Scholarly article on topic 'Enhancement of Saline Water for Irrigation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Species in Presence of Molybdenum'

Enhancement of Saline Water for Irrigation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Species in Presence of Molybdenum Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

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{"saline water" / "Phaseolus vulgaris" / molybdenum / chlorophyll / yield}

Abstract of research paper on Biological sciences, author of scientific article — Salha Bouzid, Chaabane Rahmoune

Abstract Salinity constitutes a major obstacle in the production and plant growth especially in the Mediterranean region where water quality plays a major role. In the Maghreb more than 30% of water for irrigation is loaded with salt, and it induces the reduction of growth and yield of sensitive varieties. So, research for plants adapted to high levels of salinity becomes an imperative for agricultural production. The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important source of dietary protein in many developing countries but is considered as sensitive species to salinity compared to other vegetables. Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element in soil, it is involved in the biosynthesis of several enzymes necessary for growth of most biological organisms, plants and animals. We tried in our work to elucidate the effect of different concentrations of molybdenum (M0: 0, M1: 0.1ppm, M2: 0.2ppm and M3: 0.4ppm) by the addition of ammonium molybdate ((NH4) 6Mo7O24.4H2O) on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris Var. Djedida subjected to salt stress by providing five NaCl treatments (T0: 0, T1: 3g/l, T2: 6g/l, T3: 9g/l and T4: 12g/l) in water of irrigation. To highlight the response of these seedlings we conducted an assay of total chlorophyll (Chl (a+b)) by spectrophotometer, and determination of the morphological parameters such as length and biomass of shoots and roots. The bean plants are able to maintain an optimum level of total chlorophyll and their morphological parameters under the condition of mild salt stress (3g/l) but in the presence of molybdenum, it could alleviate the negative effect of NaCl. We concluded that the presence of molybdenum in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2ppm in the culture medium of Phaseolus vulgaris irrigated with saline water increased the chlorophyll content and the plant biomass yield.

Academic research paper on topic "Enhancement of Saline Water for Irrigation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Species in Presence of Molybdenum"

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W70 ELSEVIER

Procedía Engineering

Procedía Engineering 333 (2012) 168 - 173

www.elsevier.com/Iocate/procedia

ISWEE'11

Enhancement of Saline Water for Irrigation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Species in Presence of Molybdenum

Salinity constitutes a major obstacle in the production and plant growth especially in the Mediterranean region where water quality plays a major role. In the Maghreb more than 30% of water for irrigation is loaded with salt, and it induces the reduction of growth and yield of sensitive varieties. So, research for plants adapted to high levels of salinity becomes an imperative for agricultural production.

The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) is an important source of dietary protein in many developing countries but is considered as sensitive species to salinity compared to other vegetables. Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element in soil, it is involved in the biosynthesis of several enzymes necessary for growth of most biological organisms, plants and animals.

We tried in our work to elucidate the effect of different concentrations of molybdenum (M0: 0, M1: 0.1ppm, M2: 0.2ppm and M3: 0.4ppm) by the addition of ammonium molybdate ((NH4) 6Mo7O24.4H2O) on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris Var. Djedida subjected to salt stress by providing five NaCl treatments (T0: 0, T1: 3g/l, T2: 6g/l, T3: 9g/l and T4: 12g/l) in water of irrigation.

To highlight the response of these seedlings we conducted an assay of total chlorophyll (Chl (a+b)) by spectrophotometer, and determination of the morphological parameters such as length and biomass of shoots and roots.

The bean plants are able to maintain an optimum level of total chlorophyll and their morphological parameters under the condition of mild salt stress (3g/l) but in the presence of molybdenum, it could alleviate the negative effect of NaCl. We concluded that the presence of molybdenum in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2ppm in the culture medium of Phaseolus vulgaris irrigated with saline water increased the chlorophyll content and the plant biomass yield.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of ISWEE' 11

Keywords: saline water; Phaseolus vulgaris; molybdenum; chlorophyll; yield.

1. Introduction

Salinity constitutes a major obstacle in the production and plant growth especially in the Mediterranean region where water quality plays a major role. In the Maghreb more than 30% of water for irrigation is loaded with salt,

'Carrespaedieg author. Tel.: +213 555 10 83 86; fax: +213 31 63 02 03

Salha Bauzid*, Chaabaee Rahmauee

Ecotoxicology and Abiotic Stress laboratory, Department of Biology and Ecology, SNV faculty, Mentouri University Constantine, Algeria

Abstract

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.1190

and it induces the reduction of growth and yield of sensitive varieties [1]. So research for plants adapted to high levels of salinity becomes an imperative for agricultural production [2].

The bean (Phoseolus vulgaris L.) is an important source of dietary protein in many developing countries but is considered as sensitive species to salinity compared to other legumes [3].

Molybdenum is a trace element in soil; it is involved in the biosynthesis of several enzymes necessary for growth of most biological organisms plants and animals [4].

Molybdenum itself seems to be catalytically inactive in biological systems until is linked in a complex consisting of a unique pterin named Molybdenum cofactor (Moco). Molybdenum deficiency leads to a decrease in chlorophyll content in spinach leaves, Gupta (1997) reported chlorosis in plants due to the inability of plants to form chlorophyll caused by Mo deficiency [5].

2. Materials and methods

To illustrate the effect of molybdenum on plant bean yield submitted to salt stress, we used different concentrations of molybdenum (M0: 0, M1: 0.1ppm, M2: 0.2ppm and M3: 0.4ppm) by the addition of ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O) on seedlings of Phoseolus vulgaris Var. djedida subjected to five NaCl treatments (T0: 0, T1: 3g/l, T2: 6g/l, T3: 9g/l and T4: 12g/l) in water of irrigation.

To highlight the response of these seedlings we conducted an assay of total chlorophyll (Chl(a+b)) by spectrophotometer, and determination of the morphological parameters such as length and biomass of shoots and roots.

3. Results and discussion

Abiotic stresses are responsible for yield losses estimated at 50% for most crops [6]. These stresses result in changes in morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular level that affects negatively plant growth and productivity [7], [8], [9] and [10].

The bean is a sensitive species to salinity that reduces plant growth by 25% [11]. The bean is extremely sensitive to salinity and recorded yield losses in soils under 2 dsm-1 of salinity [12].

3.1. Dry shoot biomoss (BSA)

Adding 0.4ppm of molybdenum to the soil in absence of salinity increased the dry biomass of shoot by 80%. The seedlings irrigated with (T1M2) give the highest average of dry shoot biomass with 0.562g which corresponds to 71% of increase compared to the control.

BSA (g)

Fig. 1. Dry shoot biomass (BSA) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

3.2. Dry root biomass (BSR)

Salt stressed seedlings with 3g/l of NaCl have seen their root dry biomass (BSR) increased by 65% with value of 0.091g, and with 6g/l the BSR increased by 60% with a value of 0.088g, the treatments (M2T0) and (M2T1) give a mean BSR value of 0.078g which represents, an increase of 54% and 41% respectively compared to the control.

Fig. 2. Dry root biomass (BSR) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

3.3. Fresh shoot biomass (BPA)

In absence of salinity and the presence of 0.4 ppm of molybdenum, the fresh shoot biomass reaches the highest value of 5.257g which is five times higher compared to the control, and treatments (M1T1) give an average value of 4.511g of BPA which is four times higher compared to the control.

BPA (g)

Fig. 3. Fresh shoot biomass (BPA) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

3.4. Fresh root biomass (BPR)

Seedlings irrigated with treatments (M0T2), give the highest mean of BPR with the value of 1.769g, that constitutes an increase of more than 100% compared to the control that is represented by the lowest value of 0.012g.

BPR (g)

1,2 1 \ M2

0,8 \ MO

0,2 [NaCl] (g/l)

T0 T1 T2 T3 T4

Fig. 4. Fresh root biomass (BPR) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

3.5. Shoot length (LPA)

Seedlings irrigated with treatments (M2T1) give a value of 18.833cm of shoot length, which constitutes an increase of 51%, compared to the control and it shows the positive effect of molybdenum on this species.

Fig. 5. Shoot length (LPA) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

3.6. Root length (LPS)

The first group dominating with a value of 16cm of root length is represented by seedlings treated by (M0T1) which represents an increase of 118% compared to the control which, with other treatments (M0T2 - M1T1), gave a mean of root length of 13cm and it constitutes an increase of 77% of the LPS. The presence of molybdenum in the soil culture of bean made and increase in root length to look for water in soil depth. This is one way for these plants to resist salinity.

Fig. 6. Root length (LPS) of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

The presence of 0.1ppm and 0.2ppm of molybdenum significantly increased shoot fresh biomass (BPA) of Phaseolus vulgaris Var. djedida, especially in the presence of salt stress with 3, 6 and 9g/l of NaCl. The root fresh biomass (BPR) takes the highest value in the absence of molybdenum and concentration of 6g/l of salt while the BPA decreased significantly under salt stress and increased by the presence of molybdenum that seems to match with other results [13]; the growth of clover shoot weight was reduced by 20% at 4g/l and 44% at 6g/l, and the development of root system was less sensitive [13].

The results we obtained show that the favorable effect of molybdenum on Phaseolus vulgaris Var. djedida seems obvious but we note that in some parameters such as (BSR, LPA and LPS), the addition of M3:0.4ppm would be toxic because it causes the decrease of these parameters Fig. 2, Fig 5, Fig 6. Other works about the action of molybdenum on bean and other plants show its positive effect.

Foliar fertilization of bean with molybdenum or molybdenum combined with boron in early flower bud formation resulted in an increase of 5% in seeds, compared with the control and increased 3% of seed weight per plant and seed yield [14].

The production of dry biomass and protein content in the Trifolium pratense L. species was significantly increased when the concentration of molybdenum increases in roots [15].

The combined application of P and Mo increased the root dry biomass. The application of Mo increased the concentration of Mo and P in the aerial part [16].

3.7. Total chlorophyll content (chl(a+b))

The chlorophyll content of Seedlings treated with (M2T0) and (M1T2) reaches to 2.060 and 1.940|ig/g MF respectively; this corresponds to an increase of 42% and 34% respectively compared to the control.

Fig.7. the chlorophyll (a+b) content of Phaseolus vulgaris treated with NaCl and Mo

The results obtained present the depressive effect of salt on the species with T3 and T4 concentrations that correspond to 9 and 12g/l NaCl, which matches with other studies [17], it was reported that under salinity conditions the chlorophyll content decreases and that decrease was significant in sensitive genotypes compared with tolerant ones [18]. In three cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were reduced under salt stress [19].

It is shown that salinity (100 mM NaCl) of the medium reduces the photosynthetic capacity in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris [20]. In our work the presence of molybdenum concentrations M1 and M2, which correspond to 0.1 and 0.2 ppm causes an increase in total chlorophyll, which is in concordance with other works.

The application of (NH4)2MoO4 on plants of Vicia faba Var. major had increased the rate of total nitrogen, soluble sugars, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate. The growth of root nodules and nitrogen fixation were stimulated, and more assimilates were distributed to the seeds [21].

The application of Mo has a positive effect on the development of wheat, the yield of total plant nitrogen, saccharides, proteins, potassium and magnesium contents under severe water stress conditions [22].

4. Conclusion

The bean plants are able to maintain an optimum level of total chlorophyll and their morphological parameters under the condition of mild salt stress (3g/l) in the presence of molybdenum, it could alleviate the negative effect of NaCl.

We concluded that the presence of molybdenum in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2ppm in the culture medium of Phaseolus vulgaris irrigated with saline water increased the chlorophyll content and the plant biomass yield.

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