanus Block1, CS+tones evoked a positive shift at left temporal electrodes from 60-350ms in HC. No pre-/post-tetanus effects were found in the SZ CS+ERPs. In post-tetanus Block2, CS+tones evoked a positive shift at bilateral frontal electrodes from 200-300 ms in HC. In SZ, CS+tones evoked a positive shift at right temporal electrodes from 100-400ms. No pre-/post-tetanus effects were present in either subject group for the CS- tones. The schizophrenia right hemisphere neuroplasticity effect correlated negatively with medication. These results suggest that stimulus-specific auditory neuroplasticity is disrupted in schizophrenia. Stimulus-specific plasticity might present a novel assessment for treatment efficacy. VA Merit CX000154, NIH R01 MH080187

Poster 19

THE IMPACT OF RUMINATION ON NEURAL FUNCTIONING IN RESPONSE TO EMOTIONAL INFORMATION

Emily L. Belleau1, Lauren E. Taubitz1, Christine L. Larson1, & Melissa Castro2 1University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2Ponce School of Medicine

Descriptors: rumination, emotion, fmri

Rumination, known as the perseverate focus on one's negative mood, has been linked to the development and maintenance of depression as well as biases in emotional information processing. Not only does rumination impact individuals with depression, healthy adults that have elevated trait rumination were found to have greater activation in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, mental imagery, and visual attention (Ray et al., 2005; Cooley et al., 2010). The current study wished to expand on these findings in order to examine the impact of rumination on neural functioning in response to emotional information in a sample of healthy adults. Eighteen healthy adults completed an event-related fMRI paradigm in which two mood inductions (rumination, distraction) each preceded viewing of a set of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Results indicated that following rumination compared to distraction, all three types of pictures elicited elevated activity in regions associated with the generation of mental imagery (fusiform gyrus, pre-cuneus), self-referential processing/autobiographical memory (posterior cingulate, parap-hippocampal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex), and emotion generation and regulation (amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate), with the rumination-unpleasant condition showing the highest elevations in these areas. These findings suggest that rumination elicits greater self-focused and emotionally charged thinking when responding to emotional and non-emotional material, even in a depression free, healthy sample.

Poster 20

THE BOMB: AN INVESTIGATION OF ANTICIPATORY ANXIETY IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD

Leticia Moedano1, Jia Wu2, Max Greger-Moser2, Amanda Ng2, Linda C. Mayes2, & Michael J. Crowley2 1Yale University, 2Yale Child Study Center

Descriptors: anxiety, ERP, children

We investigated neural activity with event-related potentials (ERPs) in middle childhood during a novel computer-simulated hot-potato game, The Bomb. A high-density EEG was used to examine the event-related neural activity during events designed to induce anticipatory anxiety in children characterized with high or low trait-anxiety. Based on previous ERP studies in adults and children, we hypothesized that participants' EEG recordings would show enhanced ERP components in early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) following the cue of approaching threat. Research

was conducted in one laboratory visit. The current sample consists of fourteen participants between the ages of 8 to14 yrs. The study recruited 8 high trait-anxiety and 6 low-trait anxious children The results of children characterized with high-trait anxiety revealed an LPP component in the window 350 to 850ms after threat event, when the participant received a red bomb, but no effect was seen for the EPN component, 150 to 350 ms after this event with the mean peak amplitudes averaged over channel Pz. LPP effects suggest continued heightened attention toward emotional stimuli of the threatening stimuli among trait anxious children. The Messer Family, The Yale STARS Program

Poster 21

CONFLICT ADAPTATION IN HIGH FUNCTIONING AUTISM

Ann Clawson, Peter E. Clayson, Mikle South, & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: conflict adaptation, autism spectrum disorders

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently display deficits in cognitive control processes, potentially contributing to characteristic difficulties monitoring and regulating behavior in the presence of conflicting information. Modification of performance following conflict can be measured by examining conflict adaptation, the adjustment of cognitive resources based on previous-trial conflict. The electrophysiological correlates of these processes can be measured using the N2, a stimulus-locked component of the event-related potential (ERP). High-density ERPs and behavioral data were acquired while 21 children with ASD and 25 typically developing controls completed a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behaviorally, groups showed no differences for conflict adaptation effects on reaction times or error rates. For electrophysiology, controls demonstrated larger N2 amplitudes for incongruent (high-conflict) trials following congruent (low-conflict) trials than for incongruent trials following incongruent trials. Importantly, children with ASD showed no such differences in N2 amplitude based on previous-trial conflict. Lack of electrophysiological conflict adaptation effects in children with ASD combined with intact behavioral indices of conflict adaptation may indicate irregular neural processing associated with conflict adaptation. Future research is necessary to accurately characterize and understand the behavioral implications of these deficits relative to diagnostic severity, anxiety, and personality.

Poster 22

SUICIDE, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES OF SUICIDE

Michael J. Larson & Peter E. Clayson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, psychopathology, suicide

Previous research indicates that neurobiological abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may be associated with suicide risk in individuals with psychopathology. The present study examined how ACC-mediated performance-monitoring processes may be impaired in individuals at risk for suicide relative to individuals not at risk for suicide and psychiatrically healthy controls. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 68 individuals (23 with a psychiatric diagnosis and not at risk for suicide, 22 with a psychiatric diagnosis and at risk for suicide, and 23 psychi-atrically-healthy controls) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, reaction times [RTs]) and error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) amplitudes were examined. Groups showed similar RTs and error rates. Correct-trial (CRN) amplitudes were significantly more negative in individuals at risk for suicide compared to those not at risk for suicide; ERN amplitude did not differentiate groups. The difference between error and correct Pe amplitudes significantly differentiated groups. Both controls and individuals not at risk for suicide exhibited more positive Pe amplitudes for error trials compared to correct trials; Pe amplitudes of individuals at risk for suicide did not differentiate error trials and correct trials. Findings indicate that performance-monitoring abnormalities, specifically CRN and Pe amplitudes, differentiate individuals with psychopathology at risk for suicide.

Poster 23

MARRIAGE AND THE BRAIN: A SPOUSE OBSERVATION EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Daniel A. Good, Patrick Steffen, Scott A. Baldwin, & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: error related negativity, post-error positivity, marriage Marital relationship satisfaction is associated with both physical- and mental health benefits. Recent research suggests that spouse support (e.g., hand holding) during a fear-inducing task reduces neural activity associated with fear and anxiety more than stranger support. In contrast, neural activity associated with error processing is heightened when a stranger is present. No known studies to date have explored the effect of spouse

observation on error related neural activity. In this study we examined the effect of spouse observation on the error related negativity (ERN) and the post-error positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP) across three counterbalanced sessions (alone, observed by stranger, observed by spouse) using an Eriksen flanker task. Separate 2-Sex (Male, Female) x 2-Accuracy (error, correct) x 3-Session (alone, stranger, spouse) repeated measures ANOVAs indicated an interaction between sex and session for both the ERN and Pe, with wives showing greater reactivity across sessions. Significantly increased ERN amplitude between husbands and wives was found only during spouse observation, which suggests a unique effect of spouse. A session-by-session analysis of the Pe indicated reduced Pe amplitude in wives compared to husbands when alone and during spouse observation. Results suggest that wives are more sensitive to spouse observation and that they demonstrate greater attentiveness to or increased vigilance for errors when observed by their spouse, and that spouse observation can enhance, rather than buffer, neural response to errors.

Poster 24

CONFLICT MONITORING AND COGNITIVE CONTROL: HIGHER ORDER TRIAL EFFECTS

Peter E. Clayson, & Michael J. Larson Brigham Young University

Descriptors: cognitive control, higher order trial effects, event-related potential In order to investigate the sensitivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the top-down biasing of attentional control associated with previous trial context, we examined the recruitment of cognitive control across sequential trials—termed higher-order trial effects—using the N2 component of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP). Previous research indicates that the ACC-mediated N2, a neural index of conflict monitoring, is sensitive to strategic adjustments in control. High-density ERPs were obtained from 181 healthy individuals (93 female, 88 male) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, reaction times [RTs]) and N2 amplitude showed reliable conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). Higher-order trial effects were quantified across multiple sequential presentations of congruent or incongruent trials (e.g., four consecutive incongruent trials). Consistent with the conflict monitoring theory, RTs became faster across multiple incongruent trials. N2 amplitudes decreased across incongruent trials and increased across congruent trials. N2 amplitudes were positively correlated with incongruent-trial RTs. Effects remained when stimulus-response repetitions were removed. Results indicate that RTs and N2 amplitude are sensitive to cumulative modulations of cognitive control associated with conflict across multiple congruent and incongruent trials. These findings support the role of conflict detection in the recruitment of cognitive control.

Poster 25

HOW BAD WAS IT? SENSITIVITY TO LOSSES IN PROBLEM GAMBLERS AND CONTROLS

Luisa Kreussel1, Johannes Hewig2, Nora Kretschmer1, Michael G.H. Coles3, &

Wolfgang H.R. Miltner1 'Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 2Julius-Maximilians-University Wiirzburg, 3University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: feedback negativity, problem gambling, erps

Problem gamblers (PG) show several cognitive impairments, particularly in learning from loss experiences. 20 problem gamblers and 20 controls completed a Blackjack task, during which event-related potentials (ERPs) and the feedback negativity (FN, 270 -320 ms following feedback stimuli) in response to negative outcomes (near or full losses) were recorded. While there were no significant differences in the FN magnitude following full losses between PG and controls, controls showed larger FN amplitudes following near losses. These results indicate that controls evaluated near losses more negatively than PG. Since FN amplitude represents a neural signal of learning and PGs do not learn from losses, controls but not PG should have changed their risky gambling after near losses. However, both groups became more cautious during trials following near losses. Nevertheless, the difference in the FN to near and full losses was positively correlated with more cautious decisions following near losses in controls, but not in PGs. The present findings indicate that gamblers are less sensitive to the degree of punishment (near versus full losses), which might be due to their stronger preoccupation with wins.

Poster 26

PROCESSING OF ANGRY VOICES IS MODULATED BY VISUAL

Martin Mothes-Lasch, Wolfgang H.R. Miltner, & Thomas Straube Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena

Descriptors: cross-modal distraction, automatic processing, emotional voices

Several uni-modal distraction studies showed a higher activation of the amygdala

and the superior temporal cortex (STC) to angry versus neutral voices independent of

attention. These findings are in accordance with the assumption of an automatic processing of emotionally salient stimuli. By means of a cross-modal distraction paradigm the present fMRI study investigated whether neural responses to angry versus neutral voices are modulated by the attentional load of a simultaneously performed visual task. Results indicate that visual distraction inhibited activation of the amygdala regardless of the amount ofvisual load. Furthermore we found only in the low but not in the high load condition a higher activation to angry versus neutral prosody in the STC. These results suggest that cross-modal distraction generally prevents activation of the amygdala to threat-related prosodic stimuli and that the activation of the STC strongly depends on visual load. Thus, the results show new evidence for limits of the automatic processing of emotionally salient stimuli.

Funding provided by the German Research Foundation.

Poster 27

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO LATERALIZED WARM WATER HAND SUBMERSION

Jared J. McGinley, Reed Powles, Maggie Mooney, & Bruce H. Friedman Virginia Tech

Descriptors: lateralization, cardiovascular, warm water

Submersion in warm water has been widely reported to be enjoyable, relaxing, and to have cardiovascular benefits. These effects were studied by the use of warm water hand submersion, which was administered in a lateralized manner to 41 male undergraduates. ECG, BP, and self- reported affect were collected during baseline and while each hand was submerged in 37.2°C water for three minutes. The task was reported to be enjoyable (5.93) and relaxing (6.10) on a 7- point likert scale, and 91% described it as at the ideal temperature for comfort. However, heart period decreased from baseline to task (t 5 3.7, p<.001), suggesting sympathetic cardiac arousal. RMSSD, a timedomain vagal measure of heart rate variability, showed evidence of lateralized responsiveness: there was a larger RMSSD increase for right hand submersion as compared to the left hand (t 5 2.0, p 5 .05). Although non-significant, SBP showed a similar lateralized effect (t 5 1.6, p 5 .117). On closer inspection, RMSSD increased in 23 subjects, but decreased in 18, which shows large inter-individual variability in task response. In sum, subjective responses indicate that warm water hand submersion is perceived positively, but the cardiovascular reactions to the task are mixed. The latter responses suggest a pattern of autonomic co-activation that may vary as a function of task laterality.

Poster 28

APPROACH-AVOIDANCE TEMPERAMENT AND CARDIAC RESPONSES TO HAND COLD PRESSOR

Derek P. Spangler, Jared J. McGinley, Bruce H. Friedman, & Reed Powles Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Descriptors: personality, autonomic nervous system

Approach and avoidance temperament have been indicated as higher-order factors along which personality varies, and the biological components of these constructs have attracted much interest. For example, approach and avoidance are posited to have differential hemispheric representation (right-avoid, left-approach). Autonomic responses are also held to be lateralized along sympathetic-vagal lines. These issues were examined via assessment of cardiac responses to a lateralized hand cold pressor (CP) task in relation to approach-avoidance temperament. Twelve undergraduate men completed an approach-avoidance inventory and participated in a lateralized hand CP task (both hands, sequentially) while ECG was recorded. Baseline and recovery periods preceded and followed each task. Approach temperament showed marginal correlations with cardiac responsiveness to the task; Heart period reactivity to left hand CP (r(10) 5 .56, p 5 .06) and RMSSD (a vagal heart rate variability index) recovery from right hand CP (r(10) 5 — .53, p 5 .07) were both associated with approach. These findings suggest that approach temperament may be associated with both decreased cardiac reactivity to and diminished vagal recovery from stress. Furthermore, these associations appear to intersect with the differential hemispheric mapping of approach and avoid tendencies.

Poster 29

PROBING THE NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF ATTENTIONAL BIASES USING REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

Seth G. Disner, David M. Schnyer, & Christopher G. Beevers The University of Texas at Austin

Descriptors: biased attention, depression, TMS

Biased attention for negative stimuli is an important cognitive maladaptation in depression. Negative biases can impair information processing and retrieval, which can

exacerbate depressive symptoms. Recent fMRI studies have shown that differential engagement of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), a region associated with cognitive control, and right superior parietal cortex (SPC), a region associated with gaze control, correlates with attentional biases; however, causation cannot be inferred from fMRI studies. To discern whether these regions are causally related to attentional biases, we used inhibitory repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in healthy adults. Inhibitory rTMS has been described as a ''virtual lesion'' methodology, producing focal but temporary inhibition of cortical areas with targeted magnetic pulses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: rTMS over the right VLPFC, rTMS over the right SPC, or sham rTMS (i.e. rTMS that looks and sounds identical to active rTMS, but does not stimulate cortical tissue). Participants also completed an Exogenous Cuing Task (which measures attentional bias) before and after rTMS. The VLPFC condition demonstrated significantly greater attentional bias post-rTMS for negative (t 5 2.53, p 5 .023) and positive (t 5 2.62, p 5 .019) stimuli than either SPC or sham conditions. These findings establish a causal relationship between VLPFC function and attentional biases and reaffirm the importance of cognitive control in the regulation of incoming emotional information.

Poster 30

ERROR-RELATED ERP COMPONENTS DURING SPEECH PRODUCTION: ATTENUATION OF THE ERN IN OLDER ADULTS

Cristina M. McHenry, Kevin M. Trewartha, & Natalie A. Phillips Concordia University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, speech production, aging

The error-related negativity (ERN) is observed upon the commission of an error in a variety of motor tasks, and older adults often exhibit a reduction in ERN amplitude compared to young adults. It has been proposed that the same neural error-monitoring mechanism responsible for the motor domain is responsible for the detection of speech production errors (e.g., slips-of-the-tongue). Phoneme substitution tasks have revealed that older adults make more errors in self-produced speech than young adults. Using this task with a sample of 15 younger adults (M age 5 25.4yr, SD 5 3.8), we found evidence of an ERN following speech production errors. However, no research has explored age-related attenuation of the ERN during speech production in older adults, in whom speech errors are common. In order to do so, we used the phoneme substitution paradigm in a sample of 12 older adults (M age 5 71.8 yr, SD 5 5.3) while recording their EEG. Older adults made more errors during the substitution trials compared to a read-only condition (indicating that the paradigm was successful) and showed a larger error rate than the young adults. Moreover, the ERN following speech errors in the elderly was reduced in amplitude relative to younger adults, suggesting that a reduced amplitude ERN does predict increased self-produced speech errors later in life. Some researchers have proposed that the ERN indicates awareness ofan error and as such, our findings may suggest that older adults are less aware of self-produced speech errors or that errors are less salient compared to younger adults.

Poster 31

DIFFERENCES IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EEG COHERENCE AND WORKING MEMORY PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS AND HIGH AND LOW PERFORMING OLDER ADULTS

Erin K. Johns, Stephannie Davies, & Natalie A. Phillips Concordia University

Descriptors: eeg coherene, working memory, aging

The importance offunctional neural connections in supporting working memory (WM) in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) remains unclear. We tested 22 YA and 30 OA on a neuropsychological battery and used EEG coherence to measure functional connection between frontal and parietal regions while performing an n-back task of WM. Behavioural results on the n-back revealed that OA had higher reaction times (RT) for all conditions and lower accuracy for high WM load conditions. EEG coherence was higher during high WM load conditions for both YA and OA. Group differences for EEG coherence emerged only for fronto-parietal intra-hemispheric electrode pairs (F3-P3 and F4-P4) in the alpha band (OA > YA). This difference was driven by OAs who performed below the median on n-back accuracy (OA-L). OA-L also had a larger increase in coherence for high WM load conditions versus YA and OAs who performed above the median on n-back accuracy (OA-H). Correlations revealed that EEG coherence during high WM load performance was positively correlated with accuracy and negatively correlated with RTon the n-back in YA. The reverse pattern was found in OA-L (negative correlation with accuracy and positive correlation with RT), and coherence was not correlated with performance in OA-H. These results suggest that a higher degree of functional connectivity is associated with higher WM load, and, though functional connectivity does not differ substantially between YA and OA, it does show a different relationship with behavioural performance in YA, low-performing OA, and high-performing OA.

Funding provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, and the Reeseau quebecois de recherche sur le vieillissement.

THE FIT KIDS TRIAL: THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF A 9-MONTH ACTIVITY INTERVENTION ON PREADOLESCENT COGNITION

Lauren B. Raine1, Matthew B. Pontifex1, Mark R. Scudder1, Kevin C. O'Leary1, Chien-Ting Wu1, Eric S. Drollette1, Darla M. Castelli2, & Charles H. Hillman1 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2University of Texas at Austin

Descriptors: fitness, attention, cognitive control

Given the increased prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, a greater understanding of the extent to which fitness relates to brain health and cognition during development is of increasing importance. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent to which changes in cardiorespiratory fitness modulates the cognitive control of attention during childhood. Preadolescent children participating in a 9-month randomized-controlled trial were assigned to either an afterschool physical activity program or a waitlist control group. Prior to and after the intervention, participants completed a modified flanker task while event-related brain potentials and task performance were concurrently measured. Findings revealed increased cardiorespiratory fitness following the afterschool physical activity program and greater overall task performance; an effect not observed for the waitlist control group. Further, the afterschool physical activity program increased children's ability to allocate attentional resources, with a selective enhancement in the speed of cognitive processing for task conditions requiring the greatest amount of cognitive control. These data indicate that chronic physical activity leading to increased cardiore-spiratory fitness positively impacts neurocognition during preadolescent development, with a disproportionately greater effect for aspects of cognition requiring greater attentional control demands. This study indicates that physical activity is a necessary component to optimize cognitive and brain health in preadolescent children.

Support for our research was provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (RO1 HD055352 & 2 T32 HD007333).

Poster 33

NEURONAL GENERATOR PATTERNS OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS (ERPS) TO PLEASANT AND UNPLEASANT ODORS IN DEPRESSED AND HEALTHY ADULTS

Jurgen Kayser1, Craig E. Tenke1, Christopher J. Kroppmann1, Daniel M. Alschuler1, Shiva Fekri1, Jonathan W. Stewart1, Patrick J. McGrath1, Bruce I. Turetsky2, & Gerard E. Bruder1 1New York State Psychiatric Institute, 2University of Pennsylvania

Descriptors: olfaction, depression, CSD-PCA

Despite the overlap of cortical and limbic structures involved in olfaction, emotion and depression, there has been little study of olfactory function in depressed patients. Nose-referenced 49-channel ERPs were recorded from 25 clinically depressed and 27 healthy adults (11/11 male) during an odor detection task using pleasant (Citronalva; CIT) and unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide; H2S) stimuli. High or low odor concentrations or blank air were presented unilaterally by a constant-flow olfactometer (variable ISI 15-21 s). Subjects indicated odor presence via foot pedal. Neuronal generator patterns underlying ERPs were identified and measured by unrestricted Varimax-PCA of reference-free current source densities (CSD). CSD waveforms were characterized across odors by an early sink (315 ms, bilateral centro-temporal, N1) and two distinct sources (500 ms, mid-frontocentral; 765 ms, mid-centropa-rietal, P2). Whereas N1 sink varied with odor intensity, P2 source varied with odor quality (H2S > CIT). CSD amplitude and topography were highly correlated with individual ratings of valence (P2) and arousal (N1) as well as detection accuracy (P2). However, CSD waveforms and topographies did not differ between groups. Likewise, patients showed normal odor identification and thresholds (Sniffin' Sticks), and did not differ from controls in behavioral performance for all conditions (76-90% vs. 74-91% correct). Although CSD measures directly reflected valence and arousal properties of pleasant and unpleasant odors, there was no evidence of impaired olfactory/emotional processing in depression. Supported by NIMH grant MH082393.

Poster 34

NEURAL CORRELATES OF PROSPECTIVE MEMORY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A TIME-BASED AND AN EVENT-BASED TASK

Giorgio Arcara, Giorgia Cona, Vincenza Tarantino, & Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi University of Padua

Descriptors: prospective memory, ERP

Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to perform an intended action at some point in the future. In a PM task the participant is asked to perform a prospective action while engaged in an ongoing activity. It is possible to distinguish two kinds of PM tasks: Event-based (EB, to perform an intended action upon the occurrence of a designated target) and Time-based (TB, to perform an intended action at a particular time). While neural correlates of EB PM have been largely documented, only few studies focused on TB tasks. The aim of the present study is to compare ERP in two prospective memory tasks (EB and TB), sharing the same ongoing activity. Two groups of 14 participants were administered with two experimental conditions: an ongoing task alone (baseline) and an ongoing+PM task. In the ongoing+PM condition, one group performed the EB task and the other the TB task. ERP time-locked to the ongoing stimuli were compared between the two groups and the two conditions. An higher and more

frontal positive amplitude in 180 - 300 ms and 400 - 600 ms time windows was shown in the ongoing+PM condition compared to the baseline, for both groups. A Partial Least Square analysis showed that the ERP changes in these two time windows were highly correlated. These modulations are supposed to reflect higher recruitment of attentional resources which indexes the activation of a Retrieval Mode, common in the TB and EB PM. The Retrieval Mode seems to be mediated mainly by the activity of frontal regions in both tasks.

Poster 35

ERP INDICES OF IMPAIRED VERB GENERATION IN DEPRESSION

Jason W. Krompinger1,2,3 & Robert F. Simons1 1University of Delaware, 2McLean Hospital, 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: ERP, cognitive control, depression

Ample evidence suggests that individuals with depression show abnormalities in brain areas implicated in cognitive control. Much of this literature has focused on tasks that involve 'response override'. The current study sought to extend the literature by evaluating whether depressed individuals show behavioral and event related brain potential (ERP) abnormalities when performing an undetermined response task. Fifteen undergraduates diagnosed with a current Major Depressive Episode and 20 healthy control participants completed a verb generation task while ERPs were collected. Depressed participants performed comparably to controls in the 'repeat' condition, but worse in the 'generation' condition as indexed by slower reaction times. Regarding ERPs, both groups exhibited a comparable early (150 - 250ms) frontally maximal positivity that was enhanced for verb generation. Subsequent to this component, a second positivity emerged (250-300 ms) that exhibited a more lateralized distribution. For the control group, this second positivity was larger on the left than right site. The depressed group exhibited a more bilateral shift, owing to a reduction in the amplitude of the second positivity at the left site. These results suggest that depressed individuals exhibit deficits during cognitive control tasks outside of response override. Specifically, deficits in verb generation might be linked to hypoactivations in left-frontal brain areas responsible for conflict regulation.

Poster 36

FEEDBACK-RELATED NEGATIVITY DURING A SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING GAME

Emily M. Stanley1, D. Michael Kuhlman1, Jakub Michalak2, & Robert F. Simons1 1University of Delaware, 2University of Warsaw

Descriptors: feedback-related negativity, social decision making game The Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) is a feedback-locked Event-Related Potential (ERP) component that is larger for losses compared with gains. The ''Chicken'' game is a social decision making game where both players have the choice to cooperate or compete. The most points are awarded to the player who competes when the other player cooperates, however if both players compete they each receive the worst payoff in the game. This study examines the FRN when a player receives feedback from the other player indicating how many points were won or lost on that round of the Chicken game. The FRN was larger on trials where the other player competes than when the other player cooperates which shows that this socially complex paradigm is able to produce reliable FRNs. The FRN was also shown to be larger on trials where the participant chose the competitive choice, and that effect was strongest when there was a potential for winning points as opposed to the potential for a loss.

Poster 37

IMPAIRED N170 IN CHRONIC AND FIRST-BREAK PSYCHOSIS

Jason W. Krompinger1,2,3, Spencer Lynn2,3, Toshiuki Onitsuka3, Robert W.

McCarley3, & Dean F. Salisbury2,3 1University of Delaware, 2McLean Hospital 3Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: ERP, face processing, schizophrenia

Recent evidence indicates that face processing is impaired in chronic psychosis as indexed by reduced face-processing ERP (i.e., N170) responses and corresponding volumetric decreases in fusiform gyrus. This may relate to social impairment of the disease, as well as misattribution of social signs in others, e.g. paranoia. It is possible that ERP-indicated impairment in face processing constitutes a trait-marker for schizophrenia. However, it must be established that such deficits are not merely concomitant to the chronicity of the illness. To that end, the current study investigated the extent that face processing was impaired in groups of patients with chronic psychosis and patients with first-break psychosis. ERPs were collected from 32 chronic patients, 35 first break patients, and 69 healthy controls as they performed a target identification task. Controls were matched to either patient group on the basis of age, gender, handedness, WAIS Information scaled scores, and parental socioeconomic status. For both the chronic and first-break patients, the N170 responses to all stimuli were significantly attenuated compared to their respective control groups. However, both patient groups exhibited intact modulation of the N170 by stimulus, such that the N170 was larger for faces compared to cars. These results show that, like in chronically ill patients, information processing is fundamentally impaired in first-break psychosis as reflected in attenuated ERPs to task-relevant stimuli. Contrary to extant studies, both groups in our sample showed intact modulation of the N170.

HIGHER LEVELS OF SELF-REPORTED PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BETTER EMOTIONAL RECOVERY FROM NEGATIVE STIMULI MEASURED OBJECTIVELY WITH EYEBLINK STARTLE REFLEX AND CORRUGATOR EMG

Stacey M. Schaefer1, Jennifer A. Morozink1, Carien M. van Reekum2, Regina C. Lapate1, Catherine J. Norris3, Larry L. Greischar1, Carol D. Ryff1, & Richard J. Davidson1 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2University of Reading, 3Dartmouth College

Descriptors: emotion regulation, facial emg, well-being

Although psychological characterizations of well-being do not always incorporate the normative goals of emotion regulation into their definition, we hypothesize that skill at regulating emotion plays a critical role in achieving high levels of well-being. In a large Midwestern sample with an age range from 36-84 years from the MIDUS study (Survey of Midlife Development in the US, http://www.midus.wisc.edu/), we tested whether high levels of self-reported eudaimonic psychological well-being (PWB; Ryff, 1989, Ryff & Keyes, 1995) were related to better emotional recovery from negative stimuli measured with facial electromyography (EMG) measures of eyeblink startle reflex (EBR) and corrugator supercilii activity. This design allowed the emotional recovery occurring after picture offset to be differentiated from the emotional reactivity to the picture during its presentation. PWB interacted with both EBR and corrugator EMG on negative trials. Although there was no relation between self-reported PWB levels and either EBR or corrugator EMG during the picture presentation, higher levels of PWB were associated with less EBR and corrugator EMG after picture offset. Thus, those people who reported higher levels of eudaimonic psychological well-being show better recovery from negative stimuli, suggesting emotion regulatory skills are integral to achieving fulfillment and meaning in life. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (PO1-AG020166) to conduct a longitudinal follow-up including a psychophysiological assessment of the MIDUS investigation. The original study was supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Midlife Development.

Poster 39

HEART RATE RESPONSES PREDICT MEMORY FOR NEUTRAL BUT NOT EMOTIONAL SPEECH

Karen Chan, April Ching, & Annett Schirmer National University of Singapore

Descriptors: heart rate, emotional prosody, verbal memory

The current study examined the relationship between event-related cardiac responses and subsequent event memory. During an encoding phase, participants (N 5 47) were presented with words spoken in both neutral and sad prosody and heart rate (HR) was recorded. During a test phase, participants saw a series of previously studied and new words and old/new decisions were recorded. An analysis of HR revealed significantly greater deceleration and comparable acceleration following study words with sad as compared to neutral prosody. Analysis of word recognition memory revealed better performance for words spoken with neutral as compared to sad prosody. Separate correlation analyses for each prosody condition showed that HR deceleration failed to predict subsequent memory for sadly spoken words. However, it predicted subsequent memory for neutrally spoken words. No significant relationship was observed between memory and HR acceleration. Together these results point to a link between cardiac activity and memory. HR deceleration appears to be positively related to subsequent event memory - but only in the case of neutral events. In the case of emotional events, additional regulatory mechanisms may be activated and interfere with successful memory encoding.

Poster 40

SPEECH PROSODY SHAPES AFFECTIVE CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS IN SEMANTIC MEMORY

April Ching, Ling Tan, Shuo Wang, & Annett Schirmer National University of Singapore

Descriptors: emotional prosody, verbal memory, semantic memory The present study investigated whether and how speech prosody affects verbal memory. In a study phase, participants listened to sadly and neutrally spoken words of neutral content. In a test phase, participants saw previously studied words together with new words on a computer screen and made old/new decisions. In a last rating phase, participants saw all the studied words again and rated their emotional valence. Word recognition accuracy did not differ as a function of study prosody. However, words previously heard with a sad prosody were subsequently rated more negatively than words previously heard with a neutral prosody. Event-related potentials from the study phase revealed that words spoken in a sad voice elicited a larger P200 than words spoken in a neutral voice and this effect positively predicted the valence rating effect. The P200 study effect also tended to predict a posterior P100 difference between sad and neutral words in the test phase. Thus, while speech prosody seems irrelevant for word recognition memory, it influences the affective connotations ofwords in semantic memory. On subsequent encounters, words previously heard with a negative prosody recruit early sensory processes more effectively and are perceived as more negative than words previously heard with a neutral prosody. The P200 elicited during the initial encounter with the word appears to be a good predictor for these subsequent emotion effects.

FAMILIAR DOG VOICES MODULATE EARLY VISUAL PROCESSING OF DOG FACES, HUMAN FACES, BUT NOT CARS

Siwei Liu, Annett Schirmer, & Trevor B. Penney National University of Singapore

Descriptors: N170, face processing, memory

We previously reported that individually recognizable dog barks modulate the amplitudes of the P100 and N170 elicited by unfamiliar photographs of dog faces. In that experiment, participants learned to identify auditory recordings of dog barks by dog name (e.g., ''This is the bark of Bounce'') in a training session and the next day completed a visual oddball task in which the standard stimuli were novel photographs of dog faces that were immediately preceded by either a dog bark that had been learned during training (known bark), or a novel dog bark (unknown bark). In the experiments reported here, new participants learned to identify auditory recordings of dog barks by dog name, but we replaced the dog faces in the subsequent test session with either photographs of cars (Exp. 1) or human faces (Exp. 2). Whether a bark was known or unknown did not differentially affect the amplitude of either the P100 or N170 elicited by the car stimuli. However, for human faces, the P100 amplitude, but not N170 amplitude, was affected by bark category. Specifically, the P100 was larger when a novel human face was preceded by a known bark as compared to an unknown bark. These experiments indicate that auditory information that can be used to make an inference about individual object identity influences the processing of a visual stimulus that it had not been explicitly associated with.

Poster 42

UNATTENDED MUSICAL RHYTHM MODULATES EARLY VISUAL PROCESSING

Nicolas Escoffier & Annett Schirmer National University of Singapore

Descriptors: music, rhythm, entrainment

As we listen to a rhythmic stream our attention does not stay constant over time but tends to synchronize to the rhythm. Attention is then enhanced for events that occur in synchrony and these events are processed more efficiently than out-of-synchrony events. Recent behavioral findings show that this effect is cross-modal and modulates a listener's visual attention. In the present study, we investigated which stage of visual processing is facilitated by background rhythm. Participants were attending to images of houses and faces while a task-irrelevant rhythm was playing in the background. Images could either be presented in silence, in synchrony or out-of-synchrony with the rhythm. Results indicate that visual processing was modulated at two stages. An early effect at occipital sites starting before stimulus onset was more pronounced in the in-synchrony condition than in the out-of-synchrony or silence conditions. Later in the ERPs, the N170 was enhanced for the in-synchrony as compared to the silence condition. No difference was observed between out-of-synchrony and silence conditions. Taken together these findings show that an auditory rhythm both synchronizes and facilitates concurrent visual stimulus processing. This facilitation is supported by a modulation of both a pre-stimulus preparatory mechanisms and post-stimulus sensory mechanisms dedicated to the processing human faces.

Poster 43

AN IMPLICIT MULTIPLICATION FACT RETRIEVAL TASK REVEALS BOTH BEHAVRIOURAL AND ERP ANOMALIES IN DYSLEXIC CHILDREN

Jennifer Bruder, Sarah Kunze, & Gerd Schulte-Korne University of Munich

Descriptors: implicit multiplication network, dyslexia

Studies have shown that dyslexic individuals have poorer mathematical skills and might use less efficient problem-solving strategies. We investigated ERPs elicited by stimulus-driven implicit retrieval of arithmetic facts related to multiplication in children with dyslexia and an age-matched control group. Arithmetic performance was task-irrelevant as participants were asked to physically compare a cue composed of two numbers (e.g., 2 7) and a single probe number, which was either arithmetically unrelated to the cues (e.g., 11 ''neutral'') or related (e.g., 14, ''product''). In line with previous reports on adults, control children performed significantly worse (i.e., LeFevre Interference) when the probe number was the product of the two numbers in the cue compared to when the probe number was neutral. Dyslexic children did not show a LeFevre Interference effect, suggesting a lack of automation of the multiplication network. Furthermore, differences between neutral and product trials in the control group reflected earlier data reported on adults. Neutral trials were more negative over central sites for a late window of activity (ca. 400-800 ms post stimulus) compared to product trials. Although children with dyslexia also showed this effect, their overall ERPs were attenuated compared to controls and the effect was apparent over a smaller number of electrodes. Overall, our data provide further insight into weak mathematical representations in dyslexia and suggest that these representations might be related to less automated and weaker arithmetic networks. Friedrich-Baur-Stiftung

COMMON GROUND IN HEALTH RISK COMMUNICATION? FUNCTIONAL BRAIN MAPPING DURING FREE VIEWING OF A PUBLIC TV DOCUMENTARY ON THE H1N1 PANDEMIC

Ralf Schmaelzle, Frank Haecker, Tabea Reuter, Britta Renner, & Harald T. Schupp University of Konstanz

Descriptors: risk communication, fmri

During global health crises, such as the recent H1N1 pandemic, mass media messages play an important role in shaping public risk perception. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms by which such popular forms of risk communication are received and understood by individuals. In this study, conducted during the 2009/10 outbreak of H1N1, fMRI was measured while 26 participants were presented with an entire telecast about this topical issue. We used inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis to identify brain regions that were reliably engaged across participants during the viewing of the stimulus. As expected, brain activity in widespread cortical regions was correlated among the ''audience,'' suggesting that the broadcasted information was successfully transmitted into participants' brains, and processed in a similar fashion. Correlated areas included not only the visual and auditory/language systems, but extended well beyond lower-tier cortices (e.g., in frontal areas, DMN regions). Previous studies considered the general amount of ISC as an index of viewer engagement. According to this notion, the H1N1 documentary achieved a substantial level of engagement. In further analyses, we explore the characteristics of regional BOLD time courses, link them to cognitive and emotional content aspects of the stimulus, and investigate differences in brain coupling among sub-groups of participants with opposing views regarding the seriousness of H1N1 risk. From a broader perspective, ISC analysis appears promising to examine the neural correlates of risk communication.

Poster 45

NEURAL CORRELATES OF RISK PERCEPTION: CONTRASTING HIV AND LEUKEMIA RISK

Alexander Barth, Ralf Schmaelzle, Harald T. Schupp, & Britta Renner University of Konstanz

Descriptors: risk perception, leukemia, HIV

In recent studies, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of snap judgments about HIV risk. Results pointed to rapid and affectively charged intuitive processes as a possible basis for HIV risk judgments. Here, we extend this research by exploring how snap judgments of HIV risk relate to impressions about Leukemia risk, a severe but noninfectious disease. In the experiment, participants were shown pictures of unacquainted persons while high-density EEG was recorded to tap into the rapidly unfolding mechanisms of first impressions. Subsequent evaluations of risk (i.e., HIV or Leukemia, in different runs) were used to assign EEG data into low vs. high-risk categories. Self-report data revealed that HIV and Leukemia risk showed only a moderate relationship. These findings suggest that participants used different criteria to infer HIV vs. Leukemia risk rather than uniformly evaluating general health status. Furthermore, pronounced differences in terms of ERP modulation were observed for HIV and Leukemia risk, respectively. Overall, these findings support the notion that snap judgments are sensitive towards different illnesses differing in contagiousness but not in severity.

Poster 46

TRACING THE TIME-COURSE OF EMOTION PERCEPTION: THE IMPACT OF STIMULUS PHYSICS AND SEMANTICS ON GESTURE PROCESSING

Tobias Flaisch & Harald T. Schupp University of Konstanz

Descriptors: emotion, ERP, gestures

Numerous ERP studies reveal the differential processing of emotional and neutral stimuli. Yet, it is an ongoing debate to what extent the various ERP components found in previous research are sensitive to physical stimulus characteristics or emotional meaning. The present study manipulated emotional meaning and stimulus orientation to disentangle the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on emotional stimulus processing. Emotional meaning was manipulated by contrasting negative communicative hand gestures of Insult with neutral control gestures of Allusion. An elementary physical manipulation of visual processing was implemented by presenting these stimuli vertically and horizontally. Results showed dissociable effects of stimulus meaning and orientation on the sequence of ERP-components. Effects of orientation were pronounced for the P1 and N170 and attenuated during later stages. Emotional meaning already affected the P1, evincing a distinct topography to orientation effects. While the N170 was not modulated by emotional meaning, the EPN and LPP components replicated previous findings with larger potentials elicited by the Insult gestures. The result pattern suggests a pre-dominance of low level physical stimulus features on the P1 and the N170, while the impact of stimulus meaning pronouncedly surpassed that of orientation on the later EPN and LPP components. This suggests that the brain processes different attributes of an emotional picture in parallel and that a coarse semantic appreciation occurs already during early stages of emotion perception.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP INFLUENCED OUTCOME EVALUATION UNDER COMPETITIVE SITUATION

Bo Yuan, Liang Huang, Xueying Chen, Yu Wang, Zhen Zhang, & Yiwen Wang Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University

Descriptors: ERP, interpersonal relationship, competition

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies employing monetary gambling tasks have demonstrated that the brain responds differentially between observing a friend play the game and observing a stranger play the game. However, it is unclear the outcome evaluation under the situations while directly competing with friend and stranger. This study is to explore to what extent the brain activity is modulated by the interpersonal relationship and intimacy under competitive situation. Brain potentials were recorded while the participant played a competitive gambling with his/her friend and a stranger. We found that FRN and P300 were modulated not only by reward valence but also by the interpersonal relationship under the competitive situation. Competing with friend induced greater FRN amplitude than competing with stranger, but the amplitude of P300 was greater while competing with stranger. In addition, correlation analysis suggested that the intimacy between friends was significantly positive correlated with the FRN difference wave only when competing with friend. Regression analyses suggested that participants who have high score on intimacy tended to display a small FRN difference wave when competing with friend. These results indicated that interpersonal relationship indeed influenced different stages of outcome evaluation under competitive situation. In addition, the intimacy between friends might have an impact on the evaluation of negative outcome when they compete with each other. Funding provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 30807780]

Poster 48

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SEQUENTIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING: EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL MYOPIA

Kimberly A. Fleming1, Gabriele Gratton2, Monica Fabiani2, & Bruce D. Bartholow1 1University of Missouri, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: erps, alcohol intoxication, attention

Considerable research suggests that alcohol-induced impairments of specific cognitive processes account for the varied effects of acute intoxication on behavior. Attention-allocation theory (Steele & Josephs, 1990) suggests that acute intoxication restricts the focus of attention to only the most salient cues in the environment. The present experiment sought to test this theory in the temporal domain, using ERPs. Sixty participants consumed either a moderate dose of alcohol (0.40 g/kg), a higher dose (0.90 g/kg) or a placebo (0.04 g/ kg) prior to performing an auditory discrimination task in which they distinguished between equiprobable high and low tones. In this paradigm, the amplitude of P300 elicited by a current target stimulus represents the weight of a previously occurring stimulus remaining in working memory. Consistent with myopia theory, alcohol modulated the sequential effect on P300 amplitude (F5 4.30, p<.02), effectively shifting this weighting from the tone 2-back from the target to the tone 1-back from the target. Similar effects were observed in accuracy rates (F5 3.07, p 5 .05) and reaction times (F5 3.44, p< .05), such that differences in 1-back tones were more influential on behavior than were differences in 2-back tones for those who consumed alcohol relative to placebo. Together, these findings provide evidence that alcohol shifts attention to the most recent events, discounting effects of events occurring further back in time.

Poster 49

WHEN YOU CAN'T REACT, RUMINATE: MANIPULATED RIGHT FRONTAL CORTICAL ASYMMETRY INCREASES RUMINATION IN RESPONSE TO PROVOCATION

Nicholas J. Kelley & Eddie Harmon-Jones Texas A&M University

Descriptors: anger, rumination, transcranial direct current stimulation The relationship between relative left frontal cortical activity and angry approach-oriented processes is stronger when a reactive or retaliatory response is possible. This effect has been established in studies which measure relative left frontal cortical activity (Harmon-Jones, Sigelman, Bohlig, & Harmon-Jones, 2003) and those which directly manipulated it (Hortensius, Schutter, & Harmon-Jones, 2011). In contrast, relative right frontal activity has been found to be associated with angry feelings when individuals experienced strong inhibitions against expressing their anger (Zinner, Brodish, Devine, & Harmon-Jones, 2008). The current research extended these past studies by manipulating asymmetric frontal cortical activity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and assessing its influence on ruminative responses to an interpersonal insult when there was no opportunity for aggressive action. Results revealed that self-reported rumination was greatest for those receiving a manipulated increase in relative right frontal cortical activity compared to those receiving a manipulated increase in relative left frontal cortical activity or a sham manipulation. The right and left tDCS

conditions evoked equally high amounts of self-reported anger in response to the provocation. Taken together with past research, the current results suggest that anger associated with greater relative left frontal cortical activity predicts approach-oriented aggressive action, whereas anger associated with greater relative right frontal activity predicts non-approach-oriented rumination.

This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS 0643348 and BCS 0921565 to Eddie Harmon-Jones).

Poster 50

EFFECT OF TASK DIFFICULTY ON NEURAL SYSTEMS OF RIGHT ANTERIOR INSULAR CORTEX

Yasunori Kotani1, Yoshimi Ohgami1, Jun-ichiro Arai2, Shigeru Kiryu3, & Yusuke Inoue4 1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Daikin Industries, 3The University of Tokyo, 4Kitasato University

Descriptors: fmri, insular cortex, stimulus-preceding negativity

Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that the right anterior insula modulates other brain regions depending on the contents of stimuli or events. In the present study, we manipulated task difficulty, and measured brain activations using event-related fMRI and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) method to examine how the insula modulates other brain regions in relation to task difficulty. We employed a time estimation task (N 5 23) under the following four experimental conditions: Difficult (DIF), Moderate (MOD), Easy (EASY), and Control (CNTL) conditions. The PPI analyses revealed that the right anterior insular cortex has effective connectivity with the right posterior insula in the EASY - CNTL contrast, whereas the region showed connectivity with the visual cortex and the left superior parietal lobule in the MOD - CNTL contrast. In addition, the right anterior insular cortex has a tendency of negative interaction with the left superior parietal lobule in the DIF -CNTL contrast. The present results suggest that the insula would modulate the visual cortex to facilitate perception of visual stimuli under the moderate condition while the anterior insula in the easy condition would modulate the posterior insula that is related to interoceptive perception. On the other hand, the insula is likely to inhibit the activity of the left parietal lobule involved in attention process when the task is difficult. This inhibition might be caused by reduced attention to the stimuli due to lower motivation in the difficult condition.

Poster 51

STIMULUS-PRECEDING NEGATIVITY (SPN) PRIOR TO FACIAL, VERBAL, AND SYMBOLIC FEEDBACK STIMULI

Yoshimi Ohgami1, Yasunori Kotani1, Shun Itagaki2, Jun-Ichiro Arai3, Shigeru Kiryu2, & Yusuke Inoue4

1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2The University of Tokyo, 3Daikin Industries, 4Kitasato University

Descriptors: stimulus-preceding negativity, perceptual anticipation, face perception Previous studies demonstrated dissimilar distributions of stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) prior to different stimulus modalities such as visual stimulus and auditory stimulus, suggesting that SPN reflects perceptual anticipation. In the present study we investigated whether the SPN was affected by different stimulus qualities of the same modality. Twenty-five participants performed a time estimation task where a feedback stimulus was presented 2 s after a voluntary movement, and the stimulus qualities (facial, verbal, and symbolic) of visual feedback stimuli were manipulated. There were four experimental conditions: (a) facial, (b) verbal, (c) symbol, and (d) no feedback conditions. Except no feedback condition that was used to subtract motor components from the other conditions, participants received feedback information whether their time estimation performance was correct or incorrect using the LCD monitor. The results demonstrated a significant main effect of condition, and grand average waveforms showed that SPN on the frontal and occipital electrodes under the facial condition was smaller than under the verbal and symbol conditions. In addition, topography maps were similar tendency between the verbal and symbol conditions. The facial condition showed less activation around the frontal area compared to the other two conditions. The present results suggest that the SPN distributions were not analogous among different qualities of the same modality.

Poster 52

RESTING ELECTROCORTICAL ACTIVITY IN ADULTS WITH DYSFUNCTIONAL ANGER: A PILOT STUDY

Natalia Jaworska1, Lindsay Berrigan2, A.G. Ahmed3, Jonathan Gray3, John Bradford3, Athanassia Korovessis3, Paul Fedoroff3, & Verner Knott3 institute of Mental Health Research & School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 2Department of Psychology, Carleton University, 3Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa

Descriptors: dysfunctional anger, resting eeg

Although dysfunctional anger is not a clinical diagnosis, some argue that it should be as in some individuals it presents as the primary clinical feature. However, our understanding of the neural basis of dysfunctional anger is relatively limited. Though previous work has examined electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in individuals with high trait anger, as

well as in youth who display psychiatric disorders consistent with dysfunctional anger, no studies have assessed EEG activity in adults with dysfunctional anger. This study assessed resting EEG activity, by way of relative power in standard frequency bands as well as absolute frontal alpha1/2 asymmetry, in fourteen adults with psychiatrist-assessed and psychometrically rated dysfunctional anger and fifteen control participants. Individuals with dysfunctional anger were characterized by an overall increase in relative beta1 power during both the eyes-open and closed conditions, which was most pronounced in fronto-central regions. Inconsistent with most precedent literature, individuals with dysfunctional anger exhibited greater relative right fronto-cortical activation during the eyes-closed condition (absolute alpha1-indexed frontal asymmetry) compared with Controls, which may reflect greater anxious arousal in the patient group. These findings suggest that individuals with dysfunctional anger may be characterized by greater cortical arousal or a chronic hypervigilant state. Such tonic hyperarousal may predispose them to display action tendencies to relatively innocuous stimuli (i.e., overreactions).

Poster 53

PRE-STIMULUS DELTA AND THETA AMPLITUDES DIFFERENTIALLY MODULATE GO/NOGO ERP COMPONENTS

Frances M. De Blasio1, & Robert J. Barry1 1University of Wollongong

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, erp genesis, lower eeg bands

The genesis of the ERP has long been debated, particularly the extent and nature of the contributions from ongoing EEG activity. Recent literature suggests that the peak characteristics of ERP components are differentially modulated by EEG frequency and task-specific processing requirements. This study employed an equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task (N 5 20) to investigate the nature of the relationships between pre-stimulus activity in the Delta (1-3 Hz) and Theta (4-7 Hz) bands, and the characteristics of each ERP component. For each band and stimulus condition, accepted trials at nine electrode sites were sorted according to ascending pre-stimulus RMS EEG activity at Cz, and ERPs were generated from the upper and lower thirds of the sorted trials. Delta sorting produced a largely global ERP amplitude effect; high pre-stimulus Delta resulted in significantly more positive component amplitudes (N1, P2, N2, P3), and contributed to differences in amplitude (P1, N1, N2) and latency (P2) topographies. Theta sorting contributed to topographic amplitude (P2, P3) and latency (N2) effects. More importantly, a significant interaction with stimulus condition was found indicating that pre-stimulus Theta is associated with task specific processing. That is, low pre-stimulus Theta resulted in more positive Go amplitudes (N2, P3), and more negative NoGo amplitudes (N2, P3). Theta x stimulus x topography amplitude (N1) and latency (P1, P2) interactions were also found. These results provide insight into the complex and differential nature of the EEG contributions in ERP genesis.

Poster 54

PUPILLOMETRICS AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AS CORRELATES OF THE ORIENTING REFLEX

Genevieve Z. Steiner, & Robert J. Barry University of Wollongong

Descriptors: orienting reflex, pupillary dilation, erps

This experiment examined electrodermal activity, pupillary dilation responses, and the Late Positive Complex of the event-related potential as autonomic and central correlates of the Orienting Reflex (OR) in the context ofindifferent and significant stimuli. In particular, we aimed to clarify discrepancies in the literature regarding the pupillary dilation response as an OR index. An auditory dishabituation paradigm was utilised, while pupillary and electrophysiological data were recorded from twenty-four participants. This procedure facilitated the quantification of habituation: response decrement to a repeated stimulus, response recovery to a change stimulus, and subsequent dishabituation. It was anticipated that all of the measures would produce larger responses for significant compared to indifferent stimuli. Results confirmed expectations that the skin conductance response and the Late Positive Complex are autonomic and central correlates of the OR, respectively. The pupillary dilation response, however, demonstrated an unexpected sensitivity to stimulus novelty only, while the pre-stimulus measure of tonic pupil diameter showed the significance effect that was expected of the phasic measure. Together, these findings argue against the proposition that the pupillary dilation response is an OR index. The diverse results obtained from this experiment contribute to our understanding of the OR, and provide impetus for further research with a variety of paradigm manipulations.

Poster 55

THE EFFECTS OF TEMPORAL EXPECTANCY AND TASK TYPE ON THE P300 IN AN ODDBALL PARADIGM

Glen Forester, Siri-Maria Kamp, Ty Brumback, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: P300, temporal expectancy

We investigated the influence oftemporal expectancy and event expectancy on the P300. In a simple oddball paradigm, we manipulated expectancy of stimulus onset and task

type in a fully crossed 2 x 2 within subjects design. We altered temporal expectancy by either fixing the inter stimulus interval (ISI) or randomly varying between three ISIs across trials in different blocks. In addition, we instructed participants either to respond differentially to both categories or to count the occurrence ofthe infrequent category. As expected, infrequents in both task conditions elicited a clear P300. In the respond condition, frequents also elicited a P300, though it was smaller in amplitude than the P300 observed for infrequents. The P300 elicited by frequents was larger for short and medium ISIs compared to the long ISI. Since each stimulus must occur either after a short, a medium or a long ISI, the occurrence of the stimulus after the long ISI is least unexpected. This indicates that unexpected stimulus timing increases the P300. Additionally, the infrequents elicited a sharp negativity preceding the P300 and an early frontal positivity. Neither of these components was affected by the ISI manipulation. Therefore, our findings indicate that when participants differentially respond to both stimulus categories, a P300 can be elicited by stimuli of the frequent category, the amplitude of which varies with the degree of temporal expectancy. We conclude that in some circumstances, events that are temporally unexpected but that are not categorically infrequent can elicit a P300 response.

Poster 56

REWARD SYSTEM RESPONSE TO EMOTIONAL IMAGES, AS INDEXED BY EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS

Krista G. Yakub & Geoffrey F. Potts University of South Florida

Descriptors: MFN, emotion, erps

The medial frontal negativity (MFN) is elicited to negative outcomes in forced-choice gambling-like tasks which result in monetary gains and losses, hypothesized to reflect a general negative reward system signal used in decision-making. If this interpretation of the MFN is correct, this deflection should also be seen in response to emotional stimuli which activate the defensive motivational system. This study uses the International Affective Picture System, a set of emotionally evocative visual stimuli, as outcomes in a forced-choice task. We found an increased negative deflection in the MFN window for negative images compared to positive images in this task, F(1,22) 5 11.68, po.01. These results confirm the generality of the MFN response and bolster the case for strong ties between motivation and emotion.

Poster 57

WHAT'S NEW? A STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF THE NOVELTY P3

Summer N. Clay, Yael Arbel, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: novelty p3, oddball, PCA

It has been well established that task irrelevant stimuli, which are inserted into the Oddball sequence elicit a Novelty P3 (Courchesne et al., 1975, Spencer et al., 1999). The study was designed to examine the degree to which the Novelty P3 is elicited even if the task is performed repeatedly once a week for four weeks. That is, we examined the degree to which the Novelty P3 is elicited even when the subjects are quite familiar with the ''novel'' event. Six healthy young adults visited the ERP lab four times at weekly intervals. During each visit, participants were presented with a Bernoulli sequence of two tones, a high and a low tone, their respective probabilities being .80 and .20. The participants' task was to count the number of times a tone in the low probability category (low or high) was presented. Intermixed in this sequence of high and low tones were infrequently presented sounds that were irrelevant to the task. These task irrelevant events are known to elicit the Novelty P3. We examined the extent to which the latency and amplitude of the Novelty P3 varied across the sessions and within participants. Spatio-temporal Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the spatial and temporal dimensionalities of the data. The Novelty P3 was elicited in each of the four visits, and its amplitude remained stable. These results suggest that the Novelty P3 is elicited even when the ''novel'' event is not all that novel.

Poster 58

CAN THE FEEDBACK ERN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN STRONG AND WEAK LEARNERS?

Ty Brumback, Yael Arbel, Merlin Diaz, Mark S. Goldman, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: feedback ern, development

A sample of 112 children aged 9-13 completed a Go/No-go learning task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Participants were presented with 400 trials, consisting of4 randomly presented picture stimuli. Participants were instructed to learn through trial-and-error whether each of four stimuli was a ''go'' or a ''no-go'' stimulus. Feedback was presented following each trial based on the participant's response or inhibition of a response. Two stimuli were 100% mapped to either ''go'' or ''no-go''. Feedback associated with these two stimuli was consistent with the participant's performance. For two other stimuli there was no mapping rule to learn as participants were provided with negative

feedback on 50% of trials and with positive feedback on the other 50%, regardless of performance. Participants were instructed to try to learn the rules of the task, to respond as fast as they could, and to try to avoid making errors. Participants were categorized based on their learning speed for the two ''learnable'' stimuli. The learning criterion was responding correctly to the stimulus on 8 of 10 consecutive presentations of that stimulus. The sample was categorized into three groups, strong, moderate, and weak learners, for each learnable stimulus. Principal component analyses (PCAs) were conducted on the data. Age and sex differences in amplitude of the fERN were evident, reflecting developmental changes. In addition, learning group differences were present in the fERN component suggesting a relationship between the fERN and the extent to which feedback facilitates learning. Research supported by NIAAA grants NOT-OD-09-056 & R01 AA016091 to Mark S. Goldman.

Poster 59

DISTINGUISHING DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES IN P300 ELICITED BY AN ODDBALL TASK

Ty Brumback, Yael Arbel, Kerry Konca, Mark S. Goldman, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: P300, oddball, adolescence

In order to elucidate developmental changes in the P300 ERP component, a group of 119 adolescents (9-14 years old, mean age 10.9; 48% female) were recruited from a larger ongoing longitudinal study of developmental influences on the initiation of alcohol use. Participants completed a word-category Oddball task designed to elicit the P300. A total of 400 visual stimuli were presented on a computer screen: 80% from one category (e.g., animals), and 20% (the oddball stimuli) from another category (e.g., furniture). Participants were asked to press a button in response to the rare category. A spatial Principal Components Analysis was used to reduce the spatial dimensionality of the dataset. The centro-parietal spatial factor, which represented the P300 activity was used to measure the P300 amplitude and latency. Several gender effects were found. Males exhibited larger P300 amplitude and larger differences between Oddball and Standard stimuli than females. In addition, males displayed longer latencies compared to females. Age effects were also present, with older children exhibiting smaller P300 amplitudes and shorter latencies compared to younger children. No significant interaction effects were found. These data reveal age and gender related differences in the P300 amplitude and latency that may suggest developmental changes and gender differences in the efficiency of information processing. Research supported by NIAAA grants NOT-OD-09-056 & R01 AA016091 to Mark S. Goldman.

Poster 60

ODD EVEN THOUGH NO BALL! THE FIXED STIMULUS ODDBALL

PARADIGM

Adithya Chandregowda, Yael Arbel, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: P300, oddball, PCA

We present a study whose goal was to elucidate whether a P300 can be elicited within a paradigm in which participants decide whether an event is rare or frequent. Five healthy young adults with previous experience with P300 research completed two tasks. The first was a typical oddball task with auditory stimuli (high and low tones) to elicit a typical P300. In this task, participants were asked to count the number of times a rare (high or low tone) event occurred in the sequence ofevents. In the second task participants were presented with a fixation on the screen for 1500 ms and were instructed to make a decision on a trail by trial basis whether this fixation represents an event from a rare category (low or high tone) or from a frequent category. Following the fixation, a blank screen appeared for 800 ms, after which participants were asked to indicate their selection by pressing a button on a response box. EEG was time locked to the presentation of the fixation and was segmented according to the participants' responses. The results indicated that in four of the five participants a detectable P300 was elicited by events belonging (according to the participant) to the rare category. These results provide support to the notion that the elicitation of the P300 does not depend on the presentation of a Bernoulli sequence of external stimuli, and that the rarity of an event can be subjectively determined by the subject.

Poster 61

THE FLANKERS EFFECT IS ABOUT CURVES AND ANGLES - NOT

ARROWS

Anthony R. Murphy, Yael Arbel, Ty Brumback, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: eriksen'sflanker task, ERN, erps

In the original Eriksen's Flanker task, subjects are presented either with homogenous strings (HHHHH, or SSSSS) or with inhomogeneous strings (HHSHH or SSHSS). Their task is to respond to the central character ignoring the flankers. There is considerable evidence that the delay in the response to the inhomogeneous string is due to response conflict. In many recent studies the character strings are replaced by arrows, such as<<><< or >><>>. Our purpose was to examine the degree to which the

arrow strings yield the identical flankers effect. Seven healthy young adults from the University of South Florida completed Eriksen's Flanker task and an Arrow Flanker task. In each task, participants were to press one of two buttons on a response box according to the identity of the letter, or arrow, at the center of the array. ERPs were time locked to the responses and were categorized based on accuracy (corrects vs. errors) and separately for homogenous and inhomogeneous strings. Spatial-temporal Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed to reduce the spatial and temporal dimensionality of the data. In addition, the LRP was examined and compared between the two tasks. It turns out that while errors in both tasks elicit an ERN, the ERN elicited by errors committed in response to inhomogeneous letter strings was different from the ERN elicited by errors in response to homogenous strings. No such difference appeared between the ERNs elicited by the arrow strings. Our data suggest that arrow strings do not yield the same results as the Eriksen Flanker task.

Poster 62

IT IS (POSSIBLY UNPLEASANT BUT) VERY USEFUL TO KNOW WHEN YOU ERR

Kristen L. Goforth, Yael Arbel, & Emanuel Donchin University of South Florida

Descriptors: fern, learning, erps

We explored the degree to which the amplitude of the fERN, elicited during a paired-associates learning task, is correlated with the subject's subsequent recall of the learned associations. Seventeen healthy young adults were trained to associate 30 non-words with pictures of 30 non-objects. In each trial, participants were presented with a picture of the non-object followed by four possible names. After each selection, a feedback signal indicated whether the subject made the correct or incorrect choice. A learning criterion of 5 consecutive correct responses was used to determine whether an association was learned. A day after the learning session the participants' recall of the correct associations was tested. The ERPs elicited by positive and negative feedback stimuli during the learning process were examined for items grouped according to the following categories: learned and recalled, learned and not recalled, and not learned-not recalled. Spatial-temporal Principal Component Analysis was used to reduce the spatial and temporal dimensionality of the ERP data. The amplitude of the fERN elicited by negative feedback associated with items that were learned and subsequently recalled was the largest in amplitude. These findings suggest that the fERN is sensitive to the extent to which negative feedback facilitates learning.

Poster 63

NOT JUST NOISE: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN BASELINE STARTLE ARE ANXIETY RELEVANT

Daniel E. Bradford, Jesse T. Kaye, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin-Madison

Descriptors: anxiety, baseline, startle

Baseline Startle, defined here as resting eyeblink startle response elicited before any intentional manipulation of affect, displays large individual differences. This leads researchers to standardize startle outcome measures thus removing variability between individuals in their baseline under the assumption that it is task-irrelevant "noise". The current study examined whether baseline startle may indeed index meaningful affect related individual differences. Recent research has suggested that uncertain vs. certain threat elicit anxiety vs. fear, respectively. We reanalyzed baseline startle response and startle potentiation from 3 tasks in our laboratory that manipulated threat of electric shock predictability, probability, or temporal uncertainty to examine anxiety and fear responses. The full sample (n 5 352) across these three tasks consisted of healthy controls who self reported no diagnosis of axis I or II disorder. Baseline startle significantly predicted startle potentiation during uncertain and certain threat in all three tasks. However, the relationship between baseline startle and startle potentiation was significantly stronger during uncertain than certain threat. This differential relationship was comparable across the three tasks. These findings provide empirical evidence that baseline startle may be anxiety relevant in healthy individuals. This also underscores the importance of including baseline startle as a regressor in linear models that examine startle potentiation during affective tasks. T32MH018931-21

Poster 64

HIGH POWER AND POOR INTER-TRIAL COHERENCE IN LOW FREQUENCY BANDS, BUT NOT TRADITIONAL MEASURES OF DUAL-CLICK ERP SUPPRESSION, ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SELF-REPORTS OF PERCEPTUAL DISTURBANCES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS AND NON-PSYCHIATRIC CONTROLS

Molly A. Erickson1, Gerber Rebecca1, Mallory Klaunig1,2, & William P. Hetrick1 1Indiana University, 2Purdue University

Descriptors: schizophrenia, sensory gating, inter-trial coherence

When studying the sensory gating problem in schizophrenia, the dual-click paradigm has become a common measure for assessing this type of perceptual disturbance.

It has recently been observed, however, that the phenomenology of sensory gating, assessed using the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI), is not significantly associated with suppression of event-related potential (ERP) or event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) indices of sensory suppression using the dual-click paradigm (Erickson & Hetrick, in preparation). The present analysis was conducted to explore features of the evoked sensory response that are associated with the phenomenology of sensory gating deficits originally described by McGhie and Chapman (1961). Sixty schizophrenia patients and sixty healthy controls participated in a dual-click task, and power in each of four characteristic frequency bands (theta/alpha, low beta, high beta, and gamma) was measured in response to S1 and S2, as well as pre-stimulus baseline activity. It was observed that higher scores on the SGI were associated with greater pre-stimulus baseline power and poor inter-trial coherence in theta and low beta frequency bands. These results indicate that perceptual disturbances may be a consequence of (1) increased gain in the auditory system, (2) poor signal-to-noise ratio, or a combination of both.

Poster 65

BIOFEEDBACK OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY REDUCES FOOD CRAVINGS IN HIGH FOOD CRAVERS

Adrian Meule1, Ann Kathrin Skirde1, Rebecca Freund1, Claus Vogele2, & Andrea Kubler1 1University of Wurzburg, 2University of Luxembourg

Descriptors: heart rate variability, biofeedback, food cravings

Biofeedback of heart rate variability (HRV) has been found to increase HRV while decreasing psychopathological symptoms in patients with mental disorders related to low HRV. In addition, individuals with strong substance or chocolate cravings have been found to have lower HRV compared to individuals without such cravings. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings using HRV-biofeedback in subjects that experience such cravings frequently and intensely. Participants (N 5 56) were selected from the local community using online screening. Half of the participants with strong food cravings (craving-intervention; n 5 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeed-back while the other half (craving-control; n 5 14) and a group with low food craving (non-craving control; n 5 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings decreased from pre- to post measurement in the craving-intervention group and the non-craving control group, but remained constant in the craving-control group. Moreover, only the craving-intervention group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. From pre- to post measurement HRV increased in the non-craving control group, decreased in the craving-control group and did not change in the craving-intervention group. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior. Nevertheless, mechanisms other than an increase in HRV may account for these effects.

Funding for this study was provided by a grant of the research training group 1253/1 which is supported by the DFG by federal and Lander funds.

Poster 66

THE EFFECTS OF CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRASFERASE (COMT) GENOTYPE ON REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (RCBF) FOR AREAS RELATED TO WORKING MEMORY

Alicia F. Heim, Melissa J. Coyne, M. Ilyas Kamboh, & J. Richard Jennings University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: working memory, COMT

The amount of dopamine (DA) in the brain has been shown to affect working memory (WM) performance. The COMT polymorphism, Val158Met, affects the availability of DA in the prefrontal cortex as well as subcortically. It is suspected that increased COMT activity (decreased availability of DA in the PFC) may impair frontally mediated cognitive tasks such as WM tasks. We sought to confirm this hypothesis as well as examine the effect of differing COMT genotypes on the co-activation of brain areas involved in cognition during a WM task. We examined 114 individuals for whom data existed for brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography), COMT polymorphism, and cognitive performance. WM performance was significantly correlated with rCBF to the amygdala/hippocampus for Val/Val carriers ( r 5 0.44, p 5 0.02), to the parietal lobe for Val/Met carriers (r 5 0.29, p 5 0.05), and to the thalamus for Met/Met carriers (r 5 0.32, p 5 0.05). In addition, subjects with at least one Met allele showed significant correlations in rCBF activation between ROIs during the 2-back task. Val/Val carriers showed less communality of response level between the DLPFC and the cingulate was related to better performance on the 2-back task. For Met/Met allele carriers better performance was associated with less communality of response level between the DLPFC and the amygdala/hippocampus. Different genotypes showed different regional specificity and concomitant activation patterns suggesting that varying DA availability induces different brain processing pathways to achieve comparable WM performance.

THE UTILITY OF PROGESTERONE IN SOCIAL STRESS

Allison E. Gaffey & Michelle M. Wirth University of Notre Dame

Descriptors: hormones, stress

Evidence reveals that progesterone (PROG) is linked to affiliation motivation, making PROG a candidate for explaining part of the physiological basis for protective effects of social engagement. Though PROG and cortisol (CORT) both increase during stress, PROG is a virtually untapped resource for examining social mediation of stress physiology. This pilot study examines changes in PROG and CORT in response to Cyberball, a computer task known to induce feelings of social exclusion, compared with a standard stress induction procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants were randomly assigned to either a Stress (rejection) or Control (inclusion) version of Cyberball or a Stress (speech) or Control (no speech) version of the TSST. Saliva samples were collected prior to and following the manipulations to assess PROG and CORT. To examine affiliative behavior after stress, all subjects were offered the opportunity to call a friend to collaborate on a crossword puzzle. Analyses revealed that Cyberball was equally effective as the TSST in eliciting PROG and CORT responses. In particular, both men and women in the Cyberball stress condition had higher post-stress CORT and PROG than those in the Cyberball control condition. PROG, as a stress hormone, may be particularly responsive to social rejection. There was also evidence for relationships between CORT responses to stress and measures ofaffiliation motivation and social support. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationships between stress hormones and social support seeking during stress.

Poster 68

ASSESSMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO EMOTIONALLY EVOCATIVE STIMULI

Andrea K. Webb, S.R. Prakash, Meredith G. Cunha, & John M. Irvine The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

Descriptors: affect, autonomic specificity

Accurate assessment of an individual's emotional state has important implications for domains such as human-computer interaction and development of training platforms for military and medical applications. Prior work has examined physiological responses to emotional stimuli elicited via directed facial action, mental imagery, images, and sounds and has shown that these responses differentiate between basic emotions. One of the challenges in conducting this type of research is that the discrete, widely spaced stimuli typically used in laboratory research do not closely relate to emotion-laden situations encountered in daily life. Additionally, few studies have considered multiple stimulus modalities, multiple interstimulus intervals, and a large a diverse sensor suite. The present study addressed this gap. The first data collection for this study included emotionally evocative images and sounds and mental imagery to elicit physiological responses. Physiological responses included electrodermal activity, pupil diameter, body movement, respiration, and cardiac activity. The second data collection included the same sensor suite and involved emotionally evocative images and sounds presented at inter-stimulus intervals that varied between 6 and 30 seconds. Results from the two data collections revealed classification accuracies at above chance levels for each of the five emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust) and resulted in development of sophisticated hidden-state dynamical models to understand how responses are affected by the dynamics of the emotional stimuli.

Poster 69

THE RELATIONSHIP OF AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONING TO INDIVIDUAL BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA

Anita S. Hibbert1, Anna Weinberg2, & E. David Klonsky1 'University of British Columbia, 2Stony Brook University

Descriptors: borderline personality disorder, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac sympathetic index

Some suggest that emotional deficits observed in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are related to impairments in autonomic functioning. However, research has shown an inconsistent association between BPD and autonomic functioning. Given the well-documented heterogeneity of BPD populations, we examined which individual symptoms of BPD were related to measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic activation at baseline, during an arithmetic stressor, and during recovery. Participants were 39 college students (mean age 5 19.98, SD 5 5.036). BPD symptoms were measured via self-report using the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) were used as measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic activation, respectively, and were obtained from an electrocardiogram (EKG) sampled at a rate of 1000 Hz.Bivariate point-biserial correlations were performed between MSI-BPD items and RSA, and MSI-BPD items and CSI. Five of ten BPD symptoms assessed showed a significant relation to RSA and CSI at one or more measurement points: unstable relationships, self-injury, inappropriate anger, dissociative symptoms, and feelings of emptiness. In

general, endorsement of these symptoms was related to significantly reduced parasym-pathetic (rs from — .55 to — .30) and elevated sympathetic (rs from .30 to .57) activity; however this relationship was not consistent across measurement points. Results suggest that some aspects of BPD may be related to autonomic impairment more than others.

Poster 70

ACUTE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON FEEDBACK PROCESSING AND OUTCOME EVALUATION DURING RISKY DECISION-MAKING: AN

ERP STUDY

Anja S. Euser, Catharina S. van Meel, Michelle Snelleman, & Ingmar H.A. Franken Erasmus University Rotterdam

Descriptors: alcohol, decision-making, erps

The present study investigated the acute effects of alcohol on neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risky decision-making, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs elicited by positive and negative feedback were recorded during performance of a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk task (BART) in male participants receiving either a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg alcohol; n 5 32) or a nonalcoholic placebo beverage (n 5 32). Overall there was no significant difference in the mean number of pumps between the alcohol and the placebo group. However, when analyzing over time, it was found that the alcohol group made more risky choices at the beginning of the task than the placebo group. ERPs demonstrated that alcohol consumption did not affect early processing of negative feedback, indexed by the feedback-related negativity (FRN). By contrast, the alcohol group showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in response to negative feedback as compared to sober controls, suggesting that more elaborate evaluation to losses was significantly diminished. These results suggests that alcohol consumption does not influence the ability to rapidly evaluate feedback valence, but rather the ability to assign sufficient attention to further process motivationally salient outcomes. Blunted P300 amplitudes may reflect poor integration of feedback across trials, particularly adverse ones. Consequently, alcohol may keep people from effectively predict the probability of future gains and losses based on their reinforcement history.

Poster 71

FEAR EXTINCTION: DOES THE AMOUNT OF EXPOSURE MATTER?

Armita Golkar, Daniel Fiirth, Martin Bellander, Andreas Olsson, & Arne Ohman Karolinska Institutet

Descriptors: fear extinction, fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance response Fear extinction can be defined as the weakening of a conditioned fear response (CR) by repeated exposure to a non-reinforced conditioned stimulus (CS). How the CR ceases over time in individual subjects has however not been established. Conceptually, two broad classes of models pertain to account for extinction in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Trial-centered models assume that the CR is gradually reduced as a function of the cumulative number of exposure trials, whereas time-centered models assume that extinction reflects a decision process based on the cumulative exposure time to the non-reinforced CS since the last CS reinforcement. We evaluated these two accounts in human subjects as measured by both electrodermal activity and the fear-potentiated startle response. Our results indicate that increasing the number of exposure trials and the cumulative exposure time induce little of the predicted effects on fear extinction, posing a challenge to both trial-centered as well as time-centered accounts of fear extinction.

Poster 72

DOMINANCE PROCESSING IN SOCIAL ANXIETY - A MEG STUDY

Sharon Riwkes, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, & Avi Goldstein Bar-Ilan University

Descriptors: social anxiety, dominance processing, MEG

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders. It is hypothesized that people suffering from SAD are characterized by a hyperactive dominance system, and are attuned to signals of social status. The present study explored the neural activity during dominance processing using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Two experiments examined brain responses to pictures of dominant, angry, submissive and neutral faces in subclinical social anxious participants as well as participants clinically diagnosed with SAD and compared them to healthy controls. Results showed that dominant faces evoked greater activity at the early processing stages (N170m), which were localized to the fusiform and medial temporal areas, as well as the insula and inferior frontal cortex. Socially anxious participants showed stronger activation than controls only at a later processing stage ( ~ 700 ms) which was more pronounced for dominant and angry faces. Areas with increased activity included the angular and middle occipital gyri and the insula. The findings suggest that socially anxious individuals' over-attunement to dominance does not stem from basic automatic mechanisms, but rather from later, more deliberate processes.

THE PREDICTION ERROR PROCESSING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IMMEDIATE AND FUTURE REWARDS

Yu Bai1 & Hideki Ohira2 1Nagoya University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Nagoya University

Descriptors: prediction error, FRN, ERP

Optimal behavior in a competitive world requires the flexibility to adapt decision strategies based on recent outcomes. To optimize their behavior people also have to make evaluations on both immediate and future outcomes of actions what is a critical requirement for maximizing long-term benefits. In this study using the feedback error-related negativity (FRN) that an event-related potential (ERP) component is observed after receive negative outcome feedbacks, we investigated reward prediction error to outcomes at different time sales decision making task. When human subjects performed on the basis of immediate rewards, the amplitude of FRN was bigger for bad outcome than good outcome. When subjects learned to act in order to obtain large future rewards, then the amplitude of FRN was decreased in bad outcome trials, which related large future rewards closely. On the other hand, in good outcome trials, which related large future losses closely, the increased amplitude of FRN was observed. The results of Source Analysis indicate that FRN was generated from the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). The results of this study indicate that the FRN not only reflects an evaluation for outcomes on a shorter timescale but also on a relatively longer timescale. Furthermore these results also indicate the ACC will play a role in the selection of an action by considering both delays and amount of reward outcome. Additionally suggest the possibility that the FRN maybe modulated by serotonin what the neurotransmitter, which controls the time scale of reward prediction (Tanaka SC et al. 2007).

Poster 74

THE MOTIVATIONAL RELEVANCE OF ANGER: APPROACH-MOTIVATED INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES PREDICT LATE POSITIVE POTENTIALS TO ANTI-PATRIOTIC PICTURES

Bryan D. Poole, & Philip A. Gable The University of Alabama

Descriptors: emotion, motivation, anger

The late positive potential (LPP) has been associated with motivational processes: approach-motivated positive and withdrawal-motivated negative affective stimuli evoke larger LPPs than neutral stimuli. Based on this past research linking the LPP to motivational processes, approach-motivated negative (e.g., angering) stimuli should also evoke larger LPPs than neutral stimuli. The current study sought to examine the effects of anger-evoking pictures and approach-motivated individual differences on the LPP. Participants first completed personality measures of behavioral approach and patriotism, then viewed anti-patriotic pictures (e.g., flag-burning) and neutral pictures while EEG activity was recorded. Results showed that anti-patriotic pictures evoked more anger and larger LPPs at midline central-posterior sites than neutral pictures. In addition, behavioral approach and blind patriotism predicted larger LPPs to anti-patriotic pictures. These results demonstrate that the LPP is a measure of motivational intensity in anger-inducing stimuli. More broadly, these results support models that emphasize the importance of motivational intensity and direction in emotion (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010).

Poster 75

EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA ON HUMAN MEMORY

Carine Malle1, Cyprien Bourrilhon1, Mickael Laisney2, Peggy Quinette2, Pierrette Liscia1, Beatrice Desgranges2, Jacqueline Boissin1, Daniel Beracochea3, Francis Eustache2, & Christophe Pierard1 1IRBA, 2U923 INSERM, 3UMR CNRS 5287

Descriptors: hypobaric hypoxia, episodic memory, working memory Hypoxia is known to be particularly deleterious for hippocampal neurons. However, the effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on human memory have been poorly studied. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of HH on memory systems. 47 healthy male (23.9 + 2.3 years old) French Air Force pilots participated in the study during their training in hypobaric chamber (31,000 ft). They were submitted to memory tests before, during and after hypoxia. 23 of them were not exposed to hypoxia and served as a normoxia control group. Memory tests included : i) an explicit faces recognition task, based on the remember/know/guess paradigm, allowing the comparison of the contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory ; ii) a perceptual priming task ; iii) the free recall (immediate and delayed) of 2 emotional word lists ; iv) the PASAT, to assess working memory performance during hypoxia. We found no effect of HH on priming and on the number of words recalled, although HH tends to favour the recall of positive valence words. Interestingly, recognition memory was modified. Indeed, although hit rates were equivalent, we found deficits in recollection whereas familiarity was unaffected. Finally, HH lowers working memory performance. Our results suggest that HH impairs hippocampus and frontal cortex functions, leading to episodic and working memory deficits. Therefore, our acute hypobaric hypoxia model seems to

be relevant for the study of hippocampus dependent memories, mainly as regards recollection and familiarity processes.

Poster 76

PROCESSING SOCIAL EXCLUSION -MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF FRONTO-TEMPORAL INVOLVEMENT

Christine Naegele, Christian Wienbruch, Patrick Berg, & Brigitte Rockstroh University of Konstanz

Descriptors: MEG, social exclusion

Neural correlates of experimentally-induced social exclusion have been studied to understand processing of emotional distress. Neuromagnetic activity (MEG) was measured in 78 subjects (40 healthy, 18 patients with major depressive disorder, MDD, 15 with borderline personality disorders, BPD), while they engaged in a virtual ball-tossing game. Across the total 270 trials exclusion probability increased from 33% in the first to 90% in the second half of trials. Activity analysed in the source space was significantly larger in occipital regions 150 - 250 ms following the inclusion (ball tossed back to subject) compared to the exclusion signal (ball not returned) in all subjects, the effect being more pronounced in healthy subjects than in patients. In response to exclusion (compared to inclusion) signals, all subjects displayed significantly larger frontal activity at 250 - 350 ms, which extended to temporal regions at 420 - 500 ms and to occipital regions in subjects exhibiting trait-rejection sensitivity. Across subjects fronto-temporal activity remained stable across the exclusion trials of the second part of the game, while larger early occipital activity towards the end of trials varied with more pronounced subjective ratings of induced exclusion. Exclusion experience prompts activity in frontotemporal regions at 250-350 ms after stimulus onset mainly if combined with inclusion experience. Psychiatric disorder, personality trait of rejection sensitivity or mood change do not seem to have strong impact on brain processes related to the experimentally-induced social exclusion. Research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FOR 751/B5).

Poster 77

MIMICRY OF 3D STEREOSCOPIC EMOTIONAL FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

Christophe Blaison, Anna Krewel, & Ursula Hess Humboldt-University

Descriptors: emotion, mimicry, stereoscopy

One critique that has been leveled against research on the perception of emotional facial expressions, especially when considering their effects in interpersonal relations, is the lack of ecological validity of 2D images, given that we live in a 3D social world. The present research addressed this issue by comparing both judgments of and mimicry reactions to 2D and 3D stereoscopic videos showing emotional facial expressions of happiness, anger, sadness and disgust. Facial mimicry was assessed in 50 participants using facial EMG at the Corrugator Supercilii (frown), Zygomaticus Major (upturned corner of the mouth in a smile), Orbicularis Oculi (wrinkles around the eye in a smile) and Levator Labii Alaeque Nasii (raised lip in disgust) sites. The results showed significant (po .05) patterns of facial activity congruent with mimicry for happiness, anger and sadness, but not for disgust. No main effect of presentation format emerged. Yet, participants showed significantly more Orbicularis Oculi activity (p o .05) towards happy expressions shown in 2D rather than 3 D. Overall, the findings did not support the notion that increased realism of stimuli changes conclusions about social reactions to emotional expressions.

EEG DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ''LIVING'' AND ''NONLIVING'' OBJECTS IN THE CATEGORIZATION TASK WITH PICTORIAL STIMULI: WAVELET ANALYSIS

Elena V. Mnatsakanian1 & Andrey D. Melnik2 institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, 2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Descriptors: categorization, wavelet, EEG

The ERP studies report category-specific effects for living vs. non-living objects. In our study we analyzed spectral power of the electrical brain activity applying wavelet method in search for brain regions, which respond differently to those categories. The stimuli were monochrome photographs of living (birds and mammals) and nonliving (cars and motor bicycles) objects, total of 320 unique pictures. Healthy adult volunteers (35 male and 10 female) participated in this study. The instruction was to press button 1 for living and button 2 for nonliving objects. Half of the images were showing animals in a random order. 256-channel EEG was recorded with 500 Hz digitization rate. Time-frequency analysis was done using Morlet wavelets in 3-30 Hz frequency range with 1 Hz step. Scaling factor was 8. Significant group differences (paired t-test, p<0.01) in spectral power between categories were in 3 time-frequency windows. The spectral power was higher in response to the living objects in all windows. The first (100 - 250 ms, 10-30 Hz) and the third (500-750 ms, 10-25 Hz) windows were related to the right posterior region, and the second one (150 - 300 ms, 10-25 Hz) was located in the pre-frontal cortex with some left preponderance. The first window presumably reflects the processes involved in visual shape analysis. The second window may be related to the comparison of stored and perceived information and decision making. The average motor reaction time was approximately 560 ms (no significant differences between categories), which is in the time range of the third window.

Poster 80

HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND EMOTIONAL STARTLE MODULATION TO DIFFERENT NEGATIVE PICTURES

Elisabeth Ruiz-Padial1, Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso1, Ana C. Ferreira2, Maria C.

Pastor3, Jose L. Mata Martin4, & Francisco Esteves2 1Universidad de Jaeen, 2Instituto Superior de Ciencias do Trabalho e da Empresa, 3Universidad Jaume I, 4Universidad de Granada

Descriptors: heart rate variability, startle

Heart rate variability (HRV) as well as emotional modulation of the startle reflex have demonstrated to be good indicators of emotional regulation. A previous study has combined both measures showing that the emotional startle modulation in high HRV persons was the expected while it was impaired in low HRV. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effect of HRV on the startle modulation using two different negative emotions: fear and disgust. Participants were forty three university students whose HRV was recorded during a five minutes resting period before the exposure to the emotional slides, and divided by the median in a high-HRVgroup and a low-HRVgroup. Four stimulus categories were used (pleasant, neutral, threatening and disgusting) in a startle probe paradigm. Results showed a potentiated startle response to fear stimuli only in the high-HRV group, whereas the low-HRV group showed no emotional modulation. The interpretation of this finding is congruent with our previous results and suggests the HRV as a hallmark of an adaptive and healthy organism that may reflect a highly specific modulation of brainstem appetitive and aversive circuits by the prefrontal cortex.

Poster 78

EXAMINATION OF EVALUATIVE AND SEMANTIC PRIMING EFFECTS BY VARYING TASK INSTRUCTIONS: AN ERP STUDY

David R. Herring1, Jennifer H. Taylor2, Stephen L. Crites1, & Katherine R. White1 1University of Texas at El Paso, 2Lock Haven University

Descriptors: evaluative priming, LPP, semantic priming

This study examined cognitive processes associated with attitude and semantic activation by using behavioral and psychophysiological measures in a priming paradigm. Specifically, cognitive mechanisms were investigated by evaluative and semantic priming paradigms using behavioral response times and the N400 and LPP event-related potential (ERP) components. Participants either completed an evaluative task (n 5 32), a semantic task (n 5 33), or a feature-detection task (n 5 34). Results indicated that the behavioral evaluative priming effect (incongruent-congruent) occurred during both the evaluative (Mdiff 5 29 ms) and semantic tasks (Mdiff 5 4 ms), whereas the behavioral semantic priming effect occurred only during the semantic task (Mdiff 5 36ms). The LPP was elicited by evaluative incongruities relative to evaluative congruities in the evaluative task (Mdiff 5 .74 microvolts) and by semantic incongruities relative to semantic congruities in the semantic (Mdiff 5 1.16 microvolts) and feature-detection tasks (Mdiff 5 .37 microvolts). Taken as a whole, the present findings suggest that different cognitive mechanisms may underlie evaluative and semantic priming.

Poster 81

THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL DISEASE IN PEDIATRIC DEPRESSION: A COMPARISON OF BRAIN ACTIVITY IN ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION TO DEPRESSION COMORBID WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE DURING AN EXECUTIVE CONTROL TASK

Emily E. Brickell1, Greg J. Siegle1, Eva M. Szigethy2, Jennifer Silk1, Neil P. Jones1, Margaret A. Kirshner2, Melissa Newara2, & Kyung Hwa Lee1 1University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 2Children's Hospital of UPMC

Descriptors: depression, fmri

Depression is associated with executive control deficits and decreased prefrontal function. It is unclear whether pediatric depression co-occurring with physical illness involves similar dysfunction as depression without illness. Twenty-two adolescents with unipolar depression and co-occurring IBD were compared to adolescents with IBD but no depression (N 5 13), depression but no IBD (N 5 13), and those with neither IBD nor depression (N 5 32). Subjects were assessed with fMRI while completing a digit-sorting task previously shown to yield decreased prefrontal recruitment in depressed adults. Data were analyzed using a random-effects voxelwise depression x IBD x time ANOVA. Results indicated decreased recruitment in distinct DLPFC regions for depression and for IBD.

Depression was also associated with a flattened response in VMPFC and sgACC, indicating potential deficits in emotional regulation. IBD was associated with flattened response in self (BA10) and goal (RLPFC) processing regions. Depressed non-IBD and IBD non-depressed groups demonstrated particularly low activity in self-related regions (BA47, insula, dACC and BA10). Both depressed and IBD participants displayed decreased DLPFC recruitment compared to controls, possibly reflecting deficits in executive control, albeit through different mechanisms. Results support the idea that physical disease alters the neurological manifestation of pediatric depression. Given that both groups exhibit decreased prefrontal function, both could potentially benefit from cognitive remediation.

Poster 82

THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL AND EMOTION REGULATION ON PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Erika A. Henry1, & Bruce D. Bartholow2 1University of Colorado, 2University of Missouri

Descriptors: ERP, emotion, ERN

Past research indicates that alcohol dampens negative affect and is sometimes used in the regulation of psychological distress (see Sher, 1987). Similarly, individuals using less effective emotion regulation strategies are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use problems (Cooper et al., 1995). To date, however, no research has directly tested the extent to which an acute dose of alcohol differentially affects individuals differing in emotion regulation styles. The present research investigated whether individual differences in emotion regulation modulate alcohol's effects on performance monitoring, using a combined behavioral and psychophysiological approach. Ninety adults (age 21-35) were randomly assigned to one of three beverage groups (alcohol, placebo, or control beverage) and then engaged in a trial-and-error learning paradigm (Holroyd & Coles, 2002) while ERPs were recorded. Individuals were categorized as Reappraisers or Suppressors according to their score on the emotion regulation questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003). Results show that after alcohol consumption, Reappraisers experienced a decrease in learning and reduction in ERN amplitude. Conversely, neither performance nor ERN amplitude were affected by alcohol among Suppressors. Taken together, these results could have important implications for understanding how the potential benefits (decreased negative affect) and costs (impaired cognitive control) associated with alcohol use differ between individuals, and how such differences might increase understanding of risk for developing alcohol use disorders.

Poster 83

INVESTIGATING HEARTBEAT PERCEPTION AND HEARTBEAT EVOKED POTENTIALS IN DEPRESSION

Filipa C. Viola1, Janneke Terhaar2, Anna K. Israel2, Stefan Debener1,2, & Karl J. Baer2 1University of Oldenburg, 2University Hospital Jena

Descriptors: depression, hearbeat perception, hearbeat-evoked potential Interoceptive awareness is thought to have an impact on psychopathology. However studies concerning the link between depression and bodily awareness are rare and contradictory. Assessment of heartbeat perception is one of the most common methods to quantify interoceptive awareness and has been shown to be reliable. Here the heartbeat perception of depressed patients, as well as their heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) were investigated. The heartbeat perception score was assessed in sixteen depressed patients and matched healthy controls. A 63-channel EEG was recorded while participants counted pseudo-randomly presented tones or heartbeats during a fixed number of cardiac cycles. ECG R-waves served as triggers for EEG averaging. The cardiac-field artefact was minimized using independent component analysis and current-source density transformation. The depressed patients showed less accurate heartbeat perception in comparison to the control group. Differences were also reflected in HEPs as the global field power was significantly reduced in depressed patients. The results suggest that bodily awareness is altered during depression, and this is partly reflected in the HEPs. Reduced interoception might be linked to a decreased capacity for decision-making, cognitive processing or alexithymia during depression.

FCV was funded by the Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Lisbon, Portugal (SFRH/BD/37662/2007).

Poster 84

IT IS NOT ALL ABOUT CIGARETTES: BLUNTED BRAIN RESPONSES TO PLEASANT STIMULI PREDICT LONG-TERM SMOKING ABSTINENCE

Francesco Versace, Cho Y. Lam, Jeffrey M. Engelmann, Jason D. Robinson, Jennifer A. Minnix, Victoria L. Brown, & Paul M. Cinciripini University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Descriptors: smoking, emotion, erps

Identifying smokers at high risk of relapse may provide the opportunity to implement individualized interventions and increase cessation success rates. We tested whether

brain responses to emotional and cigarette-related images were predictive of smoking abstinence in a clinical trial. Before any smoking-cessation treatment, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional (pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related images from 180 smokers interested in quitting. We used cluster analysis to assign smokers to two groups based on the amplitude ofthe late positive potential (LPP) to the experimental stimuli. The cluster analysis assigned 99 participants to cluster 1 and 81 participants to cluster 2. While neutral and unpleasant images prompted similar brain responses in the two groups, pleasant images prompted a significantly smaller LPP in cluster 2 than in cluster 1 (p<0.0001). Cigarette-related images had the opposite effect, evoking a somewhat larger LPP in cluster 2 than in cluster 1 (p<0.10). The smokers showing blunted brain responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli (i.e., those in cluster 2) were significantly less likely to be abstinent at 10, 12, and 24 weeks after their quit date. This response offers a new biomarker for identifying smokers at higher risk of relapse and for testing the efficacy of new interventions aimed at normalizing brain reward systems' responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli.

This work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse through grant 1R01DA017073-01 to Paul M. Cinciripini and by a faculty fellowship from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Duncan Family Institute for Cancer Prevention and Risk Assessment to Francesco Versace.

Poster 85

HAEMODIALYSIS AS A VALUABLE CONTEXT FOR THE STUDY OF

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA: APPLICATION IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND

Carmen Ma Perales, & Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso University of Jaeen

Descriptors: haemodialysis, blood pressure, pain thresholds

Blood pressure (BP) is negatively associated to pain perception. In this study pain and the relations between BP and pain thresholds were compared at the beginning and end of the habitual 4 hours haemodialysis sessions. 14 patients with chronic renal disease participated in the study. Pain thresholds were evaluated with pressure algometry bilaterally at two tender points: the second rib and the knee. BP and pain thresholds were assessed twice: 1) 15min.after dialysis onset and 2) 30min. before dialysis end. BP does not change through dialysis. However, the course of dialysis was associated to a decrease in pain thresholds for the left second rib and the left and right knees. At the beginning of dialysis BP were uncorrelated with pain, while at the end of dialysis both systolic and diastolic BP were strongly associated to pain thresholds: increased BP were associated to lower pain in terms of increased threshold. The associations found between BP and pain at the end of dialysis is of the highest reported in literature (up to r 5 0.8). The decrease in pain thresholds from the beginning to the end of dialysis could be explained from the stress induced analgesia phenomenon. These results suggest that haemodialysis is an especially valuable context for the study of psychophysiological phenomenon. Given the long duration of the dialysis procedure, it provides for a long baseline that facilitates stabilization processes and allow for the reduction of interfering effects of stress-related factors. This research was supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project PSI2009-09812).

Poster 86

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF EXPECTATION AND EMOTION IN A LIVE CONCERT EXPERIMENT

Hauke W. Egermann & Stephen McAdams Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music Media and Technology, McGill University

Descriptors: music, emotion, expectation

We investigated the often theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listener's emotions and will present preliminary results from a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using the CIRMMT Audience Response System, we measured continuously subjective experience (using 50 wireless iPods) and peripheral psychophysiological changes. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a three-fold approach. (1) Based on an information-theoretic model, musical expectancies are predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous expectation rating scale was employed by half of the audience to measure the unexpectedness of the music heard. (3) Finally, also emotions were measured using a multi-component approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG) and peripheral arousal (with the latter two measured on all 50 participants). Results confirmed the relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings) and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (subjective experience and sympathetic activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structures in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music in everyday life.

AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MARKER OF AN OBJECT ABSTRACTION DEFICIT IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

Chiang Hsueh-Sheng1, Raksha Anand1, Justin T. Eroh1, Jeremy F. Strain1, Rajen H. Patel1, Elizabeth K. Bartz1, Kristin Martin-Cook2, Michael A. Kraut3, & John Hart Jr.1 1The University of Texas at Dallas, 2The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 3Johns Hopkins Hospital

Descriptors: semantic memory, mild cognitive impairment, ERP

Impairment in semantic memory is one of the initial symptoms of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). However, the nature of semantic memory impairment in MCI has not been as thoroughly examined compared to other deficits such as episodic memory. This pilot study investigated object abstraction ability, a semantic function, using event-related potentials (ERP) in 10 individuals with MCI (age: 68.6 + 11.8 years; CDR: 0.5; MMSE: 29.3) and 10 cognitively normal controls (NC) (age: 66.5 + 6.9 years; MMSE: 29) using the semantic object retrieval task (SORT). This task examines the ability to integrate semantic features to abstract a non-presented object (e.g., ''desert'' and ''humps'' would result in the retrieval of the object ''camel''). The task includes a total of 50 word pairs that combine to elicit an object (retrieval pairs) and 50 pairs that do not combine to elicit an object (non-retrieval pairs). The findings revealed that individuals with MCI had lower accuracy in retrieving targeted objects compared to controls (p 5 0.003), whereas both groups had comparable accuracy in responding in the negative to non-retrieval pairs. When group-averaged ERPs for both conditions were compared, a significant mean amplitude difference in the time range of 750 to 1400 msec in the left fronto-temporal electrodes was observed in the controls (p<0.05). In contrast, ERPs of MCI patients did not exhibit a significant difference between the two conditions. These findings indicate that impairment in object abstraction may be a sensitive marker of early cognitive deterioration in MCI.

Poster 88

TIME PERCEPTION AND EEG CHANGES AFTER INTENSE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Irina S. Polikanova1, Olga V. Sysoeva2, & Aleksander G. Tonevitsky1 1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2Washington University School of Medicine

Descriptors: psychophysiology, sport phychology, cognitive neuroscience Nine male student-wrestlers (mean age 19+/-1) participated in the study. The resting EEG (256 channels) was performed twice in the control condition and within 15-30 minutes after intense physical training (combat wresting training with the mean heart rate HR 159+/-7). Before and after physical load, the students also performed short block of tests including subjective assessment of their current state (health, activity and mood questionnaire), reaction time tests and 3 types of tapping: comfort (press the "space" button at any comfortable rate), maximal (press the "space" button with maximal speed), subjective second (press the ''space'' button each second). Significant increases were detected for the subjective assessment of activity (4.6 vs 5.3, t(9) 5 3.1, p 5 0.01) and a decrease in the subjective second (1223 vs 1027, t(9) 5 2,7, p 5 0.03 ) was found after the physical exercise compared to the baseline condition. The differences in these parameters showed a significant correlation (r 5 — 0.69, p 5 0.04), indicating that the degree of increased subjective assessment of activity is related to degree of decrement in subjective estimations of a second. A significant correlation was found between subjective second and individual alpha frequency (IAF) in the occipital region during the baseline condition (r 5 0.78, p 5 0.12). This study showed that intense physical activity changes the subjective perception of time and this change correlates with changes in self-assessed activity. The relationship of this phenomenon with parameters of nervous system function will be discussed.

Poster 89

WALKING EXERCISE IMPROVES WHITE MATTER INTEGRITY IN AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

J. Carson Smith1,2, Kristy A. Nielson3,2, Matthew D. Verber4, Piero Antuono2, Ryan J.

Hanson1, Lynn A. Wheeler1, Nathan C. Hantke5, Alissa M. Butts3, & Karen M. Outzen1

1University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Marquette University, 4University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Descriptors: alzheimer's disease, exercise, diffusion tensor imaging Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with reduced white matter (WM) tract integrity. Physical activity is associated with greater WM volume in healthy older adults and better cognitive function. However, it is unknown if exercise training prospectively alters WM integrity in people diagnosed with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week walking exercise intervention on WM tract integrity in amnestic MCI. Diagnosis of amnestic MCI was confirmed using the Petersen criteria in 9 older adults (age 81 + 5 years). The 12-week exercise intervention consisted of supervised treadmill walking (30 minutes per day, 4 days per week) at a moderate intensity. Before and after the intervention, diffusion tensor imaging was used at 3 T (19 directions, 3 runs) to measure whole brain fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR). A voxelwise analysis was performed to determine significant changes over time. After exercise training, MD, DA, and

DR decreased in WM within the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex and left caudate; DA was decreased in the right inferior parietal gyrus; and MD and DR within the right hippocampal formation increased (po.05). These preliminary data indicate 12-weeks of walking exercise may improve indices of WM tract integrity in individuals with aMCI. Further work is needed to compare walking exercise to an active control condition, as well as relate these effects to changes in cognitive performance and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Poster 90

DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR BLOCKADE REVERSES THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TRAIT BAS AND FRONTAL ASYMMETRY

Jan Wacker, Erik M. Mueller, & Gerhard Stemmler Philipps-Universität Marburg

Descriptors: frontal asymmetry, individual differences, dopamine Several theories describe a broad motivational system underlying behavioral approach and incentive salience processing. Individual differences in this behavioral approach or behavioral activation system (BAS) have been previously linked to both frontal EEG alpha asymmetry and brain dopamine. However, until now evidence directly linking frontal asymmetry and dopamine is scarce. In the present study young female experimenters recorded eight minutes of 64-channel EEG in N 5 100 young healthy male volunteers three hours after administration of either placebo or the selective dopamine D2 receptor blocker Sulpiride (200 mg; double blind). As we had expected for an incentive motivational context like the present encounter between young female experimenters and male study volunteers, scores in a German version of Carver and White's (1994) trait BAS scale were associated with relative left-frontal cortical activity (i.e., relative right mid-frontal EEG alpha) in the placebo group. Furthermore, this association was completely reversed in the Sulpiride group. These findings provide initial direct evidence for a dopaminergic modulation of individual differences in both trait BAS and frontal asymmetry. Potential mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of the D2 blocker in individuals high versus low in trait BAS are discussed. This study was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (WA 2593/2-1 and WA 2593/2-2) awarded to JW.

Poster 91

FRIEND OR FOE?: A FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC IMAGING PILOT STUDY OF AVATAR-INDUCED ANGER

Jennifer L. Stewart, Taru M. Flagan, & Martin P. Paulus University of California, San Diego

Descriptors: anger, fmri

Although several creative electrophysiological studies have examined neural mechanisms and motivational foundations of anger experience and expression, fewer functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies have employed innovative anger elicitation methods, perhaps due to subject mobility and safety constraints inherent in this research. However, development of externally valid paradigms to elicit anger in the scanner would provide heightened spatial resolution of brain-behavior relationships involved in emotional processing. The present study employed fMRI to study anger in fifteen healthy participants aged 20 to 30 years old (33% male) who interacted with a female avatar on a computer screen within the context of a plausible real-life situation (returning a pair of pants to a salesperson at a department store). During this self-paced conversation, the participant used a button box to select one of several responses shown on the computer screen in order to reply to the avatar's latest statement. Results indicated that although the avatar made participants ''a little angry" to ''moderately angry," only two participants expressed anger at the avatar directly. In addition, participants exhibited greater insula and rostral anterior cingulate (ACC) activation in response to the avatar over time, consistent with previous anger provocation research and suggestive of heightened interoceptive processing during anger experience. Anger provocation was also linked to amygdala activation, suggestive of increased reactivity to threat. Study implications and limitations will be discussed.

Poster 92

SAME OLD...SAME OLD: REACTIVATION OF RELATIONAL INFORMATION IN THE CORTEX IS SIMILAR TO INITIAL PROCESSING

John A. Walker, Kathy A. Low, Neal J. Cohen, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: memory, reactivation

Previous research has shown that test-time preview of an item from a previously studied pair prior to the critical test display facilitates the identification of the whole pair. It has been suggested that this occurs because the preview item may induce the reactivation of the representation of the related item. To test this hypothesis we first had participants learn face-scene pairs and later gave participants a recognition test on the pairs; importantly, subjects were given a preview of the scene before every test display. Using the event-related optical signal (EROS), a neuroimaging technique with high spatial and temporal resolution, we looked at brain activation during the initial study of the items and during the test-time preview of the scenes. We hypothesized that if the scene preview

can reactivate the representation of the face-scene pair, then face-processing areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) should be active both during the initial presentation of the face-scene pair and during the scene preview period in advance of actual presentation of the test face. The results confirmed our hypothesis: not only was the STS activated during the initial pair presentation, but it was also reactivated during the scene preview at latencies (e 358 ms and > 742ms) corresponding with those observed when the faces were first studied. These data provide support for the relational theory of hippocampus and memory (Cohen & Eichenbaum, 1993; Eichenbaum & Cohen, 2001).

Poster 93

HERITABILITY OF ERN THETA TIME-FREQUENCY ENERGY AND INTER-CHANNEL PHASE SYNCHRONY

Jonathan A. Klaphake1, Scott J. Burwell1, Edward M. Bernat2, Stephen M. Malone1, Selin Aviyente3, & William G. Iacono1 1University of Minnesota, 2Florida State University, 3Michigan State University

Descriptors: time-frequency, phase synchrony, heritability

The contribution of theta-band activity to the error-related negativity (ERN) has been reported by a number of investigators, and at least one study also found substantial contributions from delta. Time-frequency phase synchrony of theta activity has also been demonstrated, indicating functional connectivity (FC) between medial prefrontal (mPFC) and lateral prefrontal (lPFC) cortical regions. We report results ofa preliminary investigation ofthe heritability oftime-frequency (TF) activity contributing to the ERN, as well as associated FC between mPFC and lPFC, in 29-year-old male twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. EEG was collected from 57 monozygotic (MZ) and 39 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs performing a modified Eriksen flanker task. We examined ERN peak amplitude, TF energy, and a recently developed measure of inter-channel time-frequency phase synchrony (IC-TFPS, Aviyente et al., 2011) between mPFC and lPFC. Previous studies suggested two regions of interest in TF transforms of the ERP data: theta (4-8 Hz) and delta (1.5-3.5 Hz). Both contributed significantly to the ERN peak in a multiple linear regression (po .001), with a large multiple R. A modest but significant MZ twin correlation was found for theta energy, but not delta. MZ correlations for FC between mPFC and lPFC were significant, and the pattern of correlations suggested both genetic and shared environmental influence. Biometric modeling confirmed these inferences. Individual differences in TF-theta energy were modestly heritable while phase synchrony showed both heritable and familial influences. DA005147, AA015621, MH080239.

Poster 94

AFFECT, RISK-TAKING, AND INVESTMENT DECISIONS: INVESTIGATING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND NEURAL MECHANISMS BY WHICH CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS AFFECTIVE PROCESSES INFLUENCE DECISION MAKING

Julie L. Hall1, Richard D. Gonzalez1, Chandra S. Sripada1, & Oliver C. Schultheiss2 1University of Michigan, 2Friedrich-Alexander University

Descriptors: affect, risk-taking, decision making

The dominant method of measuring affect in psychological research has been through explicit, self-report measures. Recently, implicit and unconscious measures have been developed to assess emotions that respondents may not be willing or able to report. The current study provides evidence for stronger unconscious than conscious affective influences on financial choices. Using fMRI, 24 participants viewed happy, angry, and neutral affective primes presented under subliminal and supraliminal conditions followed by a dynamic investment task. Our results indicate that both subliminal and supraliminal affective primes influence financial investment decisions and anticipatory neural activation in the nucleus accumbens. As predicted, participants made more risky investment decisions after happy versus neutral primes. They also showed greater nucleus accumbens activation after happy primes, an effect that was significant for subliminal versus supraliminal primes. Furthermore, financial risk-taking was positively correlated with nucleus accumbens activation during happy primes whereas financial risk-taking was negatively correlated with insula activation during angry primes. Our results demonstrate that affect influences financial investment decisions and neural markers of anticipatory arousal, particularly at an unconscious level. Our findings imply that individuals may be able to improve the quality of their financial decisions by becoming more aware of their affective states and learning to manage affective states that lead to suboptimal investment choices.

Poster 95

ADJUSTMENTS AFTER AN ERROR: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SPN AND POST ERROR SLOWING IN A PROBABILISTIC LEARNING TASK

Karen R. Hebert1, Fernando Valle-Inclan2, & Steven A. Hackley1 1University of Missouri - Columbia, 2University of La Coruna

Descriptors: stimulus preceding negativity, reinforcement learning, error processing When participants are highly involved with a task, they slow down after making an error and engage in frontally mediated adjustments of cognitive control. The rela-

tionship between this response slowing and the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), an event related potential reliably associated with the anticipation of feedback was examined. 17 subjects participated in a probabilistic classification task. Post error slowing was found in this probabilistic task (F[1,16] 5 4.45, p< .05) with reaction times following error feedback and a monetary loss averaging 2.09s versus 1.91s following correct feedback and a monetary gain. Correlational analysis showed that subjects who demonstrated more post-error slowing displayed a correspondingly large SPN following error trials (r 5 — .616, p<.01). This suggests that subjects were paying especially close attention in anticipation of the feedback display. Numerous fMRI studies of posterror slowing have suggested that either dorso-lateral or ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex is involved. Specifically a study by Li et al. (2008) localized the effect to the operculum overlying the right anterior insula (x, y, z 5 44, 24, -4 mm). This same region has been identified as the source of the lateralized portion of the SPN, and suggests that the SPN may reflect the reward prediction component of biological theories of reinforcement learning.

Poster 96

THE ROLE OF HISTORY OF ABUSE, DEPRESSED MOOD, AND BINGE-EATING IN PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIVITY TO SAD EMOTION

Karla C. Fettich, Kara Christensen, Jessica Weissman, & Eunice Y. Chen The University of Chicago

Descriptors: sexual abuse, binge eating, emotion reactivity

Women with a history of abuse are at risk of developing disordered eating, particularly binge-eating, and difficulties regulating emotions. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been proposed as a psychophysiological index of emotion regulation, with lower baseline RSA indicating poorer emotion regulation. Participants were 51 women (age M 5 33.53 SD 5 12.29, Body Mass Index 5 30.16 SD 5 10.19) with binge-eating problems and a history of abuse (N 5 17), with binge-eating problems without a history of abuse (N 5 17) and healthy controls (N 5 17). We hypothesized that a history of abuse contributes to the variance in RSA reactivity during sad mood, above and beyond eating disorder diagnosis and current depressed mood. Subjects completed the Eating Disorders Examination, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). RSA was measured before and during a sad film clip using spectral analysis and controlling for respiration. RSA reactivity was calculated by subtracting pre- from during- mood induction RSA. In a hierarchical linear regression, BDI explained 9.4% (p 5 .03) and history of abuse explained 10% (p 5 .02) of the variance in RSA reactivity values. A history of abuse was associated with increased RSA compared to a decrease in RSA in non-abused women during the sad film clip. Results are discussed in light of research suggesting that decreased RSA during a sad film clip is associated with increased adaptive emotion regulation in children (Gentzler et al., 2009) and recovery from depression in adults (Rottenberg et al., 2005).

Poster 97

CHANGES IN AUTONOMIC AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS FOLLOWING YOGA AND AYURVEDA IN A GERIATRIC POPULATION

Krishnamurthy Nandi Manjunath, & Shirley Ann Telles Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana University

Descriptors: physiology, yoga, geriatric populationBackground: Age related changes in autonomic and cognitive functions are well knownAims: To assess the influence of two ancient Indian interventions i.e., Yoga and Ayurveda on autonomic functions and memory in an elderly population Methods: Sixty nine persons aged over 60 from a residential home for the aged were recruited. They were stratified and randomly allocated to three groups, i.e., Yoga, Ayurveda, or Wait-list Control. The autonomic functions [(Heart Rate Variability-HRV), respiratory rate, galvanic skin conductance] and aspects of memory were assessed using a Polygraph and Wechsler memory scale respectively. Assessments were done before and after 3 and 6 months of respective interventions. The Yoga program included physical postures, relaxation techniques, regulated breathing, meditation and lectures. The Ayurveda group received an herbal preparation twice daily for the whole period. The wait-list control group continued with their normal routine Results: Following six months of yoga there was a significant reduction in the heart rate, respiratory rate and galvanic skin conductance. The Low Frequency component of HRV has reduced while the high frequency increased and the sympatho-vagal balance shifted towards parasympathetic dominance. Also, there was a significant improvement in mental control, digit span (forward and backward) and associate learning. The Ayurveda and Wait-list control groups showed no significant changes Conclusion: Combination of yoga practices improves aspects of memory and induces signs of physiological rest in a geriatric population

IMPROVING FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING USING PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL SENSOR DATA

Kristina Schaaff, Lars Mueller, Malte Kirst1, & Stephan Heuer FZI Forschuangszentrum Informatik

Descriptors: emotions, decision making

Emotions play an important role in decision making. Especially in financial markets, where high amounts of money are involved, making a wrong decision can cause high losses. Therefore, a considerable amount of research has been conducted on decision biases in financial markets such as the disposition effect. Becoming aware of how the decision behavior is influenced by emotions is a first step towards improving financial decision behavior. Psychophysiological signals contain information about the emotional state of a person and are therefore investigated as a way to provide an objective measure about it. The changes in psychophysiology can be monitored by recording vital signals such as cardiac or electrodermal activity. For instance a higher arousal level causes heart rate to increase. The information obtained from psychophysiological signals can therefore be used in the development of an application, which is able to provide objective feedback about the current emotional state to persons involved in financial decision making. To obtain information about the emotional state we developed a platform, which allows the integration of different commercially available physiological sensors. The platform was built in a modular way such that various algorithms for the computation of a person's emotional state based on the sensor data can easily be integrated and compared. The obtained information can either be used for biofeedback to create awareness ofthe decision behavior or to be fed back into a learning application for training of emotion regulation capabilities. The research was carried out and funded as part of the xDelia research project (www.xdel-ia.org). We gratefully acknowledge funding from the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme, Grant No. 231830.

Poster 99

AUTONOMIC SPACE AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN A COLLEGE

SAMPLE

Larry D. Keen II, Jules Harrell, & Alfonso Campbell Jr.

Howard University

Descriptors: auotnomic space, executive function

The theory of cardiac autonomic space (Berntson, Caccioppo & Quigley, 1991) details the complex interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate. Researchers have yet to employ this theory in examining the impact of cardiac events on the performance on an executive function task. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between executive functioning task performance and the placement of participants in autonomic space. Ninety-two college students (females 5 69) with a mean age of 20.29 volunteered for the study. Baseline measures of interbeat intervals were derived from the electrocardiogram collected by a six lead ambulatory monitoring system. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) and Cardiac Sympathetic Index (CSI) were calculated using the CMetX software. Following baseline measurements, participants were administered a computerized version of the Berg Card Sorting Task (BCST). After adjusting for covariates, there were significant group differences found for the total correct responses [F(3,88) 5 4.160, p 5 .009]. Post hoc comparisons revealed a significant difference in correct responses between participants in the high CSI/low RSA (M 5 96.06, SD 5 2.74) and the high RSA/low CSI (M 5 82.92, SD 5 2.67) groups. Results of the current study are contrary to others, which have presented higher vagal tone being associated with cognitive performance. Identifying a participant's location in autonomic space may give insight to task performance and ultimately how an individual functions in their environment.

Poster 100

CHRONOMETRY OF AFFECTIVE STARTLE MODULATION IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE WITHOUT DEPRESSION

Laura B. Zahodne & Dawn Bowers University of Florida

Descriptors: parkinson's disease, affective chronometry, startle eyeblink In startle eyeblink paradigms using emotional pictures, healthy individuals show quadratic and linear patterns ofresponding during anticipation and viewing, respectively. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) do not exhibit enhanced startles while viewing negative pictures, but their response patterns during anticipation are unknown. In the present study of 20 PD patients and 19 controls with similar demographics and cognitive status, symbols cued the valence of to-be-presented pictures from the IAPS. Eyeblinks were elicited bin-aurally with white noise bursts (50 ms, 95 db) delivered randomly during 24 trials each of anticipation (1800-2200ms following cue offset) or viewing (3500-4500ms following picture onset) and recorded from orbicularis oculi muscles bilaterally. No differences between groups in affective startle modulation during the anticipation period were found: both PD and control groups exhibited a U-shaped pattern of responding. Controls exhibited enhanced startles while viewing negative pictures, but PD patients did not. Startles on unprimed trials and subjective ratings ofvalence/arousal did not differ between groups. These data suggest that PD patients exhibit normal physiological mobilization for action

following a valence cue but do not translate an intact appraisal of aversive pictures into a defensive motivational state. Future studies are needed to characterize the underlying neuropathophysiological correlates of these findings, which support the dissociability of neural networks involved in emotional expectancy versus perception. NIA (T32-AG020499), American Psychological Foundation, Tallahassee Memorial Foundation, National Parkinson Foundation

Poster 101

ERP EFFECTS OF WINS, NEAR-WINS, AND LOSSES DURING A COMPUTER-SIMULATED GAMING TASK

Lisa Lole, Craig J. Gonsalvez, & Adam R. Clarke University of Wollongong

Descriptors: gambling, feedback negativity, P3

Recent research has indicated that feedback negativity (sometimes called the error-related negativity or ERN) is sensitive to loss/win manipulations in addition to incorrect/correct manipulations. These new findings are salient because of important theoretical and clinical implications for our understanding of reward mechanisms in general, and the effect of reinforcement contingencies on ERPs within gambling tasks in particular. The current study examined the effects on feedback negativity and P3 in response to win, near-win and loss outcomes while healthy controls (n 5 19) played a computer simulated gambling task, designed to mimic an electronic gaming machine. Participants were able to choose from two bet sizes: small and large. As predicted, feedback negativity was sensitive to the magnitude of the loss, with losses and near wins producing larger components than wins. No significant difference was found between losses and near-wins. Further, wins produced significantly larger P3 amplitudes compared to losses and near-wins. In contrast to the pattern of findings for feedback negativity, P3 amplitudes differentiated near-wins (larger amplitudes) from losses. All events, but particularly wins, were found to produce larger P3 magnitudes at Pz compared to lateral parietal sites. No significant effect of bet size on feedback negativity or P3 was found. Further investigation into ERP differences between problem and non-problem gamblers across win and loss outcomes is warranted. This project was supported by an Australian Research Council Linkage grant, LP077683 6.

Poster 102

RESPONSE INHIBITION, COGNITIVE CONTROL, AND ERROR DETECTION IN ADHD CHILDREN: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS STUDY

Magdalena Senderecka1, Krzysztof Gerc1, Jakub Szewczyk1, Roman Chmylak2, & Anna Grabowska3

Jagiellonian University, 2NZOZ EEG-GRAF, 3Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology

Descriptors: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, event-related potentials, stop-signal paradigm

The first aim of the study was to determine whether deficient inhibitory control distinguishes children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type from normally developing children. The second aim was to investigate error processing in ADHD children. 40 right-handed children aged between 6.9 and 12.3 years participated in the study, with 16 boys and 4 girls in each of the control and ADHD groups. Participants performed a standard Stop-Signal Task with an auditory stop-signal stimulus. Relative to controls, the go stimulus reaction time and the stop-signal reaction time were prolonged in children with ADHD. The ADHD group showed reduced P2, enhanced, delayed N2, and reduced P3 component to auditory stop-signal compared with controls in successful stop-signal trials. Additionally, the amplitude of response-locked event-related potentials, containing the ERN-Pe complex related to error-detection, was smaller in ADHD children. These results support the hypothesis of a complex deficit of inhibitory control, conflict monitoring, and error recognition mechanisms in ADHD. Reduced amplitude of the P2 reflects an early orienting deficit or preparatory problem. Enhanced amplitude and delayed latency of the N2 are associated with inability to activate an urgent inhibitory process. Reduced amplitude of the P3 reflects a deficit in cognitive control operations affecting overall performance monitoring. Finally, reduced amplitude of the ERN-Pe complex is associated with poorer error or response conflict detection, followed by impaired error evaluation.

Poster 103

VISUOSPATIAL-VERBAL RECODING OF INFORMATION IN VISUAL-SHORT TERM MEMORY

Marcin Leszczynski1, Nicholas Myers2, Elkan Akyiirek3, & Anna Schubo4 1Ludwig Maximilian University, 2University of Oxford, 3University of Groningen, 4University Marburg

Descriptors: visual short-term memory, attention, EEG/ERP

Visual-short term memory is thought to be involved in visual attention. Similarly, attention has been found to play an important role in visual short-term memory (VSTM): it selects relevant information during encoding and it maintains memorized content. However, the involvement of attention during recall has been largely neglected. We devised a novel

experimental protocol to investigate how information is recalled from VSTM. We used the N2pc component of the event-related potential, known as a marker of spatial attention, to track the involvement of attention in VSTM. We obtained three main results. First, we confirmed the involvement of attention in recall, which was revealed by the N2pc that was elicited by a nonlateralized probe. However, this was only the case for short retention intervals. Second, we found that a dynamic recoding of the format of the representations in VSTM took place. Although the experimental design required participants to encode, maintain and recall purely visual stimuli, participants nevertheless were recoding the representational format. Finally, the recoding from visual to verbal code was associated with a benefit. The verbal code appears to guide behavior more efficiently than the visual code. Together our experiments show that memory recall initially involves attention, but only before VSTM content is recoded from visual to verbal form. This eventual verbal code furthermore seems to be more efficient.

Poster 104

AROUSAL, VALENCE, DOMINANCE...AND DESIRE? EVIDENCE FROM AN ERP STUDY CONCERNING THE NECESSITY OF A NEW MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSION TO DESCRIBE AFFECTIVE STATES

Benjamin Kuhr, Jessica Jacobi, Carina Krause, Jacob Kaiser, Sebastian Gasse, Thomas Gruber, & Markus Quirin University of Osnabriick

Descriptors: wanting, ERP, sexual desire

Previous studies investigating affective states as induced by pictures have focused mainly on the dimensions arousal, valence, and dominance. In the present work, we propose the additional motivational dimension desire and investigate ifthis dimension is correlated with specific EEG components. In an ERP-paradigm, male participants viewed erotic as compared to extreme-sports pictures and rated the resulting affective states according to arousal, valence, and desire. Manipulation checks confirmed that the states evoked by the two kinds of stimuli did not differ in terms of arousal and valence, but did differ in terms of desire, as reflected in ratings concerning how much participants would like to participate in the pictured scene. Arousal and valence ratings correlated with the early ERP component over frontal electrodes for erotic as well as for sports pictures, while the respective correlation for desire ratings was only found for erotic but not for sports pictures. To further support the relevance of the desire dimension, we also report frequency band analyses. Data are also discussed with a special focus on the distinction between wanting and liking.

Poster 105

HYPOCORTISOLISM IS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULUS PROCESSING SENSITIVITY AND PSYCHOSOMATIC COMPLAINTS

Mattie Tops1 & Hiroko Matsumoto2 1University of Leiden, 2University of Oregon

Descriptors: cortisol, sensory sensitivity, psychosomatic complaints Sensitivity to environmental stimuli, e.g. glare, flicker, pattern, color, noises and smells, is often reported in comorbid syndromes characterized by migraine, chronic pain, fatigue, psychosomatic complaints, rejection sensitivity and hypocortisolism, especially by pre-menopausal women. Women (n 5 195) aged 18-32 from a community sample collected saliva samples for determination of cortisol on the evening and early morning before coming to the laboratory. In the laboratory they performed a verbal immediate free-recall task: they learned lists of 11 words and subsequently reported as many words as they could in random order. They filled out questionnaires including a scale measuring discomfort or aversion reactions to intense environmental stimuli. Scores on this scale related to lower cortisol morning levels and awakening responses, especially after controlling for positive association between cortisol and state depression. Low morning cortisol was additionally associated with reporting regular experiences of somatic complaints such as oral herpes and lower back or muscle pain, and decreased immediate recall of words from primacy (first four) list positions only, while high cortisol awakening responses were associated with heartburn. Evening cortisol correlated positively to next morning state vigor. Results are interpreted as environmental as well as social sensitivity contributing to allostatic load, eventually leading to protective inhibitory responses that tend to decrease mobilization of cortisol and energy and promote withdrawal to low-stimulation environments.

Poster 106

ENHANCED MEMORY CONSOLIDATION BY POST-LEARNING AUTONOMIC ACTIVATION IN RESPONSE TO STRESS

Mauro Larra y Ramirez, Andre: Schulz, Ewald Naumann, & Hartmut Schachinger University of Trier

Descriptors: memory consolidation, stress, heart rate

Emotional material tends to be better remembered than neutral one, an effect that has been partly attributed to enhanced memory consolidation following arousal. In this study we investigated whether autonomic activation in response to stress might enhance consolidation for emotional pictures of different valence. 206 subjects saw a picture-set of 52 different faces (50% happy, 50% angry). Directly after the acquisition 2/3 of the subjects

were exposed to a socially evaluated cold pressor test (immerse right hand into ice water for 3 min while being videotaped) the remaining subjects underwent a control procedure (warm water). Heart rate was recorded at baseline and during stress exposure. Recognition memory was tested two times at 30 min and 24 h after acquisition, using different pictures for each test. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of equal size according to their heart rate reactivity in response to the stressor: controls, non-responders and responders (Mean Delta HR+/-SEM: — .51/ — .5, -1.21/ — .4, 10+/ + .7bpm, respectively). Analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between group and time of memory testing (p 5 .001) but no interactions including valence: Responders outperformed controls (p 5 .003) and non-responders (p 5 .04) on the second test (but not on the first), irrespective of stimulus valence. These results show that consolidation of emotional material can be modulated by autonomic activation shortly after acquisition, and furthermore provide evidence that the stress induced heart rate response may be an adequate predictor of this effect. Funding provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Research Grant GRK 1389/1.

Poster 107

MULTIMODAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ATTENTIONAL DEPLOYMENT, REAPPRAISAL, AND SUPPRESSION IN YOUNG AND OLDER ADULTS

Monika Lohani & Derek M. Isaacowitz Brandeis University

Descriptors: emotion regulation, aging, psychophysiology

The current study investigated to what degree different emotion regulation strategies were effective and/or physiologically costly in young and older adults. Forty-two young participants (Mage 5 19) and 48 older participants (Mage 5 71) watched four sadness-inducing videos (about death/illness, 4-5 minutes long) under four conditions - natural viewing (no regulation), attentional deployment (divert attention away), positive reappraisal (focus on positive outcomes), and suppression (conceal emotional expressions). We assessed emotional experience (using self-reported mood), expression (via corrugator muscle activity), visual fixations (via eye-tracking), and autonomic response (skin conductance level) while participants watched the emotional clips and followed the instructions for each condition. During attentional deployment, both age groups looked less at negative information, but only older adults reported experiencing mood benefits from no regulation condition. While using reappraisal, older participants reported better mood and less physiological activity than young. For suppression, no age differences in mood were found; however, old participants were less physiologically reactive. No age differences in negative expression of emotions were found in any condition. Results suggest that attentional deployment may be used by older adults (and not young) as a mood regulatory tool. Positive reappraisal can be an effective strategy for older adults as it led to better mood at no additional physiological costs. Ability to suppress emotions appears to remain stable with age.

Poster 108

BIMODAL SENSORY PROCESSING IN AUDITORY DISABLED

Adile Oniz, Cagdas Guducu, & Murat Ozgoren Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Biophysics

Descriptors: sensory plasticity, deaf, visual

The aim of this study was to investigate the brain plasticity and capacity changes of the brain in deaf individuals. For this purpose visual evoked potentials (VEP) and somato-sensory evoked potentials (SEP) of 13 deaf and 10 healthy subjects were recorded via 64 channels EEG (Neuroscan). The SEP and VEP sessions were randomly assigned. For SEP recordings, a pneumatic stimulator (Somatosensory Stimulus Generator 4-D Neuroimag-ing) was used to provide non-painful tactile stimulation. VEP stimulations (100 ms) were presented using a LCD monitor at 1.3 m from the subject (app 3 5 cd/m2). The stimulations were controlled by EMISU stimulus unit, with varying intervals of 2-4 seconds. Grand averages ofthe both groups showed clear electrophysiological responses from all electrodes in both paradigms. In the VEP paradigm, latency of first negative peak was found to be significantly earlier than controls (p<0.05). Also amplitudes of first positive and second negative peaks were significantly bigger than controls (p< 0.005 andp<0.05 respectively). In the SEP paradigm all peaks (first negative, first positive and second negative) were bigger than controls (p<0.05 on each). These results indicate the sensory capacity reallocation and modifications in deaf individuals for other modalities. The non-painful pneumatic tactile stimulations provided a somatosensory enhancement (sensitivity) property. This approach can be applied to other sensory-plasticity studies. TUBITAK 108S113, DEU (2010.KB.SAG.026/2011.002).

Poster 109

VIVID: A FULLY CROSSED ERP INVESTIGATION OF VALENCE, AROUSAL, CONCRETENESS, AND FREQUENCY

Nathaniel Delaney-Busch1, Vivian Haime1, Gianna Wilkie1, & Gina Kuperberg2 1Tufts University, 2Tufts University, Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: language, emotion

Volcano. Samurai. Spicy. Immense. Rouse. Surprise. There seems to exist a small class of words that are highly salient, but neutral or ambiguous in their emotional valence.

These words, though often omitted in studies of emotional language, are required for a full evaluation of the impacts of valence, arousal, and their interactions on word processing. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time-course of processing positive, negative, and neutral words that were either high or low in arousal, by presenting 468 self-paced single words to participants as they responded to randomly inserted probe words (animals). In addition, the influences of concreteness (concrete, abstract) and frequency (high, medium, low) on emotional word processing were evaluated. Word groups were matched such that any one-way or two-way analysis could be performed without confounds by collapsing across variables (valence, arousal, con-creteness, or frequency) not being assessed in that analysis. Using this robustly matched and expansive word set, the amplitude of the late positivity was the same to positive, negative and neutral words. Instead, arousing words evoked a larger late positivity than non-arousing words. This arousal effect was most pronounced for abstract (vs. concrete) words. These results suggest that the late positive component often elicited with emotional stimuli is more a marker of arousal than emotional valence. This work was supported by NIMH (R01 MH071635) and NARSAD (with the Sidney Baer Trust).

Poster 110

REDUCTION OF FRONTAL ALPHA ASYMMETRY IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

Norbert Kathmann, Moritz Ischebeck, Daniela Simon, & Tanja Endrass Humboldt-University at Berlin

Descriptors: obsessive-compulsive disorder, alpha asymmetry, emotion Laterality of frontal alpha band power is an index of motivational states. Approach-related emotion processing is associated with lower left prefrontal alpha power whereas withdrawal-related processing lowers right prefrontal alpha activity. Patients with anxiety disorders are characterized by reduced alpha asymmetry. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shares some symptoms and mechanisms with other anxiety disorders, e.g. avoidance behaviors. Therefore, we studied 8-10 Hz alpha power in 21 OCD patients and 21 matched controls. To assess the effect of processing affective stimuli the EEG of participants was recorded while they viewed pictures with neutral, negative, and OCD-related contents, and during a resting condition without pictures. Healthy comparison subjects showed higher right-than left-sided alpha power, with slighty reduced asymmetry during negative pictures. OCD patients had no right asymmetry but a trend for relatively higher left-sided alpha during negative pictures. Resting state measures did not differ from those in the neutral picture condition. OCD-related pictures did not enhance the group difference. Self-reported symptom severity correlated with increased left-sided asymmetry. Changes of asymmetry indices were accounted for by both decreases of right and increases of left alpha power. It is concluded that the right hemisphere withdrawal system is relatively more activated in patients with OCD. This confirms that OCD shares brain mechanisms with internalizing psychiatric disorders like anxiety disorders and depression.

Poster 111

ELECTRO-OCULOGRAM (EOG) CORRECTION OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) IN THE DISCRETE WAVELET

DOMAIN

Benoit Deecarie1, Philippe Robaey1, & Jean-Marc Lina2 1Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 2Ecole de Technologie Supeerieure

Descriptors: eog correction, wavelet, multi-scale analysis

EEG is profoundly affected by EOG artifacts. We developed an approach based on the correlations between the different frequency sub-bands obtained by a multi-scale analysis (discrete wavelet transform) of the EEG and the EOG channels. In the first step of this algorithm, we define EEG/EOG epochs free of ocular artifacts (''clean EEG/ EOG'') as those with the smallest correlations obtained in the time domain between EEG/EOG channels. Second, all EEG/EOG epochs are mapped in the time-frequency domain and denoised using wavelet based shrinkage technique (Donoho & Johnstone, Statistica Sinica, 9, 1-32,1999). Third, we compute the mean and standard deviation of the wavelet coefficients of the ''clean EEG/EOG'' at each scale. Then, for every trial, the wavelet coefficients that are one standard deviation above the mean at each scale of the HEOG and VEOG channels are defined as artifacted and selected for correction. Fourth, using the least mean square error in the wavelet domain, we estimate the contribution of HEOG and VEOG in our selected EEG artefacted wavelet coefficients. These contributions are then removed from the measured EEG. This approach is applied to wavelet coefficients artifacted by HEOG alone, VEOG alone or both. Finally, the inverse wavelet transform estimates the EEG signals in the time domain. We present different indices of the quality of the correction, illustrate this method with EEG obtained from 10 children performing an oddball task and demonstrate the gain in performance by comparing event-related potentials based on various numbers of trials.

THE INFLUENCE OF FACIAL EMOTION PROCESSING ON AUDITORY SENSORY GATING

Racheal Degabriele1, Jim Lagopoulos2, & Philip B. Ward1 1The University of New South Wales, 2The University of Sydney

Descriptors: emotion, sensory gating, face processing

Most psychophysiological studies focus on examining a single measure using unimodal stimuli. For example, sensory gating (SG) studies frequently employ simple auditory click stimuli. However, in real world environments, multimodal stimuli predominate and evidence suggests that the brain may preferentially process such stimuli. The current study investigated the mechanisms underpinning the processing of auditory stimuli when influenced by visual primes with differing emotional valences. A multimodal SG paradigm was employed, whereby subjects viewed face stimuli depicting either disgust (DG) or neutral (NT) expressions, immediately prior to standard auditory dual-click stimuli. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were presented with 84 face stimuli 600 -1000 ms prior to the onset of S1 and S2 auditory click stimuli (frequency 5 1000 Hz, duration 5 1 ms, ISI 5 500ms). Faces were presented 6- 10s following S2 of the previous trial. Subjects were required to attend to the clicks and images. EEG data were recorded from 28 channels and analysed at Cz. Significant amplitude suppression to S2 was observed for P50, N100 and P200 event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes. Moreover, S1 elicited significantly reduced P200 amplitudes for DG (M: 11.05 mV, SD: 5.90) compared to NT faces (M: 12.88 mV, SD: 6.56). Emotional valence did not affect S2 ERPs; as such SG was increased in the NTcompared to DG condition (t(21) 5 2.110, p 5 0.047). Findings may index a compensatory mechanism such that decreased at-tentional resources are allocated to auditory stimuli following emotionally valenced visual stimuli.

Poster 113

NEGATIVE AND NEUTRAL IMAGES INDUCE PROLONGED BRADYCARDIA IN ANXIETY VULNERABLE INDIVIDUALS THAT OUTLASTS STIMULUS PRESENTATION

Jacqueline L. Holloway1, Maciej Sprycha2, Catherine E. Myers1,3, Kevin D. Beck1,3, &

Richard J. Servatius1,3 1UMDNJ-GSBS, 2New Jersey Institute of Technology, 3Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute, NJMS-UMDNJ, Neurobehavioral Res. Lab. (129), DVA Med. Center

Descriptors: behavioral inhibition, anxiety, bradycardia

Behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals, at risk for the development ofanxiety disorders, show facilitated acquisition during classical conditioning. It was hypothesized that such individuals may have enhanced parasympathetic responding to environmental stimuli that promotes associative learning. The following study was designed to examine how cardiac responsivity of BI individuals was affected by viewing stimuli of positive, negative, and neutral valence. Thirty images were chosen from the International Affective Picture System, which differed significantly in valence score but were restricted on arousal. Participants were pre-screened using the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition and subsequently randomly assigned to valence group (POS, NEG, NEU) based on predetermined high and low BI scores. Each group was shown 60 images in their respective valence (30 novel, 30 repeated, pseudorandom order). Heart rate data were evaluated as beats per minute using 1 second weighted means for each of 18 seconds (6s pre-, during-, and post-image exposure). The results suggest that while mild bra-dycardia to the images was similar independent of BI score, robust and sustained bra-dycardia was evident over the testing session only in high BI individuals. This reduction was most pronounced in the NEG and NEU groups and recovered over time in the POS group. The results suggest that a significant and prolonged vagal enhancement is occurring in BI individuals that supersedes image presentation. Thus learning about environmental stimuli could be driven by vagal reactivity in BI individuals.

Poster 114

EEG PREFRONTAL ACTIVITY DURING VIDEO GAME REWARD

EVENTS

Rachel Doty, Christopher O'Leary, Richard J. Tafalla, Michael Donnelly, Denny McDonald, & Shoshana Rosenthal University of Wisconsin-Stout

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, video game, addiction

Video game play can influence individuals to forgo basic needs in exchange for rewards built into video games. Research on gambling addiction has shown decreased levels of response in the mesolimbic-dopaminergic reward pathway of the prefrontal cortex. Although there is no diagnosis for video game addiction in the United States, it is suggested that compulsive video game play alters the reward systems in the brain similar to other addictions. This study hypothesized that video game players categorized as dependent would show lower pre-frontal cortex activation at the moment a goal was achieved while playing a violent video game than those non dependent. The participants were grouped as ''dependent'' or ''non-dependent'' if they scored 3 or more the World

Health Organization scale for substance dependence. Participants then played the violent video game DOOM for 30 minutes. The video game was programmed to send a signal to the EGI system the moment an enemy was killed or an item was found; this was the rewarding event. Theta activity was extracted using wavelet analyses in a 2sec window centered on each event. Analyses show event-related theta and alpha bursting in right and left lateral prefrontal sites. In addition, ''dependent players showed significantly less Theta activation than ''non-dependent'' players. These data provide evidence that the experience of reward in a violent video game impacts mesolimbic-dopaminergic reward pathway of the prefrontal cortex much in the same way other addictive behaviors do.

Poster 115

ANXIETY TRAIT MODULATES HEART RATE REACTIVITY TO THREAT PICTURES

Rita de Cassia S. Alves1, Thiago C. Lopes2, Izabela Mocaiber1, Gabriela G. Souza3, Mateus Joffily4, Isabel P.A. David1, Leticia Oliveira1, & Mirtes G. Pereira1 1Fluminense Federal University, 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 3Federal University of Ouro Preto, 4Trento University

Descriptors: emotion, anxiety, heart rate

This work investigated the variability of defensive profiles in humans. We studied how affective predisposition, such as anxiety trait, could impact on defensive reactivity to threatening stimuli. We employed a set of 16 pictures displaying scenes of human attack and a set of 16 matched neutral pictures for control. The sequence of pictures was randomized and each picture remained on for 6s, with an inter-picture interval of6 to 8s. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected from 16 participants. The neutral and unpleasant blocks of pictures were divided into 3 segments (early, middle and late) to estimate the time course of the cardiac response. Mean heart rate during exposure to threatening pictures normalized by 1s pre-exposure correlated with anxiety trait during the middle (rho 5 0.60; p 5 0.01) and late segments (rho 5 0.68; p 5 0.003). Participants with low anxiety slowed the heart rate while those with high anxiety showed acceleration. The results suggest that increased predisposition to anxiety turn passive (i.e. freezing-like) into more active defensive reactions in laboratory conditions. CAPES, PRONEX-FAPERJ, MCT-CNPq, IBN-Net, FAPERJ

Poster 116

SELF-CONTROL OF INSULA CORTEX BY REAL-TIME FMRI MODULATES FACE EMOTION RECOGNITION AND BRAIN NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

Sergio Ruiz1,2, Sangkyun Lee2, Surjo R. Soekadar2, Andrea Caria2, Ralf Veit2, Tilo Kircher3, Niels Birbaumer2, & Ranganatha Sitaram2 1Universidad Catolica de Chile, 2University of Tübingen, 3University of Marburg

Descriptors: real-time fmri, neurofeedback, schizophrenia

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a novel technique that has allowed healthy subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. The objectives of the study were to train schizophrenia patients to achieve volitional control of bilateral anterior insula cortex on multiple days, and to explore the effect of learned self-regulation on face emotion recognition (a central deficit in schizophrenia) and on brain network connectivity. Nine patients with schizophrenia were trained to regulate the hemo-dynamic response in bilateral anterior insula with contingent rtfMRI neurofeedback, through a two-weeks training. At the end of the training stage, patients performed a face emotion recognition task to explore behavioral effects oflearned self-regulation. A learning effect in self-regulation was found for bilateral anterior insula. Following successful self-regulation, patients recognized disgust faces more accurately and happy faces less accurately. Improvements in disgust recognition were correlated with levels of self-activation of right insula. RtfMRI training led to an increase in the number of the incoming and outgoing effective connections ofthe anterior insula. This study shows for the first time that patients with schizophrenia can learn volitional brain regulation by rtfMRI feedback training leading to changes in the perception of emotions and modulations of the brain network connectivity. These findings open the door for further studies of rtfMRI in severely ill psychiatric populations, and possible therapeutic applications. The study was supported by the Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (BI 195/64-1).

Poster 117

ERP MEASURES OF CONFLICT MONITORING AND RESOLUTION IN BILINGUALS AND MONOLINGUALS

Shanna Kousaie & Natalie A. Phillips Concordia University

Descriptors: ERP, cognitive control, bilingualism

A behavioural advantage for bilingual relative to monolingual young adults on attention control tasks has been described in the literature, although not consistently. The "bilingual advantage'' is hypothesized to result from an increased use of general cognitive control mechanisms by bilinguals to manage their two languages (e.g., inhibition of a

non-target language). This investigation used behavioural and electrophysiological measures (ERPs) to further examine the bilingual advantage using three tasks that have previously demonstrated the effect. Monolingual (n 5 17) and highly proficient English-French bilingual (n 5 17) young adults completed Stroop, Simon, and Eriksen flanker tasks during electrophysiological recording. We found no response time differences between the two language groups for the Stroop (F(1,32) 5 1.18, p 5 .29), Simon (F(1,31) 5 2.96, p 5 .10) or Eriksen flanker (F(1,32)<0.01, p 5 .96) tasks. In terms of ERP measures, we examined conflict monitoring (i.e., the N2 component), stimulus categorization time and resource allocation (i.e., the P3 component), post-response conflict (i.e., the error-related negativity), and error saliency (i.e., the error positivity). Differences between the two language groups were apparent in the ERP measures; however, the locus of the difference varied across the three tasks. Thus, there were language group differences in cognitive processing that resulted in the same behaviour for the two groups. These findings highlight the utility and sensitivity of electrophys-iological methods in studies of the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Canadian Institutes for Health Research Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship

Poster 118

THE EFFECT OF EMOTION AND MOTIVATION ON SMR-BCI PERFORMANCE

Sonja C. Kleih, Tobias Kaufmann, Inga Knepper, & Andrea Kubler University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: brain-computer interface, sensorimotor rhythms, psychological influencing variables Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) allow for muscle independent communication and control. However, individuals differ in their ability to use a BCI for which psychological variables may account. To investigate the relevance of psychological influencing variables such as emotion and motivation we examined the relation between these variables and the ability to learn using a BCI based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR). A sample of N 5 20 participants was instructed to steer a moving cursor from the left to the right edge of a computer screen into a marked area either on top or bottom of the screen by imagining movement of the left or right hand or feet ( 5 one SMR-BCI trial). We trained participants for three sessions on three different days, each containing 9 blocks of 25 trials per block. Motivation was manipulated by rewarding participants with an extra 5 Eurocents per successful trial or not rewarding them at all (each group N 5 10). Out of each of the two groups (motivated and unmotivated) five participants were emotionally manipulated by either showing them a sad or neutral video and afterwards playing either sad or neutral music during the BCI task. Preliminary results reveal no effect of emotion manipulation but of motivation manipulation. We found a trend for rewarded participants to be more successful ( 5 percentage of successful trials) in SMR-BCI use in contrast to not rewarded participants when comparing first and last sessions performance (Wilcoxon, p 5 .13). The results indicate that motivation may explain some of the variance in SMR-BCI performance and should be monitored. This work is supported by the European ICT Programme Project FP7-224631. This paper only reflects the authors' views and funding agencies are not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.

Poster 119

IMPAIRED ACTIVATION ASSOCIATED WITH CINGULATE COMPROMISE IN PTSD

Steven H. Woodward1 & Danny G. Kaloupek2 1National Center for PTSD, VA Palo Alto HCS, 2National Center for PSTD, VA New

England HCS

Descriptors: PTSD, activation, cingulate Classical models of PTSD emphasize the exaggeration of autonomic responses as biomarkers of the diagnosis. A more complex picture has emerged from studies such as McTeague (2009) showing that PTSD patients with multiple traumas exhibit ''blunting'' of psychophysiolog-ical responses to aversive imagery. We administered a generic social stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to a sample of multiply-traumatized veteran PTSD patients and combat controls. Mean HR across baseline and post-instruction ''anticipation'' phases did not distinguish the groups; however, while the controls exhibited a nearly 4 bpm increase in HR during the anticipation phase relative to baseline, PTSD patients exhibited only a 1.5 BPM (p 5 0.003) increase. To further examine preparatory activation, we constructed a difference score by subtracting baseline from anticipation HRs. This index was then used to probe a set of MR-derived regional brain volumes constructed from the same sample via Freesurfer. Using partial correlations controlling for age, preparatory activation was positively associated with volumes of rostral, caudal, and ithsmal cingulate parcels, only (alpha crit 5 .003). These results are compatible with those of Critchley and others that identify the cingulate region as relevant to autonomic regulation. They further suggest that the compromise of cingulate cortex in PTSD, typically invoked in models of amygdala disinhibition, may also underly a failure to adaptively upregulate autonomic tone when appropriate. We suggest this impaired activation may overlap the blunting observed by McTeague.

Major funding for this work was provided under a VA/DoD assistance agreement to Drs. Woodward and Kaloupek from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command.

BRAIN SYSTEMS UNDERLYING PHOBIC RESPONSES AND THE EFFECT OF EXPECTANCIES

Tatjana Aue1, Marie-Eve Hoeppli2, Camille Piguet1, Christoph Hofstetter1, & Patrik

Vuilleumier1 1University of Geneva, 2McGill University

Descriptors: phobia, expectancies, fmri

Little is known about brain systems underlying phobic responses, and how the recruitment of these systems can be influenced by varying expectancies. While undergoing fMRI, spider phobic and control participants imagined visiting different locations in a forest and were given background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations based on another person's experience. This type of background information was supposed to influence participants' expectancies by suggesting generally low, medium, or high likelihood of encounters. Brain responses to pictures of spiders differed markedly between spider phobics and controls. Notably, spider phobics activated the anterior cingulate cortex as well as parts of putamen, insula, and claustrum more strongly than did controls. The two groups also differed with respect to activity in medial prefrontal cortex, with stronger decreases in controls compared to pho-bics. No such group differences were observed for pictures of snakes and birds. Moreover, risk of encounter expectancies modulated the magnitude of responses in these regions differently in phobics versus controls. Phobics displayed greater negative modulation of activity in dorsal prefrontal cortex (medial and lateral) and precuneus by encounter expectancies when being confronted with spiders rather than snakes or birds. This is consistent with the idea of a greater reduction in cognitive control. They also displayed greater negative modulation of activity in these areas with respect to the control group. This research was supported by grant PZ00P1_121590 of the Swiss National Science Foundation to Tatjana Aue.

Poster 121

POSITIVE AFFECT FACILITATES ATTENTIONAL DEPLOYMENT FROM THREAT

Tiago A. Sanchez1, Izabela Mocaiber2, Fatima S. Erthal1, Mateus Joffily3, Eliane Volchan1, Mirtes G. Pereira2, Draulio B. Araujo4, & Leticia Oliveira2 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Fluminense Federal University, 3University of Trento, 4Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

Descriptors: attentional deployment, positive affect, fmri

The role of attention in emotional processing is still in debate. Recently, positive affect trait has been suggested as a key component for determining human variability to threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether amygdala responses to highly aversive pictures could be modulated by an attentional deployment task and if this modulation would be influenced by positive affect. Participants (n 5 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing a display containing neutral (people) or aversive pictures (mutilated bodies) centrally presented and two peripheral bars. They had to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral, or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars. The ROI analysis of bilateral amygdala revealed an increased activation to aversive pictures as compared to neutral, during the picture judgment task (po 0,05). This modulation was not observed when participants judged the bars, suggesting that the impact of mutilation pictures was attenuated by attentional deployment. Interestingly, when participants judged bar orientation, there was an inverse correlation (r 5 — 0,51, po0,01) between left amygdala activation to unpleasant stimuli and positive affect level. Thus, subjects that scored higher in positive affect trait exhibited lower amygdala reactivity to distractive aversive pictures. In conclusion, positive affect facilitated attentional deployment away from highly aversive pictures, attenuating emotional responses. CAPES, PRONEX-FAPERJ, MCT-CNPq, IBN-Net

Poster 122

PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL CONSTRUCTS: II. TRAIT FEAR AND RESTING FRONTAL EEG ACTIVITY IN ADULT TWINS

Christopher J. Patrick1, Uma Vaidyanathan1, Guler Arsal1, Andrew W. Bismark2, & John J.B. Allen2 1Florida State University, 2University of Arizona

Descriptors: frontal eeg asymmetry, fear

Neurobehavioral constructs—those with direct referents in neurobiology as well as behavior (Depue & Iacono, 1989; Patrick & Bernat, 2010)—provide valuable referents for research indexing psychological characteristics through physiology. Trait fear is one such construct. Here, we operationalized trait fear in terms of scores on the general dimension that underlies self-report measures of fear known to exhibit relations with aversive startle potentiation (Kramer et al., submitted), and examined its relationship with patterns of resting frontal EEG in a mixed-gender adult twin sample (N 5 506 individuals). Frontal EEG activity, recorded from 52 sites during an eyes-open/eye-closed resting session, was quantified in terms of alpha power extracted from a current

source density (CSD) reference and examined at bilateral frontal regions (AF3/AF4, F3/ F4, & FC3/FC4). High and low trait fear groups were identified, consisting of the top and bottom 20% of scorers on the measure of trait fear. A High/Low Fear x Region x Right/Left analysis revealed that individuals high as compared to low in trait fear showed: a) bilaterally higher alpha, reflecting lower resting frontal activity; and b) greater alpha (lower activity) at right compared to left sites. These results reveal that individuals high on this dimension of trait fear have a pattern of frontal brain asymmetry opposite to that seen in major depression, and provides support for the utility of ne-urobehavioral constructs for association to psychopathology.

Poster 123

THE NEURAL GENERATORS OF MONITORING INCONGRUENCE USING A FLANKER TASK IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE (PD)

Vanessa Perez-Bocourt1 & Maria Luisa Bringas2 1University of Havana, 2Internatinal Center for Neurologycal Rahabilitation

Descriptors: ERP

The basal ganglia are involved in the selection and suppression of competing responses. Dysfunction in these structures in PD should alter this capacity. EEG source imaging of the incongruence detection in these patients should reveal the neural substrates related with these deficits. Sample: 10 PD patients (I-III Hoehn and Yahr stage, medicated, 41 -65 years) and 10 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and education level. They performed an Eriksen flanker task. ERPs were recorded simultaneously with the task using a 64 channels EEG system. The reaction time at incongruent flankers increased compared to congruent in both groups. Controls has a significant lower reaction time than patients at congruent flankers (F (1,16) 5 7,5586, p 5 ,01425) and at incongruent (F (1,16) 5 7,5586, p 5 ,01425). The numbers of mistakes was also lower at control group compared to patients: 30 vs. 119 for congruent flankers and 86 vs. 389 incongruent. The expected error related negativity was not found even with 10% of errors. Instead, a negative component reflecting conflict monitoring on correct response trials was detected. We found significant differences in Fz, Cz and Pz by groups (F (6, 44) 5 2,4387, p 5 ,04020), and by condition (F(3, 22) 5 29,880, p 5 ,00000) between 380-480mls. The brain electric tomography using BMA in both groups found the neural generators at the frontal orbital superior of left hemisphere (between conditions), in the window 380 - 480 milliseconds. The statistical difference in the magnitude of the component could indicate the poor suppression of conflicting responses

Poster 124

MISMATCH NEGATIVITY (MMN) ABNORMALITIES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: PREDICTION OF PSYCHOSIS IN PUTATIVELY PRODROMAL PATIENTS

Veronica B. Perez1, Judith M. Ford1, Brian J. Roach1, Scott W. Woods2, Thomas H. McGlashan2, Vinod H. Srihari2, & Daniel H. Mathalon1 1University of California, San Francisco, 2Yale University

Mismatch negativity (MMN) abnormalities have been observed in recent onset schizo-phreniaand in the psychosis prodrome. Only 35% of clinically prodromal patients become psychotic during a 2.5 year follow-up period, underscoring the need to enhance predictive accuracy. Accordingly, we examined whether MMN abnormalities could be replicated in early illness schizophrenia and prodromal patients, and whether MMN abnormalities could discriminate putatively prodromal patients who subsequently converted to psychosis from nonconverters. Group differences in MMN to auditory deviants (duration, frequency, and duration+frequency) were assessed in 19 early illness schizophrenia patients (ESZ), 27 prodromal patients (PD) and 44 healthy controls (HC). Within PD, 10 converters and 13 non-converters were identified after at least 12 months of follow-up. MMN to duration+ frequency deviants were significantly reduced in ESZ and PD compared to HC, but patient groups were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, relative to non-converters, converters had significant reductions in duration+ frequency and frequency MMN (p<0.05), but no differences were found in MMN to duration deviants. These results not only confirm prior reports ofMMN abnormalities in ESZ and PD, they suggest that the neural mechanisms associated with automatic sensory processing of auditory deviance are compromised in the prodrome, particularly in individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis. MMN may index pathophysiological processes that are elemental to dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Poster 125

VALUING HAPPINESS DECREASES PROGESTERONE AND LEADS PEOPLE TO BE LONELIER

Victoria A. Floerke1, Nicole S. Savino1, Mark L. Laudenslager2, & Iris B. Mauss1 1University of Denver, 2University of Colorado at Denver

Descriptors: paradoxical effects of valuing happiness, progesterone, social connection The experience of happiness is associated with a large number of beneficial outcomes, suggesting that happiness should be a highly valued state. However, recent

research suggests that valuing happiness actually leads people to be less happy. Why might this be? Striving for happiness is often self-focused. Consequently, valuing happiness might inadvertently lead people to neglect relationships, which in turn might decrease social connection. To assess this hypothesis, female participants (N 5 43) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group primed to value happiness or a control group. After the manipulation participants watched a film clip designed to activate feelings of social connection. Saliva samples were collected before and after the clip to be assayed for progesterone, a hormone that is positively associated with social connection. Self-reported social connection was also measured. As hypothesized, the valuing happiness manipulation led participants to exhibit lower levels of progesterone and to report lower feelings of social connection than the control group. These findings suggest that pursuing happiness decreases social connection, which in turn may lead to greater unhappiness. If people make personal happiness their highest priority, it might ironically lead them to be lonelier and unhappier.

Poster 126

EFFECTS OF READING ALOUD AND DOING A CALCULATION ON SPONTANEOUS EYEBLINK OF THE ELDERLY WITH MILD-DEMENTIA

Yukiko Tatsuhira1, Yasuyuki Gondo1, & Yasuko Omori2 1Osaka University, 2Jin-ai University

Descriptors: spontaneous eyeblink, the elderly with mild dementia, cognitive rehabilitation The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reading aloud and doing arithmetic on spontaneous eyeblink of the elderly with mild dementia. Eighteen elderly women with mild dementia participated in this experiment. The participants were split into two groups of nine based on the score of MMSE: the high score group and the low score group. The participants carried out the two tasks of reading aloud in Japanese and doing arithmetic. The reading aloud task required the participants to read a piece of poetry or fairy tales twice, and the calculation task to do 100 simple calculations of single figures in addition, subtraction and multiplication. The participants' eyeblink and heart rates were recorded via a telemetering system. They were identified with vertical EOG and ECG recordings with disposable electrode units. Salivary cortisol was used as psychological stress parameters. Before and after the two tasks, saliva collected by applying a cylindrical cotton swab to the participant's oral cavity for one minute. The results showed that the rate of eyeblinking during calculations in addition and multiplication was lower than that in subtraction, while the heart rate ofthe high score group in the second half of the calculation task was significantly higher than that in the first half. Salivary cortisol after the calculation task was higher than that before it. It is suggested that the spontaneous eyeblinking can be used as a reliable physiological index to reflect the difficult issues with cognitive rehabilitation of the elderly with mild dementia.

Poster 127

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VERBAL AND VISUAL CREATIVE TASKS PERFORMANCE

Zhanna V. Nagornova, & Natalia V. Shemyakina N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain RAS

Descriptors: eeg spectral power, imagination, verbal and visual creative activity There is a problem to investigate and compare different modalities of creative thinking and clarify its brain maintenance. We tried to solve the mentioned problem and balanced our tasks by number of hypothetical operations in order to compare correlates of verbal and visual (non-verbal) creative tasks performance. In VERBAL creative imaginative task 24 subjects (mean age 21) were asked to reveal and develop fragments of visually presented sentences to original story plots, while in VISUAL creative imaginative task they were to reveal fragments from non-structured pictures and use them as the sketch for the visual imagination of original pictures. We also used two "inverse problem'' tasks: Verbal - to compose mentally a verbal description of the presented picture; Visual - to construct in mind a visual image of the written picture description. EEG was recorded from 19 scalp electrodes (10-20). VISUAL creative imaginative task in comparison with VERBAL was characterized by spectral power decrease (ANOVA STATEoZONE, H-F, p<0.05) in alpha1,2 (8-10; 10-13Hz), beta1,2 (13-18; 18-30 Hz) bands in parietal-occipital and frontal areas bilaterally and alpha2 spectral power increase in the central areas. During transformation of verbal description to image we observed generalized increase of alpha1,2 spectral power and increase of beta1,2 spectral power in parietal and occipital brain regions. We can conclude that perception and use for creative imagination verbal stimuli lead to increase of spectral power both in alpha and beta frequency bands in contrast with non-verbal information. N.Sh.3318.2010.4

INCREASED ERROR-RELATED BRAIN ACTIVITY IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER BEFORE AND AFTER COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY

Anja Riesel, Tanja Endrass, Christian Kaufmann, & Norbert Kathmann Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Descriptors: obsessive-compulsive disorder, error-related negativity, endophenotype Increased error-related brain activity is assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Enhanced electrocortical correlates of error-monitoring have been repeatedly associated with OCD. Therefore, they are considered as a potential endophenotype for OCD. In line with that it has been shown that the ERN is heritable, enhanced in unaffected family members of OCD patients and state-independent in pediatric OCD patients. The purpose of the present study was to examine error-monitoring in adult OCD patients before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy to further elucidate whether enhanced error-monitoring qualifies as endophenotype for OCD. ERPs were recorded from OCD patients and healthy controls while performing a flanker task. Initial data from 27 OCD patients and 21 controls show enhanced ERN amplitudes in patients compared to controls on both testing sessions. Further, some decrease of ERN amplitudes for treatment responders was observable, whereas amplitudes did not change in the non-responder group. These preliminary results provide evidence for state-independent and state-dependent aspects of error-monitoring alterations in OCD. Successful treatment seems to be associated with a partial normalization in error-monitoring. Nevertheless, even after successful treatment OCD patients remain characterized by increased ERN amplitudes. Thus, these results provide further support for the notion that overactive error-monitoring could represent a potential endophenotype in OCD mediating the familial or genetic vulnerability for OCD.

Elsa Neumann scholarship from the State of Berlin, Germany

Poster 129

DISCO: DETECTORS, IMAGES, SOURCES AND CORTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF LIGHT CHANNELS FOR THE EVENT-RELATED OPTICAL SIGNAL (EROS)

David A. Steines, Pauline L. Baniqued, Kathy A. Low, Edward L. Maclin, Kyle E.

Mathewson, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: optical, imaging

The event-related optical signal (EROS) is a noninvasive imaging technique that measures cortical activation through diffuse optical tomography. EROS systems consist of a set of light sources and detectors that are mounted on a helmet and distributed across the scalp. These source-detector pairs must be arranged spatially and activated in sets over time to minimize the cross-talk between channels, while simultaneously achieving optimal sample rates at various depths within localized patches of cortex. Traditionally, EROS practitioners have designed these configurations by hand using a simple trial-and-error algorithm. This requires a significant amount of skill and time on the part of the experimenter. Here, we apply techniques from multi-objective optimization theory to design montage configurations. We propose a genetic algorithm to search the space of possible montage configurations and return solutions achieving localized sampling and cross-talk minimization objectives. Each configuration is encoded as a binary string. The algorithm samples a set of possible configurations, and evaluates their fitness. The configurations with the highest fitness are "cross-bred" to produce a new population of configurations. The process iterates until a set of configurations meeting the objective criterion are found. We provide results that demonstrate application of the method to spherical and realistic head models.

Poster 130

THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF MARIJUANA DEPENDENCE: DIFFERENCES IN DRUG AND EMOTIONAL STIMULUS PROCESSING IN HABITUAL USERS AND NON-USERS

Deyar T. Asmaro, Patrick L. Carolan, & Mario Liotti Simon Fraser University

Descriptors: addiction, erps, marijuana

Drug cue reactivity plays an important role in predicting whether addicts will attempt to obtain substances of abuse. To assess the impact of drug-related pictures on behaviour and brain function, a modified version of the Drug-Stroop task was used while high-density scalp electrical activity was recorded in 12 habitual marijuana users and 15 control non-users. Positive, negative and neutral valence pictures were presented as control stimuli for specificity ofthe drug response. Participants responded to the color of a small square presented at the center of the pictures. For the control group, both positive and negative stimuli yielded longer responses than neutral stimuli. In the user group, there was significant interference for positive stimuli, while drug stimuli showed a pattern of facilitation (shorter RTs to drug rather than neutral pictures). ERPs of marijuana users showed a left lateralized early frontomedial positivity peaking between

250-350 ms after drug cue presentation. This was followed by an enhanced LPP response (350 - 500 ms) for neutral relative to drug stimuli only. A global LPP effect was seen in the control group for all emotional vs. neutral pictures. In conclusion, early activations of frontal areas likely associated with reward processing or emotional salience appear to be present when people who suffer from substance abuse perceive images that are related to their drug taking experiences. Future studies of cue-reactivity could involve more severe addictions in abstinent individuals, and explicitly address predictions of relapse and remission.

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) helped fund this project. Salary funding was also provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

Poster 131

BRAIN RESPONSES AND EXPRESSIVE SUPPRESSION PREDICT SEVERITY OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS

Isabela V.P. Lobo1, Isabel P.A. David1, Izabela Mocaiber1, Rafaela R. Campagnoli2, Ivan Figueira2, Mirtes G. Pereira1, & Leticia Oliveira1 1Fluminense Federal University, 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Descriptors: emotion regulation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, EEG/ERP Expressive suppression is a response-focused emotion regulation strategy that involves reducing expressive behavior, but fails to reduce subjective experience and physiological responses to emotions. The habitual use of this strategy could play a key role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. This psychiatric condition is characterized, among others factors, by an enhanced reactivity, reflecting more overt physiological manifestations and altered emotional responses to stimuli. Here we investigated whether the posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in a trauma-exposed sample were related to the suppression of emotions and the emotional reactivity to negative stimuli indexed by late positive potential (LPP). The 28 trauma-exposed college students performed an emotion discrimination task during the viewing of neutral or unpleasant pictures while event-related potentials were recorded. The severity of PTSS was evaluated by a PTSD Checklist (PCL) and the emotion regulation skills by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Regression analysis shows that the severity of PTSS was predicted by both LPP amplitude at central sites to unpleasant pictures in relation to neutral (beta 5 1.17; p 5 0.03) and expressive suppression (beta 5 1,03; p 5 0.04). Thus, these results suggest that severity ofPTSS is related to (1) greater emotional reactivity to negative stimuli (2) the habit ofsuppressing emotional expressions, highlighting the role of this strategy on the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. CAPES, PRONEX-FAPERJ, MCT-CNPq, IBN-Net

Poster 132

NEURAL CORRELATES OF ANXIETY REDUCTION AFTER EXERCISE

Erin L. Browning, Morgan R. Shields, Qu Tian, & J. Carson Smith University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Descriptors: physical activity, IAPS, late-positive potential

Exercise has been widely reported to have anxiolytic effects. However, the neural correlates of anxiety reductions after exercise have not been as widely explored. The purpose of this study was to examine EEG responses during affective picture viewing and subjective anxiety after moderate intensity exercise compared to seated rest. Thirty-six college aged participants (21 men, 15 women) participated in this study. On two separate days, participants either cycled or rested on a stationary bike for 30 minutes. Using the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, participants were instructed to exercise at a 'somewhat hard' level of exertion. Before and fifteen minutes after each condition, and again after picture viewing, subjects completed Spielberger's state anxiety inventory. During picture viewing (90 IAPS images; 30 positive, 30 negative, 30 neutral) 128-channel EEG was recorded. State anxiety decreased from pre-condition to 15-minutes after both the exercise and rest conditions (p 5 .003). After picture viewing, state anxiety levels increased back to baseline after the rest condition. However, after the exercise condition, state anxiety levels remained decreased. The late-positive potential (400 -700 ms post-picture onset) in response to unpleasant pictures was reduced after exercise but not rest. Taken together, these data suggest that the anxiolytic effects of exercise are related to a change in emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli.

Poster 133

LEARNING TO LIKE DISGUST: NEURAL CORRELATES OF COUNTERCONDITIONING

Jan Schweckendiek, Tim Klucken, Christian J. Merz, Dieter Vaitl, & Rudolf Stark Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, University of Giessen

Descriptors: conditioning, emotional conflict, reward

Counterconditioning describes the procedure in which an aversive conditioned stimulus is paired with an appetitive stimulus, with the aim to reduce aversive conditioned re-

actions. Aspects of the principle of counterconditioning are implemented in many contemporary treatment strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (e.g. reappraisal, social reward). Because most studies of classical conditioning comprised explicitly neutral conditioned stimuli, it is to date unclear which neural structures convey this form of relearning. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the neural correlates of counterconditioning by means of fMRI. In a novel differential conditioning paradigm (n 5 22) one disgust (CSplus D) and one neutral picture (CSplus N) were both paired with a monetary reward of fifty cent (unconditioned stimulus), while one other disgust (CSminus D) and one other neutral picture (CSminus N) were both never paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Evaluative judgements, electrodermal and hemody-namic responses were acquired as dependant variables. The contrast CSplus N minus CSminus N yielded enhanced activity in reward-associated structures (striatum, or-bitofrontal cortex), whereas the contrast CSplus D minus CSminus D exhibited enhanced activity in the insula, the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens and the thalamus. Results are discussed with respect to recent psychophysiological findings and particularly with regard to implications for behavior therapy. DFG Graduiertenkolleg GRK 885 ''NeuroAct''

Poster 134

LOW VAGAL TONE PREDICTS GREATER THREAT PERCEPTIONS AND REFUSAL TO HARM IN SOCIO-MORAL JUDGMENTS AFTER SOCIAL STRESS

Kymberlee O'Brien, Arthur Wingfield, & Nicolas Rohleder Brandéis University

Descriptors: vagal tone, social stress, moral judgments

Under social stress, individuals may not endorse moral actions that reflect deeper values. After stress, endorsements of harming vicarious others have been less investigated. We assessed whether vagal tone, associated with social competence and empathy, would predict physiological reactivity to social stress and socio-moral judgments in which harming others is primary. We enrolled 96 participants (ages 18-80 yrs.; M 5 39, SD 5 21). Cardiovascular indices were monitored continuously while participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), modified by adding control, positive, and negative feedback conditions. In positive, participants received non-verbal support from evaluators, whereas in negative, participants received disapproving non-verbal feedback. Utilitarian (ends justify the means) and deontological (certain acts are always wrong) dilemmas were presented before and after TSST. After negative feedback, low vagal tone participants reported increased threat perceptions, and subsequently endorsed a more deontological view on moral infractions, that is, repudiation against harming another for socio-moral judgments. Alternatively, high vagal tone participants showed smaller increases in sympathetic reactivity and little change in threat perceptions. These results suggest that socio-moral judgments may be mediated by parasym-pathetic tone, an index associated with social factors. Socio-moral judgments in particular, related to harming others, appeared to have the greatest social relevance, since under stress it appears that harming others may now be deemed appropriate. This research was supported by the APA dissertation Award (2010) and the Brandeis University Provost Award (2010).

Poster 135

AUTOMATIC AND CONTROLLED PROCESSING IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS STUDY OF AN AUDITORY ODDBALL TASK

Magdalena Senderecka1, Jakub Szewczyk1, Krzysztof Gerc1, Roman Chmylak2, & Anna Grabowska3

Jagiellonian University, 2NZOZ EEG-GRAF, 3Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology

Descriptors: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, event-related potentials, auditory oddball task

The aim of the study was to investigate differences in electrophysiological brain activity between children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type and normally developing children, using the auditory 2-tone oddball paradigm. 40 right-handed subjects aged between 6.9 and 12.3 years participated in the present study, with 16 boys and 4 girls in each of the control and ADHD groups. Children were individually age- and gender-matched. The auditory oddball task consisted of 155 standards (1 KHz, p 5 .66) and 80 targets (1.5 KHz, p 5 .34), presented randomly one at a time. Subjects were instructed to listen to the sounds and count the rare tones. Task performance in ADHD children did not differ compared to that in the control group. Event-related potentials elicited to target and standard stimuli were analyzed for between-group differences. The ADHD group showed enhanced P2 and reduced N2 component to both oddball stimuli, followed by reduced P3 component to attended targets compared with controls. The difference in the P3 amplitude between targets and standards was smaller in the ADHD group, particularly over the right hemisphere. These results suggest deficiencies in both automatic and controlled processing in children with ADHD. They also support the hypothesis of a complex deficit of stimulus discrimination, attention allocation and conflict monitoring mechanisms in ADHD and corroborate the utility of the oddball task in distinguishing hyperactive from healthy children.

Poster 136

ATTENTIONAL BIAS, PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIVITY, AND SELF-REPORT SYMPTOMS IN FEMALE SURVIVORS OF COMPLEX TRAUMA

Jonathan M. DePierro1, Wendy M. D'Andrea1, & Nnamdi Pole2 'The New School, 2Smith College

Descriptors: attentional bias, skin conductance

This research investigated attentional bias in 23 community-dwelling women who had been exposed to significant lifetime interpersonal violence. Participants completed a dot probe task using verbal stimuli with concurrent physiological monitoring, as well as a battery of self-report measures. Results suggest an overall attentional bias toward trauma-relevant material in the sample. Unexpectedly, self-reported anxiety symptoms predicted bias away from trauma-relevant material. Skin conductance and several measures of general psy-chopathology and PTSD-specific symptoms predicted heightened response latencies to probes during the task. Taken together, obtained results suggest a complex relationship among anxiety, arousal, information processing, and attention in this population. In light of these findings, we argue that treatment strategies for this group that focus on affect regulation and mindful attention to sensorimotor experiences may be advantageous.

Poster 137

DO PERSONALITY TRAITS INFLUENCE THE N2PC RESPONSE TO AFFECTIVE IMAGES?

Rachael M. Martin, Elaine Fox, & Nick R. Cooper University of Essex

Descriptors: attentional bias, anxiety, n2pc component

Highly trait-anxious participants consistently demonstrate an attentional bias for negative stimuli over different experimental paradigms in clinical and non-clinical populations (Bar-haim et al., 2007). There is, however, little research examining the influence of other personality factors. Individual differences in anxiety, neuroticism and extraversion were examined using a dot-probe task measuring reaction times to positive and negative IAPS pictures. Low anxious demonstrated avoidance of negative and vigilance for positive pictures whereas high anxious demonstrated vigilance for negative and avoidance of positive pictures. Highly neurotic participants demonstrated vigilance for negative and avoidance of positive pictures whereas highly extraverted participants demonstrated avoidance of negative and vigilance for positive pictures. A subsequent electrophysiological study, using a dot probe task with angry and happy faces, aimed to establish whether these behavioural differences would be evident in brain reactivity, specifically the N2pc component. No significant effects were found for either extraversion or neuroticism, but high trait-anxious participants did demonstrate an enhanced N2pc response for angry but not for happy faces in accord with previous research (Fox et al., 2008). Interestingly, low trait-anxious participants demonstrated an enhanced N2pc for happy faces. These findings suggest that the level of self-reported trait-anxiety is influential in determining the distribution of spatial visual attention in our environment.

Poster 138

THE IMPACTS OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE SEVERITY AND DEPRESSION VULNERABILITY ON THE RESPONSES TO UNPLEASANT STIMULI IN SMOKERS

Yong Cui1, Jason D. Robinson2, Francesco Versace2, Cho Y. Lam2, Jennifer A. Minnix2, John A. Dani1, Thomas R. Kosten1, David W. Wetter2, Victoria L. Brown2, & Paul M. Cinciripini2

1Baylor College of Medicine, 2The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Descriptors: smoking, negative affect, corrugator emg

Negative affect accounted for over 50% lapse after quitting, and thus it warrants research to probe smokers' responses to negative cues. It has been not very clear how nicotine dependence severity and depression vulnerability may modulate smokers' negative emotional responses. To address this question, we presented emotional pictures to 182 smokers before treatment while the EMG activity of the right corrugator supercilii muscle was recorded. Smokers' nicotine dependence severity and depression vulnerability were measured by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Depression Proneness Inventory (DPI), respectively. We found that higher FTND scores were associated with greater corrugator EMG responses to unpleasant cues, and that higher DPI scores were associated with greater corrugator EMG responses to unpleasant cues only in highly nicotine dependent smokers but not in low dependent smokers, as dichotomized by a median split on FTND scores. It should also be noted that the FTND and DPI revealed distinct components of smoking behavior as intended and that the interaction between DPI and corrugator EMG activity to pictures was also significant. In conclusion, nicotine dependence severity and depression vulnerability impact smokers' corrugator EMG reactivity to unpleasant stimuli in an additive way. These findings suggest that smoking cessation intervention practitioners should pay attention to both nicotine dependence severity and depression vulnerability during the treatment process as both may influence smoking quitters' responses to negative cues. R01DA017073 awarded to Paul M. Cinciripini.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 17, 2011 POSTER SESSION IV

Poster 1

THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OFANIMACY COMPUTATION: AN ERP LANGUAGE STUDY

Aleria C. Lage1, Aline R. Gesualdi2, & Aniela I. Franca1 1UFRJ, 2CEFET-RJ

Descriptors: animacy, language processing, syntax interface

An interesting question in syntactic computation of sentences is the use of semantic cues, which may or may not be visible as morphemes in the different languages. This is the case of animacy, a semantic trait that may play a central role in subject and object computation. To test how anymacy may affect sentence processing, we carried out three ERP experiments in Brazilian Portuguese. We looked for physiological cues concerning animacy in the computation of the subject, object and verb agreement. Twenty-four healthy adult native speakers were auditorily stimulated by kinetic presentation of sentences while being monitored by an EEG. In Experiment 1, we used 40 S-V-O sentences with animate subject (O bebe assinou o papel/'The baby signed the paper') and other 40 with inanimate subjects (A cadeira chutou a bola/The table kicked the ball). In Experiment 2, we used 40 S-V-O sentences with animate objects (O menino chutou a lua/ The boy kicked the moon) and other 40 with inanimate object (A sandalia chutou o leite/ The sandal kicked the milk). Experiment 3 tested animacy through syntactic anomaly in verb agreement of 40 S-V-O sentences with animate subject (nO menino chutei a bola/nThe boy Kick[past+1st person sing] the ball and and other 40 with inanimate subject (nA sandalia ferimos o pe/nThe sandal hurt[past+1st person sing] the foot. Control group and distractors were used for all experiments. Our findings reveal that ERPs can be modulated by animacy conditions, even in a language like Portuguese, which does not express a morphological mark for animacy.

Poster 2

NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF IDIOMS IN ASPERGER SYNDROME: AN ERP INVESTIGATION

Fernanda B. Marques1, Leonardo C. Azevedo2, Paulo R. Galhanone2, & Aniela I.

Franca1

1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2Instituto Fernandes Figueira Descriptors: processing of idioms, asperger syndrome, ERP

What are the cognitive actions that cancel linguistic compositionality in favor of an idiomatic meaning in which the whole is other than the sum of its parts? To investigate this theme, a group of 15 Asperger volunteers (AV) was studied in comparison with 15 control volunteers (CV). AVs were used since they reportedly have difficulty deciphering idioms. Volunteers were monitored by an EEG, while listening to auditory stimuli from four series with 15 tokens each, and 90 distractors, totaling 135 tokens. All tokens had an introductory sentence (IS) and a commentary sentence (CS). Series 1 and 2 did not include idioms and were respectively congruous and incongruous. In Series 3 and 4 idiomatic ISs were either confirmed or canceled by their corresponding CSs. The ERP treatment of the raw EEG in Series 1 and 2 revealed that there was no difference between the processing of non-idiomatic sentences by the AV and CV: with the trigger at the verb complement, an N400 was found in both groups with similar latency and amplitude. ISs with reversible idioms (for instance, ''John kicked the bucket'', whose CSs could be ''Yes, he died yesterday'' (Series 3) or ''Yes, and he hurt his foot'' (Series 4) revealed N400 waves with longer latencies for the CV than for the AV. It was interpreted that since AVs do not have access to the idiomatic meaning, they are left with the only possibility of a literal interpretation, while for the CVtwo possibilities were activated. This seems to point to the interesting finding that idiomaticity in the CV involves a prior access to literal meaning. This research was funded by the National Research Council, but no resources are available for international presentations

Poster 3

FRONTAL LATE POSITIVE POTENTIAL PREDICTS SUBSEQUENT MEMORY FOR PLEASANT PICTURES

Kimberly L. Lewis, Elizabeth L. Steuer, Michael W. Duke, Lauren E. Taubitz, Emily L. Belleau, & Christine L. Larson University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Descriptors: ERP, memory, emotion

It has long been known that memory performance is better for affective compared to neutral stimuli. Recent work has attempted to identify mechanisms facilitating this enhanced recall for emotional material. Several studies suggest a connection between frontal LPPs and memory accuracy for emotionally salient pictures. We used a recognition memory task to determine if a high LPP upon initial viewing of emotional stimuli would predict how well the stimulus was remembered. For initial picture viewing, a series of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures were shown while EEG data was collected. There were 40 pictures per valence and each picture was shown for 6 seconds. For the recognition memory

task a separate block of pictures was shown that contained previously shown pictures and new pictures, and accuracy data was recorded. Memory accuracy data and LPP data were taken from 66 undergraduate subjects. Frontal (Fz) LPP magnitude for initial viewing of pleasant pictures was positively correlated with memory accuracy for the previously viewed pleasant pictures (r 5 0.331, p<0.01). Frontal LPP for negative and neutral pictures were also positively correlated with the previously viewed pleasant picture accuracy (p<0.01). Thus, it seems that LPP upon initial viewing predicts the subsequent ability to recognize previously viewed pleasant pictures. This supports the idea that the LPP during picture viewing reflects elaborative processing.

Poster 4

INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY, MEASUREMENTS AND INFORMATION IN AVERSIVE LEARNING

Daniel Fürth, Arne Ohman, & Andreas Olsson Karolinska Institute

Descriptors: pavlovian conditioning, acquisition, temporal information The variability seen among participants in Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments (interindividual variability) is poorly understood. One reason for this lack of knowledge might be the pervasiveness of discrepant results between analyses at the population level juxtaposed with the individual level (i.e. Simpson's Paradox). It is argued that the mechanisms of learning are best understood at the individual level, where it occurs. It is shown that traditional indexes of human fear conditioning (such as the average response magnitude across trials or participants) exhibit measurement properties that increase the risk of Simpson's Paradox to occur. An alternative measurement is suggested where a one-sided upper threshold representation maps from the extensive entropy rate structure onto the response space, a measure that is obtained by change-point analysis of a single time series. The model is partially validated by data. These results indicate that temporal information of the conditioning protocol is important for both rodents and humans. The implications of these results for the future understanding of individual differences in fear learning are discussed.

Poster 5

NEURAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CORRELATES OF EMOTIONAL PROCESSING OF FACIAL STIMULI IN AN ACCIDENT SURVIVOR WITH ACQUIRED PROSOPAGNOSIA COMPARED WITH OTHER ACCIDENT SURVIVORS

Anke Karl1, Rosaleen A. McCarthy2, & Valerie Benson2 1University of Exeter, UK, 2University of Southampton, UK

Descriptors: emotion recognition, N170, prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia is a face processing impairment often observed after damage ofthe fusiform gyrus. We aimed to investigate neural processing and recognition of facial emotion in a patient (PHD) with acquired discrete brain damage in the ventral left temporal region. A facial oddball paradigm and a morphed faces task were administered. Response accuracy, intensity needed for face detection and the ERPs to different emotional facial stimuli were assessed in PHD, matched healthy controls (n 5 12) and accident survivors with and without PTSD (n 5 12). PHD demonstrated average abilities to detect the emotions happiness and anger in both male and female faces. For the emotions fear and sadness his responses were below chance level and significantly below the levels shown by healthy controls and accident survivors with and without PTSD. Interestingly, PHD performed better on detecting happiness than MVA survivors with PTSD, a mental health condition associated with restricted range of positive affect. PHD showed no face-specific N170 to emotional faces but higher P300 amplitudes suggesting compensatory neural mechanisms. Partially retained emotion recognition in the presence of prosopagnosia is in line with theories suggesting dissociable routes for the processing of facial identity and facial expression.

Poster 6

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE MONITORING, MOOD, AND AGEING

Hans Kirschner1, Christiane Berndt1, Romola Bucks2, Alexandra Hogan3, & Anke

1Technical University of Dresden, Germany, 2University College London, UK, 3University of Western Australia, Australia, 4University of Exeter, UK

Descriptors: performance monitoring, aging, mood induction

Performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to monitor behaviour, recognize errors and take remedial actions when necessary is fundamental to effective and adaptive cognitive and behavioural performance. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a specific neural correlate of performance monitoring. Ageing may be associated with alterations in performance monitoring and emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of negative mood on performance monitoring in healthy aging. Twenty healthy old volunteers (OA: M age 68 years, SD 0.9,14 female, 6 male) and 17 younger controls (YA: M age 21, SD 0.8, 13 female, 4 male) performed the 4-Choice ERP Task (4-CRT) while they had been either exposed to a neutral or sad mood induction prior the experimental task. RT for errors and correct responses, post-error slowing and the number of missed trials was calculated for each participant. ERNs were determined per age group and

emotion condition from continuously recorded 32 channels EEG. Older adults showed generally reduced ERN components when compared with younger adults but no significant mood by group interaction was found. Lower ERN components in older adults are in line with previous research. However, the absence of a mood effect on the ERN was unexpected. Current empirical findings and theories on negative mood processing in older age may help understanding these findings.

Poster 7

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR PSYCHOGENIC SYMPTOM? CARDIOVASCULAR CORRELATES OF EMOTION REGULATION DIFFICULTIES AMONG PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOGENIC NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES

Mallory R. Barker, Nicole A. Roberts, Tara M. Vincelette, Dhannia Torres, Katrina Powell, Katarina Valancova, Xin Guan, William Dinsmore, Laura Hess, & Mary H.

Burleson Arizona State University

Descriptors: emotion, psychopathology, cardiovascular

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) resemble epileptic seizures but occur while EEG activity remains normal. Although emotional dysfunction has been implicated as a cause of PNES, more work is needed to understand emotional functioning and psychophysiological correlates of PNES. We examined basal emotional and physiological responding in 18 PNES patients. To assess sympathetic and parasympathetic responding, respectively, we measured cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during a 3-min resting baseline. Additionally, we measured perceived emotion regulation difficulties using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Smaller baseline PEP values (indicating greater sympathetic activation) were associated with greater perceived difficulties with emotional awareness, r(13) 5 — .70, p 5 .004. Lower baseline RSA was associated with greater perceived difficulties with emotional clarity, r(15) 5 — .66, p 5 .004, and marginally greater difficulties with emotional awareness, r(15) 5 — .41, p 5 .099. Other aspects of emotion regulation difficulties (e.g., impulse control) were not related to baseline physiological responses among PNES patients. Importantly, relationships between perceived emotion regulation difficulties and our baseline physiological measures were not observed among comparison participants (N 5 18) matched to the PNES group in terms of reported clinical symptoms and prior trauma exposure. Findings support notions of emotional difficulties in PNES and provide preliminary evidence of the physiological underpinnings of these difficulties.

Poster 8

AMYGDALA ACTIVITY DURING SOCIAL CONDITIONING IS MODULATED BY REAPPRAISAL AND SOCIAL ANXIETY

Andrea Hermann, Tanja Pejic, Dieter Vaitl, & Rudolf Stark BION, University of Giessen

Descriptors: extinction, emotion regulation, fmri

Adverse social learning experiences play a significant role in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder. However, not all individuals experiencing such negative social events develop exaggerated social anxiety. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the association of social anxiety and the habitual use of reappraisal (as a possible protective factor) with the neural basis of social conditioning. Forty-one healthy individuals participated in a socially relevant differential conditioning paradigm (acquisition & extinction learning: day 1; extinction recall: day 2). Neutral facial stimuli served as conditioned stimuli, whereas film clips with critical comments of the same persons were used as unconditioned stimuli. Left amygdala activity was found during acquisition and extinction learning. Social anxiety was related to stronger left amygdala and hippocampus activation during acquisition and to reduced activity during extinction, suggesting stronger acquisition and reduced extinction learning in social anxiety. Furthermore, a less frequent use of reappraisal was associated with stronger activity in right amygdala, hippocampus, and insula during the acquisition phase, indicating stronger learning of socially relevant emotional responses. These results point to the important role of emotional learning and emotion regulation in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders as for example social anxiety disorder.

Poster 9

BRAIN FINGERPRINTING FIELD STUDIES COMPARING P300-MERMER AND P300 ERPS IN THE DETECTION OF CONCEALED INFORMATION

Lawrence A. Farwell1, Drew C. Richardson2, & Graham Richardson3 1Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., 2Federal Bureau of Investigation, 3University

of Virginia

Descriptors: brain fingerprinting, detection of concealed information, P300-MERMER Brain fingerprinting detects concealed information stored in the brain by measuring brainwave responses. We compared P300 and P300-MERMER event-related

brain potentials (ERP) for accuracy and statistical confidence in four field/real life studies. Tests on 76 subjects detected presence or absence of information regarding 1) real crimes with substantial consequences (either a judicial outcome, including the death penalty or life in prison, or a $100,000 reward for beating the test); 2) real-life events including felony crimes; 3) knowledge unique to FBI agents; and 4) knowledge unique to explosives (EOD/IED) experts. With both P300 and P300-ME-RMER based analyses, determinations were 100% accurate: there were no false negatives, no false positives, and no indeterminates. Median statistical confidence for individual determinations was 99.9% with P300-MERMER and 99.6% with P300. Mean statistical confidence for individual determinations was 99.5% with P300-ME-RMER and 97.9% with P300. Countermeasures had no effect. An alternative, non-brain fingerprinting ''complex trial protocol'' had 0% accuracy and proved invalid, unreliable, and unusable in the field. All subjects figured out on their own how to beat the complex trial protocol. Brain fingerprinting accurately detected all of the same subjects. Scientific standards for brain fingerprinting research and field applications are discussed. All studies that have met these standards have achieved high accuracy. All studies that have reported low accuracy and/or susceptibility to countermeasures have failed to meet these standards. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Poster 10

NEURAL REGULATION OF SENSORY GATING IN THE AUDITORY PERIPHERY: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LISTENING AND HEART RATE DYNAMICS

Gregory F. Lewis, Shannon Stanfill, Danielle Zageris, Maria Davila, & Stephen W.

Porges

University of Illinois at Chicago

Descriptors: middle ear muscles, speech intelligibility, sensory gating This study investigates the covariation between neural regulation of the middle ear muscles and functional measures of hearing and heart rate dynamics. Hearing measures are associated with sensitivity to noise and the ability to understand spoken words in the presence of noise. The research question is derived from the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995, 2007) and evaluates the proposed theoretical link the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system (e.g., RSA) to the neural regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head as an integrated social engagement system. The model has been elaborated and extended to the function of the middle ear muscles in facilitating social communication (Porges & Lewis, 2010). The middle ear muscles are a component of a social engagement system that is characterized by the integrated regulation of visceromotor (e.g., heart) and somatomotor components and is unique to mammals. In this study, measurements from a novel measure of sound absorption within the sealed ear canal are contrasted with a new psycho-acoustic measurement of hearing-in-noise performance, a standard psychoacoustic measurement of loudness scaling, two self-report measures of hearing sensitivity, and heart rate changes in response to the listening tests. Despite a group level similarity between the two ears, individual differences in sound absorption related to middle ear muscle tone have lateralized effects on listening. The results have implications for language development, speech and hearing sciences, and the lateralized processing of acoustic information.

Poster 11

SUBJECTIVE SOCIAL STATUS AND CORTISOL AWAKENING RESPONSE IN UNEMPLOYED AND EMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS

Ashley M. Geiger1, Clemens Kirschbaum2, & Jutta M. Wolf1 1Brandeis University, 2Dresden University of Technology

Descriptors: cortisol awakening response, unemployment, subjective social status Subjective social status (SSS) is an important predictor of health. Interestingly, individuals seem to use primarily socioeconomic status (SES) indicators to determine their SSS. This poses the question of how SSS will be affected when an individual faces a sudden loss of most SES indicators as during unemployment and furthermore, how this loss affects the individual's health. To answer these questions, we assessed SSS relative to neighbors and friends in 18 employed and 18 unemployed individuals (33.3 + 9.1 yrs.). Repeated saliva samples were collected over two consecutive days to determine cortisol awakening recovery slopes (+60min minus+30min). Controlling for age, sex, and unemployment duration, unemployed rated their status among neighbors (F 5 11.47, p 5 .002) but not among friends (F 5 2.10 p 5 .15) significantly lower than employed individuals. While unemployment was generally associated with a lack of cortisol recovery (beta 5 — 0.55, p 5 .036), perceiving ones status among friends to be higher was associated with an improved cortisol recovery (beta 5 — 0.40, p 5 .071; status relative to neighbors: beta 5 0.18, p 5 .47) independent of employment status. The current findings suggest that unemployed individuals perceive a loss of social status in some domains (neighbors) but not in others (friends). This domain specificity also emerged with regard to health consequences, where maintaining status among friends was particularly health-relevant. Our findings thus emphasize the need to differentiate between reference groups when investigating the association between SSS and health.

TRAIT MINDFULNESS PREDICTS CORTISOL STRESS RESPONSES IN A GENDER-SPECIFIC MANNER

Eve A. Saucier, Myriam V. Thoma, Emily Farver, Michelle Gellman, Marianne F. Specker, Nicolas Rohleder, & Jutta M. Wolf Brandeis University

Descriptors: mindfulness, cortisol stress response, gender differences Mindfulness is a state of mind in which an individual is nonjudgmental of his thoughts and feelings. Practicing mindfulness-based meditation has been shown to be associated with reduced physiological stress responses. The current study aims at investigating if this holds true for the personality trait of mindfulness as well. For this, 23 participants (13m, 22+ 4.8 yrs) completed the mindfulness subscale of the Self-Compassion Scale before and the PANAS after being exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Saliva samples were collected to determine cortisol stress responses (baseline to peak values). We found no gender differences in cortisol increases (t 5 1.39, p 5 .18) or mindfulness scores (t 5 0.96, p 5 .35) as well as no association between cortisol increases and mindfulness scores (all pX .20). However, when taking the participants' emotional state during TSST into account, we found that compared to males and females with low mindfulness scores, males who scored high on mindfulness showed a more pronounced cortisol stress response whereas high mindfulness in females was associated with a less pronounced cortisol stress response (beta 5 — 0.63, p 5 .041). In summary, above and beyond an individuals' emotional state, mindfulness as a trait plays a role in predicting cortisol stress responses. However, our findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying this association may differ between males and females. While high-mindfulness males may simply accept the situation as stressful, high-mindfulness females may instead change the interpretation of the situation.

Poster 13

ENGAGEMENT IN LEISURE ACTIVITY PREDICTS LOWER IL-6 LEVELS IN RESPONSE TO A SOCIAL STRESS TASK

Luke C. Hanlin, Myriam V. Thoma, Brian Dahlben, Colleen Evans, Julius Johnson, Diana Wang, & Nicolas Rohleder Brandeis University

Descriptors: stress, inflammation, cardiovascular disease

There is strong evidence for a role of inflammation in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has also been found that acute stress can increase IL-6 levels, serving as a possible mediator between stress and disease. Engagement in leisure activities has been linked to decreased levels of mental illness, resting heart rate, and physical measures suggesting a link between leisure and health. This study examines whether engagement in leisure activity is associated with a IL-6 responses to stress. Twenty-two healthy participants (14 males, 8 females; mean BMI 5 24.28; mean age 5 21.86 yrs) were administered a measure of engagement in leisure activities, the Pittsburg Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT) before being exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Plasma IL-6 was measured one minute before, as well as 30 minutes and two hours after TSST. Results showed a significant and pronounced IL-6 increase after TSST (time effect: F 5 7.21; p 5 0.013). Further analyses showed a relationship between IL-6 response and PEAT (timenPEAT effect: F5 4.55; p 5 0.043). This was substantiated by a significant negative correlation between delta IL-6 and PEAT scores (r 5 — 0.55; p 5 0.026). Additional analyses yielded no gender differences in PEAT scores (F 5 1.19; n.s.), and PEAT was not associated with self-rated stress and depression. These findings indicate that leisure activities may be exerting a cardioprotective effect on health by being associated with a dampened inflammatory stress response. Future analysis will explore the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid sensitivity in this system. American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR)

Poster 14

SENSITIZATION OF PLASMA INTERLEUKIN-6 RESPONSES TO REPEATED ACUTE PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

Xuejie Chen, Myriam V. Thoma, Kirsten Rene, Kristen Nichols, Krista DiSano, Modupe Durojaiye, & Nicolas Rohleder Brandeis University

Descriptors: inflammation, stress, appraisal

Peripheral inflammation is a promising link between stress and disease. Acute stress induces short-term disinhibition of inflammation, providing an additional pathway allowing acute and cumulative effects of stress on physiology. Not much is known concerning how this acute process is activated and regulated, particularly in response to repeated stress. We recruited n 5 23 healthy individuals (10 women, 13 men; mean age 5 22.4 yrs.; mean BMI 5 23.6 kg/m2) and exposed them to Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and salivary cortisol were measured repeatedly until 2 hours after stress. Stress appraisals and acute affective responses were measured during and after both TSSTs. Results showed significant increases of cortisol and IL-6 in response to first time stress exposure (cortisolp<0.001; IL-6p<0.001, resp.). After second exposure, cortisol showed habituation (p 5 0.009), while IL-6 showed sensitization (p 5 0.047). People with greater

cortisol habituation showed a trend to stronger IL-6 habituation (r 5 0.37; p 5 0.08). At second exposure, higher appraisal of self-concept of abilities and control were associated with lower IL-6 responses (abilities r 5 — 0.55, p 5 0.013; control expectancy r 5 — 0.49, p 5 0.028). The findings are in line with the hypothesis that HPA habituation to repeated stress is adaptive, and should thus be associated with lower IL-6 responses. The findings are incompatible with the assumption that high cortisol is required for inflammatory control. Future analyses will target potential mediators and explanations of this observation. American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR).

Poster 15

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON RUMINATION AND HPA AXIS RESPONSES TO REPEATED PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

Danielle Gianferante, Myriam V. Thoma, Asya Bashina, Charity Frempomaa, Michelle H. Lerman, Michael J. Polito, & Nicolas Rohleder Brandeis University

Descriptors: rumination, cortisol, stress

Rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative thoughts, has been linked to physiology and has been suggested to affect mental and physical health. Research has shown that high trait rumination is correlated with elevated cortisol responses to psychosocial stress. However, it has not been addressed if rumination is associated with habituation of cortisol responses to repeated stress. Eighteen participants (11 male; 7 female; mean age 5 22 yrs,) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice on consecutive days. Salivary cortisol was measured 1 min before, and 1, 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post TSST. Participants provided self-reports of trait rumination. The TSST induced significant increases in cortisol over time (F5 13.6;p< .001). Increases were significantly lower on the second day of testing (F 5 4.69;p 5 .007), indicating habituation. Women showed marginally higher rumination (F5 3.13;p 5 .096). Rumination was not associated with a change in cortisol increase from day one to day two (r 5 — .33;n.s.). However, rumination was inversely correlated with a cortisol increase on the first day (r 5 .50;p 5 .037). Although results did not show an association of rumination and habituation, higher rumination was related to lower cortisol responses to the first, but not second TSST. Despite the missing relation of rumination and habituation, the different associations on first versus second stress exposure might indicate differential mechanisms being at work when stressed repeatedly. Future analyses on the full dataset will explore other potential mediators such as depression and age. American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR)

Poster 16

BODY ESTEEM IS ASSOCIATED WITH BOTH SELF-CONSCIOUS EMOTION EXPRESSION RESPONSES AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

Sarah B. Lupis, Thomas E. Arnott, Michelle H. Lerman, & Jutta M. Wolf Brandeis University

Descriptors: body esteem, emotion, cortisol

When it comes to cortisol stress responses, surprisingly little is known about the differential role of emotions. The Social Self Preservation Theory states, however, that self-conscious emotions such as shame are positively associated with cortisol stress responses. The current study aimed at testing the role of body esteem as a predictor of self-conscious emotions as well as cortisol stress responses. We exposed 33 participants (19f; 20 + 3 yrs) to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which we assessed self-conscious emotions using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Body Image was assessed by the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults and repeated saliva samples were collected throughout the protocol to assess cortisol stress responses (baseline to peak). Preliminary analyses revealed a positive association between body esteem and cortisol stress responses, such that high body esteem was associated with more pronounced cortisol stress responses (r 5 .34, p 5 .071). Interestingly, high body esteem was also associated with less incidences of self-conscious emotions in response to stress. This was particularly true, i.e., more pronounced, for male participants (body esteem-by-gender: beta 5 .98, p 5 .042). These findings provide a first hint that body image may influence cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress through its association with self-conscious emotions. More specifically, individuals with low body esteem may experience more self-conscious emotions during stress and as a result, show elevated cortisol stress responses.

Poster 17

INFLUENCE OF REWARD INFORMATION ON ANTICIPATORY PROCESSES: CNV AND ALPHA EVENT-RELATED DESYNCHRONY

Angela Dzyundzyak, Mary H. MacLean, & Sidney J. Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: alpha erd, CNV, attention

It has been well established that presenting a warning cue followed by an anticipatory period prior to a target stimulus influences reaction times (Niemi & Naatanen,

1981). During such anticipatory periods following a warning cue electrophysio-logical markers of anticipatory processes are observed - the contingent negative variation (CNV) and alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD). We examined whether incentive information (win/loss) in the cue modulates anticipatory processes as reflected in the CNV and alpha ERD, as well as the influence of the warning cue and anticipatory period on RT. Participants (N 5 31) completed a modified version of a monetary incentive delay task, where in each trial they were presented with a cue labelling the trial as a potential win or loss. After an anticipation period of either 1.5 or 2 seconds a target appeared on the screen. If the response was fast enough, participants either won money (win trials) or avoided losing money (loss trials). If the response was too slow, participants either lost money (loss trials) or failed to win money (win trials). RTs did not differ according to length of anticipation period but were faster for win cue trials than loss cue trials. The CNV was not sensitive to the difference in cue valence. However, greater alpha ERD was observed following win cues. Thus, reward incentives are associated with faster RTs and an increased anticipatory response, but only as reflected in alpha ERD, suggesting that alpha ERD and CNV, although occurring at the same time, reflect different aspects of anticipatory attention.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Poster 18

ACTIVATIONAL PATTERNS OF THE FRONTAL-PARIETAL NETWORKS DURING OCCULOMOTOR DELAYED RESPONSE TASKS: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY

Ayda Tekok-Kilic, William J. Tays, & Rochelle Tkach Brock University

Descriptors: delayed response task, visual-spatial memory, EEG

Sustained neural activity over frontal and parietal areas during the delay period of occulomotor response tasks has been interpreted to reflect the active representation of task relevant information. However, it is unclear whether this activity reflects representation of the target, upcoming response plans, or both. The present EEG and eye tracking study was designed to isolate activity related to occulomotor preparation from the storage of visual-spatial information. Participants were presented with a 200 ms visual-spatial cue followed by a 2500 ms delay period before making an occulomotor response. During the control condition, the cue was uninformative and occulomotor responses were visually guided. During the delayed match condition, the cue was informative and occulomotor responses were guided by memory (visual-spatial storage & saccade preparation). In the delayed non-match condition, participants remembered the location of a cue, but made a visually guided occulomotor response towards a different location (visual-spatial storage only). Contrasting the match versus control and nonmatch conditions revealed two patterns of activation associated with occulomotor preparation: An early sustained negativity over parietal sites (between 500- 1200 ms) and a late sustained positivity over frontal-central sites (between 1700-2500 ms). We interpret these results to reflect two stages of activation in a distributed network supporting the formation and maintenance of occulomotor action plans in parietal and frontal areas, respectively. Canada Foundation for Innovation

Poster 19

CORTICAL AND CARDIAC ASSOCIATIONS WITH PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND ACCURACY OF RESPONSE

Lesley J. Capuana, Raechelle M. Gibson, William J. Tays, Sidney J. Segalowitz, & Jane

Dywan Brock University

Descriptors: attention, erps, RSA

We are interested in the relations between cortical and cardiac measures in predicting attentional control. Within the same study, we observed whether an increase in task complexity or incentive would have effects on the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) and whether these components would be more likely to predict task performance as a function of these manipulations. We recorded EEG and indices of cardiac function (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA, an index of phasic vagal cardiac control and RPP, an index of cardiac work load) as participants engaged in a Stroop Oddball task (hit one key for frequent congruent stimuli; hit another for rarer incon-gruent trials). We increased task complexity by adding either a working memory (WM) or response control contingency. We added a financial incentive condition to each task to enhance the emotive cost of errors (correct responses 5 small win; errors 5 larger losses). Resulting interactions indicated that both ERN and Pe were sensitive to task-type and incentive but neither component related to accuracy in any condition. In contrast, baseline cardiac measures predicted accuracy but only when WM was involved (independent of incentive). We conclude that, although response-locked ERPs reflect a neural response to having made an error, they do not reflect the attentional capacity necessary to perform the task. However, when a task requires internal rather than external monitoring, autonomic regulation allows an individual to establish the attent-ional control required.

MANIPULATION OF SPATIAL ATTENTION WHILE VIEWING EMOTIONAL FACES DELAYS ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES OF EARLY VISUAL PROCESSING

Meghan J. Weissflog, Jane Dywan, & Sidney J. Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: emotion recognition, spatial attention, event-related potentials Schyns et al. (2007) found that individuals engage in a uniform 'eyes down' pattern of spatial attention allocation to extract relevant information from affective expressions, such that spatial distance from the eyes to other features corresponded to the latency of the N170 event-related potential (ERP). Thus, N170 latency varied based on the spatial location of key diagnostic information specific to the affective expression being viewed. In the present study, early visual ERP responses (P1, N170) and behavioural measures were recorded from 29 undergrad students as they categorized angry, happy or fearful expressions presented under eye-, nose-, or mouth-level visual fixation. Directing attention away from the eye region was expected to disrupt the 'eyes down' pattern of spatial attention and delay emotion recognition, particularly for fearful faces, for which eye-based discrimination is most effective. This delay should be evidenced by later ERP components and impaired emotion categorization. As predicted, participants categorized fearful expressions less accurately when attention was directed toward the mouth region of the face. Moreover, both the P1 and N170 peaked later on trials where affective faces were presented under mouth-level fixation conditions. Consistent with an emerging multi-phased model of emotion processing in the literature, these findings suggest that the influence of spatial attention on emotion recognition processes begins during the rapid, bottom-up processes underlying the P1 and prior to featural integration (N170).

Poster 21

I'LL BET YOU DID NOT EXPECT THIS: LARGER FRN AMPLITUDES AFTER EXTENDED WAKEFULNESS IN A GAMBLING PARADIGM

Natalie M. Dubeau, Karen Foell, Angela Dzyundzyak, Lisa Lam, & Timothy I. Murphy

Brock University

Descriptors: sleep deprivation, FRN, P3

Appropriate recognition of negative feedback and remediation are critical to avoid future mistakes. Sleep deprivation is associated with increased error rate and possibly reduced error recognition. We employed a gambling task (Dzyundzyak et al., 2009) to investigate the effect of sleepiness on negative feedback. Subjects were presented with two cards of varying magnitudes and required to wager one of the amounts. It was then revealed if they had won or lost that amount and subsequently, the outcome of the alternate card was revealed. This created the possibility of subjective wins (alternate card was worse) and subjective loses (alternate card was better). Thirteen subjects attended alert and sleepy sessions (2 & 20 hours awake respectively). Time locked ERPs were averaged for both sessions. FRN and P3 amplitudes were measured at midline sites for both initial and alternate outcomes. The P3 amplitude was larger in alert sessions and for high magnitude trials; the FRN amplitude to the initial feedback was larger for losses than wins, thus replicating previous findings. Unexpectedly, larger FRNs were observed in the sleepy condition than in the alert condition after losses for both initial and alternate cards. Additionally, in terms of alternate feedback, an interaction was found between valence and magnitude such that small wins had smaller FRNs than large wins or any loss. Small subjective wins after the alternate card also elicited larger FRNs than did large subjective wins. These results may relate to changing levels of top-down and bottom-up processes during sleepiness.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Grant to TIM

Poster 22

ERROR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSIENT INCREASES IN SPECTRAL POWER AND PHASE ALIGNMENT OF ON-GOING EEG OSCILLATIONS

Stefon J.R. van Noordt, & Sidney J. Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: ERN, spectral power, inter-trial coherence

We compared differences between error and correct trials on a standard letter-flanker task on measures of amplitude, peak spectral power, and inter-trial phase angle coherence. The amplitude of ERN and CRN, peak spectral power (mostly theta band frequencies) during these components, and inter-trial coherence of these components all increased relative to baseline significantly more during error trials than correct trials. While both peak spectral power and inter-trial coherence were associated with ERN amplitude, only inter-trial coherence contributed unique variance when these predictors were considered simultaneously. Furthermore, only inter-trial coherence was related to performance such that increasing coherence of phase angle following errors was associated with higher accuracy. These findings are consistent with a body of literature suggesting that ERPs are at least partly a result of transient alignment in the phase angle of ongoing EEG oscillations, and are not simply due to increases in voltage or spectral power. Moreover, these results suggest that shifts in phase alignment may be a mechanism for coordinating activity in larger neural

networks which support adaptive self-regulation, and future research will consider how individual differences are associated with these measures of brain function.

Poster 23

ELABORATING THE TIME COURSE OF ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN DYSPHORIA: COMBINING EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL AND BEHAVIORAL MEASURES

Lauren E. Taubitz, Kimberly L. Lewis, & Christine L. Larson University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Descriptors: attentional bias, erps, dysphoria

Recent research indicates that depression is characterized by attentional bias toward negative information, particularly difficulty disengaging from sad or unpleasant stimuli. However, no published research compares ERP and reaction time measures ofattentional bias in the same study. To address this gap, P1 and LPP ERP amplitudes were measured while 93 subjects (35 controls, 29 dysphoric) completed an affective exogenous cueing task. In each trial a face appearing on either the left or right side preceded a letter probe (M or N), which appeared on either the same side as the face (valid trials) or on the opposite side (invalid trials). Faces were happy, sad, or neutral. When the letter probe appeared, the participants were to indicate as quickly as possible if it was an M or an N. There were no significant group differences in reaction times on the cueing task for any emotional valence, cue validity (valid or invalid), or interaction. This suggests that dysphoric subjects do not exhibit faster attentional engagement or slower disengagement from sad faces. There were also no significant group differences in LPP amplitude, suggesting that dysphoric individuals do not exhibit greater elaborative processing for sad compared to happy or neutral faces. There was a difference in P1 laterality whereby the P1 was maximal over the left occipital region for control subjects and over the right occipital region for dysphoric subjects. This is consistent with previous research showing right hyperactivity of cortical oscillatory activity in the occipital brain region in depression.

Poster 24

PRE-TRIAL ALPHA PHASE IN FRONTAL CORTEX PREDICTS CORRECT VS. INCORRECT ANTISACCADE PERFORMANCE

Jordan P. Hamm, Kara A. Dyckman, Jennifer E. McDowell, & Brett A. Clementz University of Georgia

Descriptors: antisaccades, alpha, cortical oscillations

Instantaneous phase of ongoing alpha oscillations at the time of a visual event has recently been shown to predict target detection and ocular motor reaction time. In the current study, such effects were hypothesized to explain trial-to-trial variation in ocular motor inhibition in an antisaccade task. Dense array electroencephalography (211-channel EEG) was recorded in 14 human subjects completing an antisaccade task. Results demonstrate that correct performance is related to instantaneous phase in low alpha band (7 -10 Hz) oscillations before trial onset; trials in which participants correctly completed an antisaccade were characterized by a phase opposite that of trials in which saccades were made to the target (incorrect trials). This effect displayed an EEG scalp topography highly similar to past reports of pretrial alpha phase effects, and was localized with complex sLORETA-weighted accurate minimum norm method (c-SWARM) to medial prefrontal and premotor cortices in the vicinity of supplementary motor area.

Poster 25

BRAIN ACTIVATION PATTERNS DIFFERENTIATING CORRECT AND INCORRECT ANTI-SACCADE PERFORMANCE

David J. Schaeffer1, Michael T. Amlung1, Qinyang Li1, Cynthia E. Krafft1, Benjamin P. Austin2, Kara A. Dyckman1, & Jennifer E. McDowell1 1University of Georgia, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison

Descriptors: fmri, anti-saccade, inhibition

People with schizophrenia have poor anti-saccade performance, which is characterized by an increased proportion of errors. Anti-saccades require the inhibition of a reflexive glance towards a cue and the generation of a volitional saccade away from a cue. An anti-saccade error is an initial glance towards the cue and is construed as a failure of inhibition. The purpose of the study was to investigate the brain activation patterns underlying anti-saccade errors in healthy participants. Undergraduate students completed three separate anti-saccade sessions: 2 behavioral and 1 behavioral/imaging. Following the first behavioral assessment, participants were divided into two groups based on their anti-saccade performance: good performers (>85% correct) and poor performers (< 65% correct). The second session was used to determine reliable group assignment. In the third session, good performers (N 5 12) and poor performers (N 5 13) completed anti-saccade tasks during fMR image acquisition. Estimated hemodynamic responses for correct and error anti-saccade trials were used in a general linear model analysis. Results from these analyses indicate that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex and insula may play an important role in successful inhibition of reflexive eye movements. These findings may be useful in elucidating the neural circuitry involved with anti-saccade error rates in schizophrenia.

ASSESSING INHIBITION-RELATED FUNCTIONAL NETWORKS IN A GO/NO-GO TASK USING TIME-FREQUENCY PHASE-SYNCHRONY

Jeremy B. Harper1, Lacy A. Olson1, Srikant Kothur1, Scott J. Burwell2, Selin Aviyente3, Stephen M. Malone2, & Edward M. Bernat1 1Florida State University, 2University of Minnesota, 3Michigan State University

Descriptors: functional connectivity, time-frequency, phase synchrony Recent research has shown that lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) regions are synchronous with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions in the theta band (3-7 Hz) during performance monitoring (Cavanagh, Cohen, and Allen, 2009). This provides further support for current theories positing a central role for the mPFC in cognitive control, and serves as an important index of how the lPFC is functionally integrated with the mPFC in the service of performance monitoring processes. We hypothesized that the go/no-go task would involve similar control networks, with additional involvement of the motor cortices during response inhibition. The current study aims were to assess for integration of lPFC, mPFC, and motor cortices into functional networks during the no-go condition. Additionally, because delta-band (0-3 Hz) activity has recently been shown to have unique contributions to ERPs relative to theta, delta activity was evaluated as well. Using high-density EEG data (128-channels) from a sample of community and undergraduate participants (N 5 65), we computed an inter-channel time-frequency phase synchrony (IC-TFPS; Aviyente et al., 2011) measure of functional connectivity (FC). Results indicated increased lPFC/mPFC FC for no-go stimuli, as hypothesized. FC was also found to be increased between motor cortices and mPFC. Delta evidenced the same pattern of FC as theta, including lPFC, motor cortices, and mPFC, although delta and theta FC were largely uncorrelated, suggesting that they index separable processes within the same control-related networks indexed in the current study. MH080239.

Poster27

HERITABILITY OF PROBE P3 AMPLITUDE AND AFFECT-MODULATION IN A COMMUNITY TWIN SAMPLE

Laura E. Drislane, Megan D. Lucy, James R. Yancey, Uma Vaidyanathan, & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: probe p3, EEG/ERP, heritability

The noise probe-elicited P300 ("probe P3'') ERP response is known to vary in amplitude with the affective arousal of visual (picture) foregrounds. The present study sought to examine the heritability of this evoked brain response, with respect to its amplitude and its modulation by affective arousal. Participants consisting of 508 twins, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) pairs, completed an affective picture-viewing task in which auditory startle probes were delivered between 3-5s after onset of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. An ERP component reflecting the probe-elicited P300 response was derived for each picture condition and quantified for amplitude. Replicating prior work, probe P3 response was attenuated during viewing of both pleasant and unpleasant pictures relative to neutral—indicating diminished availability of attentional resources for processing the probe when presented in the context of affectively arousing foregrounds. Further, across picture trials as a whole, MZ twins showed higher concordance with respect to average probe P3 amplitude than did DZ twins, indicating heritability of the probe-elicited P3 response. Heritability of the affective-modulation effect for probe P3 will also be assessed by comparing the concordance ofaffective-neutral difference scores for the probe P3 in MZ as compared to DZ twin pairs. Implications for the utility of probe P3 as an index of individual differences in affective reactivity will be discussed.

Poster 28

SEPARABLE THETA AND DELTA PROCESSES UNDERLYING THE TIME-DOMAIN P3: A MULTI-TASK EVALUATION

Srikant Kothur, Jeremy Harper, Lacy Olson, & Edward Bernat Florida State University

Descriptors: P300, theta and delta, time-domain p3

Multiple studies have demonstrated fronto-central theta (3-7Hz) and centro-parietal delta (0-3 Hz) involvement in ERPs across a number of tasks where P3 measures are taken. Recent work has shown that theta and delta can have robust, unique contributions to timedomain (TD) P3, and can reveal effects not observable in the TD alone (Bernat et al., in press). Previous research supports the view that separable processes occur during the time of the P3 (e.g. Onton, Westerfield, Townsend, and Makeig, 2006; Spencer, Dien, and Donchin, 1999). To more broadly assess the presence of separable theta and delta contributions to P3, the current study evaluated theta, delta, and TD P3, across three tasks, using condition average data (N 5 67, 128-channel EEG): gambling feedback, novelty-oddball, and go-nogo. The hypothesis was that theta and delta would significantly and uniquely predict conventional TD P3 measures, and that their relative contributions would vary based on task. Results supported both hypotheses. Findings suggest that theta and delta measures index separable neurocognitive processes contributing to TD P3 measures, where the mixture depends on the nature of task demands exercising one or the other more strongly. Supported by grant K08 MH080239 from the National Institutes of Health.

LOSS OF CONTEXT: INHIBITORY CONTROL IN OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

Brian A. Gordon1, Alisha Janssen2, Gabriele Gratton3, Lynn Hasher4, & Monica Fabiani3 1Washington University in St Louis, 2Ohio State, 3University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4University of Toronto

Descriptors: inhibition, aging, erps

Detrimental cognitive changes with advancing age have been attributed to impaired inhibitory control (Hasher & Zacks, 1988). Although usually viewed as a problem, reduced inhibition can lead to superior memory and performance when irrelevant information becomes relevant (Healey et al., 2008). To test this theory, electrophysiological recordings were taken while subjects were presented with a series of frequent names and infrequent nouns. Younger and older participants were told to make a gender judgment on the names, while ignoring the nouns. Memory for the stimuli was unexpectedly tested using both implicit and explicit measures. In contrast to most findings, older adults performed as well as younger adults on tests of memory, consistent with the idea that older adults encode and remember irrelevant information. In both groups later memory was predicted by a slow positivity at encoding thought to represent elaboration. This effect was significantly delayed in older adults. Additionally, at encoding, for both groups P3 latency and amplitude differentiated between stimulus categories. In younger adults both the N2 and N4 components distinguished between the frequent names and infrequent nouns, a discrimination that was lacking in older adults. These results suggest that older adults are able to discriminate stimulus categories in a reactive manner, but are unable to form appropriate expectancies based upon probability of upcoming trials. From this work we extend interpretations of inhibition into a framework that includes failed source monitoring.

Poster 30

IT TAKES TWO: THE EVENT-RELATED OPTICAL SIGNAL REVEALS DISTINCT CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES TO LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

Edward W. Wlotko, Kara D. Federmeier, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: hemispheric asymmetry, sentential context, event-related optical signal Language comprehension dynamically recruits a network of brain areas distributed within and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Electrophysiological studies, relying on visual half-field presentation, have suggested that both the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) contribute to normal comprehension, but have distinct processing biases. The event-related optical signal (EROS) is uniquely suited to provide a window into hemispheric asymmetry and cooperation, as it allows interrogation ofthe timecourse of processing within each hemisphere, without relying on half-field presentation. In this study, EROS was recorded while participants read sentences of strong, moderate, or weak constraint. An effect of contextual strength was observed in superior temporal areas around 400 ms post-stimulus onset. Whereas RH processing seems much more facilitated by strong vs weak contexts, the LH seems to take better advantage of weaker contextual information, creating a shallower gradient from strong to weak constraint. In agreement with event-related brain potential findings, these results suggest that the typically observed, evenly graded response to variation in contextual information in sentence comprehension arises from joint contributions from each hemisphere. NIMH grant MH80182 to G. Gratton

Poster 31

EVALUATING EXCITATION AND INHIBITION IN MOTOR CORTEX WITH FAST OPTICAL IMAGING AND TMS

Nathan A. Parks, Edward L. Maclin, Kathy A. Low, Diane M. Beck, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: motor cortex, optical imaging, TMS

The fast optical signal is a reduction in the reflectance ofnear-infrared light by neural tissue that occurs synchronously with electrical activity. In short, it takes light longer to pass between two points in active tissue (on average) than tissue at rest. This increased delay is the basis of a noninvasive imaging method known as the event-related optical signal (EROS). In vivo animal work has suggested that the fast optical signal exhibits opposite effects for active and inhibited tissue. That is, active tissue exhibits longer delays whereas inhibited tissue exhibits shorter delays. Here, we examined whether such an excitatory versus inhibitory signature is measurable non-invasively and on a larger scale using EROS. We recorded EROS from left and right motor cortex and gave subjects (N 5 15) a Go/ NoGo task. A Go/NoGo task provides an opportune method to assess excitation and inhibition as previous work has shown this task to weight motor activity toward excitation (Go) or inhibition (NoGo). Well-established transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols (evaluation of motor-evoked potentials, MEPs) were also used to probe levels of cortical excitability. EROS effects were consistent with the directional predictions of ex-

citatory and inhibitory activity, showing longer delays under Go conditions and shorter delay under NoGo conditions. MEP results corroborated the presence of increased excitation in Go trials and increased inhibition in NoGo trials. Results suggest that EROS can, under certain circumstances, differentiate excitatory and inhibitory cortical activity.

Poster 32

MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION OF NEUTRAL FACE AND VOICE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND NORMAL CONTROL INDIVIDUALS

Taosheng Liu1,2, Robert W. McCarley1,3, & Margaret A. Niznikiewicz1,3 1Harvard Medical School, 2Second Military Medical University, 3VA Boston Healthcare system

Descriptors: multisensory integration, face, non-semantic sound

Background: While several studies demonstrated abnormalities in face and voice processing in schizophrenia, event related potentials (ERPs) studies on face and voice multisensory integration are lacking. This study explored multisensory integration processes in schizophrenia using ERPs.Methods: ERPs were recorded in 17 schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 17 control subjects (NC) who viewed neutral faces, listened to neutral non-semantic sounds and viewed neutral faces making neutral non-semantic sounds.Results: Two components were observed: occipito-parietal N170 related to face processing and fronto-central N300 sensitive to voice and face processing. N170 amplitude was decreased in SZ in both face and face-voice conditions (p 5 0.01). In both groups, N170 latency was delayed in face-voice condition relative to face condition (p< 0.01). N300 amplitude was more negative in the face condition in SZ than NC at frontal sites (p<0.01), and the difference was only at trend level in face-voice condition. No N300 group difference was found in the voice condition. Both groups showed delayed N300 latency in the face-voice and voice relative to the face condition. Conclusions: The face processing deficit in SZ was reflected both in the N170 and the N300. Processing of vocalizations was relatively normal in SZ. N300 group differences in the face condition and at trend level in the face-voice condition suggest that voice recognition may aid face processing. Both groups showed prolonged N170 and N300 latency in the face-voice condition where integrating of voice and face was necessary.

Poster 33

THE INFLUENCE OF EMOTION ON AUDIOVISUAL INTEGRATION OF FACE AND VOICE

Taosheng Liu1,2, Zhongxin Zhao2, Robert W. McCarley1,3, & Margaret A.

Niznikiewicz1,3

1Harvard Medical School, 2Second Military Medical University, 3VA Boston Healthcare system

Descriptors: audiovisual integration, emotion

While there are a few studies that investigated the neural networks underlying the audiovisual integration, it is still unclear how affective information influences the mul-tisensory integration. The present study assessed the effect of emotion on audiovisual integration of face and non-semantic sounds using event related potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded when 18 normal healthy subjects viewed happy, angry or neutral faces concurrently accompanied by emotionally congruent non-semantic voices (Congruent Happy, Congruent Angry, or Congruent Neutral condition). Three components were observed in the ERPs to each condition, N170 distributed at occipital-temporal sites, N300 and P400 distributed at frontal-central sites. There was no significant difference on N170 amplitude and latency between conditions. The amplitudes of N300 and P400 were more negative to Congruent Neutral condition than to Congruent Happy or Angry condition, the latter two with no significant difference. The latency of N300 to Congruent Happy condition was earlier than to Congruent Neutral condition, and for both, there was no difference with Congruent Angry condition. No difference on P400 latency was observed between conditions. Thus, differences observed on N300 and P400 but not on N170 between neutral and emotional conditions imply that the effect while N170 is sensitive to structural aspects of face processing, emotional cues are processed later and are indexed by N300 and P400 suggesting the stimulus categorization process, at least for the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic voice.

Poster 34

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF MASKED SEMANTIC PRIMING: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

Maya R. Libben12, Abigail S. Laufer1,2, Elizabeth J. Ronan1,2, & Dean F. Salisbury1,2 1McLean Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: masked priming, N400

Background: It has been suggested that the N400 effect is dependent on conscious perception of stimuli. Masked semantic priming (MP) involves the subliminal presentation ofwords and relies on automatic semantic activation. Results have been equivocal as to whether or not MP evokes an N400 effect. Here we present a new MP methodology aimed at reducing the influence of perceptual differences between participants.Methods:

To establish MP thresholds, participants made lexical decisions to words and nonwords masked with a random letter string at delays of 10 through 70 msec. Thresholds were set at the masking delay where subjects went from chance to above chance performance. Tailored MP delays were used in a lexical decision priming task where ERPs and reaction times (RT) were recorded. Unmasked target words were preceded by masked primes that were semantically related or unrelated to the target. Masks were presented below and above individual MP detection threshold. Results: Participants showed RT priming above (t(18) 5 2.87, p 5 .01) and below (t(18) 5 2.16, p 5 .04) MP detection threshold. There was no N400 effect below MP threshold. Preliminary analysis revealed that the N400 effect approached significance in the left hemisphere (t 5 0.93) when stimuli were presented above the MP detection threshold. Conclusions:The current data support the notion that the N400 effect is dependent on conscious perception of stimuli, and that RT is reflective of early automatic activation while the N400 may reflect later integrative processes.

Poster 35

DYNAMIC MOTIVATIONAL PROCESSING OF ANTI-DRUG MESSAGES: MIXED FEELINGS AND ATTENTION

Zheng Joyce Wang, Tyler Solloway, John Tchernev, & Bethany Barker The Ohio State University

Descriptors: emotion, motivation, dynamic

Anti-drug public service announcements (PSAs) often elicit "mixed feelings.'' For example, some PSAs present aversive images of drug abuse consequences while promoting self-efficacy through positive audio arguments. In the theoretical framework of Dynamic Motivational Activation (DMA), this study reveals the dynamics of processing anti-marijuana PSAs, especially the co-presence of negativity and positivity in a message. The model examines how continuously changing motivational content of PSAs (negativity, positivity, and arousing content) affect physiological responses (HR, SCL, corrugator activity, and zygomatic activity) across time. The continuous emotional ratings were obtained from 79 participants in a pretest and the physiological measures were collected from 59 participants. The DMA model reveals message effects across time and importantly, the cumulating and moderating effect of physiological system feedback dynamics on the message effects. As predicted, the co-presence of positivity and negativity activates both appetitive and aversive motivational systems, and this motivational coactivation elicits greater attentional resources to the messages compared to when only one motivational system is activated. This is suggested by the coupling pattern of decreased HR and increased corrugator EMG. Interestingly, according to participants' postexposure self-report data, they liked the coactive messages more than primarily positive or negative messages although they did not find the coactive messages more persuasive. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. SES 0818277 to the first author).

Poster 36

TARGET RESOLUTION IN VISUAL SEARCH INVOLVES THE DIRECT SUPPRESSION OF DISTRACTORS: EVIDENCE FROM ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

Matthew R. Hilimire1, Clayton Hickey2, & Paul M. Corballis1 1Georgia Institute of Technology, 2VU University Amsterdam

Descriptors: visual attention, pd, n2pc

Attentional selection processes include both mechanisms that act to enhance target features and mechanisms that suppress distractor representations. Previously, lateralized event-related potentials (ERPs) have been identified that index these attentional selection mechanisms. The Nt component is thought to reflect target enhancement whereas the Pd component is thought to index distractor suppression. Because the Pd is a relatively novel component, the current study was designed to gain further insight into the mechanism of distractor suppression indexed by the Pd. We had participants view search arrays that contained only a target, only a distractor, or both a target and distractor together. When one object appeared alone, it was presented in a lateralized location. When both objects appeared together, one object was lateralized while the other was on the vertical meridian. Thus, ERP activity elicited by lateralized targets and distractors both in the presence and absence ofa competing stimulus on the vertical meridian were obtained. The results indicate that Pd amplitude is greatest under conditions where the distractor was lateralized and a competing target was presented on the vertical meridian. These results are consistent with the idea that the Pd component reflects a distractor suppression mechanism that is triggered during target resolution to disambiguate, which features belong to the target object.

Poster 37

EXAMINING N1 AND N2 AMPLITUDES IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WHILE VARYING PERCEPTUAL LOAD IN VISUAL FLANKER PARADIGMS

Carolyn E. Slentz, William J. Gavin, & Patricia L. Davies Colorado State University

Descriptors: development, N2, attention

Although past research has revealed that the N1 and N2 components ofan event-related potential (ERP) may be related to attention, few have investigated these components in

tasks differing in demands on selective attention. In this study, three variations of a visual flanker paradigm, each differing in the number of symbols presented (1,3 or 5), were used to examine the effects of changes in perceptual load on the amplitude of the N1 and N2 components of an ERP. All three paradigms were presented to each participant in a single session with the order of presentation counterbalanced across participants. Participants were 24 children aged 9-10 years and 22 adults aged 18 - 23. Each paradigm consisted of 480 trials with a break given after 240 trials. Increments in perceptual load were shown to significantly increase processing effort as evidenced by an increase in mean response time and in the number of errors produced. Furthermore, results of a three-way ANOVA comparing Group (children vs. adults) by Paradigm by Site (Fz, Cz, Pz) showed only a main effect for Group with children's mean N1 amplitudes being significantly larger than adult's. The N2 results showed significant main effects for Group and Paradigm, and a significant Paradigm by Group interaction. Though both groups at all sites showed consistent increases in N2 amplitude as perceptual loading increased, children had larger mean N2 amplitudes and larger increases compared to adults. Combined, the results suggest that the amplitude of N2, but not N1, reflects brain-processing effort in a selective attention task.

Occupational Therapy Department, Colorado State University

Poster 38

ATTENTION MANIPULATIONS AFFECT PHASE-LOCKED GAMMA AND BETA OSCILLATIONS IN SENSORY GATING IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS

William J. Gavin, Carrie F. Bulwan, & Patricia L. Davies Colorado State University

Descriptors: brain oscillations, sensory gating, attention

Controversy regarding the effects of attention on sensory gating abilities, especially for the P50 component, is unresolved in the literature. We examined whether directing attention to or away from the stimuli results in better phase-locking of gamma and beta oscillations which leads to better sensory gating as measured with traditional ERP components (P50, N100). Two paradigms were completed by 23 adults (ages 20-30) and 20 children (ages 5-10). In one sensory gating paradigm (SGM) participants' attention was directed towards a silent movie while listening to 104 paired-clicks. The second, focused attention (FA), consisted of 104 paired-clicks and 52 single-clicks and participants were instructed to press a button after each single-click while fixating on an unchanging target. ANOVAs revealed significant findings. Both groups showed a reduction in P50 and N1 amplitude for the second click compared to first. For adults, the P50 was larger for the FA paradigm compared to the SGM paradigm for both clicks; in contrast, the P50 for children was larger in the SGM paradigm. N1 was larger in the FA paradigm compared to the SGM paradigm for both adults and children. Regarding the gamma and beta oscillations, phase-locking factors were greater in adults compared to children for both clicks in each paradigm but only adults showed greater phase-locking in FA compared to SGM. Similar findings were found for evoked power. The time-frequency analyses were more sensitive to demonstrating differences between groups and sensory gating paradigms when manipulating attentional focus. NIH-NICHD R03HD049532.

Poster 39

STIMULUS SALIENCY AFFECTS PHASE-LOCKED GAMMA AND BETA ACTIVITY IN SENSORY GATING

Wen-Pin Chang1, William J. Gavin2, & Patricia L. Davies2 1Creighton University, 2Colorado State University

Descriptors: sensory gating, stimulus saliency, brain oscillations

Sensory gating is a crucial brain mechanism preventing sensory overload with possible cognitive disintegration. Recent studies investigating the underlying brain oscillations indicate that both gamma and beta oscillations relate to sensory gating ability. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the effect of stimulus saliency on these oscillations. Salient stimuli may cause reallocation of available cognitive resources to induce attentional switching, in which both brain oscillations and gating are interrelated. This study focused on whether high stimulus saliency conditions when compared to low stimulus saliency conditions produce better phase-locking of gamma and beta oscillations which in turn lead to better sensory gating measured using traditional ERPs. We examined the hypothesis on 31 adults without disorders (15 males) between the ages of 20 and 38 (M 5 26.24; SD 5 3.69) by manipulating saliency with two auditory intensities (50 dB vs. 20 dB above HL) and two attention conditions (distraction with movie vs. no distraction) in a paired-click sensory gating paradigm. For both gamma and beta oscillations, the results revealed that participants exhibited significantly higher evoked power and better phase-locked activity under high stimulus saliency compared to the low stimulus saliency conditions. The participants also displayed better gating ability under high stimulus saliency. In general, the findings of this study provide some evidence supporting that stimulus saliency can impact the underlying brain oscillations ofsensory gating and gating ability.

THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES OF MENTAL TEMPO

Horikawa Masami & Yagi Akihiro Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: mental tempo, heart rate, respiratory rate

Mental tempo is the speed of the most natural and comfortable expression activity that an individual expresses in a certain situation, which reflects personality. It is an individual's particular tempo that functionally relates to physiological and psychological factors. Although it was not shown between tasks, the consistency of mental tempo was shown in the same task. It is considered that task performance with mental tempo excels in respect to physical efficiency, and reduces the physical load of a task. The purpose of this research was to examine the psychophysiological changes of finger tapping with mental tempo. The respiratory rate, the heart rate, the saliva amylase score, and the score of state anxiety were measured, in this study. The participants were twenty-four undergraduate and graduate students (age: 20-24 years, Mean 5 21.6 years; male: 12, female: 12). Two experimental phases were used; mental tempo and compulsory tempo. The first phase consisted of two trails, and required the participants to tap their dominant index finger on the space key using a keyboard with mental tempo for sixty seconds. In the second phase, the participants responded according to the sound of mental tempo as in the first phase. As a result, the consistency of mental tempo in the finger-tapping task was confirmed regardless of the speed. In addition, the respiratory rate and heart rate decreased during mental tempo tapping, and the saliva amylase score tended to decrease after tapping. This result suggested that finger tapping with mental tempo reduced the psychophysiological load.

Poster 41

COGNITIVE REAPPRAISAL OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PICTURES ALTERS EMOTIONAL RESPONSES AS REFLECTED IN SELF-REPORT AND FACIAL ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY

Lingdan Wu, Markus H. Winkler, Marta Andreatta, & Paul Pauli University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: cognitive reappraisal, emotion regulation, EMG

Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy that was shown to effectively modulate self-reported emotions (i.e., subjective ratings), ERP activity and startle responses triggered by emotional stimuli. However, the effects of reappraisal on implicit emotional responses, i.e. facial expressions, have not been well studied so far. This seems warrant because of their well-known connection between experience and expression of emotion as suggested by the facial feedback hypothesis. The present study investigated the effects of reappraisal on both explicit emotional reports (ratings of valence and arousal) and implicit emotional facial expressions (M. corrugator and M. zygomatic activity) triggered by positive and negative picture stimuli. Twenty-four participants were exposed to 125 pairs of auditory narratives and picture scenery reflecting negative-up, negative-down, positive-up, positive-down and neutral conditions. Results indicate that up-regulation compared to down-regulation in the context of negative stimuli led to greater self-reported unpleasantness and arousal, as well as greater corrugator activity while in the context of positive stimuli caused greater self-reported pleasantness and greater zygomatic activity. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal simultaneously alters both emotional experience and implicit emotional facial expressions. If and how these explicit and implicit responses interact, e.g., as assumed by the facial feedback hypothesis, has to be determined by future studies.

Preparation of this study was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) grants GRK 1253/1.

Poster 42

SENSORY MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN CANNABIS USERS AND THEIR ALTERATION WITH ACUTE NICOTINE: A BRAIN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP) STUDY

Danielle M. Impey1, Nicole El-Marj2, Andrea Parks2, Joelle Choueiry3, Derek Fisher4,

& Verner Knott3

1University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, 2University of Ottawa, 3Institute of Mental Heath Research, 4Carleton University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, sensory memory, cannabis use Chronic cannabis use may interact with factors, such as genetic vulnerability, to elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms, including cognitive deficits. However, evidence of psycho-togenic actions is often confounded by tobacco use in cannabis users (CUs). The objective of this study was to assess sensory memory in long-term CUs with no tobacco history. A second objective was to examine the effects of acute nicotine on sensory memory in CUs. This study examined the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) component, which is a measure of sensory memory that has been found to be significantly diminished in schizophrenia and to be normalized with acute nicotine. It was hypothesized that a) long-term CUs will have reduced MMNs (vs. non-users) and, b) acute nicotine will restore MMN in CUs (approximating non-users). In a randomized, doubleblind procedure, CUs (n 5 21) received nicotine gum (6mg) in one session and placebo

gum in the other session. Non-users (n 5 23) attended the lab for one session with no gum administration. The test battery included MMN assessment and questionnaires on drug effects. The results suggest that chronicity of use was associated with alterations of MMN amplitude in users. Heavy long-term CUs displayed a reduced MMNs compared to light short-term CUs. Nicotine evidenced sensory memory enhancing effects in light short-term users as indicated by an increased pitch MMN. These findings suggest that repeated cannabis use is an important factor of deficient MMN generation, which can be partially normalized with acute nicotine.

Poster 43

RSA AND DYSREGULATED FEAR: EFFECTS OF CONTEXT

Kristin A. Buss & Elizabeth L. Davis

Penn State

Descriptors: fear, RSA

Previous work in our lab has identified a maladaptive pattern of fearful behavior in a series of novel tasks in toddlers characterized by high fear in low threat. This pattern of dys-regulated fear was associated with increased risk of anxiety in early childhood (Buss, in press). The current study had two goals: 1) to examine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) differed across these same tasks as a function of dysregulated fear; and 2) to explore the interaction between RSA and fear in predicting anxiety. 24-month-olds were observed (n 5 125) in 6 novel episodes varying in level (low, moderate, high) and type (social, object) of threat. Latent Profile Analysis identified two groups based on toddlers' fearful behavior: dysregulated fear and normative (i.e., increasing fear as threat increased). Ambulatory ECG was recorded during baseline and each episode, RSA was scored offline and scores were created reflecting change from baseline to each task ranging from suppression (lower RSA to task) to augmentation (higher RSA to task). Goal 1 analyses showed that toddlers displaying a normative pattern of fear suppressed RSA during the low (M 5 — .28, SD 5 .98) and moderate threat tasks (M 5 — .27, SD 5 1.00), whereas the dysregulated fear toddlers augmented RSA (Mlow 5 .30, SDlow 5 1.01; Mmod 5 .36, SD mod 5 .68). There were no group differences in RSA for the high threat episodes. Thus, it appears that toddlers who are able to regulate fear also regulated RSA during social situations, but children with dysregulated fear behaviors showed similar physiological maladaptation. NIMH MH075750

Poster 44

WHAT'S IN A SMILE: DIVERGENT RESPIRATORY SINUS ARRHYTHMIA EFFECTS WITH INGROUP AND OUTGROUP SMILING

Katherine D. Reilly1, Katrina R. Koslov1, Elizabeth Page-Gould2, & Wendy Berry Mendes1 1University of California, San Francisco, 2University of Toronto, Scarborough

Descriptors: intergroup relations, heart rate variability, emotion

Smiling may not always indicate genuine liking for another person, especially in intergroup contexts. We have theorized that when some Whites interact with African-Americans, they exhibit positive behaviors so as to avoid appearing prejudiced (Mendes & Koslov, 2011). To explore this question, we measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in White participants (N 5 72) during interactions with either a Black (cross-race) or White (same-race) participant. We hypothesized that in the cross-race condition, White participants may be motivated to behave positively towards their Black partners and that this behavior would be the result of concentrated effort and attention, which would be associated with decreases in RSA. In contrast, in the same-race condition, we hypothesized that participants would not experience the same motivation to exhibit positive behaviors and that positive behaviors would likely be genuine and associated with more social engagement and increased RSA. Results confirmed our hypotheses; in the cross-race condition the more participants' RSA decreased from baseline the more participants smiled at their Black partners. In the same-race condition, the more participants' RSA increased from baseline the more they smiled at their White partners. These results provide further support for the idea that White participants exert effort to ''overcorrect'' in intergroup contexts so as not to seem prejudiced. Additionally, these results demonstrate that physiological measurements can reveal divergent psychological underpinnings of the same behavior, smiling.

Poster 45

OSTRACIZED BY ONE'S OWN GROUP: AUTONOMIC AND ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF SAME-RACE REJECTION

Katrina Koslov1, Jeremy Jamieson2, & Wendy Berry Mendes1 1University of California, San Francisco, 2Harvard University

Descriptors: social rejection, autonomic, endocrine

While social rejection is a common experience, the emotional and physiological impact of social rejection may differ according to who is doing the rejecting. The current research investigated whether rejection from individuals of one's own race is experienced as more threatening than from individuals of another race. We used a novel paradigm of rejection over the internet, which allowed us to test whether rejection by virtual others can elicit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. White and Black participants first played the Cyberball task with two virtual others, identified with either White or Black

cartoon avatars, who excluded the participants from playing. Then each participant was assigned to do speaking tasks with the other "participants" listening. During those tasks the participant received rejecting feedback from the other two "participants" via a computer chat interface. Analyses revealed that following the Cyberball rejection, while preparing to give a speech to the rejecting others, participants had a greater decrease in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) when the others were same-race. Participants also had greater cortisol increases to same-race rejection, compared to cross-race. Further, the more participants decreased in RSA during their preparation period, the greater their cortisol increases were to the rejection .This pattern of results suggests that participants did respond with more threat to rejection by same-race virtual others, both with decreased parasym-pathetic nervous system activation and increased activation of the HPA axis.

Poster 46

HEMISPHERIC DIFFERENCES IN THE P100 AND N170 DURING IMPLICIT PROCESSING OF FACIAL VALENCE

Jan W. Van Strien, Sandra Thijssen, & Nathan Van der Stoep Erasmus University Rotterdam

Descriptors: laterality, emotional face perception, P100/N170

According to neuropsychological theories of emotion, left and right frontal brain areas are differentially involved in positive and negative emotions. However, the right rather than the left posterior cortex appears to be involved in affective face perception, irrespective of emotional valence. Here we investigated the asymmetries in early ERP components to lateralized neutral and emotional stimuli. ERPs were recorded from 32 right-handed subjects (18-35 years old; 16 men) while they performed a sex classification task with neutral, happy and fearful faces. Pictures of faces were shown for 150 ms to the left or right of a central fixation cross. There were two blocks with 90 faces each, to have each face shown once to the left and once to the right visual half field (VHF). The order of blocks was counterbalanced. At lateral occipito-parietal sites, we found significant interactions of facial valence, VHF, and hemisphere for both the P100 and N170. For the P100, hemispheric differences were more pronounced for the ipsilateral than for contralateral presentations, with the right hemisphere exhibiting the largest P100 amplitudes, especially for neutral and happy faces. For the N170, hemispheric differences were more pronounced for contralateral than for ipsilateral presentations, with larger right than left N170 amplitudes. For ipsilateral presentations, we found larger N170 asymmetries for happy and fearful than for neutral faces. Together, these results suggest the preferential processing of affective faces by the right posterior areas, irrespective of emotional valence.

Poster 47

INTENTIONAL MODULATION OF SMOKING-RELATED PROCESSING BIAS BY COGNITIVE STRATEGIES IN SMOKERS: AN

ERP STUDY

Marianne Littel & Ingmar Franken Erasmus University Rotterdam

Descriptors: smoking, ERP, cognitive reappraisal

Processing bias is considered an important concept in addiction since it has been found to correlate with subjective craving and is strongly associated with relapse. Hence, investigating ways to regulate processing bias would be of major clinical relevance. The present study studied deliberate, cognitive modulation of this processing bias in smokers. The effects of three different reappraisal strategies on an electrophysiological measure of processing bias were investigated. Early and late LPP components in response to passively viewed neutral and smoking pictures were compared with LPPs in response to smoking pictures that were reappraised with three different reappraisal strategies. The results indicate that smoking-related processing bias can be both enhanced and reduced by intentional, cognitive regulation. More specifically, when smokers actively imagine how pleasant it would be to smoke (enhancement), their early LPP in response to smoking cues increases, but when smokers actively focus on an alternative stimulus (distraction) or think of a rational, uninvolved interpretation of the situation (rationalization), smoking-related late LPP amplitude magnitude decreases to the processing level of neutral stimuli. The distraction strategy was found to be slightly more successful than the rational strategy in decreasing the processing bias. This is the first study showing that drug-related processing bias can be modulated by cognitive strategies and that smokers can use these strategies in order to reduce their motivated attention for smoking-related material. This work was supported by a VIDI grant funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

Poster 48

REDUCED ERROR PROCESSING IN COCAINE DEPENDENT PATIENTS IN THE FIRST WEEK OF DETOXIFICATION TREATMENT: AN ERP STUDY

Reshmi Marhe1, Ben J. van de Wetering2, & Ingmar H.A. Franken1 1Erasmus University, 2Bouman-GGZ

Descriptors: addiction, error processing

Recent theories concerning addiction stress the disability of substance dependent patients to exert cognitive control over their behavior. Reduced error processing, a

neurocognitive index of cognitive control, might play an important role in substance use disorders. However, only few studies have been conducted among substance use patients, particularly in cocaine dependent patients. In addition, patient populations of previous studies were heterogeneous regarding the stage of the disorder (e.g., early or sustained remission). Because it is known now that the stage has specific influence on neurocognitive processes, it seems important to keep this as homogeneous as possible. Therefore, the present study examined cocaine dependent patients only during an early stage - the first week of their detoxification treatment. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the error processing of cocaine dependent patients (n 5 25) as compared to a healthy control group (n 5 19). The Eriksen flanker task was used to examine two ERP-components: error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). The results showed that cocaine dependent patients had a significantly reduced ERN and Pe at error responses as compared to healthy controls. This suggests that cocaine dependent patients during their first week of detoxification treatment display deficits in error processing. Because adequate error processing is necessary for optimal behavioral performance, it is plausible that these deficits contribute to the maintenance of substance dependence or relapse to substance use.

Poster 49

REPETITIVE-TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOUR AND P300 EVENT-RELATED

POTENTIAL

Margarita M. Baez-Martin1, Lazaro Gomez1, Belkis Vidal2, Lilia Morales1, Otto Trapaga1, Marilyn Zaldivar1, Abel Sanchez1, Ivette Cabrera1, Carlos Maragoto1, & Reynaldo Galvizu1

1International Center for Neurological Restoration, 2Pedro Borras Hospital Descriptors: ERP, ADHD, r-tms

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in childhood that includes problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, which influence learning and social behaviour.We evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a novel therapeutic tool in a group of children with that condition, by measuring the P300 event-related potential (P300-ERP) and its behavioural correlate. Eight boys between 7 and 12 years old received a daily 25 minutes session of 1 Hz r-TMS while they watched cartoons during five consecutive days. P300 was recorded before treatment and after the last sesion. A visual ''odd-ball'' task (20 % of randomized infrequent stimuli) was presented while children pressed a botton and carried out a mental count of them. P300 component showed a parieto-temporo-occipital distribution, maximal in parietal region with a tendency to left lateralization. A negative correlation between P300 latency in Pz and the behavioural execution of the task (D)was found during the first evaluation (Spearman correlation test, r 5 — 0.711, p<.05). A slight decrement of the P300 amplitude was appreciated after rTMS, while no significant changes were seen in its latency. Four children showed a reduction in the number of incorrect responses or an absence of them, on-line with the improvement of behavioural and academic results reported by teachers and parents in all cases by the completion ofa checklist for ADHD. We conclude that r-TMS did not modify the P300-ERP in ADHD children.

Poster 50

THE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA CESSATION ON P3B IN DEPENDENT

SMOKERS

Matthew A. Picchietti, Gus Diggs, & David Gilbert Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Descriptors: marijuana cessation, ERP

Little ERP research has assessed the effects of marijuana smoking cessation on P3b amplitude. Thus, we examined the effects of biologically confirmed marijuana abstinence on P3b during a simple visual oddball task (36 trials oddball trials, 12%). Subjects (Ss) were 7 cannabis-dependent users who smoked multiple times per day. We compared ERP data from EEG sessions at 3 and 10 days post-quit for 3 immediate-quit Ss (IQSs) and 4 delayed-quit Ss (DQSs), relative to pre-quit baseline EEG sessions. The 5-min task presented a random sequence of dots shaded dark grey or light grey for 1000 ms and required a response for the less frequently presented shading (counterbalanced). P3b amplitude was defined as mean amplitude from 300 - 600 ms post-stimulus onset. At two midline posterior sites, a significant difference was found in mean P3b amplitude across time, electrode Pz: F 5 8.078, p 5 .008, electrode directly posterior to Pz: F 5 4.491, p 5 .041. P3b was enhanced post-cessation. These findings support the hypothesis that marijuana cessation impacts visual information processing and attention. Funding Source: Marijuana Effects. Grant from the Southern Illinois University Car-bondale Office of Research Development and Administration to The second author, David G. Gilbert, PI.

AN OVERTIME COMPARISON OF MOTIVATED COGNITIVE STATES: FLOW, PRESENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

Rachel L. Bailey, Bridget E. Rubenking, & Annie Lang Indiana University

Descriptors: motivated cognition, transportation, presence

Much media research is concerned with how feelings of flow, presence, and transportation influence message processing. Unfortunately, although some theorizing has attempted to distinguish these concepts, it has been largely unsuccessful. This is partially due to the fact that all three are primarily measured as self-report and defined as feeling states. Recent work from an embodied perspective suggests that rather than feeling states these might be motivated cognitive states and as such exhibit different levels of motivational activation and cognitive load. Two recent experiments testing this hypothesis measured psychophysiological responses and secondary task reaction times during rated as being high and low exemplars of these concepts. This abstract reports how these states differ in terms of SCL, corrugator supercilli activation, and STRTs. A significant state x time interaction was found for SCL, F(38,3648) 5 3.43, p 5 .0001, hp2 5 .04, and corrugator, F(38,3610) 5 1.99, p 5 .05, hp2 5 .02. And a main effect of state was found for STRT misses in the highest state areas, F(2,98) 5 5.02, p 5 .02, hp2 5 .09. These data suggest that flow is characterized by no change in SCL, increasing corrugator, and a moderately high rate of missed STRTs; presence by increasing SCL and corrugator, and the fewest misses; and transportation by decreasing SCL and corrugator and the most missed responses. Thus, these data are conducive to a conceptualization of these concepts as motivated cognitive states.

Poster 52

THE INFLUENCE OF TRAIT MOTIVATIONAL REACTIVITY ON THE FORMATION OF MOTIVATED COGNITIVE STATES: FLOW, PRESENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

Rachel L. Bailey, Bridget E. Rubenking, & Annie Lang Indiana University

Descriptors: individual differences, motivation, presence

This study examined how individual differences in motivational reactivity affect the formation of motivated cognitive states. Recent work from an embodied perspective suggests states of flow, presence and transportation might be motivated cognitive states and as such exhibit different levels of motivational activation and cognitive load. If this is the case, trait levels of motivational reactivity in participants' appetitive and aversive systems should influence the formation of these states. Two recent experiments to test this hypothesis measured psychophysiological responses and secondary task reaction times during moments of high and low feelings of the these concepts. This abstract reports how these states differ in terms of SCL and STRTs as a function of ASA, or appetitive system activation. A significant state x time x ASA linear effect was found for SCL, F(1,37) 5 7.71, p 5 .009, hp2 5 .17, and a state x ASA interaction approached significance for STRT reaction times, F(2,98) 5 1.10, p 5 .09, hp2 5 .09. and reached significance for complete non-responses in the highest state areas, F(2,98) 5 3.68, p 5 .03, hp2 5 .07. These data suggest that those who are high in ASA exhibited the greatest SCL, were fastest in responding to STRT probes and missed responding to the fewest probes during high presence exemplars. Further, high ASA subjects exhibited the lowest SCL, were the slowest in responding to STRT probes and missed the most probes during high transportation exemplars. Thus, these data further support a conceptualization of these concepts as motivated cognitive states.

Poster 53

ALTERED REINFORCEMENT PROCESSING DURING RISKY DECISION MAKING IN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

Beate Schuermann1, Tanja Endrass1, Babette Renneberg2, Stefan Ropke3, & Norbert Kathmann1 1Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, 2Freie Universitat Berlin, 3Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin

Descriptors: decision-making, reinforcement processing, borderline personality disorder Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by altered risk-taking and feedback processing that involve fronto-medial brain functions. Neuroimaging studies in BPD support the notion that brain regions involved in reinforcement processing are impaired. Consequently, it is suggested that BPD patients have deficits in the processing of reinforcement signals when choosing between risky events. Here, we present two studies to examine decision-making and its neural correlates in BPD patients compared to healthy controls. To this end, a probabilistic two-choice gambling task was conducted. Participants had to choose repeatedly between two options, which differed in expected risks while expected values were identical. Simultaneously, ERPs were recorded to examine the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300.

The FRN is a neural correlate of cognitive feedback processing, while the P300 represents affective feedback evaluation. Behavioral results suggest that BPD patients did not avoid risky choices compared to healthy controls. ERP data reveal that the FRN following negative feedback was diminished in BPD compared to controls, which might reflect reduced performance monitoring in BPD. Relative to BPD patients, controls showed enhanced P300 amplitudes following risky decisions, indicating that risky events were associated with enhanced motivational significance in controls but not in BPD. In sum, results suggest deficits in risky decision-making in BPD, which might be caused by altered processing of negative feedback and of risky events.

Poster 54

NEURAL CORRELATES OF FEEDBACK PROCESSING IN OCD PATIENTS

Tanja Endrass, Rosa Grützmann, Svenja Kohne, Christian Kaufmann, & Norbert

Kathmann Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin

Descriptors: OCD, performance montoring, fern

Current neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest an overactivity of frontal and striatal brain regions. Accordingly, alterations in learning and behavioral adjustment were reported. Furthermore, there is ample evidence of an overactive mediofrontal performance monitoring system in OCD. However, little is known about the processing of external feedback that is supposed to be closely related to the internal performance monitoring system. The aim of the current study was to examine feedback processing and feedback based learning in OCD patients. Using a modified reversal learning task, we investigated electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing (feedback error-related negativity, fERN) in a sample of 28 OCD patients and 28 closely matched healthy controls. Based on feedback information, subjects learned which one of four stimuli was correct. After a series of trials stimulus-response-contingencies changed, and subjects needed to switch to one of the other three stimuli. Compared to healthy controls, OCD patients made more errors during switching and the fERN on negative feedback trials was reduced. In contrast to findings that suggest overactive internal performance monitoring on error trials, the present study revealed a reduced negative deflection following negative feedback. These results suggest that there might be a dissociation of performance monitoring activity on OCD patients: overactive monitoring of internal events and attenuated monitoring external events.

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF 01GW0724)

Poster 55

ASSESSING BRAIN FUNCTION WHEN EVERY SECOND COUNTS

Lauren D. Sculthorpe, Ryan C.N. D'Arcy, Chen Wei, Sujoy Ghosh Hajra, & Careesa

National Research Council of Canada Descriptors: brain injury, diagnostics, consciousness

Significant interest has emerged recently in replacing the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with brain-based assessments of conscious awareness. Such brain-based methods have largely been restricted to the laboratory and require extended testing periods. To truly replace the GCS, which is often used in emergency and intensive care situations, any brain-based assessment must be extremely rapid. Our team has developed a brief auditory stimulus sequence that rapidly evokes a comprehensive range of ERPs to assess the integrity of brain functions related to conscious awareness. ERPs indexing sensory, perceptual, attentional, memory, and language function are all obtained in 5 minutes. Data from healthy participants demonstrates the effectiveness of this sequence.

Poster 56

REINSTATEMENT OF CONDITIONED FEAR FOLLOWING VICARIOUS AND DIRECT EXTINCTION

Andreas Olsson, Carl-Henrik Ehrenkrona, Armita Golkar, Isak Berglund Mattsson-Marn, Marie Bjornstjerna, & Arne Ohman Karolinska Institutet

Descriptors: fear extinction, vicarious, eye-blink startle

Fear extinction is the reduction of a conditioned fear response (CR) to a conditioned stimulus (CS) after its repeated exposure in the absence of the previously aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Fear extinction has long served as a model for exposure-based treatments of various anxiety conditions. However, such treatments, as well as extinction learning in every-day contexts, often include the observation of other individuals' non-fearful responses to the CS, underscoring the importance to study socially mediated extinction. Here, we draw on classical work on social modeling and recent research on vicarious fear learning to investigate the mechanisms underlying vicarious extinction. Following fear conditioning, participants underwent either direct extinction

(exposure to unreinforced CSs) or vicarious extinction (exposure to a non-fearful person presented with unreinforced CSs). Fear potentiated startle (FPS) responses to the previously aversive CS+and a control CS- were measured during extinction and reinstatement after unsignaled USs. Both groups extinguished their CRs, and relative to the end of the extinction, they both showed FPS potentiation to CS+and CS-. However, this potentiation was reduced in the vicarious as compared to the direct group. During reinstatement, the vicarious group also displayed a comparably steeper decline ofFPS to the CS+ as a function of time. These results highlight the effectiveness of socially mediated extinction and suggest potential mechanisms.

Poster 57

AUTONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE

EMOTION

Shaun S. Nanavati & Marcel Kinsbourne New School for Social Research

Descriptors: emotion, vagal tone, anxiety

Research on the ANS has shifted in recent years towards examining vagal tone and differentiation between positive and negative stimulus response. This study examine scardiac autonomic balance (CAB) with respect to positive and negative stimuli and their subjective emotional states. Sixteen participants were studied under four conditions while seated, each two minutes long: baseline, baseline with eyes closed, and two 2-minute films consisting of negatively and positively valenced images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Arousal was determined by measuring pulse, respiration, blood pressure and EKG. Sympathetic tone, vagal tone and cardiac au-tonomic balance were inferred using power-spectral analysis of the EKG. State anxiety was taken during baseline and after each stimulus presentation. Changes in subjective reports of anxiety were correlated with the physiological change in CAB. The results revealed that CAB moved towards the sympathetic pole in negative affective states. The change in autonomic balance and subjective report of anxiety from baseline to negative affect correlated significantly. These findings suggest a dissociation in CAB related to stimulus valence which corresponds to self-report of anxiety. Consistent with the Neuro-Visceral Model, these findings suggest that CAB relates to anxiety particularly when the vagus withdraws. Further, the drop in vagal tone to the point of depletion differentiates anxiety from dysphoric states. These findings suggest vagal tone be considered more carefully for treatment of anxiety disorders. Seeking funding to expand research into clinical populations.

Poster 58

AUTONOMIC IMPACT OF HEADSTAND

Shaun S. Nanavati New School for Social Research

Descriptors: YOGA, POSTURE, VAGAL TONE

In yoga, headstand, the ''king of postures,'' is recommended for improvement of attention and memory. When one stands, blood pressure and sympathetic tone rise while parasympathetic tone falls. Cardiac autonomic balance (CAB) tilts toward the sympathetic pole. From standing to inverted, the blood pressure drops 170mm/Hg in the feet and increases 50 mm/Hg in the head. From a supine to inverted position, it drops 80mm/Hg in the feet and increases 30mm/Hg in the head. The blood pressure at the heart remains constant at 120/80 mm/Hg. Sixteen participants, eight beginners and eight experts, were studied supine, while in headstand, and again supine. During each two-minute condition, pulse, respiration, blood pressure and EKG were taken and sympathetic tone, vagal tone and cardiac autonomic balance inferred using power-spectral analysis of the EKG. Tone in both branches of the ANS rose. Both groups experienced tachcyardia. In beginners, the cardiac autonomic balance moved towards the sympathetic pole, in experts towards parasympathetic dominance. In beginners, restoration of baseline autonomic balance took longer. Thus these changes distinguish beginners from experts and quantify expertise. Significant for the Neuro-Visceral Model, the tandem rise of tone in both branches of the ANS is a basic reflex, unmediated by the cortex. Perhaps, sympathetic tone responds to changes in systemic circulation, while parasym-pathetic tone responds to the needs of pulmonary circulation. The study suggests a specific influence of gravity on autonomic nervous system activity. Seeking funding for next generation, application to specific populations.

Poster 59

USING MULTIMODAL IMAGING TO DISTINGUISH ACTIVE PREDICTION FROM PASSIVE PRIMING

Ellen F. Lau1,2, Scott Burns1,2, Alexandre Gramfort1, Nate Delaney-Busch2, Eric Fields2, Kristina Fanucci2, Phillip Holcomb2, & Gina Kuperberg1,2 1Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Tufts University

Descriptors: semantic, language, MEG

Previous work has demonstrated that contextual prediction modulates ERP responses such as the N400. Manipulations of relatedness proportion in semantic priming

paradigms are known to bias towards active prediction (high relatedness proportion) and passive priming (low relatedness proportion) mechanisms, making it possible to dissociate the effects of each. We manipulated the proportion of related pairs in a long-SOA semantic priming paradigm, counterbalancing such that all conditions were lexically matched. Participants monitored semantic category on filler items, allowing us to examine neural responses to semantic processing in the absence of response-related activity. ERP results (n 5 32) showed a greater N400 priming reduction in the high-proportion (50% related) relative to the low-proportion (10% related) block. The combination of EEG/MEG and fMRI using an identical paradigm in a second group of participants allowed us to determine whether this is due to qualitatively distinct neural mechanisms operating within the same time window. In the high-proportion condition, fMRI results (n 5 18) showed the greatest reduction in activity for the primed relative to the unprimed condition in left anterior medial temporal cortex. MEG pinpointed priming suppression near this region to the N400 time window: 390 -410 ms. The low-proportion condition showed no significant priming suppression in this region but did show priming enhancement in right temporal cortex. These results suggest that passive priming and active prediction may involve partially different neuroana-tomical networks.

NIH 1F32HD063221-01A1 to EL and R01MH071635 to GK

Poster 60

LIGHT VERBS MAKE HEAVY WORK

Eva Wittenberg1, Martin Paczynski2, Heike Wiese3, Ray Jackendoff2, & Gina Kuperberg4,5,6 1Tufts University, Potsdam University, 2Tufts University, 3Potsdam University, 4Tufts University, MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, 5Department of Psychiatry, 6Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: sustained negativity, argument structure, language erp Most of the time, a noun corresponds to an entity and a verb to an action. For example, in ''Henry gave a rose to Elsa'', Henry is the giver, Elsa is the recipient, the rose is the thing that is given, and the action is giving. But consider the sentence, ''Henry gave a kiss to Elsa'' - a so-called Light Verb Construction (LVC). Here, Henry is the kisser, Elsa the kiss-ee, and the action is kissing, not giving. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine how and when the brain resolves this mismatch between syntax and semantics during word-by-word reading. Based on previous behavioral data, as well as on recent neurophysiological studies examining other types of other mismatches between syntactic and semantic structure, we predicted that LVCs would evoke larger negativity than non-LVCs. Eighteen German native speakers read Subject-Object-Verb sentences, containing a normal LVC, a non-LVC using the same verb, or an anomalous construction. ERPs were time-locked to verbs, which were fully counterbalanced across lists. Each sentence was preceded by a context sentence. Participants classified every scenario for naturalness. Anomalous constructions elicited a positive-going wave between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. Verbs in the LVCs, despite their high frequency and cloze probability, evoked a larger anteriorly distributed negativity than in the non-LVCs in this time window and beyond. These findings suggest that even highly frequent constructions are associated with increased processing load if there is a non-unitary mapping between syntactic and semantic structure.

Poster 61

A GRATTON EFFECT ON THE SYNTACTIC P600: EVIDENCE THAT SYNTACTIC PROCESSING MAY BE SUBJECT TO A DYNAMIC ADJUSTMENT OF EXECUTIVE CONTROL

Gina R. Kuperberg1,2, Ellen Lau1,2, & Liam Clegg1 1Tufts University, 2Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: language, N400, P600

It has been proposed that aspects of syntactic processing draw upon general executive processes, which detect and resolve conflict between competing representations. A major feature of general conflict detection and resolution operations is their dynamic nature: increased conflict leads to the recruitment of additional cognitive resources, facilitating the resolution of subsequent conflicts. The present study aimed to determine whether the P600 - an event-related potential (ERP) associated with syntactic processing and conflict detection and resolution processes - is similarly subject to such a dynamic adjustment of control. In experimental paradigms of non-linguistic executive function, the dynamic adjustment of control manifests as the Gratton effect: a reduced cost in processing conflict trials preceded by other conflict trials, relative to those preceded by non-conflict trials. To determine whether a Gratton effect occurs in syntactic processing, we re-analyzed data from four ERP experiments in which syntactic violations in English sentences evoked robust P600 effects. We found clear effects of trial history on the P600 within and across experiments. When preceded by other syntactic violations, the amplitude of the P600 to syntactic violations was smaller than when preceded by non-violated sentences. In contrast, there was no effect oftrial history on the N400 evoked by real-world violations in the same experiments. These findings suggest that aspects of syntactic processing are subject to similar dynamic control operations as classic tasks of executive function.

This research was supported by NIMH (R01 MH071635) and NARSAD (with the Sidney Baer Trust).

VERBAL INSTRUCTION ABOLISHES FEAR CONDITIONED TO ANGRY FACES

Ottmar V. Lipp, Monique E. Rowles, & Kimberley M. Mallan University of Queensland

Descriptors: prepared learning, fear conditioning, facial expression of emotion Prepared learning, learning that is selective, resistant to extinction, evident after one trial, and encapsulated from cognition, is said to underlie animal and social phobias (Ohman, 2009). Resistance to extinction has been shown for fears conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders and to pictures of faces of threatening conspecifics (angry faces or faces that look different - other race faces). However, whereas fear conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders is encapsulated from cognition, fear conditioned to pictures of other race faces is not (Mallan et al., 2009). The present study investigated whether fear conditioned to pictures of angry faces is encapsulated from cognition. Two groups of participants were trained in a differential Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure with angry face or happy face conditional stimuli (CSs). Prior to extinction, half the participants in each group were informed that no more unconditional stimuli would be presented. In the absence of verbal instruction, participants showed resistance to extinction after training with angry face CSs, but not after training with happy face CSs. Instructed extinction abolished differential fear conditioning regardless of the emotion expressed by the CS faces. This finding suggests that unlike fear conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders, but similar to fear conditioned to pictures of other race faces, fear conditioned to pictures of angry faces is malleable by cognition. Grant DP0770844 from the Australian Research Council supported this work.

Poster 63

AUTONOMIC REGULATION PREDICTS PERFORMANCE ON WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST (WCST) IN ADULTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

Karen J. Mathewson1, Michelle K. Jetha1, Joel O. Goldberg2, & Louis A. Schmidt1 1McMaster University, 2York University

Descriptors: schizophrenia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, Wisconsin card sorting test Executive functions, (e.g., set maintenance, error-monitoring, and behavioural adjustment) may be positively associated with autonomic regulatory capacity. On the WCST, an abstract problem-solving task, adults with schizophrenia typically complete fewer categories and make more perseverative errors than unimpaired peers. Perseveration, suggesting mental rigidity and reduced inhibitory control, may be a hallmark of schizophrenia. We tested whether baseline autonomic regulation predicted WCST performance in a group of 42 adults with schizophrenia, aged 27 to 56. All patients were receiving pharmacological treatment. Patients exhibited faster resting heart rates and lower respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) than age-matched controls. Within the patient group, slower heart rates and higher RSA were strongly associated with WCST performance (more completed categories and fewer perseverative errors). Thirteen of the patients were treated with clozapine, an antipsychotic with known anticholinergic effects. Autonomic regulation was significantly lower in the clozapine group than in participants receiving other antipsychotics. Higher RSA was negatively correlated with perseverative errors in both subgroups, but in the clozapine group, it no longer predicted categories and was correlated with failure to maintain set. Greater autonomic regulation appeared to support executive control in schizophrenia, consistent with other studies. The effects of schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications in general, and cloza-pine in particular, appear to be additive with respect to autonomic regulation. This research was funded in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, the Lawson Foundation, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada, and the Community Social and Vocational Rehabilitation (CSVR) Foundation.

Poster 64

EFFECTS OF CINNAMON ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO A COGNITIVE/EMOTIONAL STRESSOR

Tonya L. Shelstad, Daniel Tebbe, Sarah Pope, Sangeeta Vijayagopalan, Mica McGriggs, Lauren Kohoutek, & Melissa Birkett Northern Arizona University

Descriptors: anxiety, stress, physiological response

Cinnamon reduces anxiety-like behavior in pre clinical animal models, suggesting a novel therapeutic use for this common spice. Several studies also demonstrate cinnamon's ability to reduce systolic blood pressure. To evaluate the ability of cinnamon to reduce physiological response to a stressor, we tested the effects of two doses of cinnamon (1000 mg, 3000mg, p.o.) on physiological response to a 10-minute cognitive/emotional stressor. Healthy, adult volunteers (n 5 87) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 1000 mg or 3000 mg cinnamon capsules 45 minutes before completing arithmetic and anger recall tasks. Heart rate, skin conductance and blood pressure were analyzed before and after the tasks. These analyses revealed a non-significant trend toward blunted increases in systolic blood pressure associated with the highest dose of cinnamon. No other significant effects were found at the doses tested, suggesting a limited role for the effects of cinnamon in physiological response to cognitive/emotional stress.

MISMATCH NEGATIVITY AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS: A TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

Dragana Vidovic1, Edward M. Bernat2, Stephen M. Malone1, & William G. Iacono1 1University of Minnesota, 2Florida State University

Descriptors: mismatch negativity, time-frequency, substance use

The existing literature has offered evidence of a negative relationship between mismatch negativity (MMN) and alcohol use. The current study sought to replicate this relationship as well as to evaluate associations with substance use disorders (SUDs) beyond alcohol. Lifetime illicit drug abuse/dependence and nicotine dependence were evaluated, as well as a lifetime assessment for any SUDs. Participants were 108 adult males, mean age of 29.4 years (SD 5 0.47), from the younger twin cohort of Minnesota Twin Family Study, a population-based, longitudinal project. Time-domain (TD) difference-wave MMN amplitude reductions were observed for alcohol dependence, replicating previous findings, as well as illicit drug and nicotine lifetime dependence groups. Interestingly, when examined separately, these effects were observed in N1 measures from the infrequent condition alone (but not the frequent N1), suggesting that the common MMN difference-wave approach may not be critical to observing this effect. To better characterize the nature of these effects, time-frequency (TF) principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on the frequent and infrequent conditions separately, and related to the TD difference-wave MMN. Analyses indicated that TD MMN-associated activity was isolated to TF-PCs from the infrequent condition, and that relationship to SUDs could be further isolated to one MMN-related TF-PC from the infrequent condition. Overall, results support the idea that the TF-PCA approach isolated unique processes contributing to the TD MMN and the specificity of SUDs effects. Grants: DA005147, MH080239, AA015621

Poster 66

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND TIME-FREQUENCY ERP REDUCTIONS FOR TARGET AND NOVEL STIMULI

Evan J. Welo, Scott J. Burwell, Edward M. Bernat, Micah A. Hammer, Stephen M. Malone, & William G. Iacono University of Minnesota

Descriptors: time-frequency analysis, substance abuse, novelty

Amplitude of the P3b ERP component elicited by target stimuli is regularly reduced in individuals with diagnoses of substance abuse (SA), and recent work by our group has demonstrated this in the time-frequency (TF) domain. The present investigation aims to extend these findings to the P3a ERP component using a version of the rotated-heads task modified to include novel stimuli. The P3a elicited by novel stimuli is neurobiologically distinct from the P3b and may reflect orienting processes rather than target discrimination. Nevertheless, P3a is also often reduced in alcoholic individuals. ERP and lifetime SA diagnostic data were acquired from 225 adult males (mean age 5 29.4; SD 5 .63) from the Minnesota Twin and Family Study. ERPs for novelty (P3a) and target (P3b) conditions were decomposed into TF energy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) to derive meaningful dimensions. For the target condition, a TF principal component (TF-PC; latency 5 368ms, frequency 5 3.4 Hz) contributing to the P3bpeakamplitudewithcentro-parietal topography was significantly diminished in SA groups. A TF-PC with fronto-central distribution from the novelty condition (latency 5 332ms, frequency 5 4.4 Hz) predicted P3a peak and was also significantly reduced in SA groups. Hierarchical logistic regressions yielded little evidence that the latter TF-PC provided incremental validity in predicting SA diagnoses. These findings suggest that TF-PCs in response to novel and target stimuli are reduced to a similar degree despite tapping processes that likely differ. DA005147, MH080239, AA015621

Poster 67

THETA-BAND PHASE SYNCHRONY AND RESPONSE INHIBITION

Scott J. Burwell1, Edward M. Bernat2, Selin Aviyente3, William G. Iacono1, & Stephen

M. Malone1

1University of Minnesota, 2Florida State University, 3Michigan State University Descriptors: phase synchrony, response inhibition, theta

Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to play an important role in executive functioning. For instance, functional connections between mPFC and lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) appear to facilitate behavioral adaptation. To date, ERP studies of this phenomenon have focused on its pertinence in action monitoring but not yet on how such processes are involved in response inhibition, putatively another important facet of executive function. Here, we employ a Go/Nogo paradigm to investigate neurophys-iological dynamics associated with motor response execution (Go) and inhibition (Nogo) using a recently developed measure of inter-channel time-frequency phase synchrony (IC-TFPS; Aviyente et al., 2011). IC-TFPS estimates the stability of relative-phase between two simultaneously recorded signals at specific times and frequencies across trials and can therefore be used as an index of inter-regional functional connec-

tivity (FC). EEG data were collected from a sample of adolescents (N 5 96, age range 5 14-16) during the Go/Nogo task. Subsequently, IC-TFPS for Go and Nogo conditions were extracted from current source density transformed data to diminish effects from volume conduction. A comparison of IC-TFPS for Go and Nogo conditions revealed significantly greater transient FC (250-350ms; 4-8Hz) following Nogo stimuli between mPFC and bilateral motor cortices and lPFC, respectively. These findings highlight mPFC's central role in response inhibition and suggest that functional integration of mPFC, motor cortex, and lPFC is critical to this process. AA017314, AA015621, MH080239

Poster 68

PREDICTING THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LISTENERS WITH MUSICAL FEATURES

David Sears, Mattson Ogg, Mitchel Benovoy, Dieu-Ly Trim, & Stephen McAdams McGill University

Descriptors: music and emotions, ANS, music performance

Two obstacles impede progress in music and emotion research: 1) the ability to provide a potentially objective measure for the study of emotions felt by listeners, and 2) a method for modeling the effect of various musical parameters on behavioural and psychophysiological measures of emotion. We provide solutions to these obstacles by adopting psychophysiological measures reflecting activity of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, and by applying a stepwise regression model for each biosignal using experimenter-selected musical features as predictors. We presented 20 musically trained subjects with musical stimuli in small ternary form (ABA), selected from compositions from the Romantic period, and lasting between 30-60 seconds. We continuously recorded three psychophysiological measures: skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and facial electromyography (EMG) of the zygomaticus and corrugator muscles. Participants additionally rated each excerpt on a 1 - 7 scale according to the two emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. We finally extracted a number of musical features using the music information retrieval toolbox (e.g., perceived loudness, tempo, spectral centroid). Results indicated a robust linear relationship between behavioural ratings of arousal and physiological measures of SC and HR, as well as significant zygomaticus activity for stimuli categorized as positively valenced. The multiple regression models also revealed a significant linear relationship between the mean performance features and the mean SC and HR signals for each excerpt.

Poster 69

ON THE IMPACT OF AFFECTIVE SOUNDS ON ELECTRO-CORTICAL FACE PROCESSING - A STEADY-STATE EVOKED POTENTIALS

Matthias J. Wieser1, Christian Karl1, Antje B.M. Gerdes2, Andreas Muhlberger1, &

Paul Pauli1

1University ofWurzburg, 2University of Mannheim

Descriptors: emotion, audiovisual, EEG

A plethora of studies have addressed the processing of emotional faces mostly using isolated facial stimuli. In everyday life however, faces are embedded in social and affective contexts, for instance accompanied by affective sounds. It has been shown that early stages of face processing are modified by visual context information and that congruent prosody facilitates emotional face recognition. However, less is known about how affective sounds (non-human) influence face processing. To this end, facial expressions (neutral, fearful, happy, surprised) were presented (passive viewing) paired with affective sounds (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). Faces were flickered at 15 Hz for 6 s to evoke steady-state evoked potentials (ssVEP). Results showed significant modulation of the ssVEP amplitudes by affective sounds: ssVEP amplitude was elevated for surprised and fearful faces when paired with unpleasant sounds, whereas it was reduced for happy faces when paired with unpleasant sounds. Affective ratings showed independent effects of facial expressions and affective sounds. The results show that visual cortical processing of facial expressions is influenced by auditory context information. Interestingly, effects are already present in the first 500 ms suggesting quick information extraction from auditory channels and audiovisual integration. Most likely, this is accomplished in the brain in specific anatomical convergence zones, probably such as in the amygdala and the middle temporal gyrus, but possibly also due to direct crosstalk between auditory and visual associative cortice

Poster 70

IT HURTS MORE WHEN YOU ARE ANXIOUS - DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF FEAR AND ANXIETY ON PAIN PERCEPTION

Philipp Reicherts1, Matthias M.J. Wieser1, Antje A.B.M. Gerdes2, Andreas Muhlberger1, & Paul Pauli1 1University ofWurzburg, Germany, 2University of Mannheim, Germany

Descriptors: pain perception, fear, anxiety

It is well known that pain processing can be changed by manipulating the emotional state. In general, negative emotions increase pain perception. Anxiety and fear however might

have contrary effects on pain perception (Hyper- vs. Analgesia). Using classical fear conditioning (FC) vs. an instructed fear procedure (IF) we investigated these potential differences. Participants (FC, n 5 20; IF, n 5 23) received heat stimuli (noxious/innocuous) while watching cues indicating threat or safety. Before this test phase the FC group underwent classical fear conditioning using two distinct visual cues and electrical stimuli as UCS. The IF group was instructed to receive an unpleasant electrical stimulus while seeing the treat cue (no shock was presented). Sensory and affective pain ratings, affective ratings of the cues and SCR were recorded. SCR evoked by cue as well as heat-onset in threat compared to safe-trials were larger in the IF compared to the CF group. Noxious heat provoked higher SCR in both groups. During threat compared to safe trials, only the IF group rated noxious stimuli as more intensive. FC group ratings were unaffected by threat or safety although noxious stimuli ratings were higher compared to the IF group. The results demonstrate an influence of anxiety on sensory processing suggesting a general sensitization and hyperalgesia. Fear-related analgesia however was not found. The results are in line with theories suggesting that anxiety increases sensory sensitivity. The effect of fear still has to be elucidated, probably using different emotion-induction methods.

Poster 71

SENSORY PROCESSING AFFECTS WORKING MEMORY PERFROMANCE IN NOISY ENVIRONMENT: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY

Jana B. Frtusova, Jena Amarsi, & Natalie A. Phillips Concordia University

Descriptors: working memory, auditory-visual speech, ERP

During auditory-visual (AV) speech, both auditory (A) and visual (V) speech cues are available. A positive effect of AV presentation on speech perception was demonstrated in the past, especially when speech is masked by background babble. Interestingly, AV speech perception is associated with a smaller amplitude and shorter latency of the auditory N1 compared to an A-only presentation. This facilitation ofsensory processing in an AV modality can potentially free cognitive resources for higher order functioning. In a previous study we showed that AV presentation improves working memory (WM) performance, using unmasked speech stimuli. However, the reduction of N1 amplitude was bigger in older than younger adults, possibly due to optimal hearing in the younger group that led to a ceiling effect. In the current study we measured ERPs in 10 young adults during a WM n-back task (0- to 3-back) in V, A, and AVmodalities using speech stimuli masked in background phonological babble. The results showed that participants were faster in AV than in A condition across all n-back loads (p.05), and faster in AVthan in Vcondition during 0-back (p 5 .001) and 1-back (p 5 .004) loads. There was a significant reduction in the amplitude, but not in the latency, of N1 during AV compared to A condition (p<.001) and this reduction correlated with faster reaction times in 1-back (r 5 — .7; p 5 .01) and better accuracy in 2-back (r 5 .6; p 5 .02) during AV presentation. These results suggest that the facilitation of sensory processing during AV speech presentation improves WM performance in younger adults. Alzheimer Society of Canada; Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Poster 72

CENTRAL INTERFERENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD: EFFECTS OF VISUAL SPATIAL ATTENTION MECHANISMS DISTINGUISHING TARGET AND DISTRACTOR PROCESSING

Isabelle Corriveau1, Ulysse Fortier-Gauthier1, Vincent Jetté: Pomerleau1, John J.

McDonald2, Roberto Dell'Acqua 3, & Pierre Jolicoeur1 1Universitee de Montreal, 2Simon Fraser University, 3University of Padova

Descriptors: visual spatial attention, psychological refractory period paradigm, n2pc component

We studied interactions between the control mechanisms subserving spatial and central attention. Central attentional load was manipulated via the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; 150, 450 or 950 ms) between two targets (T1 and T2), each of which required a speeded response. We isolated lateralized event-related potentials associated with target and distractor processing by lateralizing one of them and by placing the other one on the vertical midline (nulling out lateralized brain activity). T1 was a tone and Task1 was a pitch discrimination. T2 was composed of circles each containing an oriented line that included a colored target circle, a salient colored distractor, and gray distractors. Task2 was to report the orientation of the line inside the target. Target-related lateralization, N2pc, was progressively attenuated and delayed as SOA was reduced. A sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) reliably followed, mainly for longer SOAs. We also observed a positive deflection that was contralateral to both targets and dis-tractors, regardless of SOA, the Ppc (positivity posterior contralateral). Whereas the Ppc for the target was followed by an N2pc, there was no further lateralized activity for distractors. We conclude that central processing interferes with target processing reflected by the N2pc and SPCN, but has no effect on the Ppc. It is possible that the Ppc reflects an initial, bottom-up response to the presence of a salient stimulus, whereas the N2pc and SPCN reflect the controlled deployment of spatial attention and visual short-term memory, respectively.

CONTRALATERAL CORTICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION IN VISUAL SHORT-TERM MEMORY: ISOLATING TARGET FROM DISTRACTOR ACTIVITY DURING RETRIEVAL

Ulysse Fortier-Gauthier1, Nicolas Moffat1, Roberto Dell'Acqua2, John J. McDonald3, & Pierre Jolicoeur1 1University of Montreal, 2University of Padova, 3Simon Fraser University

Descriptors: VSTM, lateralization

We studied the nature of representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by probing memory for specific content after a short retention interval. Subjects encoded two colored circles, each of which contained an oriented bar. In Experiment 1, one circle presented in left hemispace and the other in right hemispace. After a blank retention interval, a probe, at fixation, matched the color of one of these circles. The task was to report the orientation of the bar in the memorized circle. Retrieval from VSTM was accompanied by a lateralized negative component that depended on the side from which the matching circle had been encoded. This result strongly suggests a lateralized organization of the structures holding visual information in VSTM. In order to isolate the activity related to the target or to the distractor, we conducted a second experiment while putting either the target or the distractor circle on the vertical midline. We found a lateralized negative component at anterior electrode sites in the lateralized target condition and a positive component at more posterior sites in the lateralized distractor condition. These results bring to light a more complex picture where both the processing of the target and the dis tractor can be reflected in lateralized ERPs during retrieval. Interestingly, summing the anterior target-related negativity with the posterior distractor-related positivity observed in Experiment 2 matches nicely the results observed in Experiment 1. The results highlight the lateralized nature of representations in VSTM.

Poster 74

DELAYED DEPLOYMENT OF VISUAL ATTENTION TO THE SECOND TARGET IN THE ATTENTIONAL BLINK: EVIDENCE FROM HUMAN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

Vincent Jetté Pomerleau1, Ulysse Fortier-Gauthier1, Isabelle Corriveau1, John J.

McDonald2, Roberto Dell'Acqua3, & Pierre Jolicoeur1 1Universitee de Montréal, 2Simon Fraser University, 3University of Padova

Descriptors: visual spatial attention, attentional blink, n2pc

Visual attention can be studied with the electrophysiological component N2pc. Lateralized or central presentation of the target or distractor allows the isolation of lateralized activity to one or the other of these stimuli by nulling lateralized brain activity of the item on the midline. We measured the N2pc with a visual search task during a rapid serial visual presentation to produce an attentional blink (AB). A set of circles was positioned around fixation, forming a circular array. In each circle, was a line at one of four orientations. Each trial consisted in 15 + 5 arrays, of which two contained colored circles, target 1 and 2 (T1 & T2). Three presentation conditions were used: a control condition without a T1 and two other conditions with T1 and T2. These last two differed in the number ofarrays separating targets, or stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Results show both a delay in the latency of the target N2pc and a lower accuracy on T2 in the short SOA condition. We suppose this reflects a delay in the deployment of attention to T2. These results fit in a two-stage model of attention. The first stage would be a parallel encoding and the second a capacity-limited identification. For the short SOA condition, spatial attention thus appears impaired by processing of T1. We observed another lateralized component prior to the N2pc, a pos-itivity posterior and contrateral (Ppc) to the target, that did not vary between AB conditions or across targets and distractors. We suppose the N2pc reflects controlled visual attentional mechanism whereas the Ppc may be more bottom-up.

Poster 75

LOW DOSE IRRADIATION TO ALLEVIATE THE EXPERIMENTAL EPILEPTIC SEIZURES IN EXPERIMENTAL POST-TRAUMATIC EPILEPSY OF RATS

Varsha Sharma Jawaharlal Nehru University

Descriptors: post traumatic epilepsy, noninvasive thrapy, EEG

Whole Body Low Dose Gamma Irradiation (LDIRR) less than 1Gy may provide an alternative non invasive therapy for intractable epilepsy. It is an attempt to evaluate the anti-epileptic effects of (LDIRR) in this model. Iron when injected intracortically, in the form of FeCl3 and FeCl2 induces experimental post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in rats. To investigate the effect of LDIRR four groups of rats were prepared. First control group with-no saline/ iron/LDIRR. Second control group - with saline instead of iron, with LDIRR and the third experimental control group- made epileptic by injecting iron,no LDIR and the fourth experimental treated group made epileptic by injecting iron with LDIRR exposure. LDIRR exposure was given on 3rd day in IInd & IVth group of animals, The changes on anti-peroxidative enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidative damage were evaluated overtime in all the groups simultaneously. The results showed that (LDIRR) exposure significantly up-regulated the antioxidant, the rate-limiting enzymatic activity in iron-induced PTE in rats

group IV, as compared to group III. The (LDIRR), further down-regulated the lipidper-oxidative damage in group IV as compared to Group III, indicating that this might be the basic mechanism involved in regulating the epileptogenic activity and this alleviation of epileptic activity is further confirmed by the electroencephalographic cortical activity too. The study indicates that LDIRR therapy may be used as an alternative non-invasive an-tiepileptogenic therapy for human post traumatic epilepsy.

1.Department of Science and Technology, India 2.Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India

Poster 76

TEMPORAL COURSE OF AIRWAY CONSTRICTION DURING STIMULATION WITH EMOTIONAL FILMS IN ASTHMA AND

HEALTH

Thomas Ritz1, David Rosenfield1, Frank H. Wilhelm2, & Walton T. Roth3 1Southern Methodist University, 2University of Salzburg, 3Stanford University

Descriptors: asthma, emotion induction, airways

Negative affective states lead to narrowing of the airway passages in asthma and health, but little is known about the time course of responding during sustained emotional stimulation and whether it varies with the individuals' experience. We therefore examined the time course of oscillatory resistance (Ros) changes during emotion induction with films. Fifteen asthma patients and 14 healthy individuals viewed unpleasant, surgery, and neutral films ranging 3-5 minutes in duration. Ros and the respiratory pattern were monitored continuously. Following each film, participants rated their affective response and symptom experience. Compared to neutral film sequences, unpleasant and surgery films elicited a uniform pattern of initial increases in Ros with peaks within the first two minutes, followed by a gradual decline. Increases were more pronounced in asthma and during surgery films. Adding respiratory parameters as time-varying covariates did not affect the temporal course of Ros change. The gradual decline in Ros in later stages of stimulation was less in participants who experienced greater arousal and in patients who reported more shortness of breath. Patients more susceptible to psychological triggers in daily life showed less Ros decline from the initial increases during the films. Thus, the temporal course of broncho-constriction to negative affective stimulation is highly uniform, with stronger constriction in early stages of stimulation. More sustained constriction in emotion-induced asthma could be a risk factor for developing asthma exacerbation in daily life.

Poster 77

A NOVEL ''DUAL-PROBE'' P300-BASED COMPLEX-TRIAL PROTOCOL FOR DETECTION OF CONCEALED INFORMATION

Elena Labkovsky & Peter Rosenfeld Northwestern University

Descriptors: p300, event - related potentials, psychophysiological detection of deception, lie detection, credibility assessment, malingering.

We described the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) for concealed information detection (Rosenfeld, 2011). Hit rates ranged from 84 to 100% but it probed for only one crime detail per block. We address this with a new protocol. In the original CTP, the rare Probe or frequent Irrelevant appears on screen first and is followed by either Target or NonTarget in the same trial. I.e., a subject's birthdate was Probe1 (P1) and Irrelevants were 4 other dates. One of 5 number strings was Target. In the present, novel CTP the 1st part of the trial is as in the original CTP but in the 2nd part numbers were replaced with city names. Subject's hometown was Probe2 (P2) and there were 4 irrelevant city names, including a Target. Subjects randomly pressed 1of 5 buttons on one response box to a date, and pressed 1of 2 buttons on another response box to a city name. We tested 3 groups: Simple Guilty (SG), N 5 13(with P1& P2); Innocent (IN), N 5 12 (no probes); and Countermeasure (CM), 2 irrelevants in 1st part were countered. Hit rates: SG 5 13/ 13.11 hits were with both P1 and P2,1 each with P1 or P2. IN 5 1/12 false positive (only P1). CM 5 11/11; 9 hits were with both P1 and P2, 1 each with P1 or P2. ANOVA revealed ns group effect, F(2,33) 5 2.2, p 5 .12, sig. stimulus effect F(3,99) 5 22.7, p< .001, and interaction (6,99) 5 8.7, p< .001. T-tests: difference between P1 and Iall1 amplitudes in SG, t(12) 5 5.5, p<.001) and CM, t(10) 5 5.8, p<.001) and ns difference in the IN, t(11) 5 0.73). Sig. differences between P2 and Iall2 in SG, t(12) 5 5.4,p< .001) and CM, t(10) 5 5.8, p< .001) and ns difference in the IN, t(11) 5 — 2.1.

Poster 78

THE EFFECT OF EXTENSIVE COUNTERMEASURE PRACTICE ON THE P300-BASED COMPLEX TRIAL PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING CONCEALED INFORMATION

Robert H. Noble, Peter Rosenfeld, & Danielle Chun Northwestern University

Descriptors: P300, concealed information test, complex trial protocol Our new (2008), P300-based Complex Trial Protocol CIT (CTP), accuracy and countermeasure (CM) resistance have remained strong across 6 studies (Rosenfeld 2011 review). CM use detection via RT to the stimulus acknowledgment response (R1) fol-

lowing the first (either Probe, Pr, or Irrelevant, Ir ) stimulus (S1) has been reliable (see Labkovsky et al. poster nearby). No one has yet tested the robustness of the CTP and the RT-based CM use index following extensive pre-training on the protocol and the CMs. We have run 29 subjects (Ss) in 3 groups as of 4/1/11; (guilty/no CMs, SG; guilty with CMs but no practice, NP ; and guilty with CMs with practice, P ). Stimuli are dates with birth dates as Prs. All CM Ss mentally counter 4 of 8 Irs, doing CMs prior to R1. P Ss receive list of all 9 stimuli and 4 CM response 2 days prior to run and are encouraged to master specific CM- Ir associations. Pr vs Ir P300 bootstrap tests at .85 confidence levels yielded 8/10 detections of NP Ss; 7/9 (78%) detections ofP Ss; 9/10 detections of SG Ss. (No group effect of 1 x 3 ANOVA on P300 amplitudes, P> .3.). A 1 x 3 ANOVA on RTs (Pr and Ir combined) yielded F5 4.1, p< .03 with 695.6 ms for P, 535.9 ms for NP, and 498.1 ms for SG. A follow up Tukey yielded a difference at p< .05 only for NP vs SG. Thus CM practice seems not to affect CTP detection of concealed information based on the P300 CTP, but may affect the RT index of CM use.

Poster 79

ONE (COUNTERMEASURE, CM) FOR ALL (IRRELEVANTS) VERSUS

ONE FOR EACH (IRRELEVANT) IN THE P300-BASED COMPLEX TRIAL PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING CONCEALED INFORMATION

Michael Winograd, Elena Labkovsky, Arnold Noriega, Jonathan Lamano, & Peter

Rosenfeld Northwestern University

Descriptors: P300, concealed information test, complex trial protocol vIn our new P300-based CIT (the Complex Trial protocol or CTP, Rosenfeld 2011), RT is a good index of countermeasure (CM) use if CMs are done prior to stimulus acknowledgements (R1), yielding an RT CM index. If CM and R1 are done simultaneously and with only 4 irrelevant (Ir) stimuli (2 countered), Sokolovsky et al. (in press) showed RT loses its ability to index CM use, but Hu et al (SPR 2011) showed that increasing number ofIrs to 8 restores the RT CM index. Perhaps a wrongdoer can learn just one simultaneous CM for any number of Irs, making the CM task easier and less time-costly, thus beating the RT CM Index. The present study had 3 groups. In the first (1forall5) group, subjects (Ss) do the same mental CM for each of 5 Irs (of 9 total) countered. In the second (1foreach3) group, Ss do 3 different mental CMs to 3 of 9 total Irs. In the third(1foreach5) group, Ss do 5 different mental CMs to 5 of 9 total Irs. Enhanced probe (vs Ir) P300s detected most Ss in all groups: Based on bootstrap tests at .9 confidence levels, detection rates were: 1forall5 5 11/12 (92%), 1foreach3 5 17/17 (100%), 1foreach5 5 9/10 (90%). RTs were not available (4/1/11) except for the 1fo-reach3 group. In a simple guilty (no CMs) comparison group of 11 Ss, 100% were detected based on P300. In that group, the mean probe RT (to R1) 5 416.8ms vs 379.6 ms for Ir (p< .001). In the 1foreach3 group, the probe RT 5 502.2ms vs 563.5 ms for Ir (ns). Ir RTs differed between 1foreach3 and simple guilty groups (p< .05).

Poster 80

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF PREPARATORY PROCESSES IN TASK SWITCHING

Shulan Hsieh1, & Wu Mengyao2 1National Cheng Kung University, 2National Chung Cheng University

Descriptors: task-switch, cue-switch, switch positivity

This study aimed to investigate whether the preparatory processes reflected in cue-locked event-related potentials in task switching vary depending on the task-component between which a participant is switching. The second aim was to differentiate between task-switch and cue-switch effects. Two experiments were conducted, one experiment using task-name cues and the other using transition-cues. In each experiment, 16 participants were required to make same-different judgments about a pair of digits based on task-relevant stimulus-dimensions which were either repeated or switched from trial to trial while the response-mapping rule was kept constant. The other 16 participants were required to make judgments based on a constant task-relevant stimulus-dimension while the response-mapping rule was held constant or changed from trial to trial. The length of the preparatory interval was manipulated. The results showed that there were two components of switch-related positivity associated with both types of task-switch during the cue period. One was an early frontocentral and the other a late posterior positivity. Furthermore, the early positivity was found to be related not only to task-switch but also to cue-switch, provided the situation was one in which the encoding of cue stimulus was needed. The late posterior switch positivity was found to be task-independent and involved in both task- and cue-switch. The present study thus demonstrates task-independent switch-related ERP components.

Poster 81

THE TIME COURSE OF EYE-GAZE TOWARDS AFFECTIVE STIMULI OVER INTERVALS OF UP TO 12 SECONDS

Anna-Pavlina Charalambous1, Elaine Fox1, & Markus Bindemann2 1University of Essex, 2University of Kent

Descriptors: attention, eye-movements, emotional pictures

In two experiments, we investigated whether observers display vigilance followed by avoidance towards complex affectively charged stimuli under unconstrained viewing

conditions. The stimulus displays consisted of four items, comprising a positive, a negative and two neutral pictures. In experiment 1, each stimulus display was presented for 6 seconds with a 12 second presentation time in Experiment 2. In experiment 1, participants' eye movements revealed a general preference for affective pictures but more specifically towards negatively valenced pictures (throughout the full trial interval), with no evidence of avoidance at later time intervals. Experiment 2 replicated these effects finding that eye movements revealed a general preference for emotional, especially negatively valenced, stimuli during the first 6 seconds. In the last 6 seconds of the presentation, however, this preference declined with no evidence of an emerging avoidance. None of these effects were modified by the participants' level of trait-anxiety. The findings of these experiments suggest that people show a general attentional bias towards affective stimuli with a preference to attend towards negative more than positive images. These biases are enduring (up to 6 seconds) and we found no evidence for vigilant-avoidant pattern even in high anxious people.

Poster 82

EFFECT OF DAY TIME NAP ON HUMAN DECLARATIVE MEMORY

RECALL

Alexander I. Manolov, Yulia V. Ukraintseva, & Vladimir B. Dorokhov Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS

Descriptors: day nap, declarative memory, procedural memory

Recent studies support positive influence of sleep on those human learning processes in which declarative memory consolidation is the key element. However, these data are rather controversial, partly due to the mixed character of human night sleep (NREM/ REM). We studied the effect of day time nap (which involves slow-wave sleep only) on declarative and procedural memory recall in 14 adult healthy humans. At the beginning of the experiments, the subjects were taught either word-pair associates (remembering of 60 semantically unrelated word pairs, declarative memory test) or mirror drawing (procedure memory test). Among the words, 30 pairs were learned once and other 30 twice. The interval between the learning phase and the final memory testing was 4 hours. Each subject was used in two experiments, with and without 1 hr nap (03.00 - 04.00PM). Sleep was recorded polygraphically using the EEG by 6 derivations, EOG and EMG. It was found that nap improves the recall of 30 pairs of words which were learned once and did not influence on the recall of 30 pairs of words which were learned twice. So nap after learning improves the recall of weakly learned verbal information only. The mirror motor test revealed no changes after nap as compared to the control waking period.

Poster 83

DAYTIME NAP RECUPERATES PSYCHOMOTOR ACTIVITY AFFECTED BY MENTAL FATIGUE

Alexandra N. Puchkova, Olga N. Tkachenko, & Vladimir B. Dorokhov Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS

Descriptors: mental fatigue, nap, eye movements

A person performing mentally demanding task for an extended period of time becomes increasingly fatigued which leads to decreased performance and higher probability of mistakes. Increased levels of mental fatigue and workload also influence the parameters of saccadic eye movement, fixations and eye-hand coordination. To evaluate changes in eye gaze parameters and eye-hand coordination we used experimental design allowing us to induce moderate levels of mental fatigue and monitor subject's performance. For an hour participants had to solve sums shown on screen as quickly as possible. Then possible answers appeared on mouse click and subject had to find and click on the correct one among the presented options. After that subjects had a nap (with PSG registration) in the main experiment or rested while awake for 1 hour in control experiment. 11 subjects took part in the study. This design allowed assessing patterns of attention shifts between the sum and the answers and strategies of correct answer search. As mental fatigue developed the parameters of fixations and saccades as well as eye-hand movement correlation changed. Additionally the experiment evaluated the ability of daytime nap to restore operator's performance and visuomotor coordination. The further development of this approach will promote working out of a contactless mental fatigue detection system and understand the role of sleep in optimal performance restoration.

Poster 84

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF READING THE SINGLE- AND INTERACTIVE-MIND

Yuwei Zheng, Liang Huang, Jing Liang, Zhengyi Zhang, Deli Shen, & Yiwen Wang Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University

Descriptors: ERP, theory of mind, late positive component

Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or

multiple persons instead of only one person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory-of-mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC) over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700-to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal-central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind.

Funding provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 30807780].

Poster 85

SPATIO-TEMPORAL BRAIN DYNAMICS OF UNDERSTANDING PRIVATE VERSUS SOCIAL INTENTIONS: AN ELECTRICAL NEUROIMAGING STUDY

Yiwen Wang1, Liang Huang1, Yuwei Zheng1, Jing Liang1, Cuili Du1, & Stephanie

Ortigue2

1Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, 2Department of Psychology, Syracuse University

Descriptors: ERP, theory of mind, intention understanding

Understanding intentions of other people facilitates interpersonal interactions and adaptation in social settings. Although several discoveries have been done, in the past decade, regarding the neural mechanisms mediating intention understanding, little remains known about the neural dynamics underlying the understanding of private versus social (communicative) motor intentions. To address this question, we recorded the electrical brain activity from 16 healthy adults while they were performing an intention task that included three types ofintentions: (1) self-oriented (private intention); 2) other-oriented (communicative intention); 3) object-oriented (physical intentions). Electrophysiological results revealed that the peak amplitudes of N250 over the parietal sites for self-oriented intentions were significantly larger than those for other-oriented and object-oriented intentions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between communicative and physical intention at N250. At a later stage (i.e., during the 400600 ms epoch), the mean amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was significantly larger for self-oriented intentions compared to the physical intentions. Brain source localization ofthe difference wave between private and physical intention showed a dipole in the anterior cingulate cortex. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the spatio-temporal dynamics sustaining the double dissociation between the understandings of self-oriented (private) intentions versus other social motor intention. Funding provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 30807780].

Poster 86

APPROACHING ANGER: THE EFFECT OF GO-ING TO AN ANGRY FACE ON THE NO-GO N2

David Tang & Eddie Harmon-Jones Texas A&M University

Descriptors: anger, motivation, N2

Based on prior research linking anger to approach motivation (e.g., Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009; Harmon-Jones & Sigelman, 2001), we hypothesized that behaving in an aggressive, approach-oriented manner in response to an angry face would cause more approach motivation that would result in difficulties in inhibiting behavior. To test this hypothesis, participants completed a modified emotional go/no-go task while EEG was recorded. Angry faces were used as the go stimuli for 90% of trials, while sad faces were used as the no-go stimuli for 10% of trials. A similar sad face go, angry face no-go condition was also run. Participants completed both angry GO/sad NOGO and sad GO/angry NOGO blocks in counter-balanced order. To facilitate aggressive, approach-related action, participants used their closed hand (fist) to press a paddle in a downward motion as a GO response, instead of pressing a key. Because forming a fist has been shown to facilitate anger responses (e.g., Berkowitz, 1993), this action should also increase aggressive, approach motivation. On angry GO trials, participants had greater N2s for sad NOGO trials compared to angry GO trials. In contrast, on sad GO trials, participants did not have greater N2s for angry NOGO trials compared to sad GO trials. The greater no-go N2s in the angry GO but not in the sad GO condition suggest that it may be more difficult to inhibit behavior when acting in an angry manner toward an appropriate stimulus (angry face) and less difficult to inhibit behavior when acting in an angry manner toward an inappropriate stimulus (sad face).

THE EFFECT OF BODY POSTURE ON STARTLE EYEBLINK RESPONSES TO EROTIC PICTURES

Tom F. Price, Lauritz Dieckman, & Eddie Harmon-Jones Texas A&M University

Descriptors: startle, posture, appetitive processes

The startle eyeblink reflex is modulated by affective picture content. Highly arousing positive pictures attenuate startle responses, whereas negative pictures potentiate them (Lang et al., 1990; Gard et al., 2007). Thus, smaller startle responses are associated with appetitive processes. In addition, studies have found that higher trait approach motivation correlates with attenuated startle responses to positive pictures (Hawk & Kowmans, 2003; Amodio & Harmon-Jones, 2011). These findings suggest that manipulating approach motivation may influence startle responses to affective pictures. Finally, posture has been found to influence approach motivation, such that reclining backward has been associated with low approach relative to leaning forward in a chair, which has been associated with heightened approach (Price & Harmon-Jones, in press; Harmon-Jones et al., in press). In an extension ofthis research, we manipulated participants' posture while they viewed erotic scenes and neutral scenes of pairs of people talking or walking in public. Startle responses were recorded during picture viewing. Results indicated that leaning forward caused smaller startle responses to erotic scenes as compared to reclining backward. Posture did not influence startle responses to neutral pictures. These results indicate the postural manipulations can influence even basic reflexive responses to emotional stimuli.

Poster 88

EMOTION-MODULATED STARTLE REACTIVITY IN COMBAT VETERANS WITH AND WITHOUT PTSD AND BLAST-RELATED MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

Daniel J. Goldman1, Scott R. Sponheim1,2, Nicolaas Van Meerten2, Mallory K.

Skorheim2, & Bruce N. Cuthbert3 1University of Minnesota, 2Minneapolis VAHCS, 3National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: startle blink, PTSD, mtbi

The clinical presentations of individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are often markedly similar in soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. A clear assessment of the direct consequences of explosive blast is often complicated by the emotional and cognitive sequelae of psychological trauma. In the present study, emotion-modulated startle reactivity was used as a measure for exploring the dysregulations in brain emotion systems in PTSD and mTBI. Combat veterans (N 5 52, female 5 4, mean age 5 31) were classified as PTSD-only, Blast-only, PTSD+Blast, or Control (N's 5 11, 16, 15, 10) via structured interviews. They viewed 45 IAPS pictures (15 each of pleasant, neutral, unpleasant) and 15 non-IAPS combat-related images while acoustic startle probes were randomly delivered on 48 trials. Emotional valence and arousal ratings significantly differed among each picture category as expected, with combat pictures being the most unpleasant and most arousing (p's< .001). Analyses of startle blink magnitude yielded a significant main effect of valence (p< .001), but no main effects of PTSD or mTBI. PTSD and mTBI did not significantly interact. There was a trend toward an interaction of Valence and mTBI (p 5 .07) but not of Valence and PTSD. This mix of results is consistent with past literature and likely reflects within-category heterogeneity, diagnostic comorbidity, and the conflicting effects on startle magnitude of the relevant PTSD symptoms (hyperarousal and cue reactivity vs emotional numbing). This work was supported by grants from the Minnesota Veterans Research Institute (MVRI) and the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (W81XWH-08-2-0038) to Scott R. Sponheim.

Poster 89

AUTONOMIC AROUSAL IN LGBQ AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN

Reese Minshew New School for Social Research

Descriptors: LGBT, autonomic reactivity

A body of literature suggests that genetic and epigenetic factors may influence sexual orientation. Parallel literature indicates that the physiological responses of sexual minorities to sexually arousing stimuli differ from the responses of hetronormative populations. However, sexual arousal is only one part ofphysiological response. Physiological responses to stimuli that are physiologically arousing, but not sexually arousing, have not been studied in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer groups. Moreover, LGBQ individuals are also at increased risk of lifetime exposure to trauma, which can increase the probability of both autonomic reactivity and psychopathology. Comparative studies which do not control for trauma history and current psychopathology may not offer a complete picture of response differences between sexual minorities and heterosexual controls. This study addresses gaps in the literature by examining autonomic reactivity in LGBQ survivors of complex trauma as compared to heterosexual controls. A group of complexly traumatized women, including several LGBQ women, were given the Brief Symptom Inventory. Participants were then exposed to neutral, positive, and traumatic stimuli from the Interna-

tional Affective Pictures Set. Heart rate, skin conductance, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and finger pulse amplitude were monitored. The groups showed the strongest differences in response to the positive slide, as mediated by symptom severity. Mean RSA, for instance, was predicted by global severity of symptoms in the LGBQ (p 5 .056), but not heterosexual (p 5 .513) groups.

Poster 90

COMBINING THAYER & LANE'S MODEL OF NEUROVISCERAL INTEGRATION WITH PORGES' POLYVAGAL THEORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR GUILT AND SHAME

Steven J. Freed1, Colette Lui2, Wendy D'Andrea1, & Nnamdi Pole3 1The New School for Social Research, 2Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts, 3Smith College

Descriptors: polyvagal theory, neurovisceral integration, guilt and shame Thayer & Lane (2000, 2009) and Porges (1997, 2004) developed complementary theories of the role of the vagus nerve in CNS-ANS integration. Thayer states that RSA and other measures of vagal tone index the organism's flexibility in shifting resources and coordinating appropriate response selection. Porges emphasizes the evolutionary underpinnings of social communication in the structural relationship between the vagus nerve and the innervation ofthe emotionally expressive apparatus ofthe face and larynx. This study integrated the self-regulatory aspects of Thayer with the social aspects of Porges in the context of PTSD research. 27 community-dwelling women who had been exposed to significant interpersonal violence viewed slides presenting positive or negative content. Participants were physiologically monitored and given self-report measures of emotional states, including guilt and shame (G&S). G&S are thought to be prosocial; they motivate group cohesion. Results indicate that within the subsample of women who could effectively self regulate, a decrease in RSA correlated with feelings of G&S but not other emotions. Low RSA was also correlated with trait measures of G&S. These results suggest a useful integration of Porges and Thayer's theories, whereby flexible responsiveness is socially sensitive. We argue that further studies on the social aspects of self-regulation be undertaken. There are clinical implications for the treatment of PTSD. To date, clinicians have developed techniques for lessening fear and anxiety, but have less effectively addressed guilt and shame.

Poster 91

AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TRANSLATION PRIMING IN BALANCED FRENCH/ENGLISH BILINGUALS

Danielle F. Lopez1, He Pu1, Katherine J. Midgley1,2, Phillip J. Holcomb1, & Jonathan Grainger2 1Tufts University, 2CNRS Universite de Provence, Aix/Marseille

Descriptors: masked priming, bilinguals, ERP

Past studies in university learners of a second language have shown asymmetric priming effects. For example, Midgley et al. (2009, Psychophysiology, 46, 551-565) found that in addition to asymmetric priming effects within languages, an asymmetric translation priming effect appeared across languages. Translation priming was only found for the L1 (native language) to L2 (second language) direction while no priming was observed for L2 to L1 priming. As a follow up to the Midgley et al. results, the current study examined translation priming effects in balanced French/English bilinguals. Participants performed a masked-priming semantic categorization task blocked by language while ERPs were recorded for non-probe critical items. Within languages similar priming effects were found for both languages, however, in cross language conditions, both N250 and N400 translation priming effects were found in the L1 to L2 (French-English) priming direction. The presence of these translation priming effects on both the N250 and N400 suggests that balanced bilinguals have a robust language processing system where items in both languages have a well established and integrated connection to their conceptual representations. Unexpectedly there was a lack oftranslation priming effects in the L2 to L1 (English-French) direction. The lack of translation priming effects in the L2 to L1 direction may be attributed to a bias in language exposure for our bilingual subject pool. This possibility as well as other implications of these results will be further discussed.

Poster 92

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES OF COGNATE EFFECTS IN BALANCED BILINGUALS DURING LEXICAL DECISION TASK

He Pu1, Danielle F. Lopez1, Katherine J. Midgley1,2, Phillip J. Holcomb1, & Jonathan Grainger2 1Tufts University, 2CNRS & Universite d'Aix-Marseille

Descriptors: cognate, bilingual, N400

Cognates (words with the same form and meaning in two languages) offer a unique opportunity to study the structure of the lexical representation system in bilinguals. In addition to eliciting smaller N400 components, L2 cognates are recognized and translated more quickly than noncognates - especially in early learners of a second language. Cognate effects in L1, on the other hand, are mediated by L2 proficiency, with significant cognate advantages arising only when there is high fluency in L2. By this logic,

balanced bilinguals who are equally proficient in both languages should show the same degree of behavioral and electrophysiological cognate effects in their L1 and L2 processing. We explored this possibility by presenting a lexical decision task containing English/French cognates and noncognates to balanced English/French bilinguals. Event-related potentials to both cognates and noncognates were recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Similar to at least one previous study, cognates elicited a smaller N400 component than noncognates in English. Unlike previous studies however, this N400 difference was not found for French. As predicted, the behavioral data indicated a cognate advantage where cognates were recognized more quickly than noncognates. This cognate effect was present in both languages, albeit to a lesser degree in French than in English. One possible explanation ofthe asymmetry ofthese cognate effects could be due to the linguistic background of our balanced bilinguals. The implications of the results for theories of bilingual word processing will be discussed.

Poster 93

CAN A LABORATORY MEASURE OF EMOTIONAL PROCESSING ENHANCE THE STATISTICAL PREDICTION OF AGGRESSION IN JUVENILE OFFENDERS WITH CALLOUS-UNEMOTIONAL TRAITS?

Aisha L. Howard, Eva R. Kimonis, & Jason R. Hall University of South Florida

Descriptors: callous-unemotional traits, startle blink, aggression

Youth high on callous-unemotional traits (CU; lack of empathy, guilt)—theorized as a childhood precursor to adult psychopathy—show deficits in processing negative stimuli, namely cues eliciting empathy (i.e., others' distress) and fear (i.e., threat). Prior research shows that a multi-method assessment of psychopathy—including self-report measures and a laboratory measure of emotional processing—predicts greater risk for aggression; the aim of the present study was to extend this finding using affective startle modulation. Male juvenile offenders (N 5 89) recruited from a residential facility completed a standard IAPS picture-viewing paradigm, and blink reflex responses to acoustic startle probes delivered during picture presentation were recorded. In a subsample (N 5 28) of subjects scoring in the upper tertile on the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, those showing the normative pattern of startle potentiation to threat images (relative to neutral slides) were compared to those showing an abnormal pattern of startle inhibition. Results from independent-samples t-tests indicate that youth high on CU traits who also exhibit startle inhibition to threatening pictures (suggesting deficient fear response) show significantly greater total, reactive (i.e., retaliatory) and proactive ( i.e., goal-directed) aggression, compared with high-CU youth showing a normal pattern of affective startle modulation. These findings are consistent with prior research indicating that reported CU traits in combination with a laboratory-based emotional deficit signals greater risk for violence.

Poster 94

GOING FOR INDIVIDUAL GLORY VERSUS TAKING ONE FOR THE TEAM: THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PURE AND INTERGROUP COMPETITION

Andrew Cooke, Maria Kavussanu, David McIntyre, & Christopher Ring University of Birmingham

Descriptors: competition, enjoyment, effort

Competition can influence performance and elicit a multitude of psychological and physiological reactions. However, no research has compared the effects ofpure and intergroup competition on performance, psychological and physiological measures. Moreover, we know little about the psychophysiological processes that mediate the effects of competition on performance. To address these issues, we recruited 64 participants, and asked them to complete a handgrip endurance task in both pure and intergroup competitions. During each competition, we measured endurance performance, muscle activity, cardiovascular activity, and self-reported enjoyment, excitement and effort. Our results indicated that endurance performance was better, enjoyment, excitement, effort, and heart rate were greater, and R-wave to pulse interval was shorter, during intergroup competition. Furthermore, we found that enjoyment, excitement, effort, heart rate and R-wave to pulse interval mediated the effects of competition on performance. Increased heart rate and decreased R-wave to pulse interval could reflect active coping and provide a physiological indication of increased effort. Accordingly, our results demonstrate differences between pure and intergroup competitions, and, indicate that increased positive emotions and effort can explain superior competitive performance.

Poster 95

USING ''RELIABILITY'' TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL P50 PAIRED-CLICK FILTER SETTINGS

Anna Dalecki, Rodney J. Croft, & Stuart J. Johnstone University of Wollongong

Descriptors: p50 paired-click measures, digital bandpass filter, reliability

P50 paired-click measures refer to the relative P50 ERP amplitudes elicited to

identical auditory paired-clicks (S1 and S2), and are thought to be endophenotypes

for schizophrenia. However, numerous studies have failed to find significant P50 paired-click reliability in healthy participants. To determine whether digital bandpass filter settings affect P50 paired-click reliability, the present study measured P50 paired-click reliability in each of the 0-10, 5-15, 10-20, 15-25, 20-30, 25-35, 30-40 and 35-45Hz bandwidths in 20 healthy undergraduates. Following this, high and low pass settings of optimal bands were adjusted to determine whether reliability could be improved. P50 paired-click measures were the S1 - S2 difference and S2/S1 ratio. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) revealed that P50 measures were most reliable in the 10-20 and 15-25Hz bandwidths (Difference: ICC 5 .82; p<.001; Ratio: ICC5 .50; p<.001). Ratio reliability was improved in the 10-25Hz range (ICC5 .60; p<.001). No statistically significant ratio reliability was found in the 25-35, 30-40 and 35-45 Hz bandwidths. Insufficient P50 peaks were present to allow for reliability quantification in the 0-10 and 5-15 Hz bandwidths. The results suggest 10 - 20 and 10 -25 Hz frequencies provide the most reliable information in the paired-click paradigm (for difference and ratio scores respectively), consistent with the current use of a 10 Hz high pass filter when analysing P50 paired-click measures. The results do not provide support for the analysis of the S2/S1 ratio in the gamma frequency range.

Poster 96

GENERALIZATION OF CONDITIONED FEAR AND OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

Antonia Kaczkurkin & Shmuel Lissek University of Minnesota

Descriptors: obsessive-compulsive disorder, fear conditioning, fear-potentiated startle In classical conditioning, conditioned fear occurs when an unconditioned aversive stimulus (e.g. an electric shock) is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the anticipatory anxiety associated with the aversive stimulus. The continued persistence of anticipatory anxiety in the absence of the aversive stimulus has been suggested to be an important feature of several anxiety disorders. Additionally, the generalization of this conditioned fear may be important in anxiety disorders as well. Generalization of conditioned fear refers to the association of the conditioned fear response to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus. Stronger conditioned generalization has been found in panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder patients and may be relevant to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well. There is currently no research on the generalization of conditioned fear in individuals with OCD. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms generalize conditioned fear when compared to healthy subjects. This study hypothesized that the obsessive-compulsive individuals would show stronger conditioned generalization than controls as measured by startle potentiation. The results of this study did not find a difference between the obsessive-compulsive subjects and controls in terms of conditioned generalization, which suggests that over-generalization of conditioned fear may occur only for some anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder) and not others.

Poster 97

THE NEURAL REACTIVITY TOWARDS SMOKING CUES IS INFLUENCED BY SMOKERS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE OWN SMOKING BEHAVIOR

Bastian Stippekohl1, Bertram Walter1, Markus Winkler2, Ronald F. Mucha2, Paul

Pauli2, & Rudolf Stark1 1Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany, 2Department of Psychology, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wiirzburg, Germany

Descriptors: addiction, attitudes, smoking

In addiction, craving is important for the continuation of drug taking and can lead to relapses. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake (drug-cues) have been shown to elicit such craving. Although all addicts may show craving for a drug, they may differ in the attitudes towards their own consume behavior. While some subjects might be quite content with drug taking and may have a positive attitude (consonant users), others might be very discontent and frightened because of the possible consequences (dissonant users). Such differences seem to be important for clinical practice because the more dissonant a user, the more likely he is to consider treatment. The aim of this fMRI study was to investigate, whether these attitude differences also have an influence on the subjective and neuronal reactivity towards smoking cues. Cigarette smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant subjects and underwent an fMRI protocol in which they saw smoking cues and neutral stimuli. While the rating data showed no differences in the subjective reactivity to smoking cues, brain data showed enhanced amygdala, insula and hippocampus reactivity in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. On the basis of the affective neuroscience literature and current investigations on cognitive dissonance effects in the brain, results are interpreted as reflecting a higher amount of dissonance in dissonant than in consonant smokers.

EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SENSORIMOTOR GATING: A LOOSENING OF THE GATE

Clayton B. Nelson1 & Diane L. Filion2 1VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, 2University of Missouri-Kansas City

Descriptors: sensorimotor gating, prepulse inhibition, affective modulation of startle The current study examined the effects of induced mood on sensorimotor gating, as indexed by prepulse inhibition of startle, and whether dispositional personality factors thought to be associated with dopamine sensitivity would moderate that relationship. To examine mood's effect on sensorimotor gating, separate mood states were induced by presenting emotion eliciting music and pictures in three separate blocks (Positive, Neutral, Negative). Each mood block was divided into phases (mood induction and assessment). During the mood induction phase, participants listened to one of three music selections paired with valence-matched pictures. Both affective modulation of startle and prepulse inhibition were collected during the assessment phase. Participant rated subjective changes in mood through the use of a continuous measurement device during both phases as a manipulation check for mood induction. Affective modulation of startle was assessed by presenting startle eliciting probes at 4250 and 5500 milliseconds following picture onset. Prepulse inhibition was assessed using a 120 millisecond lead interval. Results revealed that the mood induction phase was successful as evidenced by self report and affective modulation of startle (Positive< Negative). Support that mood differentially affects a person's sensorimotor gating ability was evidenced by participants showing reduced prepulse inhibition in the Positive Mood Block relative to the Neutral and Negative Mood Blocks. Approach motivation also was found to moderate effects but not in the expected direction.

Poster 99

A COMPARISON OF TWO MULTIPLE TESTING PROCEDURES IN ERP DATA ANALYSIS

Mei-Chen Chu1, David Causeur2, Hsieh Shulan1, & Sheu Ching-Fan1 1National Cheng Kung University, 2Agrocampus Ouest, France

Descriptors: multiple comparison, false discovery rate,factor-adjustedmultiple comparison Event-related potentials (ERP) are now widely collected in psychophysiological research to determine the time courses of mental events. When comparing event-related potentials from treatment conditions, often there is no a priori information on when or how long the differences should occur. Testing simultaneously for differences over the entire digitized time intervals encounters serious multiple comparison problem in which the size of false positive error must be controlled, while maintaining reasonable power for correct detection. In this work we compare the performance (on real and simulated data sets) of Bejamini-Hochdberg (1995) false discover rate procedure (BH) and a recently developed factor-adjusted multiple testing procedure (FAMT) under dependence (Friguet, Kloareg, & Causeur, 2009) in managing the multiple comparison problem in ERP data analysis. The results showed that, in most cases, the FAMTprocedure outperformed the BH procedure in detecting the number of signif icant intervals, suggesting that the BH procedure might over-control the false discovery rate under strong dependence data structure such as ERP measurements. National Science Council of Taiwan

Poster 100

FEELING ANTSY ABOUT THE ''GOLDEN YEARS?'' AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF AGE ON THREE INTERACTIVE ATTENTIONAL NETWORKS

Christopher N. Sozda1, David A.S. Kaufman2, Vonetta M. Dotson1, & William M.

Perlstein3

1University of Florida, 2University of California, 3Perlstein Descriptors: attention, erps

The present study examined the effects of age on the neurobehavioral correlates of three interactive attentional networks (alerting, orienting, executive control). Nineteen young and 16 older healthy adults completed the Attention Network Test (ANT) while behavioral data (reaction time, RT, and error rates) and 64-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired. Significant age-related RT differences were observed across all networks; however, only the alerting network remained significantly reduced in older adults after controlling for generalized slowing. ERP data revealed significantly enhanced posterior-parietal N1 amplitude to double versus no-cue conditions in young versus older adults, an effect found in the presence of behavioral ''alerting'' differences. Both groups demonstrated similar enhancement of N1 amplitude at bilateral posterior-parietal electrodes to spatial versus center-cue conditions. Regarding executive control, target-related P300 amplitude was reduced at central-posterior scalp sites to incongruent versus congruent stimuli in both groups. Taken together, older adults demonstrated behavioral and neural alterations in alerting, however, they did not significantly differ in their abilities to use spatially informative cues to aid performance or successfully resolve response conflict. These results may suggest that attentional resources in older adults are subject to fierce competition, such that scarce resources are more heavily recruited to engage the orienting and executive control networks, at the expense of efficient alerting.

TEMPORAL PARAMETERS IN PREPULSE INHIBITION

Daniel Furth Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research

Descriptors: PPI, temporal information, inter-individual variability It is well known that the temporal parameters such as the lead interval and the inter-trial interval (ITI) are important in prepulse inhibition (PPI). Similarly temporal parameters, such as the mean cycle duration and the duration of the warning interval, have been shown to be essential in various procedures of acquisition in Pavlovian conditioning. We here investigate the temporal parameters of prepulse inhibition by varying the ITI and lead interval systematically across different blocks. To extract parameters of temporal processing we apply modern Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) to analyse change in startle eyeblink trajectories. It is shown that the obtained parameters are ideal for the investigation of inter-individual differences. Nevertheless, unlike the case of traditional Pavlovian conditioning the temporal parameters in prepulse inhibition can't be considered time-scale invariant. The problem of time-scale invariance in relation to the search for stable parameters of inter-individual variability in prepulse inhibition are discussed.

Poster 102

NICOTINE AND BDNF VAL66MET SNP INTERACT IN PREDICTING P300 AMPLITUDE

David E. Evans, Jong Y. Park, Jason A. Oliver, & David J. Drobes Moffitt Cancer Center

Descriptors: nicotine, attention, ERP

Nicotine induced enhancement of cognition may serve as a powerful motivator of smoking behavior. Research in this area has traditionally emphasized the effects of nicotine in ongoing smokers. However, the presence of withdrawal-induced cognitive deficits precludes understanding the potential role of nicotine effects early in the development of dependence. Even in non-smokers, individual differences in cognitive functioning may impact the effect of nicotine on cognitive systems. Individuals who experience differential benefits from such effects early in use may be more likely to progress to high levels of dependence. The present study examines the effects of nicotine on numerous behavioral and ERP indices of cognition in non-smokers, as well as moderation ofthis effect by genotypes previously associated with attentional deficits. We hypothesized that carriers of the MET allele on the Val66Met SNP located in the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene would show greater enhancement of P300 amplitude elicited by rare targets. 41 nonsmokers attended two laboratory session and received either a 7 mg nicotine patch or placebo patch in a double-blind and counter-balanced fashion. At each session, participants completed a 3-stimulus oddball task designed to evoke P3a (distracters) and P3b (targets) ERP components. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that nicotine increased P3b amplitude among METallele carriers. We discuss these, along with other nicotine and genetic findings, in relation to a model of nicotine self medication of attention and related cognitive processes. This research was funded by the Florida Department of Health (grant #09KN-02).

Poster 103

TIME COURSE OF TRUSTWORTHINESS JUDGMENTS OF FACES

Dingcheng Wu1, Gizelle Anzures2, Fengling Ma1, Fen Xu3, & Kang Lee2 1State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 2Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, 3Zhejiang Sci-Tech

University

Descriptors: trustworthiness, face, time course

Trust is a psychological state which shows an individual's willingness to be vulnerable under conditions of risk and interdependence based on positive expectations of intentions or behavior of others. Researchers have demonstrated that face is an important source for us to build trust. The very first impression of novel faces can provide us information of trustworthiness even when we only watch them for 100 ms. However, the process of trustworthiness judgments of faces is still unclear. In this study, we used high-density ERP to provide information about the time course of the brain activities associated with the trustworthiness judgments of faces. We recorded ERPs of 20 Caucasian subjects who were presented 320 face pictures and judged whether these faces were trustworthy or not. These faces were chosen from a larger pool of faces judged by a larger amount of participants. Half of the faces were trustworthy by these participants, while the other half was untrustworthy. Among the trustworthy (untrustworthy) faces, half were Caucasian faces and the other half was Asian faces. Significant amplitude divergence between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces was found in the posterior right area. Interestingly, the P1 and N1 were differentiated between trustworthy and untrustworthy Caucasian faces but not Asian faces, while the P2 and N2 were differentiated between trustworthy and untrustworthy Asian faces but not Caucasian faces. Therefore, the trustworthiness judgments of faces started very early. Judgments of unfamiliar faces were slower than judgments of familiar faces.

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF MOVEMENT STEREOTYPE ELABORATION IN COMPLEX OPERATOR PERFORMANCE

Ekaterina Kirpach Southern Federal University

Descriptors: motor learning, operator, ERP

Motor stereotype elaboration is accompanied with formation of new sensorimotor integration and is tightly connected with different cognitive processes such as attention, memory, decision making, analysis of proprioception information and selection of motor program). Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the elaboration of motor stereotype typical for complex operator performance remain insufficiently explored. Five subjects aged form 18 to 25 took part in the research. Color rectangles and digits were use as stimuli and presented on the monitor. Loud sound appeared in the beginning of each command. The task for a subject was to perform a sequence of motor tasks accompanied by the analysis of digits and letters. Each subject was trained 8 times. In the course of motor learning decreasing of reaction time and duration of button pressing was observed. Active neglect in the form of slow positive deflection was observed on the expectation stage. Sequential button pressings were accompanied by the pattern ofERP waves, which consisted of 3 - 4 negative-positive waves with the maximum in frontal and parietal areas and corresponded to the activation-deactivation cycles. Hence, in the course of motor learning working deltha-rhythm emerged in the form of alternating excitatory and inhibitory phases relating to the activation of anterior and posterior systems of attention.

Poster 105

MANIPULATION OF ORTHOGONAL NEURAL SYSTEMS TOGETHER IN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL RECORDINGS: THE MONSTER APPROACH TO EFFICIENT NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT

Emily S. Kappenman & Steven J. Luck University of California, Davis

Descriptors: erps

Event-related potential (ERP) components are a powerful tool in understanding and evaluating cognitive, motor, and sensory processing in both healthy and pathological samples. A typical ERP recording session takes considerable time but is designed to isolate only 1 - 2 components. Although this is appropriate for most basic science purposes, it is an inefficient approach for measuring the broad set of neurocognitive functions that may be disrupted by neurological or psychiatric conditions. The present study provides a framework for more efficiently evaluating multiple ERP components (and the associated neural processes) in a single experimental paradigm through the manipulation of psychologically orthogonal dimensions. This MONSTER (Manipulation of Orthogonal Neural Systems Together in Electrophysiological Recordings) approach can be adapted to a variety of domains, ERP components, and neural processes of interest. We will describe the general MONSTER approach and will provide data for a specific implementation of this framework in the visual domain that assesses four separate neural processes: (1) early sensory processing (using the C1 wave); (2) shifts of covert attention (N2pc); (3) categorization (P3b); and (4) self monitoring (ERN). We will describe how this approach can successfully be used in different populations by providing data from younger (18-30 years of age) and older (65 -85 years of age) adult samples. Finally, we will provide recommendations for using the MONSTER approach in evaluating other domains, components, and populations.

Poster 106

SUPPRESSIVE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON FMRI BOLD RESPONSE DURING FACE-ATTRACTIVENESS EVALUATION

Eunsam Shin1,2, Yeon Soon Shin2, Sanghoon Han2, Keith A. Schneider1,3, John Scott Saults1, & Kenneth J. Sher1 1University of Missouri, 2Yonsei University, 3York University

Descriptors: face attractiveness, alcohol, fmri

Previously, alcohol-induced suppressive effects in functional magnetic resonance imaging response have been reported. However, these studies examined the effects ofalcohol in the primary sensory areas, such as visual (Levin et al., 1998), auditory (Seifritz et al., 2000) regions using sensory stimulations. Thus, we investigated alcohol-induced sup-pressive effects on blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in regions associated with socio-cognitive processing that could possibly be more active in alcohol-affected individuals due to disinhinition (e.g., the beer goggles effect). We used a face-attractiveness evaluation task in which participants rated faces of the opposite sex for their attractiveness on a scale ranging from 1 (unattractive) to 4 (attractive). Seventeen healthy adults were randomly assigned to consume alcohol (.08g/kg) or a control beverage after 4 functional runs and before additional 4 runs. We compared data based

on whether they were collected from the alcohol challenge condition or not. Results are: (a) there were no significant differences between the alcohol and no-alcohol conditions in the attractiveness ratings and rating response times; (b) no-alcohol condition showed greater activations in the inferior and orbitofrontal, the superior frontal, striatum, and thalamus than the alcohol condition. These areas are similar to those that have been reported in face-attractiveness evaluation (e.g., Winston et al., 2007), showing that alcohol also suppresses BOLD activity associated with socio-cog-nitive processing.

Poster 107

AUTOMATIC REMOVAL OF COCHLEAR IMPLANT ARTIFACTS FROM EEG RECORDINGS

Filipa C. Viola1, Jeremy D. Thorne1, Maarten De Vos1,2, Stefan Bleeck3, Julie Eyles4, & Stefan Debener1,4

1University of Oldenburg, 2Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3University of Southampton, 4University Hospital Jena

Descriptors: EEG, independent component analysis, cochlear implant artefacts Cochlear implants (CIs) allow deaf individuals to recover a large amount of hearing function. An objective and non-invasive way of assessing auditory rehabilitation after implantation is by using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) but AEPs are however contaminated by electrical artifacts. Other studies have found that independent component analysis (ICA) is efficient in attenuating these CI artifacts and recovering the AEPs. However ICA requires the manual selection of independent components (ICs) representing the CI artifact and this process is subjective and time consuming. We therefore developed an automatic algorithm that screens temporal and topographical features of the ICs and identifies CI artifact related ICs based on an amplitude ratio and the correlation between artifactual topographies. The algorithm was trained using all ICs from 68-channel EEG datasets of 17 CI users stimulated with environmental sounds. CI artifact related ICs were manually selected by an expert (FCV). When comparing automatic and manual correction a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 98% were found. Although AEPs of reasonable quality could be recovered from all datasets with automatic classification, the overall sensitivity was considered imperfect. To further validate and improve the algorithm all ICs from a second, independent 68-channel EEG study comprising 17 CI users stimulated with different sounds will be evaluated and reported.

FCV was funded by the Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Lisbon, Portugal (SFRH/BD/37662/2007).

Poster 108

RAPID, NON-GENOMIC EFFECTS OF CORTISOL ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMANS

Florian Strelzyk1, Michael Hermes1, Ewald Naumann1, Melly Oitzl2, Christoph

Walter3, Hans-Peter Busch3, Steffen Richter1, & Hartmut Schachinger1 1University of Trier, 2Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, 3Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder, Trier

Descriptors: stress, EEG/MRI, thalamus

The stress hormone cortisol acts on the central nervous system in order to support adaptation and time-adjusted coping processes. Whereas previous research has focused on slow emerging, genomic effects of cortisol likely mediated by protein synthesis, there is only limited knowledge about rapid, non-genomic cortisol effects on 'in vivo' neuronal cell activity in humans. Three independent placebo-controlled studies in healthy men were conducted to test effects of 4 mg cortisol on central nervous system activity, occurring within 15minutes after intravenous administration. Two of the studies (N 5 26; N 5 9) used continuous arterial spin labeling as a magnetic resonance imaging sequence and found a rapid bilateral thalamic perfusion decrements. The third study (N 5 14) revealed rapid cortisol-induced changes in global signal strength and map complexity of the electroencephalogram. The observed changes in neuronal functioning suggest that cortisol may act on the thalamic relay of non-relevant background as well as on task specific sensory information in order to facilitate the adaptation to stress challenges. In conclusion, our data is the first to coherently suggest that a physiologically plausible amount of cortisol profoundly affects functioning and perfusion of the human CNS 'in vivo' by a rapid, non-genomic mechanism.

Poster 109

PREDICTORS OF INCREASED NEURAL RESPONSES TO STARTLE STIMULI AFTER EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED VIRTUAL REALITY-BASED TRAUMA EXPOSURE

Freya Rumball1, Loretta Malta2, Hunter Hoffman3, Aureliu Lavric1, & Anke Karl1 1University of Exeter, 2Albany Stratton VAMC, 3University of Washington

Descriptors: ptsd risk factors, p300 amplitude, startle reactivity

PTSD is characterised by increased arousal and hypervigilance. Pre, peri and post trauma individual differences have been associated with increased PTSD risk; however it

is unclear HOW risk factors exert their maladaptive effects. We hypothesise that startle sensitization is a key mechanism. Eighty-four healthy participants were exposed to a traumatising virtual reality (VR) scenario and subsequently an acoustic startle response paradigm, with trauma related (gunshot and VR image) and neutral (car horn and neutral image) 95dB, 500 ms startle stimuli. Startle conditions were presented in separate blocks, counterbalanced across participants. Known pre-trauma PTSD risk factors (e.g. traits, stressful life events), self report of emotional response to VR, and explicit memory for the VR scenario were entered into a multiple regression to examine to what extent they predict subsequent parietal P3 amplitudes to startle stimuli. Participants exposed to a higher number of stressful life events in the past 12 months and with heightened arousal during the VR, showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to startle stimuli, independently of stimulus valence. Increased negative and reduced positive state during the VR was related to increased P3 amplitudes in the neutral condition. A negative relationship was present between VR recall accuracy and left P3 startle amplitudes in the trauma condition. The results suggest that if the trauma memory is not sufficiently encoded, individuals will react more strongly to trauma reminders; while arousal and stressful life events predict startle sensitization.

This work was supported by a grant from the Gerald Kerkutt Trust and an Exeter Graduate Fellowship to Freya Rumball.

Poster 110

ANXIETY DISORDERS REVISITED: DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND SELF REPORT

Georgia Panayiotou, Maria Karekla, Margarita Kapsou, & Dora Georgiou University of Cyprus

Descriptors: anxiety, startle, fear

Anxiety disorders include emotions of Fear and Anxiety to different degrees. Recent research indicates that disorders differ in the degree to which sufferers react specifically to their own phobic situations or to more widespread stimuli and with more defuse negative affect. It has been suggested that anxiety disorders may be on a continuum, with specific phobias showing the most specific fearful reactions on one end, and GAD showing less specific fear reactions and more anxiety and depression (Lang & McTeaque, 2008). This study compares sub-clinical participants (based on PDSQ screening) with Social Phobia, (N 5 15), Panic, (N 5 7) and controls (N 5 15) in their responses to their own versus other phobic situations, and self-reported affect. Participants imagined standardized anxiety situations that corresponded to 4 anxiety disorders, for 8s each, interspersed with ITIs where they silently counted ''one''. Physiological measures included HR, SCR, facial EMG and startle. High comorbidity was observed between anxiety disorders, especially with animal fears. Social Phobics responded with significantly larger startles amplitudes to their own fear situations compared to other fear situations, whereas panic sufferers responded about equally to all anxiety scenes. Largest startles for all participants appeared in animal fear situations. Panic sufferers had overall slower startle latencies and HR, while their self-report and physiological reactivity were inversely related. Effects were moderated by depression scores. Results are discussed in terms of theories of anxiety and fear. Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation & European Union Structural Funds

Poster 111

AUDITORY N1-SUPPRESSION FOR ACTION-SOUND COINCIDENCES: NOT AN ATTENTIONAL EFFECT

János Horváth Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Descriptors: self-initiated sounds, forward model, N1

A number of studies indicate that sounds coinciding with án action elicit attenuated auditory N1 event-related brain potentials compared to sounds presented alone. This is usually interpreted by assuming that an internal forward model predicts that the action will produce a sensory event, which leads to the sensory suppression of the forthcoming sound. It could be argued, however, that N1 is attenuated for coincidences because the action briefly draws away attentional resources from the processing of the otherwise task-irrelevant auditory stimulation, which is also known to lead to attenuated N1 amplitudes. In the present study a coincidence paradigm was utilized to address this issue. Sequences of sinusoid tones with random, 2-6s onset-to-onset intervals were presented to young adult participants. In one condition, participants performed a time interval distribution production task: they pressed a key so that consecutive key-presses were separated by silent intervals of 2-6s with uniform distribution. In a second condition, participants were instructed to press the key so that their keypresses would coincide with a tone ("coincidence hunt''). N1 amplitudes were similarly attenuated for coincidences in comparison to tones presented alone in both conditions. In the time interval production task a P2 attenuation was also observable. In the "coincidence hunt'' condition the attenuated N1 was followed by an N2 and P3b as well. These results suggest that the N1-suppression for action-sound coincidences is not brought about by attentional effects.

This research has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (under grant agreement PERG04-GA-2008-239393).

THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF ACCENT PERCEPTION

James A. Rae1, Shanna Kousaie2, Tessa Bent3, & Vanessa Taler1 1University of Ottawa, 2Concordia University, 3Indiana University

Descriptors: accent

Accent perception is a little-studied area of psycholinguistics. This pilot study aimed to create a framework with which to investigate accent perception. Young adults (n 5 8) read sentences presented one word at a time on a screen; the sentence-final word was presented through headphones. This final word was either congruent or incongruent with the preceding sentence, and was presented with either a North American English or a Spanish accent. Participants made a congruency judgment on each sentence. We examined the effect of accent and congruency on response time (RT) and the N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP). There was no significant effect of congruency on RT, but congruency affected the N400 component (F(1,7) 5 22.9, MSE 5 45.7, p<0.01), replicating the canonical N400 and indicating changed processing beyond that discernible through behavioural analysis. Spanish-accented words elicited longer RTs (F (1,7) 5 9.7, MSE 5 0.02, p<0.02), and larger N400s than English-accented words (F(1,7) 5 22.9, MSE 5 45.7, p<0.01) with the same congruency status. This increase seems to be a general upshift of the N400 component in response to both congruent and incongruent stimuli when presented with an accent. This upshift may indicate increased processing demands elicited by foreign-accented words, above and beyond processing demands elicited by incongruency.

Poster 113

BRAIN REACTIVITY TO VARYING TYPES OF EMOTIONAL AND CIGARETTE - RELATED STIMULI IN SMOKERS

Jennifer A. Minnix, Francesco Versace, Jason D. Robinson, Cho Y. Lam, Jeffrey M. Engelmann, Victoria L. Brown, & Paul M. Cinciripini University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Descriptors: nicotine dependence, emotion

Identifying neural mechanisms associated with addiction has substantially improved the overall understanding of the addictive process. Indeed, research suggests that drug-associated cues may hijack neural mechanisms originally intended for emotional processing of stimuli relevant to survival. In this study, we investigated cortical responses to several categories of emotional cues (erotic, romance, pleasant objects, mutilation, sadness, unpleasant objects) as well as two types of smoking-related cues (people smoking and cigarette-related objects). We recorded ERPs from 116 smokers (50% female) prior to their participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial and assessed emotional salience by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP; 400 to 600 milliseconds after picture onset). As expected, emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted a significantly larger LPP than neutral pictures (p< .0001). The amplitude of the LPP increased as a function of arousal, with erotic and mutilation pictures showing the largest response and pleasant and unpleasant objects showing the smallest response (p<.0001). However, there was no difference in the LPP between the cigarette stimuli containing people and those with only objects, suggesting that unlike the emotional objects, cigarette-related objects are highly relevant for smokers. NIDA 1R01DA017073

Poster 114

PROCESSING FLUENCY MODERATES LEFT FRONTAL CORTICAL ASYMMETRY AND THE EXPRESSION OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS

Jillian K. Swencionis & David M. Amodio New York University

Descriptors: prejudice, self regulation, fluency

Can a more careful response strategy override the influence of implicit racial bias in behavior? Among White Americans, implicit racial bias is pervasive, difficult to control, and resistant to change. Our prior research has shown that greater processing disfluency is associated with a reduction in the expression of implicit racial bias. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that disfluent processing is associated with increased control, as indicated by greater relative left frontal cortical activity measured using EEG. Participants completed a sequential priming task that assessed evaluative bias, by measuring accuracy in classifying pleasant vs. unpleasant words following White or Black face primes. Fluency was manipulated by changing the proportion of trials within each block that were inconsistent with prevailing racial associations. Task behavior replicated our past findings, such that in fluent blocks, the typical pattern of racial bias was observed, but in disfluent blocks, implicit racial associations were not evident in behavior. We also observed increased left-frontal asymmetry during disfluent blocks compared with fluent blocks. These findings suggest that disfluency is associated with a reduction in implicit bias, and also that dis-fluency may engage greater left frontal cortical asymmetry.

PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AND CORONARY ARTERY ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Jo-Ann Eastwood1, B. Delia Johnson2, Thomas Rutledge3, Bina Ahmed4, Mary-Lynn Brecht1, Janet Wei5, Glenn Braunstein5, Ricardo Azziz6, Sarah Berga7, Vera Bittner8 & C. Noel Bairey Merz5 1University of California, Los Angeles, 2University of Pittsburgh, 3Veteran's Administration San Diego, 4University of Vermont-Burlington, 5Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 6Georgia Health Sciences University, 7Emory University, 8University of Alabama at Birmingham

Descriptors: psychosocial stress, cardiovascular disease-women

Despite recent advances, deaths from coronary artery disease in young women are on the rise. It is critical that characteristics of at-risk premenopausal women(PMW) be identified. Non-human primate data have demonstrated a relationship between stress and atherosclerosis in premenopausal females. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of stress and coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) in PMW. Twenty-four PMW (mean age 44.0, standard deviation [SD] 5.0 years; 67% Caucasian) undergoing clinically-indicated coronary angiography were enrolled. CAA was defined as a luminal stenosis greater than 20% in 1 or more coronary arteries. Stress and early morning salivary cortisol levels were measured at baseline and 1 month later. Stress was measured using 4 questions from the INTERHEART study; higher scores meant greater stress. Effect sizes (Cohen's d for means) were interpreted as: small (.20), medium (.50), large (.80 or more). Results: Eighteen PMW (75%) had CAA. Of these, 10 (58%) reported stressful events compared to 1 PMW without CAA (17%) (p-value .049). Effect sizes for stress (d of .88) and salivary cortisol (d of .57) were medium to large. At the second visit, salivary cortisol was higher in PMW with CAA compared to those without (mean .24, SD . 18 versus . 12, SD .06, p-value .028). These pilot data suggest a relationship between CAA and psychosocial stress in PMWundergoing coronary angiography. Our results provide effect size and outcome variability estimates for determining sample size for a larger study.

Poster 116

AN EXAMINATION OF STARTLE HABITUATION WITH LATENT CURVE MODELS

Stephanie T. Lane, & Joseph C. Franklin University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Descriptors: startle habituation, latent growtch curve modeling, fear Startle habituation data is usually examined using means-based procedures that require the artificial division of data and time into discrete units (i.e., t-tests and ANOVAs). These means-based techniques are limited in their ability to describe the pattern of habituation. Latent curve models arise from the SEM framework, which estimates the continuous underlying trajectory of data, defined by an intercept and a slope factor. These models are a more suitable fit to the data given the pattern of nonlinear change over time present in habituation. The present study employed latent growth curve modeling to examine startle habituation across 21 trials in 94 college students; trait fear was also assessed in these participants with the Fear Survey Schedule. On average, startle habituation reached an asymptote after 13 trials, suggesting that studies wishing to habituate participants should use at least 13 trials. Results also showed that increased fear was associated with significantly higher initial reactivity (i.e., higher intercept) to the startle stimulus, but was not associated with differential habituation (i.e., normal slope). Similarly, female gender was associated with a higher intercept but normal slope. Finally, it was found that a quadratic growth curve most optimally fit the pattern ofstartle habituation, chi square (23) 5 26.28, p 5 .28, CFI 5 .99, RMSEA 5 .04. These indices indicate exceptional model fit. These results suggest that latent curve modeling offers a framework for more valid inferences in startle habituation research.

Poster 117

A TEST OF THE PROTECTION FUNCTION OF PREPULSE INHIBITION

Joseph C. Franklin, Collyn T. Murray, Stephanie T. Lane, Kent M. Lee, & Stephen P.

Shorkey

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Descriptors: prepulse inhibition, protection function, PPI

Since Graham (1975) first proposed the protection function of prepulse inhibition (PPI), most PPI researchers have believed that PPI functions to protect the processing of the prepulse. However, we are not aware of any direct tests of the protection function of PPI. Accordingly, in the present study we tested this function by measuring PPI and prepulse tone discrimination in 40 healthy participants in 3 randomized blocks. The first block included 30 startle-alone trials (10 each of 90, 100, 110dB) and 30 PPI trials (15 high/low-tone 85dB prepulses followed by a 90, 100, or 110dB startle stimulus). Based on the protection function, we hypothesized that PPI trials with more intense startle stimuli would be associated with lower PPI (intense stimuli should overcome the protection more) and poorer prepulse tone discrimination (intense stimuli should disrupt prepulse processing more). The second block was an identical block with no startle-alone trials. Finally, we

included a third block to test an alternative hypothesis that prepulse processing increases PPI and prepulse tone discrimination (10 100dB startle-alone trials, 30 PPI trials with 75, 80, or 85dB high/low-tone prepulses). Results were inconsistent with the protection function: there was no effect of startle stimulus intensity on PPI or prepulse tone accuracy; in fact, the means showed that PPI and tone accuracy increased with a louder startle stimulus. Results for the alternative hypothesis were mixed: louder prepulse stimuli were associated with increased PPI, but only nonsignificant increases in tone accuracy.

Poster 118

INCREASED ALPHA (8-12 HZ) ACTIVITY DURING SLOW-WAVE SLEEP AS A MARKER FOR THE TRANSITION FROM IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE TO EXPLICIT INSIGHT

Juliana Yordanova1, Ullrich Wagner2, Jan Born3, Rolf Verleger3, & Vasil Kolev1 1Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Germany, 3University of Luebeck, Germany

Descriptors: sleep eeg, implicit knowledge, alpha spindles

The Number Reduction Task (NRT) allows studying the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. In order to identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during the night between two sessions of the NRT. Alpha (8- 12 Hz) EEG power during slow-wave sleep (SWS) emerged as a specific marker of the transformation of pre-sleep implicit knowledge to post-sleep explicit knowledge. Beta power during SWS was increased whenever explicit knowledge was attained after sleep, irrespective of pre-sleep knowledge. No such EEG predictors of insight were found during sleep stage 2 and REM sleep. These results support the view that it is neuronal memory reprocessing during sleep, in particular during SWS, that lays the foundations for restructuring those task-related representations in the brain that are necessary for promoting the gain of explicit knowledge. Funding provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft SFB 654.

Poster 119

ANXIETY DISRUPTS SELECTIVELY THE EVALUATIVE COMPONENT OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY

Kristien Aarts & Gilles Pourtois Ghent University

Descriptors: feedback processing, anxiety

Although previous studies showed that anxiety alters cognitive control primarily when the monitoring of internalized error signals is required, it remains unclear whether anxiety also impairs performance monitoring when this process is based instead on the processing of external signals like evaluative feedbacks. Here we addressed this question and focused on the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN), an ERP component that is sensitive to the valence of feedback. Thirty low and 30 high anxious individuals performed a speeded Go/noGo task during which they had to rely on feedbacks to infer whether their actions were timely (correct) or not. Neutral or emotional faces were used as feedbacks. In one condition, neutral faces served as positive feedbacks, while in the other condition the same neutral faces served as negative feedbacks, enabling a comparison of the same feedback stimuli across two different evaluative contexts. As expected, the FRN was larger when negative feedbacks were presented, but this effect was only observed for low anxious individuals. The FRN of high anxious individuals did not discriminate between neutral faces when used either as positive or negative feedbacks. However, before the FRN, we also found evidence for a differential perceptual effect at the level of the N170 face-specific component between the two contexts, equally so in low and high anxious individuals. These results suggest that anxiety disrupts selectively the evaluative (but not the perceptual) component of performance monitoring, which presumably allows to ascribe a given value to actions.

Poster 120

ADULTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERS SHOW ATYPICAL N1 RESPONSES TO REPEATED SOUNDS

Kristin L. Knopf, Marie R. Kyle, Lauren T. Schully, Megan M. Brooks, Kelly H. Parry, Ivy A. Thompson, Elise B. Suna, Rachel M. Stowe, Komal Mehra, & Julia A. Golizio

Rhodes College

Descriptors: ADHD, N1, attenuation

The main objective of the present study was to compare attenuation of N1 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to repeated, unattended sounds between people with and without diagnosed attention deficit disorders. Previous studies have shown that groups with reduced sensory gating deficits show changes in the N1, generally in the form of relatively large amplitudes to repeated stimuli. Trains of5 tones (400-ms tone onset asynchronies), at randomized inter-train intervals (ITIs) of 1 or 5 seconds, were presented through earphones. Sounds were presented while participants viewed a TV sitcom with closed cap-

tioning, and ERPs were measured through scalp electrodes. We found a group (attention deficit vs. control) x ITI (1 second vs. 5 second) x electrode (Fz, Cz, Pz) interaction, such that the typical ITI difference at frontal electrodes (larger initial N1 after the 5-second ITI) was absent in the attention deficit group, but was present at more posterior electrodes.

Poster 121

SELF-REFERENT SENTENCE PROCESSING IN DEPRESSION: BRAIN RESPONSES CONTRADICT EXPLICIT JUDGMENTS

Linzi Gibson, Rebecca Chambers, Ruth Ann Atchley, Stephen Ilardi, Keith Young, Jonathan Schuster, & Natalie Stroupe University of Kansas

Descriptors: ERP, depression, semantics

This study examined how people with major depressive disorder (MDD) process emotional, self-referent sentences. Nineteen individuals with MDD endorsed as true or false, emotional sentences presented visually, one word at a time, while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. The sentence final word was either depression consistent (loser) or depression inconsistent (winner). The behavioral data indicate participants were more likely to endorse positive sentences; however, the ERP data reveals an enhanced N400 for the depression inconsistent compared to depression consistent sentences. Given previous evidence that the N400 component is larger (more negative) on trials where the stimuli are semantically incongruent (e.g. Kutas & Hillyard, 1980), these results suggest that the MDD participants categorize the depression consistent sentences as more congruent with their self-image than the depression inconsistent sentences, despite the behavioral evidence to the contrary.

Poster 122

EFFECTS OF FOREKNOWLEDGE ABOUT TASK-RELEVANT INFORMATION AND TASK-SET UPDATING - TWO DISTINCT PROCESSES MIRRORED IN THE FRONTAL P2 COMPONENT

Mareike Finke1, Carles Escera1, & Francisco Barcelo2 1University of Barcelona, 2University of the Balearic Islands

Descriptors: task switching, foreknowledge, P2

Endogenous preparation and exogenous adjustment in task-switching paradigms are assumed to be distinct processes having different time courses (Jamadar et al., 2010; Sohn et al., 2000). In the present study we used a task-cueing protocol and independently manipulated foreknowledge and switch effects (task repeat, sensory update, task switch) in order to investigate the time courses of goal activation and anticipation and task-set updating processes. Slower reaction times (RT) occurred for non-informative (NIpc) compared with informative precues (Ipc). The largest RTs were observed for trials including both a sensory update and a task switch. A significant interaction between Cue and Task conditions uncovered that a sensory update led to increasing RT in Ipc similar to task-switch trials while RT was alike repeat trials in NIpc. Enhanced frontal P2 amplitudes were found for switch cues compared to repeat cues and NIpc indicating that in contrast to previous work (Jamadar et al., 2010), goal activation and anticipation (Ipc vs. NIpc) and task-set updating processes (Ipc switch vs. repeat) occurred concurrently. The P3 amplitude was larger for Ipc compared to NIpc. The P2 sensibility to task-set updating processes as well as to stimulus evaluation and attent-ional control is in line with previous work (Adrover-Roig & Barcelo, 2010; Potts, 2004; West et al., 2010). Crucially, present data could show both within one paradigm suggesting the P2 being indeed a ''change detector'' (Brown et al., 2006) and evaluating whether anticipation is possible on the current information.

Poster 123

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR LINKING EEG SYNCHRONY TO WHITE MATTER DTI CONNECTIVITY

Michael X. Cohen University of Amsterdam

Descriptors: EEG, DTI, connectivity

Interest in how brain networks support cognitive and emotional processes has skyrocked in recent years. This is likely attributable both to the increasing importance of networks in our day-to-day lives (ranging from social internet sites to your plane travel itinerary) and to the increase in computational power and algorithmic sophistication for characterizing and quantifying network dynamics. Research on brain networks has largely been based on structural networks or