Scholarly article on topic 'Develop a Women Artist Museum for Enrichmentthe City History'

Develop a Women Artist Museum for Enrichmentthe City History Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ira Adriati

Abstract Some museums in Bandung display the history of Bandung, but the role of women in the history was never been represented, particularly in visual art. Many women artists in Bandung have had a large contribution to the visual art development, and some even had national and international reputation. This research assessed (i) history recording system of government institutions and non-government institutions in Bandung; (ii) history of women artists in Bandung; (iii) utilizing women artist museum as a women creative place in Bandung. This research concludes that no museum in Bandung has focused on archiving women artist. The government and the society should have an awareness to build a museum that represented women and their role in Bandung history, particularly in visual art. A mechanism should be set up to ease everyone in the city to conserve visual art history data, especially on women artists in Bandung.

Academic research paper on topic "Develop a Women Artist Museum for Enrichmentthe City History"

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ELSEVIER Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 184 (2015) 351 - 356

Social and Behavioral Sciences

5th Arte Polis International Conference and Workshop - "Reflections on Creativity: Public Engagement and The Making of Place", Arte-Polis 5, 8-9 August 2014, Bandung, Indonesia

Develop a Women Artist Museum for Enrichmentthe City History

Ira Adriati*

Visual Art Study Program, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract

Some museums in Bandung display the history of Bandung, but the role of women in the history was never been represented, particularly in visual art. Many women artists in Bandung have had a large contribution to the visual art development, and some even had national and international reputation. This research assessed (i) history recording system of government institutions and non-government institutions in Bandung; (ii) history of women artists in Bandung; (iii) utilizing women artist museum as a women creative place in Bandung. This research concludes that no museum in Bandung has focused on archiving women artist. The government and the society should have an awareness to build a museum that represented women and their role in Bandung history, particularly in visual art. A mechanism should be set up to ease everyone in the city to conserve visual art history data, especially on women artists in Bandung.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of Arte-Polis 5

Keywords:woman artist; museum; city history

1. Introduction

In the process of making artworksin visual art, women are considered more as an object rather than as a subject. Marsha Meskimmon, a curator from University Loughborough England (Meskimmon, M, 2003), said about women artists and history of art, "Any investigation of women making art by necessity addresses history.The very fact that the work of women artists is still less well known that of their male counterparts raises questions concerning women's historical role in cultural production and in the construction of art's histories .For myself, and many other feminist scholars like me, researching women's unique cultural and intellectual contributions to both the past and the present is an exhilarating exercise and an important revision of those histories from which women's activities

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +628122030713 E-mail address: ira.adriati@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of Arte-Polis 5

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.05.102

have been excluded."

The role of women artists in the world history of visual art has not been well documented. In America, women's support to women artists was manifested at the Philadelphia Centennial of 1876.It was the first all-female exhibition spacein Women's Pavilion. The event was followed bya more dramatic exhibition in Women's Building of the Chicago World's Colombian Exposition in 1893.The exhibition was organizedand participated by women only.Women architects, sculptors, and muralist from all over the world submitted arts and craftswork to the exhibition. In the Chicago Woman's Building, murals of Primitive Woman by Mary F. Mac Monnies and Modern Woman by Marry Cassattare exhibited.

Fig. 1. The Woman's Building in World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893. Source: Bourde, M. and Garrard, M, 1996.

Women artists in Indonesia have been emerging as early as the time of PERSAGI (PersatuanAhliGambar Indonesia, Association of Indonesian Painters) in the 1930s. EmiriaSoenassa (a painter) and Trijoto Abdullah (a sculptor) were the examples of women artists during that time. The growing number in development of Art Institution in Indonesia resulted in the increasing number of women studying in the field. However, the number of women artists currently is still lower than that of men artists.

The first Indonesian art academy was founded in Bandung in 1947 as part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences Bandung (SeniRupaInstitutTeknologi Bandung).This Academy is the home of women artists who have been active inthe exhibition circle since 1980. Female art students after marriageput their art on their back andduring child-bearing years stop their works.Nevertheless,they make an impressive comeback in their mid-life and contribute eminently to Indonesian modern art.Farida Srihadi, Erna Pirous, UmiDachlan, and HeyiMa'munare among others who have contributed to Indonesian modern art. They have studied visual arts atthe InstitutTeknologi Bandung and created abstract painting.

2. Literature review: Museum

The term museum means a 'non-profit permanent institution in the service of a society.Its functionis open to the public. As a phenomenon museum is recent, but as a wordis an antiquity. To the Greeks, a mouseion was a place for contemplation and a philosophical institution or a temple of the Muses.To the Romans,the word museum was restricted to places of philosophical discussion. It was not until the fifteenth century that the term was used to describe a collection of Renaissance art in Florence. Later on, it had the connotation of comprehensiveness and encyclopedicknowledge. However, since the late eighteenth century a museum is related, by popular usage, to a building for the storage and exhibition of historic and natural objects (Macleod, S., Hanks, L.H, and Hale, J., 2012).

By the early twentieth century, the world museum scene had changed significantly. The movement of people to urban centersin industrialized countrieshas generated museum building. In Europe, museums are built and managed by local authoritieswhile in the United States museums emerged out of individual patronage or initiatives of local citizens. Hence, a new type of museum emerges. The earlier museums were encyclopedic in character and reflecting the spirit of their age. Recent museums are more specialized. One important development was the proliferation of 'folk museums'. Its background was the conscious attempt to preserve and display a nation's recent past. This kind of spiritwas increasingly characterizedmany museum activities as the century progressed. In some cases,this type of museums were exploited for propaganda purpose (Macleod, S., Hanks, L.H., and Hale, J., 2012).

Museums are almost as diverse as the collections displayed, and this make hard to define how they should operate and what are the minimum standards. But all museums have to review their performance in order to ensure that they are working effectively and fulfilling their purpose. The International Council of Museums (ICOM) has developed guidelines that could be referred for this purpose.

A museum is a place to acquire, conserve, research, communicate and exhibit for people's education and enjoyment. A museum is a reference for the material evidence of the relationship between people and its environment (Wallace, A. 1998). For people's experiences, museums can be differentiated to six types, namely for recreation, sociability, learning experience, aesthetic experience, celebrating experience and enchanting experience.

3. Methodology

This research explores the development of public space for women by involving several approaches. It considers the role of women in Indonesian culture by applying women studies andcultural point of view. The research includes aesthetics issues since the space created is intended for the artworks of the women. Art history is included in this research in order to set up the historical context of the artworks. As the research's object is a museum, the management of a museum will also be discussed.

Description of aesthetic issueswill explainthe functions and values of art, especially the feminist art. Terry Barret's (2000) and Feldman's method is used to analyze the aesthetic value of the artworks. The analysis is carried out through stages of description, formal analysis, interpretation, and evaluation. The feminist theory that put women in a similar position as men is applied to discuss women's unique characteristic and potential. This theory is particulary needed to describe the obstacles women artists might experience in their self-actualization. Through this theory as well, the solution for eliminating those obstacles is being explored.

4. Discussion

Women artists in Indonesia are facing the stereotype image ofwomen's place in the domestic domain. The Indonesian cultural valuesframethe ideal stereotype of women.Women are positioned to have their role only indomestic duties. Their main responsibility is to become a mother whose role is to take care and raise children. Household works, and domestic duties are major activities. These cultural values have impacted to the career of Indonesian women as artists. It is assumed that women artists in Indonesia will be hampered to the process of self-actualization when they have a family. In reality, it seems that this assumption is not always correct. Many women artists have attempted to get a balancedlife between domestic dutiesand career as an artist.

Bandung has been the city that bringsIndonesian women artists into beingsincethe early period of higher

education in art. Up to now Bandung is still the place where women come to study art and enter the circle of art production. One of the prominentwomen painters in Indonesiais UmiDachlan. She is the first generation of women artist in Indonesia, who is graduated from the Art Faculty of InstitutTeknologi Bandung and then became the first woman lecturer at her school. She is strongly grounded and dedicated to the development of Department of Painting at ITB. Her works are regarded as an important manifestation of the school's philosophy in art education and presented the spirit of Indonesia's vanguard of modern art. Her painting displayed the abstract expressionist approach that are blended with figurative symbolism. Umi's works offer a visual style that combines elegant, static minimalism and formalistic tendencies with rhythmic play of strong and vivid colors (Bianpone, C., Dirgantoro, W., and Wardhani, F., 2007).

Fig. 2.UmiDachlan's Work: Lust for Life, 1994, Acrylic on canvas. Source: Mamannoor, 2002.

After UmiDachlan comesArahmaiani, Titarubi, Ay Tjoe Christine, Prilla Tania, Oktora, and theyoungerartistsErika Ernawan andWindiApriandi.Arahmaianibelongs to the artists of the cultural movement in the late 1990s and early 21stcentury in Indonesia. She is a women artist who creates important and radical artworks during the period of New Order political regime in Indonesia. She is the most radical Indonesian women artist and implements the concept of feminist in her works.Arahmaiani'sartworks have been exhibited at Brooklyn Museum.During the cultural movement, more women are engaged to artworks such as in film making and theatre. And they were tackling critical social issues in the society including gender issues (Turner, C, 2005).

Fig. 3.Arahmaiani's work collection of Brooklyn Museum.

Ay Tjoe Christine is one of the few modern graphic artists with a clear vision and great integrity. Her artworks show an unusual skill of dry point: a printmaking technique in which the design etched directly into the metal printing plate.The trademark in her graphic designis abrupt angular lines and impression of fuzzy effect. She has an unusual strength in holding sharp needle to make flowing lines. These lines create a unique composition that is typically her style, which shows increasing emotional profundity in her design (Bianpone, C., Dirgantoro, W., and Wardhani, F., 2007).

Fig. 4. Ay Tjoe Christine's Work: Sekutu 2 (2002) mix media on canvas. Source: Bianpone, C., Dirgantoro, W., and Wardhani, F. (2007). The mentioned artists in previous paragraphs illustrate the performance of Indonesian women artists that have

gained national and international appreciation. They have created excellent quality of aesthetic works and contributed to the acknowledgement of women as career artists.

In recent time, increasing number of museums focusing on women are being built up in Indonesia. UllenSentalu Museum is built in Yogyakarta, Kartini Museum in Jepara and Rembang, InggitGarnasihMuseum in Bandung, andon May 2013 Kartika Affandi,the women painter, built Museum of Women Artists in Yogyakarta. Mary Northmore, Indonesian citizen of English origin and spouse of the senior Indonesian artist Abdul Aziz, founded a special gallery for women painterin Taman Village Ubud Bali. Seniwati Gallery in Bali since 1991has carried out art events to prove that gathering women artistswill empower Balinese women.

In fact, there is only one museum for womenin Bandung, i.e. InggitGarnasih museum. The historical documentation of women hero from Bandung DewiSartika is just presented as part of the West Java history in Museum Sri Baduga. This condition indicates the lack of attention to women hero and women artist. Bandung as the origin place of higher education in Art needsto build more museums for women artist from Bandung, as well as, other national and international artists. The presence of museums will provide historical data from the past which is valuable for understanding the present and seeing the future.

5. Conclusion

This paperconcludes that not enough museums in Bandung have focused on documenting women artists. The government and the society should have an awareness to set up museumsthat representing women and their role in Bandung history, particularly in visual art. A mechanism should be formulated to ease everyone in the city to conserve visual art history data, especially for women artists in Bandung. It should be realized that developing a women artist museum means opening a public room for women to develop their creativity and self-actualization. For this reason, the society should record Bandung history as an interactive process with the creation of a public room for women.

References

Barrett, T. (2000). Studies Invited Lecture; About Art Interpretation for Art Education, A Journal of Issues and Research 2000,42910, 5-19. Bianpone, C., Dirgantoro, W., &Wardhani, F. (2007).Indonesian women artists: the curtain opens. Jakarta:YayasanSeniRupa Indonesia. Bourde, M. &Garrard, M. (1996).The power of feminist art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Macleod, S., Hanks, L.H., and Hale, J. (2012)Museum making: narratives, architecture, exhibitions. London: Routledge. Meskimmon, M. (2003). Women making art: history. Subjectivity, aesthetics. London: Routledge. Thomson, J. (1986)Manual of Curatorship: A Guide to Museum Practice. London: Buttherworth.

Turner, C.(2005).INDONESIA: Art, freedom, human rights and engagement with the West, in Art and Social Change: Contemporary Art in Asia

and the Pacific. Canberra:Pandanus Books. Wallace, A. (1998). Caring for our Culture: National guidelines for museums, galleries and keeping places. Sydney: Museums Australia Inc.