Scholarly article on topic 'Education and Training for Parents Today, Discipline and Wellbeing for Children Tomorrow'

Education and Training for Parents Today, Discipline and Wellbeing for Children Tomorrow Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Positive discipline" / "parenting training" / education / children}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — F. Ródenas, J. Garcés, E. Durá, A. Doñate-Martínez

Abstract Children's upbringing is one of the most important and difficult roles and challenges for parents today. This paper presents a new model of parenting training developed within the project “BE Supportive, NOT violent! Positive parenting for happy children!”- III Daphne Programme (European Commission). Parents from several countries – among them Spain – were trained receiving informative background as well as practical advice for everyday use. The main results show that parents acquired useful techniques for upbringing children as communication skills or strategies to set limits, and moreover they got to know more about children's development. In this sense, providing basic knowledge and reinforce parenting skills foster that children learn a cognitive and behavioral model based on positive discipline and non-violent reactions.

Academic research paper on topic "Education and Training for Parents Today, Discipline and Wellbeing for Children Tomorrow"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 (2014) 2248 - 2251

5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013

Education and Training for Parents Today, Discipline and Wellbeing for Children Tomorrow

Rodenas, F. a *, Garcés, J. a, Durá, E. a & Doñate-Martínez, A. a

aPolibienestar Research Institute - University of Valencia. Edificio Institutos de Investigación - Campus dels Tarongers, c/Serpis n°29. Valencia

46022, Spain

Abstract

Children's upbringing is one of the most important and difficult roles and challenges for parents today. This paper presents a new model of parenting training developed within the project "BE Supportive, NOT violent! Positive parenting for happy children!"-III Daphne Programme (European Commission). Parents from several countries - among them Spain - were trained receiving informative background as well as practical advice for everyday use. The main results show that parents acquired useful techniques for upbringing children as communication skills or strategies to set limits, and moreover they got to know more about children's development. In this sense, providing basic knowledge and reinforce parenting skills foster that children learn a cognitive and behavioral model based on positive discipline and non-violent reactions.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. Keywords: Positive discipline, parenting training, , education, children;

1. Introduction

There is evidence that the type of parenting that children receive will have a significant influence on their development (Collins, et al., 2000). Similarly, the literature shows that positive parenting (i.e., appropriate heat and discipline) is associated with less child behavior problems (Kotchick & Forehand, 2002). Optimal developmental outcomes are thought to be associated with parenting practices that promote autonomy and when parents are sensitive, responsive, and available to the child when required (Bowlby, 1988).

As a result, positive discipline has emerged in response to the increasing in children's socially risk behaviors and the decrease of their academic success. Positive discipline is a non-violent approach designed to teach young people to become responsible, respectful and resourceful members of their communities. It is not only a tool for teaching children, as it also provides a foundation for adults; including parents, teachers, childcare providers, youth workers and others. Positive discipline teaches important social and life skills in a manner that is deeply respectful and helps children succeed, gives them information and support their growth (Nelson et al., 2000).

In this sense, the main goal of positive discipline is to teach a child to self-regulate himself without making him angry, resentful, fearful and dependent upon force. The basis of this discipline include basic principles that help

* Corresponding Author: Francisco Rodenas. Tel.: +34-963828202 Email : francisco.rodenas@uv.es

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.553

parents build strong relationships with their children, teach respect, shape behavior, foster independence, build resiliency by encouraging parents to be consistent, listen to the child, form a connection with the child and help children realize that behavior has consequences. Thus, positive discipline is a set of techniques that can be applied in a wide range of situations (i.e., negotiation skills for children to learn to deal with conflict constructively; behaviour modification techniques such as withdrawal of attention, "time out", contingency management, paradoxical intention).

In this sense, it is very important to train parents how to respond in difficult situations with children through coping successfully stress and anger. There are training programmes with a preventive, educational and informative objective (Bartau et al., 2001); and others addressed to parents with specific or special needs as first-time parents, families with problematic children or at risk of social exclusion (Danforth et al., 2006; Furlong et al., 2012).

Within a European project entitled "Be Supportive, Not violent! Positive Parenting for happy children!" it a new educational model addressed to parents has been designed to promote parenting training focused on positive, nonviolent education, based on managing stress and anger, and in the recognition and strengthening of attitudes, achievements and skills of children. This model was designed to create a family friendly environment that supports and reinforces parents in raising their children on a day-to-day basis.

Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present the experience and results obtained through the implementation of a new model of positive parenting developed within the project "BE Supportive, NOT violent! in Spain.

2. Methodology

The basis for the elaboration of this new model of positive parenting was an analysis of the current context in the European partner countries - Romania, Spain, Latvia, Poland, Italy and Sweden - regarding the needs of parents and children to develop more positive mutual relationship, to create more supportive environment for growing up happy children (Donate-Martinez et al., 2012). This educational model was elaborated and developed by an international team of authors.

The model included six lessons that were led once a week. In each session parents can received both informative background - theoretical introduction, information about latest researches regarding the topic - and practical advice for everyday use. The topics for the lessons were the following:

1. Positive discipline.

2. Children's social competence development.

3. Children's emotional development.

4. Children's self-esteem development.

5. Studying and related issues.

In every participating country the model was implemented twice. In the case of Spain, the first implementation was carried out in the period December 2011-January 2012, and the second between May-June 2012, with a total sample of 30 participants.

During the different sessions parents actively participated in the proposed activities and at the end of every class and of the global training they assessed the session through questionnaires questionnaire to assess their impressions and opinions to improve the content and organization of the workshops.

3. Results

The main results obtained from the evaluation forms filled in by participants indicated that all parents expressed that they noticed changes in the relationship with their children or consider that they will be achieve it at mid-term being coherent and constant with the abilities learned during the sessions. The indicated that these changes are mainly characterized by:

• They tried to be more concrete and specific in the establishment of rules to their children and not generalize.

• They felt less anxious and more calmed in the relationship with children.

• They felt more convinced thanks to dispose of more knowledge and skills.

• They were more patient and had more self-control.

• They were more communicative, talk more and reason more with their children.

• They used more the reinforcement.

• Their children felt more calmed too.

• They thought before acting, so they think better the things to say and how to say, how to act in specific situations, etc.

Moreover, parents expressed that they liked the most the following aspects of their participation in the workshops:

• The structure, the approach and exposition with simple language and understandable by all.

• The confidence transmitted by the trainer.

• The dialogue between parents and the trainer.

• The participation of the group.

• The harmony in the group.

• The practical content and practical tips.

• Knowledge and information about bullying.

• Recognition of some difficult behaviour in their children and how to respond them.

• Acquisition of skills and knowledge to become good parents and to bring up health children.

• Awareness that they are raising correctly they children, they are using the tools and information provided in the modules, and they have to follow this trend.

• Awareness that all parents have the same kind of problems with their children.

• Encouragement to reflect about their own behaviours and parenting styles in their own homes.

• Possibility to reflect that daily problems are caused, in many cases, by daily rhythm and stress that hampers the problems' resolution with calm.

4. Conclusions and recommendations

Summarizing, the main results presented in this paper indicate that parents that participate in the training of positive parenting implemented in Spain - among other countries - found the training very interesting and enriching as they learned new knowledge and skills, as well as tips on how to manage difficult situations (Garces et al., 2012). So, their participation in the training supposed motivation and confidence to continue working in their children's education and well-being.

An enriching and healthy parenting style is one of the basic rights that children must have, as parenting practices have a major influence on their development (Collins et al., 2000). So, one of the key sources and pillars of children's rights and children's protection are parents. In this sense, it is very important to train parents how to respond in difficult situations with children through coping successfully stress and anger.

Through the literature has been found that when parents use positive discipline techniques, parent-child interaction is positively related to school adjustment, social acceptability and achievement in young children. When parents use positive discipline techniques, they display warmth, responsiveness and respect to the child need's and sensitivity. At the same time it imposes reasonable limits without resorting to belittling or punishments that are abusive, punitive or inappropriate for the child's stage of development. Parents who use positive discipline techniques seek to enhance the happiness of both the child and parent.

The training model developed in the Be Supportive, Not violent! project is designed to create a family friendly environment that supports and reinforces parents in raising their children on a day-to-day basis as other similar programmes (e.g. Sanders, 1999). In this sense, this new model is a useful tool that adaptable to different contexts

and countries according to their special features and culture; as well as taking into consideration specific needs of particular groups of parents.

In summary, positive discipline brings together what is known about child's rights, children's healthy development and effective parenting. Thus, through providing basic knowledge and reinforce parenting skills in parents foster that children learn a cognitive and behavioral model based on positive discipline and non-violent reactions that, at the end, they can use it both with their parents and peers relationships.

Acknowledgements

The work presented in this paper received funding from the European Commission through the III Daphne Programme (project reference: JUST/2010/DAP3/AG/I059-3O-CE0396518/00.42).

References

Bartau, I., Maganto, M., & Etxeberria, J. (2001). Los programas de formación de padres: una experiencia educativa. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 25, 1-17.

Bolwby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books Inc.

Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., & Bornstein, M.H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218-232.

Danforth, J.S., Harvey, E., Ulaszek, W.R., & Eberhardt McKee, T. (2006). The outcome of group parent training for families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant/aggressive behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37, 188— 205.

Doñate-Martínez, A., Garcés, J., Ródenas, F., Durá, E., & García, C. (2012). European state of the art of child maltreatment context: a research on legal framework, good practices and direct sources. In DVD of The International Conference "Good practices of positive parenting at European level".

Furlong, M., McGilloway, S., Bywater, T., Hutchings, J., Smith, S.M. & Donnelly, M. (2012). Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. SystRev., 15 (2), 356-370.

Garcés, J., Ródenas, F., Durá, E., & Doñate-Martínez, A. (2012). Analysis about the current situation of child maltreatment in Europe: legal framework, good practices and new proposals. In Proceedings of XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, (pp. 111). Retrieved from http://www.ispcan2012.org/abstracts_2012.pdf.

Kotchick, B.A., & Forehand, R. (2002). Putting parenting in perspective : A discussion on the contextual factors that shape parenting practices. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11, 255-270.

Nelson, J., Lott, L., & Gleen, H. (2000). Positive Discipline in the Classroom. New York, Three Rivers Press.

Sanders, M.R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L.A. & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (4), 624-640.